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PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS-A REVIEW

Authors:

Abstract

Juniperus oxycedrus contained flavonoids, flavones, terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, volatile oil, resin, tannin and extractive [acetic acid, pyroligneous acid, acetone, methyl alcohol, etc.]. Cade oil contains phenols-17 to 26% phenols-[mainly guaiacol about 12%], cadinene [sesquiterpenoid], carburs and alcohol [cardinol]. The principle component of Juniperus oxycedrus Tar was cadinene, a sesquiterpene. The pharmacological investigations revealed that the plant possessed antimicrobial, hypotensive, cytotoxic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic,analgesic, antiinflammatory and smooth muscle relaxant effects. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Juniperus oxycedrus.
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CODEN [USA]: IAJPBB ISSN: 2349-7750
INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1214996
Article Review http://www.iajps.comAvailable online at:
PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF
JUNIPERUS OXYCEDRUS- A REVIEW
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Thi qar, Iraq.
Cell: +9647801397994. E mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Abstract:
Juniperus oxycedrus contained flavonoids, flavones, terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, volatile oil,
resin, tannin and extractive [acetic acid, pyroligneous acid, acetone, methyl alcohol, etc.]. Cade oil contains
phenols -17 to 26% phenols-[mainly guaiacol about 12%], cadinene [sesquiterpenoid], carburs and alcohol
[cardinol]. The principle component of Juniperus oxycedrus Tar was cadinene, a sesquiterpene. The
pharmacological investigations revealed that the plant possessed antimicrobial, hypotensive, cytotoxic,
antioxidant, hypoglycemic,analgesic, antiinflammatory and smooth muscle relaxant effects. The current review
discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Juniperus oxycedrus.
Keywords: chemical constituents, pharmacology, Juniperus oxycedrus
Corresponding author:
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology,
College of Medicine,
University of Thi qar, Iraq
Cell: +9647801397994.
E mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Please cite this article in press Ali Esmail Al-Snafi., Pharmacological and Therapeutic Effects of Juniperus
Oxycedrus- A Review, Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2018; 05(04).
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INTRODUCTION:
Plants have been used as drugs by humans since
thousands of years ago. As a result of accumulated
experience from the past generations, today, all the
world’s cultures have an extensive knowledge of
herbal medicine. Plants are a valuable source of a
wide range of secondary metabolites, which are used
as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavours,
fragrances, colours, biopesticides and food
additives[1-12]. Juniperus oxycedrus contained
flavonoids, flavones, terpenoids, monoterpenoids,
sesquiterpenoids, volatile oil, resin, tannin and
extractive [acetic acid, pyroligneous acid, acetone,
methyl alcohol, etc.]. Cade oil contains phenols -17 to
26% phenols-[mainly guaiacol about 12%], cadinene
[sesquiterpenoid], carburs and alcohol [cardinol]. The
principle component of Juniperus oxycedrus Tar was
cadinene, a sesquiterpene. The pharmacological
investigations revealed that the plant possessed
antimicrobial, hypotensive, cytotoxic, antioxidant,
hypoglycemic,analgesic, antiinflammatory and
smooth muscle relaxant effects. This review was
designed to discussed the chemical constituents and
pharmacological effects of Juniperus oxycedrus.
Plant profile:
Synonyms:
Juniperus glauca Salisb., Juniperus heterocarpa
Timb.-Lagr. ex Nyman, Juniperus heterocarpa
Timb.-Lagr. ex Loret & Barrandon, Juniperus
oxycedrina St.-Lag., Juniperus oxycedrus var.
brachyphylla Loret, Juniperus oxycedrus f. viridis
Posp., Juniperus oxycedrus var. wittmanniana
Carrière, Juniperus rufescens Link, Juniperus souliei
Sennen, Juniperus tenella Antoine, Juniperus
wittmanniana Fisch. ex Lindl., Oxycedrus
echinoformis Carrière, Oxycedrus ericoides Pandiani
and Oxycedrus withmanniana Carrière[13].
Taxonomic classification:
Kingdom: Plantae; Subkingdom: Viridiplantae;
Infrakingdom: Streptophyta; Superdivision:
Embryophyta; Division: Tracheophyta; Subdivision:
Spermatophytina; Class: Pinopsida; Subclass:
Pinidae; Order: Pinales; Family: Cupressaceae;
Genus: Juniperus; Species: Juniperus oxycedrus[14].
