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PHARMACOLOGY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF JASMINUM OFFICINALE-A REVIEW

Authors:

Abstract

The phytochemical analysis of Jasminum officinale indicated the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, emodine, leucoanthcyanins, steroids, anthocyanins, phlobatinins, essential oil and saponins. Pharmacological studies revealed that the plant exerted antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antifertility and dermatological effects. This review described and discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Jasminum officinale.
IAJPS 2018, 05 (04), 2191-2197 Ali Esmail Al-Snafi ISSN 2349-7750
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CODEN [USA]: IAJPBB ISSN: 2349-7750
INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1214994
Article Review http://www.iajps.comAvailable online at:
PHARMACOLOGY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF
JASMINUM OFFICINALE- A REVIEW
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Thi qar, Iraq.
Cell: +9647801397994. E mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Abstract:
The phytochemical analysis of Jasminum officinale indicated the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids,
tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, emodine, leucoanthcyanins, steroids, anthocyanins, phlobatinins, essential oil and
saponins. Pharmacological studies revealed that the plant exerted antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant,
antifertility and dermatological effects. This review described and discussed the chemical constituents and
pharmacological effects of Jasminum officinale.
Keywords: chemical constituents, pharmacology, Jasminum officinale.
Corresponding author:
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology,
College of Medicine,
University of Thi qar, Iraq
Cell: +9647801397994.
E mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Please cite this article in press Ali Esmail Al-Snafi., Pharmacology and Medicinal Properties of Jasminum
Officinale- A Review, Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2018; 05(04).
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INTRODUCTION:
The pharmacological treatment of disease began long
ago with the use of herbs. Subsequently, herbs
became the sources of many important drugs because
of its wide range of pharmacological and therapeutic
effects[1-10]. The phytochemical analysis of
Jasminum officinale indicated the presence of
alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids,
glycosides, emodine, leucoanthcyanins, steroids,
anthocyanins, phlobatinins, essential oil and
saponins. Pharmacological studies revealed that the
plant exerted antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant,
antifertility and dermatological effects. In this review
we describe and discuss the chemical constituents and
pharmacological effects of Jasminum officinale.
Plant profile:
Synonyms:
Jasminum affine Royle ex Lindl., Jasminum
officinale var. acutum Stokes, Jasminum officinale
var. affine [Royle ex Lindl.] G. Nicholson, Jasminum
officinale f. affine [Royle ex Lindl.] Rehder,
Jasminum officinale var. argenteovariegatum
Weston, Jasminum officinale var. aureovariegatum
Weston, Jasminum officinale f. aureovariegatum
Weston Rehder, Jasminum officinale var. aureum
Bean, Jasminum officinale var. bosphoricum K.
Koch., Jasminum officinale var. officinale, Jasminum
officinale var. piliferum P.Y.Pai, Jasminum officinale
var. pumilum Stokes, Jasminum officinale var.
tenuifolium Stokes and Jasminum officinale var.
tibeticum C. Y. Wu[11]
Taxonomic classification:
Kingdom: Plantae, Subkingdom: Viridiplantae,
Infrakingdom: Streptophyta, Superdivision:
Embryophyta, Division: Tracheophyta, Subdivision:
Spermatophytina, Class: Magnoliopsida,
Superorder: Asteranae, Order: Lamiales, Family:
Oleaceae, Genus: Jasminum, Species:
Jasminum
officinale[12].
Common names:
Arabic: Yasamin, Yasamin Abiadh, Yasamin Adi,
Yasamin Turki; Bengali: Umbustha, Gunica,
Yothica; Chinese: Su fang hua; English: Common
jasmine, Jasmine, Jessamine, Poet's jasmine, Summer
jasmine, White jasmine; French: Jasmin commun,
Jasmin officinal; German: Echter Jasmin, Weißer
jasmin; Hindi: Juhi, Chameli; Italian: Gelsomino,
Gersuminu; Portuguese: Jasmin, Jasmim; Spanish:
Jazmín blanco; Swedish: Parfymjasmin; Unani:
Yaasmin[13-14].
Distribution: It was native to Asia: Georgia, China, Tajikistan,
Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Bhutan, India, Nepal
and Pakistan[13]. It was widely cultivated in
Mediterranean, Caucasus, Northern Persia, Eastern
Afghanistan, Hindukush, India, China and Pakistan
for its attractive fragrant flowers[15].