Common names:
English: cade juniper, prickly juniper, red-berry
juniper; French: genévrier cade, genévrier epineux,
oxycèdre; German: Kade, rotbeeriger Wacholder,
Stech-Wacholder; Spanish: enebro de bayas rojas;
Swedish: stick-en[15].
Distribution:
It was distributed in Africa [Algeria, Morocco,
Tunisia, Libya]; Europe [Ukraine, Albania, Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy,
Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, France,
Portugal, Spain]; Asia [Armenia, Georgia, Russian
Federation, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon,
Syria, Turkey] and widely cultivated[15-16].
Description:
Juniperus oxycedrus is a shrub or small tree which
grows up to 10-15 m in height. The trunk has fibrous
grey to brown-red bark peeling in longitudinal
stripes. It has numerous branches, spreading or
ascending. The leaves are needle-like and in
alternating whorls of three. The needles are 1-2.5 cm
long and 1-2.5 mm wide, with two waxy, white
shallow stomata furrows above and a ridge below and
a spiny tip[17].
Traditional uses:
Decoction of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus
L. berries was used internally as tea and pounded
fruits are consumed to lower blood glucose levels in
Turkey[18].
Juniperus oxycedrus was also widely used as
traditional folk medicine for treatment of different
infectious diseases, chronic eczema and other several
skin diseases, hyperglicemia, obesity, tuberculosis,
bronchitis, and pneumonia. Cade oil was used as a
fragrance component in soaps, detergents, creams,
lotions, and perfumes[19-22].
Cade oil was largely employed in the treatment of
chronic eczema, psoriasis, and other skin diseases of
man, and has also been found to be an efficient
parasiticide in psora and favus. It was applied,
sometimes of full strength, sometimes diluted with a
bland oil, well rubbed into the affected parts with the
fingers, or with a cloth, and was also made into
ointments, and especially into soaps[22].
Part used:
The wood, fruits [berries] and oil[23].
Chemical constituents:
Juniperus oxycedrus contained flavonoids, flavones,
terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids,
volatile oil, resin, tannin and extractive [acetic acid,
pyroligneous acid, acetone, methyl alcohol, etc.].
Cade oil contains phenols -17 to 26% phenols-
[mainly guaiacol about 12%], cadinene
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[sesquiterpenoid], carburs and alcohol [cardinol]. The
principle component of Juniperus oxycedrus Tar is
cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol
were also identified. The leaves contain terpenoids,
monoterpenoids, and fatty acid: sabinic. The leaf oils
were mainly composed of alpha-pinene [40-57%] and
manoyl oxide [5-10%]. The infructescence and fruits
contain: terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids,
monoterpenoids and diterpenoids. The [unripe] berry
oils were dominated by alphapinene [65%] with
moderate amounts of myrcene, limonene, germacrene
D or gamma-murolene. They were reported to also
contain canfene, junene, terpinole and cadinene[23-
26].
Furthermore, fatty acids, such as palmitic, linoleic
and linolenic acid; shikimic acid, 4-O-β-d-
glucopyranosyl ferulic acid and oleuropeic acid-8-O-
β-d-glucopyranoside; umbelliferone,
cupressuflavone, amentoflavone, sitosterol,
stigmasterol, α-Farnesene, β-Farnesene, α-Humulene,
campesterol, cholesterol and Sugiol [6-Hydroxy-7-
isopropyl-1,1,4a-trimethyl- 2,3,4,4a,10,10a-
hexahydro phenanthren-9[1H]-one] were isolated
from Juniperus oxycedrus[18, 30, 27-30].
Phenolic profiles of the ripe "berries" methanol
extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus
[Joo] and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa
[Sibth. & Sm.] Ball. [Jom] were studied. The results
revealed that total phenolic content was about 3-fold
higher in Jom [17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract] than in
Joo [5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract]. The HPLC-DAD-
ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid
fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in
their total quantitative content was found [4632
μg/g extract and 12644 μg/g extract]. In addition,
three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only [5765
μg/g extract], and protocatechuic acid was the most
abundant one[31].
The total flavonoid and flavonol contents of the
aerial parts of Juniperus oxycedrus were determined
using AlCl3 method and their amount calculated as
quercetin μEQ/mg. J. oxycedrus contained 23.1 and
32.1, μgEQ/mg of total flavonoid and and total
flavonols respectively[32].
The essential oils extracted from J. oxycedrus from
the Republic of Macedonia, were transparent, agile,
light yellowish liquids with specific and very strong
turpentine odor. A total of 100 components were
identified in the essential oil. The most abundant
fraction in the oil of J. oxycedrus from both locations
[Velestovo and Vodno], were the monoterpene
hydrocarbons [MH] [59.23% and 60.43%,
respectively], followed by the sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons [SH] [21.58% and 28.72%,
respectively][33].
Fifty compounds were identified in the berry oil and
23 compounds were identified in the wood oil of J.
oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus from Lebanon. The J.
oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus berry oil was characterised
by high contents of α-pinene [27.4%], β-myrcene
[18.9%], α-phellandrene [7.1%], limonene
[6.7%], epi-bicyclo sesquiphellandrene [2.3%] and δ-
cadinene [2.2%] while, in the wood oil, δ-cadinene
[14.5%], cis-thujopsene [9.2%] and α-muurolene
[4.9%] were the main component[34].
Forty constituents were identified in leaves oil
of Juniperus oxycedrus from Morocco, representing
83.92% of the total oil and the yield was 1.66%. The
leaves oil was characterised by high contents of α-
pinene [31.25%] followed by sabinene [5.21%],
limonene [5.02%], B-pinene [4.58%], caryophyllene
oxide [4.12%], myrcene [3.56%], ρ-cymene [3.21%],
B phellandrene [3.01%], γ-terpinene [2.19%],
terpinen-4-ol [2.01%], germacrene D [1.57%], [E]-
caryophyllene [1.25%] and ó-ocimene [1.09%][35-
36].
Essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus from Algeria
contained α-pinene [36.7%], σ-3-carene [10.6%],
limonene [5.8%], myrcene [4.9%], bornyl acetate
[6.0%] and camphor [4.1%] as major constituents
[37].
The chemical composition of the leaves essential oils
of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa
[Cupressaceae] from El kala region [sub-humid] in
Algeria, showed that it characterised by high content
of Germacrene D [21%], 1,5-Dodecadiene [8,42 %],
2,6,10-Dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, [Z,E]-
[10,94 %]. and 1HNaphtho [2,1-b] pyran-3-acetic
acid, dodecahydro-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-, methyl
ester [8.77 %][9].
Fifty-five constituents representing 54.12 to 79.42%
and 40.96 to 56.87% of the total oils were identified
for J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus
ssp. oxycedrus, from Tunisia, respectively. The
essential oil content showed variations in plants of
different origins and different subspecies.
Monoterpenes made up the highest contribution
representing 31.21 to 63.61% in J. oxycedrus ssp.
macrocarpa essential oil and 42.88 to 75.87% in J.
oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus essential oil. The
oxygenated monoterpenes represented only a small
portion [2.82 to 9.18% and 0 to1.92%] of the total oil,
for J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus
ssp. oxycedrus, respectively. However, the largest
fraction was attributed to monoterpene hydrocarbons,
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it varies from29.36% to 60.24% for J. oxycedrus ssp.
macrocarpa and 40.96 to 56.87% for J. oxycedrus
ssp. oxycedrus. The main compounds of this class
were the 𝛼-pinene which was the major component in
all the oils studied, then sabinene and pcymene, and
followed by sesquiterpenes accounting from 16.83 to
20.83% of all the identified compounds. The
germacrene D and 13-epi-manoyl oxide represented
the main components of this fraction. The essential
oils extracted from J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus leaves
were richer in 𝛼-pinene [31.55 to 49.46%] than those
from J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa [15.97 to
35.52%]. The highest level of the major compound
[𝛼-pinene: 49.46%] was observed in the subspecies J.
oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus of Kbouche, while the
lowest content [15.97%] was observed in J.
oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa collected in Tabarka.
Moreover, J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa oils were
relatively richer in sabinene, p-cymene, 13-epi-
manoyl oxide, and abietariene and relatively poor in
germacrene D[38].
Essential oil of berries and leaves of Juniperus
oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus from Spain showed that α-
pinene [55.7-65.0 %] and myrcene [16.6-22.6 %]
were the main compounds in berries, whereas the
hydrocarbon monoterpenic fraction in leaves
exhibited a wider range of secondary compounds
accounting for 1-5 % [α-pinene, σ-3-carene, p-
cymene, limonene, β-phellandrene and
terpinolene][39].