Description:
Shrubs scandent, 0.4-5 m. Branchlets angular or
grooved, glabrous, sparsely pubescent, or appressed
hairy. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, 5-12.5cm
long, petiole and rhachis margined. Leaflets 7-11, the
terminal 2.5 3.8 by 1.3 1.8 cm, rhomboid-ovate
or lanceolate, acute or acuminate; the lateral ovate,
usually obtuse, mucronate, the intermediate sessile.
Flowers 3-3.8cm across, white, often tinged [or
streaked] with pink outside, in lax, axillary and
terminal cymes longer than the leaves; pedicels 1.3-
2.5 cm long; bracts, the lower often large, ovate to
spathulate-oblong, foliaceous, the upper small, linear.
Calyx 5-10 mm. long, Glabrous, tube 2.5mm long or
less; lobes 5, subulate2-8 times long as the tube.
Corolla - tube 1.8-2.5 cm long; lobes 5; elliptic or
obovate[14,16].
Traditional uses:
Leaves were chewed in aphthous, stomatitis,
toothache and ulcer in the mouth. Leaf juice or oil
obtained from it was dropped into the ear. Fresh juice
of the leaves was used for sort corns between the
toes, for ulceration in the mouth, throat and gums[14,
17].
Jasminum officinale was also used traditionally for
the treatment of urinary tract infections[18], as CNS
depressant, sedative, mild anesthetic and
astringent[17, 19].
In addition, it was used in depression, nervous
exhaustion and stress related conditions, It was said
that the plant was also used to produce the feeling of
optimism, confidence, euphoria, and it was good in
cases of apathy, indifference, or listlessness. It was
also used for catarrh, coughs, laryngitis,
dysmenorrhoea, labor pains, uterine disorders, skin
problem such as dry, greasy, irritated, sensitive skin,
and for muscular spasms and sprains[20].
The buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum
[L.] were used as a folk remedy for the treatment of
hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, stomatitis, and duodenitis in
South China[21].
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Part used medicinally: Leaves, juice, buds and oil
[14, 17].
Physicochemical characteristics:
The physicochemical characteristics [%] were total
ash 10.89, acid insoluble ash 1.29, water soluble ash
2.92, loss on drying 4.25, petroleum ether extractive
value 2.61, chloroform extractive value 3.58, acetone
extractive value 8.72, alcohol extractive value 11.57
and water extractive value 12.14[14, 22].
Chemical constituents:
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the
aqueous extract of Jasminum officinale leaves
indicated the presence of alkaloids, coumarins,
flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, emodine,
leucoanthcyanins, steroids, anthocyanins,
phlobatinins, essential oil and saponins[15, 23-25].
Chemical analysis of the bud of the flowers of
Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum revealed the
presence of six triterpenoid saponins [ as 3-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl [1→2]-β-D-xylopyranosyl-
hederagenin28-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl[1→6]-β-D-
galactopyranosyl ester; hederagenin-3-O-β-D-
glucopyranosyl[1→3]α-L-arabino pyranoside;
2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-β-D-
glucopyranosyl ester; hederagenin-3-O-β-D-
xylopyranosyl[1→3]-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl[1→2]-α-
L-arabino pyranoside; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-
en-28-oic-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl[1→4]-β-D-
glucopyranosyl[1→6]-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester and
hederagenin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl[1→2]-α-L-
arabinopyranoside[26].
Cell-free extracts from callus of Jasminum officinale
contained epoxidase activities with isopentyl
pyrophosphate, isopentenol, geraniol and nerol as
substrates and also hydratase activities towards the
resulting terpene oxides[27].
Six iridoid glycosides were identified from the buds
of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum:
jasgranoside B, 6-O-methy-catalpol, deacetyl
asperulosidic acid, aucubin, 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside
and loganin[28].
Secoiridoid glucosides: [20R]-20-methoxyoleuropein,
[20S]-20-methoxyoleuropein, oleuropein, ligstroside,
demethyloleuropein and oleoside dimethyl ester, a
lignan, [2]-olivil and p-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol
were isolated from the dried leaves of Jasminum
officinale var. grandiflorum[29].
Six secoiridoids were identified in the flowers of
Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum included
jasgranoside, jaspolyoside, 8-epi-kingiside, 10-
hydroxy-oleuropein, 10-hydroxy-ligstroside and
oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester[30].
Seven glycosides were isolated from the flower of
Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum included
kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl [13]-
[alpha-L-rhamno pyranosyl [16]]-beta-D-
galactopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, 7-
ketolo ganin, oleoside-11-methyl ester, 7-glucosyl-l1-
methyl oleoside, ligstroside and oleuropein[31].
Thirty compounds were identified in the essential oil
of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandifloroum. The
major volatile components were phytol [25.77 %],
3,7,11-trimethyldodeca -1,6,10-trien-3-ol [12.54%]
and 3,7,11- trimethyldodeca-6,10-dien-3-ol [12.42%].
However, the compounds identified in the Jasminum
officinale L. var. grandifloroum oil [%] were: benzyl
acetate 0.33; nerolidol 0.11; methyl myristate 0.75;
7-tetradecene 0.20; benzyl benzoate 4.84;
neophytadiene 0.23; perhydrofarnesyl acetone 4.85;
phytol acetate 0.22; nonadecane 0.14; geranyl
linalool 0.12; methyl palmitate 1.57; 3,7,11,15-
tetramethyl -1-hexadecen-3-ol 12.42; hexadecanoic
acid 9.16; 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol
12.54; 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid
methyl ester 0.60; 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
methyl ester 1.33; heneicosane 3.12; Phytol 25.77;
octadecanoic acid methyl ester 0.56; 9,12,15-
octadecatrienoic acid 4.82; docosane 0.25; tricosane
4.00; tetracosane 0.58; pentacosane 1.51; hexacosane
2.54; heptacosane 1.86; octacosane 1.26; squalene
0.46 and nonacosane 3.00[25].
The total phenolic contents of the aqueous extract of
Jasminum officinale leaves was
104.02 ± 1.28 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, the total
flavonoids content was 10.76 ± 0.83 mg/g quercetin
equivalent and the total flavonols content was 5.65 ±
0.45 mg/g quercetin equivalent[23].
Pharmacological effect:
Antimicrobial effect:
The in vitro anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic
extracts of different parts [flowers, stems plus leaves
and roots] of Jasminum officinale was evaluated
against four reference bacteria [Staphylococcus
aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC
29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853]. The
ethanolic extracts of all parts of the plant showed
considerable activity against all the tested bacteria.
The MIC of the ethanolic extracts of flowers and
stems plus leaves against all the tested bacteria was 2
mg/ml and the MIC of roots against S. aureus, E.
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faecalis and E. coli was 4 mg/ml, while the MIC of
root extract against P. aeruginosa was 2 mg/ml[18].
The Jasminum officinale flowers extracts were
evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida
albicans and Aspergillus niger, and antibacterial
activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Bacillus pumilis, P. vulgaris and E.coli. In antifungal
effect, n-butanol fraction showed more activity than
the standard drug with zone of inhibition of 20.9
±1.2mm for Candida albicans and almost equal to the
effect of the standard drug against Aspergillus niger
with zone of inhibition of 18.2±1.1mm. Chloroform
fraction showed moderate activity against both
organism Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger with
zone of inhibition of 13.1±1.3 and 12.3±0.6mm
respectively, and n-hexane fraction showed very
poor antifungal activity 2.1±1.3 3.2±1.8mm. In
antibacterial study, the n-butanol fraction displayed
antibacterial activity more than the standard drug
[ampicillin] against Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Bacillus pumilis, P.vulgaris and E.coli with zone of
inhibition of 19.2±0.8, 20.1±1.2, 20.1±1.5, 22.0±1.2,
19.4±1.0 and 24.0±0.8mm respectively, on the other
hand, chloroform faction displayed significant
antibacterial activity with zone of inhibition of
14.8±1.3, 16.2±1.4, 16.2±1.9, 17.4±1.3, 14.2±1.2 and
18.2±1.6 respectively, while n-hexane fraction
displayed very low activity[32].
The antimicrobial activity of different solvent
extracts [methanol, DCM] of the flowers and whole
plant [leaves, barks and roots] was studied against
both Gram positive strains [Staphylococcus aureus,
Bacillus pumilus, Streptococcus pneumoniae] and
Gram negative strains [Escherichia coli, Citrobacter
freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae] and two fungal
species [Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger]. Whole
plant extract [methanol] showed significant
antimicrobial activity with relative percentage of
inhibition [mm] of 83.60 [G +ve], 70.25 [G-ve] and
61.15 [fungi], while flowers extract [methanol]
showed 64.30, 51.88 and 51.97 relative percentage of
inhibition against G +ve, G-ve and fungi respectively.