Fifteen to twenty one volatile compounds were
identified from the leaves, berries and twigs essential
oils of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus from
Turkey. Manoyl oxide [35.4%] and caryophyllene
oxide [16.8%] were identified as major constituents
in twig oil, myrcene [44.6%], α-pinene [19.9%] and
germacrene D [15.5%] in berry oil, manoyl oxide
[32.8%] and caryophyllene oxide [11.9%] in leaf
oil[40].
Pharmacological effects:
Antimicrobial effect:
The antimicrobial effect of the J. oxycedrus essential
oils was studied against 16 bacterial isolates [five
standard strains [Staphylococcus aureus ATCC
29213, Escherichia coli 25927, Klebsiella
pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans
ATCC 10231] and 12 clinical strains [Staphylococcus
epidermidis, Enterococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes,
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Haemophylus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis,
Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella enteritidis,
Shigella flexneri, Campylobacter jejuni, and Acineto-
bacter spp.]]. The most sensitive bacteria was
Haemophilus influenzae [MIC = 125 ml/ml]. The
essential oils possessed moderate antimicrobial
activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp.,
Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni [MIC >
500 ml/ml] and, it showed no activity against
Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis,
Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella
flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis[33].
Aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves
of Juniperus oxycedrus were investigated for
antimicrobial effects against 143 laboratory strains
belonging to 56 bacterial species, and 31 isolates of 5
fungi species. The aqueous extract of
J. oxycedrus had no antimicrobial effect against the
test microorganisms whereas the
methanol extract had inhibitory effects on the growth
of 57 strains of 24 bacterial species in the genera of
Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Brucella,
Enterobacter, Escherichia, Micrococcus,
Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Xanthomonas. In
addition 11 Candida albicans isolates at a
concentration of 31.25-250 micro g/ml were also
inhibited[19].
The antimicrobial of ether fruit extract of Juniperus
oxycedrus was studied against Bacillus subtilis,
Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus
[MRSA], Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans.
Extract showed zone of growth inhibition of 8,8,8,7
and 8mm against Staphylococcus aureus,
Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
respectively[41].
The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the
fruits of Juniperus oxycedrus was studied against
Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus
aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.
It showed [MIC: 5 mg/ml] against all the tested
pathogens[42].
The in vitro antibacterial activity of mixed essential
oils of each of J. oxycedrus populations [Kbouche,
Sidi Ameur, Dkhila Tabarka, andOued El Bir-
Tunisia ] was studied against Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 25923, Salmonella enteridis ATCC 13076,
Escherichia coli ATCC 35214 and Salmonella
typhimurium NRRLB 4420. The essential oils of the
J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus shoed antibacterial
activities against two strains among four, while J.
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oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa possessed antibacterial
effect against three strains among four. E. coli was
found to be the most resistant organism, whereas
Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive
organism. The zone of inhibition was ranging from
6.5mm [against Salmonella enteridis] to 13.5mm
[against Staphylococcus aureus]. Salmonella
typhimurium was sensitive only to J. oxycedrus ssp.
macrocarpa [8 mm][38].
The methanolic extract of the leaves of five plants
included Juniperus oxycedrus was tested for their
antibacterial and antifungal activities against four
bacterial species [Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli,
Micrococcus varians and Staphylococcus aureus] and
four fungal species [Alternaria tenuis, Aspergillus
niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium
coryophilum]. The methanol extract of J. oxycedrus
leaves was the most active plant extract, which cause
the maximum inhibition in the growth of all eight
microbial species reaching to the highest inhibition
[8.5 cm inhibition zone] against A. tenuis. J.
oxycedrus leaf extract was more effective in
decreasing the protein contents for all tested bacterial
and fungal species reaching to the minimum value
[0.33 μg/ml] in E. coli. Although, all tested plant
extracts induced the tested bacterial and fungal
species to produce more sugars in the culture filtrates,
but, the maximum accumulation of sugars [2.00
μg/ml] was showed by the treatment of M. varians
with the extract of J. oxycedrus. The productivity of
amylase and lactase enzymes by the tested bacterial
and fungal species were inhibited, reaching to the
minimum activities with addition of the most efficient
plant extract [J. oxycedrus][43].
Cade oil showed antifungal activity against against
Trichophyton rubrum with MIC of 100 µg/ml[44].
Antioxidant effect:
The antioxidant capacity of the ripe "berries"
methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L.
subsp. oxycedrus [Joo] and Juniperus oxycedrus L.
subsp. macrocarpa [Sibth. & Sm.] Ball. [Jom] were
studied by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and
in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was
highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing
power and metal chelating activity[31].