The diameters of growth inhibition were 11.00-15.15,
9.90-11.95 and 10.95-11.95mm against G+ve, G-ve
and fungi for DCM flowers extract, and 13.35-16.35,
10.45-12.50 and 11.45-12.25mm against G+ve, G-ve
and fungi for methanol flowers extract respectively,
whereas, the diameters of growth inhibition were
18.00-20.00, 14.10-16.80 and 15.45-16.60 mm
against G+ve, G-ve and fungi for DCM whole plant
extract, and 18.55-20.35, 14.50-17.00 and 16.15-
17.00 mm against G+ve, G-ve and fungi for methanol
whole plant extract respectively[15].
The antibacterial effect of different extracts of
leaves of Jasminum officinale were studied against
E. coli, Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Salmonella
sp., Pseudomonas sp., Serratia marcescens,
Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus.
Methanol extract exhibited the maximum activity
against Klebsiella pneumonia, chloroform extract
against Bacillus subtillis and Staphylococcus aureus,
and hexane extract against Serratia marcescens and
E. coli, while minimal activity was recorded for the
ethanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus, for
chloroform extract against Salmonella and
pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for diethyl ether
extract against Streptococcus sp[33].
Jasminum officinale extracts of flowers powder
macerated in ethanol, were tested against
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus
epidermidis, as pus-forming bacteria triggering an
inflammation in acne, using disc diffusion and broth
dilution methods. MIC and MBC against
Propionibacterium acnes was 5 and >5 mg/ml
respectively, and MIC and MBC against
Staphylococcus epidermidis was >5 mg/ ml[34].
The antiviral effect of oleuropein derived from the
flowers of Jasminum officinale was studied on
hepatitis B virus [HBV] replication in HepG2 2.2.15
cell line in vitro and duck hepatitis B virus [DHBV]
replication in ducklings in vivo. Oleuropein blocked
effectively HBsAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells in
a dose-dependent manner [IC50 =23.2 microg/ml].
Oleuropein [80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice daily]
also reduced viremia in DHBV-infected ducks[35].
The effect of 8-epi-kingiside [8-Epik] derived from
the buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum
[JOG] was evaluated on hepatitis B virus [HBV]
replication in HepG2 2.2.15 cell line in vitro and
duck hepatitis B virus [DHBV] replication in
ducklings in vivo. 8-Epik effectively blocked HBsAg
secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent
manner [IC50 = 19.4 ± 1.04 μg/ml]. 8-Epik [40 or 80
mg/kg, ip, twice daily] also reduced viremia in
DHBV-infected ducks[36].
Insecticidal effect:
Jasminum officinale were tested for the larvicidal
efficacy against the third instar larvae of Culex
quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250,
500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg/l. Mortality was
recorded after 24 and 48 h. The hexane and
chloroform extract possessed 14 and 13.3%
mortality at 4000 mg/l after 24 h, and 18.66 and 18%
mortality at 4000 mg/l after 48 h. LC50 was 3136.68
after 24 h and 6231.08 after 48 h[37].
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The crude chloroform, methanol and aqueous flower
extracts of Jasminum officinale, were tested for the
larvicidal efficacy against the third instar larvae of
Aedes aegypti at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250,
500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg/l. Mortality was
recorded after 24 and 48 h. The crude methanolic
flower extracts of Jasminum officinale caused 20%
mortality after 48 h at concentration of 8000
mg/l[38].
Antioxidant effect:
The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of
Jasminum officinale leaves was evaluated in vitro
using free radical scavenging assays for DPPH, NO,
superoxide and ABTS radicals in addition to reducing
power assessment. The extract possessed significant
antioxidant potential. The IC50 values for DPPH,
NO, superoxide and ABTS radicals were 41.16,
30.29, 20.19, and 29.48 μg/ml respectively as
compared to the standard, ascorbic acid, which
showed 42.79, 36.74, 38.22, and 45.57 μg/ml, for the
same radicals [23].
The antioxidant property of Jasminum officinale
methanol and ethanol extracts was determined by
hydrogen peroxide method. Both extracts possessed
antioxidant activity, but the ethanolic extract showed
the more potent activity[39].
The antioxidant activity of Jasminum officinale
methanol and ethanol extracts was analysed using
DPPH scavenging compared with a standard
compound, ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity in
both methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed
increase in activity with increase in sample
concentration. The ethanolic extract showed better
antioxidant activity when compared to the methanolic
extract[40].
Antifertility effect:
The antifertility effect of an aqueous extract of fresh
floral buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum
was studied in female rats. The extract at oral doses
of 250 and 500 mg/kg produced a dose dependent
significant antiimplantation effect, but didn't produce
complete infertility. Treatment of animals during day
8 to day 12 to day 20 of pregnancy did not produce
any significant abortifacient activity. There was no
significant change in the weight and length of the
fetuses delivered by rats treated with extract and no
abnormalities were seen in the organs of the
offspring. The extract produced a significant decrease
in serum progesterone levels on day 5 of pregnancy
which may be responsible for the antiimplantation
effect[41].
Dermatological effect:
Ampucare was a topical oil-based preparation
containing Azadirachta indica, Berberis aristata,
Curcuma longa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Jasminum
officinale, Pongamia pinnata,Rubia cordifolia,
Terminalia chebula, Trichosanthes dioica, Symplocos
racemosa, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Capsicum
abbreviata, Nymphaea lotus etc. Application of
ampucare in second-degree burn showed burn healing
effect with enhancement of antioxidant function. It
increased wound contraction, decreased NO,
decreased xanthine oxidase activity, increased protein
level, increased vitamin C, reduced glutathione and
decreased MDA in blood samples[42-44].
CONCLUSION:
This review discussed the chemical constituent,
pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Jasminum
officinale as promising herbal drug because of its
safety and effectiveness.
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... Jasmine extracts are traditionally used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, mild analgesic, antioxidant, antiseptic, antiviral agent and for enhancement of immunity. It is most helpful to treat apathy, indifference and depression (Dutt, 2011;Al-Snafi, 2018a;Al-Snafi, 2018b ;Shukla, 2013;Hussain et al., 2013;Shekar and Prasad, 2015a;Shekar and Prasad, 2015b). As the demand for high grade perfumes has greatly increased in recent times, there is tremendous scope for the development of essential oil from jasmine flowers (Prakash and Muniandi, 2014). ...
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Jasmine is one of the leading traditional flowers of India. It has got importance in all religious, social and cultural ceremonies and other functions performed by all group of people. In India, the largest area under jasmine cultivation is in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka from where it is distributed to metropolitan cities. A study was conducted in ten districts of Tamil Nadu (11.1271° N, 78.6569° E) with 100 jasmine growing farmers with proportionate random sampling method, to assess the technology adoption behavior of jasmine growers. Nearly half of the farmers (30%) were medium adaptors and 70 per cent of the growers adopted the recommended cultural practices. With regard to insect pest management, majority of them adopted chemical spraying (94%), without any technical awareness.
... This present study is to investigate the chemical and bio-synthesis of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. The phytochemicals present in jasmine flower extracts are alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, embodies, steroids, essential oil, and saponins [35]. These phytochemicals are responsible for the reduction of Titanium tetra Isopropoxide to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. ...
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In this present work, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) successfully synthesized using the chemical as well as the green synthesis routine. The ethanol provoked the chemical reduction of ions. In the green synthesis, jasmine flower extract was used as a reducing and stabilizing agent because it contains alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids. The Rutile phase of TiO2 NPs with an average crystalline size of 31–42 nm was revealed from the XRD pattern. From the UV–Visible spectroscopy, the optically active region of TiO2 NPs at 385 nm represents the visible region spectrum. The Ti–O–Ti and Ti–O vibration bond formation confirms the formation of TiO2 NPs. The SEM image of TiO2 NPs reveals that the spherical shaped NPs with randomly arranged manner. The obtained results have revealed that the property of TiO2 nanoparticles was similar in both processes. The Photodegradation of methylene blue dye was investigated and resulted in the maximum degradation efficiency of 92% is achieved at 120 min of irradiation. The Photodegradation study shows the biosynthesized TiO2 NPs exhibits a higher degradation efficiency compared to chemically synthesized TiO2 NPs. The antibacterial activity of prepared TiO2 NP’s was studied using grams-positive and gram-negative strains. The biological activities of green synthesized TiO2 NPs are enhanced compared to the chemically synthesized TiO2 NPs. Hence the degradation efficiency and zone inhibition layer indicate that the prepared TiO2 NPs are the potential candidate for environmental and biomedical applications. Graphic abstract
... 53 Jasmine oil has the function of antidepressant and antiseptic. [54][55][56][57][58] Geraniumoil can treat acne, reduce inflammation and alleviate anxiety. [59][60][61][62][63][64] There are various methods for extraction of essential oils from natural plants, including steam distillation, 65,66 solvent extraction, 67,68 Soxhlet extraction, 66,69 supercritical fluid extraction, 70,71 enfleurage 72,73 and cold pressing (expression). ...