The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed
high antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH,
TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ±
0.37 μg/ml, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/ml, and 24.23 ±
0.07 μg/ml, respectively. The strong correlation
observed between antioxidant capacities and their
total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic
compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant
properties of these extracts[45].
The antioxidant activity of the crude ethanolic
extracts of the aerial parts of Juniperus oxycedrus
was determined by DPPH radical scavenging effect.
Juniperus oxycedrus possessed marked radical
scavenging effect with [IC50 = 481.3 μg/ml][32].
In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of
Juniperus oxycedrus ssp, oxycedrus oil by the DPPH
method showed a significant activity for berries and
wood oils with IC50 values of 1.45 μl/ml for wood
and 7.42 μl/ml for berries[34].
Hypoglycemic effect:
The hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities ethanol
and water leaves extracts of Juniperus
oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus [Joso], were evaluated
using normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo
bioactivity-guided fractionation processes, a nonpolar
fraction was separated from the n-hexane subextract
by silica gel column chromatography as the main
active fraction. Subfractions of this fraction was
found to possess antidiabetic activity and their
chemical composition revealed that fatty acids, such
as palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acid were the major
compounds in subfractions[27].
The hypoglycaemic activity of Juniperus oxycedrus
ssp, oxycedrus oils was investigated through the
inhibition of α-amylase. The results revealed that oil
obtained by hydrodistillation from J. oxycedrus ssp.
oxycedrus wood exhibited α-amylase inhibitory
activity with IC50 of 3.49 μl/ml[34].
The hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities ethanol
and water leaves extracts of Juniperus
oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus [Joso], were evaluated
using normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo
bioactivity-guided fractionation processes, shikimic
acid, 4-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ferulic acid and
oleuropeic acid-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were
isolated from the n-butanol sub extract as the main
active ingredient of the active subfraction. After 8
days administration of the major compound shikimic
acid, blood glucose levels were decreased [24%],
malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissues were
decreased [63-64%] and liver enzymes [AST, ALT,
ALP] of diabetic rats were significantly
decreased[18].
Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects:
Methanol and dichloromethanol extracts of leaves
and stems of Juniperus oxycedrus were tested for
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analgesic and antiinflammatory effects. The methanol
extract exhibited an analgesic effect in models of
chemical, mechanical and thermal stimulation
whereas dichloromethanol extract showed only a
significant effect in models of pain induced by
chemical stimulation. Both extracts showed a
significant antiinflammatory activity and inhibition of
the rat paw oedema induced by carrageenan[46].
Pretreatment with Juniperus oxycedrus extracts
showed an analgesic effect on chemical stimulus test,
they significantly reduced [P<0.001 ] the percentage
of writhing movements induced by the intraperitoneal
administration of 0.25 ml of a solution of 3% acetic
acid. Methanol extract showed 63.6% inhibition, F1:
53.2%; F2: 80.2'%; F3: 41.3% and dichloromethanol
extract: 40%. With the using of mechanical stimulus,
pretreatment with methanol extract [200 mg/kg]
possessed significant effects on mechanical pressure
at 30 [p<0.001] and 60 min. [P<0.01]. increasing the
weight causing pain in 85 and 47% respectively.
However, dichloroinethanol extract [200 mg/kg] did
not show any activity on mechanical analgesia. In
thermal mode, mice pretreated with methanol extract
presented a significant [P<0.0.5] increase in the
response time in both the jump [54%] and escape
[42%] parameter evaluated in the hot plate test.
Dichloromethanol [200 mg/ kg] extract gave no
significant variation in the parameters evaluated in
this test. Pretreatment with methanol and
dichloromethanol extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg
induced a significant antiinflammatory throughout
the 24 hr experimental period. Both extracts showed
significant activity after I , 2. 3 and 24 hr[46].
The antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities
of subextracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus
berries and leaves were evaluated using p-
benzoquinone-induced writhing test for
antinociceptive activity and the carrageenan-induced
hind paw edema model for antiinflammatory activity
in mice. The n-butanol subextract of J. oxycedrus
subsp. oxycedrus berry ethanol extract exhibited
remarkable antiinflammatory effect at 100 mg/kg.
The same subextract displayed significant
antinociceptive activity without inducing any gastric
damage or apparent acute toxicity[47].
Effect on smooth muscle motility:
Both extracts at doses of 200 mg/kg caused a
significant decrease in motor activity, as measured by
the number of mouse movements in the activity cage.