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Plants have been used in ethno-medicine since many years and there has been an increasing interest in medicinal plants and their traditional use. The present study compared efficacy of Ampucare with that of silver sulfadiazine in partial thickness burn in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (Normal saline treated group, Ampucare treated group and Silver sulfhdiazine treated group. Complete healing of burn wound was observe in all the animals. A significant decrease in wound size was observed in Ampucare treated and Silver sulfadiazine treated group as compared to contraol group on day 14. Both in control group and Silver sulfadiazine treated group not a single animal showed complete healing of the wound on day 14. Results suggested that Ampucare is significantly effective in treatment of partial thickness burn wounds than silver sulfadiazine.
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Jasminum officinale Linn. (Chameli / Yasmine; Oleaceae), is native to temperate region and cultivated in France, Italy, China, India and Pakistan. Plant is documented to possess beneficial effect in impotence, menstrual disorder, mental depression, analgesic, antispasmodic galactogogue, antiseptic and skin disease etc,. Although, previous studies have documented the antimicrobial study of this plant, while, this work is designated to evaluate and compare the specific antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts (methanol, DCM) of the flowers and whole plant (leaves, barks and roots), in order to know the best extract and plant part having the beneficial activity against specific microorganisms. In-vitro, antimicrobial tests were performed by adopting disc diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria species of both G +ve strains, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, G -ve strains, i.e., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae and two species of fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger), on nutrient agar and sabouraud dextrose agar respectively, to analyze the percentage zone of inhibition at the concentration range of 100 mg/ml of the extract by comparing with various standard antibiotic discs (10 μg/disc). Whole plant extract (methanol) showed significant antimicrobial activity with relative percentage of inhibition of 83.60 (G +ve), 70.25 (G-ve) and 61.15 (fungi) while flowers extract (methanol) showed 64.30, 51.88 and 51.97 relative percentage of inhibition against G +ve, G -ve and fungi respectively. Whereas, DCM extract of flowers and whole plant showed the moderate antimicrobial activity as compared with methanolic extract of flowers and whole plant respectively. Modified agar well diffusion method was adopted to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration. From the present study, it can be inferred that the antimicrobial activity varies from part to part of plant and solvent used, so whole plant extract can be further investigated to discover antibacterial agent for developing new pharmaceuticals to control studied human pathogenic bacteria for the severe illness.
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Objective To evaluate the effect of 8-epi-kingiside (8-Epik) derived from the buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum (JOG) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in HepG2 2.2.15 cell line in vitro and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in ducklings in vivo.Methods The concentration of extracellular hepatitis B e antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in cell culture medium was determined by ELISA, respectively. The anti-HBV effects of 8-Epik were also demonstrated in the model of DHBV. 8-Epik was ip given (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, twice daily) to the DHBV-infected ducklings for 10 d. The isotonic saline liquid diet was ip given as negative control and Lamivudine (50 mg/kg, twice daily) was given as positive control. DHBV DNA was measured at days 0 (T0), 5 (T5), 10 (T10), and day 3 after cessation of treatment (P3) by dot blotting.Results8-Epik effectively blocked HBsAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner [IC50 = (19.4 ± 1.04) μg/mL]. 8-Epik (40 or 80 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) also reduced viremia in DHBV-infected ducks.Conclusion Therefore, 8-Epik is warranted as a potential therapeutic agent for HBV infection.
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Cell-free extracts from callus of Jasminum officinale contained epoxidase activities with isopentyl pyrophosphate, isopentenol, geraniol and nerol as substrates and also hydratase activities towards the resulting terpene oxides. The activities were up to 100-fold greater than those extractable from foliage of the plant.