The dichloromethanol extract induced a higher
depressor effect than the methanol extract with a 76%
and 60% inhibition of the spontaneous movements
during the 30 min experimental period. Six fractions
were obtained from the methanolic extract, the
methanol fractions F5 and F6 could be the
responsible for the central nervous system-depressant
activity of methanol extract [66 % and 58%,
significant [P<0.05] inhibition of the spontaneous
activity respectively][48].
Anticonvulsant activity:
Pretreatment with methanol and dicliloromethanol
extracts [200 mg/kg] did not modify the duration of
convulsions induced by electrical stimulation in
mice[46].
Hypotensive effect:
The arterial blood pressure of normotensive rats was
significantly reduced by the iv administration of the
methanol and dichloromethanol extracts of Juniperus
oxycedrus. The hypotensive effect of these extracts
was independent of the adrenergic system[49].
Cytotoxic effect:
The berries methanol extracts of Juniperus
oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus [Joo] and Juniperus
oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa [Sibth. & Sm.] Ball.
[Jom] did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both
extracts were non-toxic against Artemia salina[31].
Toxicity and side effects:
The methanol and dichloromethanol extracts of
Juniperus oxycedrus showed a limited toxicity with a
LD50 over 3 g/ kg body weight in both extracts[46].
A case is reported of a previously healthy man who
ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of
Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever,
severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and
severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive
and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and
was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh
day[50].
CONCLUSION:
The current review discussed the chemical
constituents and pharmacological effects of
Juniperus oxycedrus.
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... activités antibactériennes et anti biofilm contre les staphylocoques à coagulase négative *1 Zatout, A., 1 Djibaoui, R., 2 Flamini, G., 2 Ascrizzi, R., 3 Benbrahim, C., 4 Mazari, H. E., 5 Benkredda, F., 6 Mechaala, S., et 7,8 Kassah-Laouar, A. ...
... The needles are 1 to 2.5 cm long and 1 to 2.5 mm wide, with two furrows of white, waxy stomata above, an edge below and a thorny tip. This tree is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, tuberculosis, bronchitis and pneumonia (6). ...
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... Ces études ont porté sur des sujets variés tels que les variations morphologiques des populations (Klimko et al., 2007 ;Hafsi et al., 2017) ou l'activité des composés phénoliques présents dans l'écorce des racines (Chaouche et al., 2015). Elles sont cependant principalement axées sur l'obtention, la composition et l'activité, d'une part, de l'huile de cade obtenue par distillation du bois, cette huile étant très utilisée en médecine vétérinaire, en dermatologie et en médecine traditionnelle (Quézel et Gast, 1998 ;Loizzo et al., 2007 ;Julin, 2008 ;Abdellah et al., 2018 ;Al-Snafi, 2018), et, d'autre part, des huiles essentielles issues des feuilles, des baies, des cônes ou des écorces (Marongiu et al., 2003 ;Dob et al., 2006 ;Medini et al., 2013 ;Hayta et Bagci, 2014 ;Al-Snafi, 2018). ...
... Ces études ont porté sur des sujets variés tels que les variations morphologiques des populations (Klimko et al., 2007 ;Hafsi et al., 2017) ou l'activité des composés phénoliques présents dans l'écorce des racines (Chaouche et al., 2015). Elles sont cependant principalement axées sur l'obtention, la composition et l'activité, d'une part, de l'huile de cade obtenue par distillation du bois, cette huile étant très utilisée en médecine vétérinaire, en dermatologie et en médecine traditionnelle (Quézel et Gast, 1998 ;Loizzo et al., 2007 ;Julin, 2008 ;Abdellah et al., 2018 ;Al-Snafi, 2018), et, d'autre part, des huiles essentielles issues des feuilles, des baies, des cônes ou des écorces (Marongiu et al., 2003 ;Dob et al., 2006 ;Medini et al., 2013 ;Hayta et Bagci, 2014 ;Al-Snafi, 2018). ...
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The present study evaluates the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae) from El kala region (sub-humid) in Algeria. Leaves essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS. Fifty four compounds were identified. The J. oxycedrus leaves oil was characterized by a high content of Germacrene D (21%), 1,5-Dodecadiene (8,42 %), 2,6,10-Dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (Z,E)- (10,94 %). and 1HNaphtho[2,1-b]pyran-3-acetic acid, dodecahydro-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-, methyl ester (8,77 %)