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The Pharmacological Effects of Helianthus Annuus-A Review

Authors:

Abstract

Helianthus annuus was used as food and medicine worldwide. It was cultivated basically for its seeds, which give the world's second most important source of edible oil. Phytochemical analysis showed that Helianthus annuus contained carbohydrates, phenolics, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, steroids, triterpenoids and fixed oils. It possesed many pharmacological effects included antiinflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, antidiarrheal, antihistaminic, reproductive, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-obesity, central nervous system effects and hepato-, nephro-and cardio-protective effects. This review highlighted the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Helianthus annuus.
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CODEN [USA]: IAJPBB ISSN: 2349-7750
INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1210521
Article Review http://www.iajps.comAvailable online at:
THE PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HELIANTHUS
ANNUUS- A REVIEW
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Thi qar, Iraq.
Cell: +9647801397994. E mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Abstract:
Helianthus annuus was used as food and medicine worldwide. It was cultivated basically for its seeds, which give
the world’s second most important source of edible oil. Phytochemical analysis showed that Helianthus annuus
contained carbohydrates, phenolics, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, steroids, triterpenoids
and fixed oils. It possesed many pharmacological effects included antiinflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial,
anti-plasmodial, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, antidiarrheal, antihistaminic, reproductive, anticancer, antioxidant,
anti-obesity, central nervous system effects and hepato- , nephro- and cardio- protective effects. This review
highlighted the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Helianthus annuus.
Keywords: chemical constituents, pharmacology, Helianthus annuus
Corresponding author:
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology,
College of Medicine,
University of Thi qar, Iraq
Cell: +9647801397994.
E mail: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Please cite this article in press Ali Esmail Al-Snafi., The Pharmacological Effects of Helianthus Annuus- A
Review, Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2018; 05(03).
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INTRODUCTION:
Medicinal plants are the Nature’s gift to human beings
to help them pursue a disease-free healthy life. Plants
have been used as drugs by humans since thousands of
years ago. As a result of accumulated experience from
the past generations, today, all the world’s cultures
have an extensive knowledge of herbal medicine.
Plants are a valuable source of a wide range of
secondary metabolites, which are used as
pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavours, fragrances,
colours, biopesticides and food additives [1-30].
Helianthus annuus was used as food and medicine
worldwide. It was cultivated basically for its seeds,
which give the world’s second most important source
of edible oil. Phytochemical analysis showed that
Helianthus annuus contained carbohydrates,
phenolics, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins,
phytosterols, steroids, triterpenoids and fixed oils. It
possesed many pharmacological effects included
antiinflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-
plasmodial, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, antidiarrheal,
antihistaminic, reproductive, anticancer, antioxidant,
anti-obesity, central nervous system effects and
hepato- , nephro- and cardio- protective effects. This
review was designed to highlight the chemical
constituents and pharmacological effects of
Helianthus annuus.
Plant profile:
Synonyms:
Helianthus tubaeformis Nutt., Helianthus
platycephalus Cass. Helianthus ovatus Lehm.,
Helianthus multiflorus Hook., Helianthus
macrocarpus DC., Helianthus macrocarpus DC.
& A. DC., Helianthus lenticularis Douglas,
Helianthus lenticularis Douglas ex Lindl.,
Helianthus jaegeri Heiser, Helianthus indicus L.,
Helianthus erythrocarpus, Helianthus aridus Rydb.,
Helianthus annuus var. texanus [Heiser] Shinners,
Helianthus annuus subsp. Texanus Heiser,
Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus [DC.]
Cockerell, Helianthus annuus subsp. lenticularis
[Douglas ex Lindl.] Cockerell, Helianthus annuus
var. lenticularis [Douglas ex Lindl.] Steyerm and
Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri [Heiser] Heiser
[31].
Taxonomic classification:
Kingdom: Plantae, Subkingdom: Viridiplantae,
Infrakingdom: Streptophyta, Superdivision:
Embryophyta, Division: Tracheophyta,
Subdivision: Spermatophytina, Class:
Magnoliopsida, Superorder: Asteranae, Order:
Asterales, Family: Asteraceae, Genus: Helianthus,
Species: Helianthus annuus [32].
Common names:
Arabic: Dawar El Shams, Zahrat El Shams; English:
Sunflower; French: Grand soleil, Tournesol;
German: Sonnenblume; Hindi: Surajmukhi; Italian:
Girasole; Japanese: himawari; Korean: Haebaragi;
Portuguese: Girassol; Spanish: Girasol;
Swedish: solros [33].
Distribution:
It was native to United states, Mexico and Canada
and now widely cultivated in countries of both
tropical and temperate [33].
Description:
The sunflower is an erect, coarse, tap-rooted annual
with rough-hairy stems 6-30 dm [100-300 cm] tall.
The leaves are mostly alternate, egg-shaped to
triangular, and entire or toothed. The flower heads are
7.5-15 cm [3-6 in] wide and at the ends of branches.
Ray flowers are yellow and disk flowers are reddish-
brown [34-35].
Traditional uses:
The seeds, flower petals and tender leaf petioles are
edible. Flower petals can be eaten raw or cooked but
are best eaten in the young bud stage when it has an
artichoke flavour[36].
The sunflower was used as food and medicine
worldwide. Helianthus annuus was cultivated
basically for its seeds, which give the world’s second
most important source of edible oil. Sunflower oil
was light in color, mild in taste, and low in saturated
fats. It contained more of the antioxidant vitamin E
than any other vegetable oil and is also high in
vitamins A and D. Sunflower oil was able to
withstand high temperatures and was thus a good
choice when frying foods. Sunflower oil can be used
instead of olive oil in salads and dressings [37-38].
The oil was also used in cosmetic formulation. The
seed oil, shoots, and herb tincture was employing as
anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antitumor,
antiasthmatic, antipyretic, astringent, anti-
hypoglycemic, cathartic, diuretic, stimulant,
vermifuge, antimicrobial and for vulnerary purposes
[38]. Seeds were used as diuretic, expectorant, for
colds, coughs and throat and lung ailments. The
flowers and seeds were used in Venezuela in folk
remedies for the treatment of cancer [39]. A tea
made from the leaves was astringent, diuretic and
expectorant; it was used in the treatment of high
fevers. The crushed leaves were used as a poultice on
sores, swellings, snakebites and spider bites. A tea
made from the flowers was used in the treatment of
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malaria and lung ailments. The flowering head and
seeds were febrifuge, nutritive and stomachic.
A decoction of the roots was used as a warm wash on
rheumatic aches and pains [40]. A tincture of the
flowers and leaves was recommended in combination
with balsamics in the treatment of bronchiectasis. The
seeds, if browned in the oven and then made into an
infusion are admirable for the relief of whooping
cough [41].
Parts used meddicinally:
Seeds, flowers, roots and bark [36-40].
Physicochemical characteristics:
Physicochemical properties of sunflower seed oil:
free fatty acid: 0.042%, acid value: 0.953mgKOH/g,
ester value: 182.138mg KOH/g, saponification value:
182.233 mg KOH/g, iodine value: 119.921
mgI2/100g, peroxide value: 6.322mg O2/kg,
appearance: light amber oil, and specific gravity:
0.915 at 25oC [42].
Chemical constituents:
Phytochemical analysis showed that Helianthus
annuus contained carbohydrates, phenolics,
flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols,
steroids, triterpenoids and fixed oils [43-45].
Quantitative phytochemical analysis of ethanolic leaf
extract of Helianthus annuus showed that it contained
alkaloid 1.23%, glycosides 0.04%, saponin 1.46%,
flavonoids 0.03%, terpenoids 0.64% and phenolic
compound 0.34%[46].
Fatty acids identified in sunflower oil were included:
palmitic 5.8%, palmitoleic 0.1%, stearic 3.9%, oleic
15.9%, linoleic 71.7%, alpha linoleic 0.6 %, gamma
linoleic 0.1%, arachidic 0.3%, gadoleic 0.2%,
tetracosanoic 0.5%, and behenic acid 0.7%[47].
Eighty four volatile components were isolated from
sunflowers of different varieties by Gas
chromatography, among which 20 terpene
hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 3 phenols, 6 esters, and 19
oxygenated compounds. Terpene hydrocarbons
accounted for more than 93% of the extracts. They
were included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene,
limonene, p-cymene, α terpinene and 17 other
compounds [47].
Sixty nine compounds were identified in the
essential oil of leaves and capitula of two cultivars of
Helianthus annuus grown in the coastal region of
Tuscany [Italy], these compounds included [E]-3-
hexen-1-ol, [E]-2-hexen-1-ol, tricyclene, α-thujene,
α-pinene, camphene, thuja-2,4[10]-diene, sabinene,
β-pinene, myrcene, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole,
pseudolimonene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene,
β-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, phenylacetaldehyde, [E]-
ocimene, α-terpinene, cis-sabinene hydrate,
terpinolene, trans-Sabinene hydrate, cis-p-mentha-2-
en-1-ol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol, α-
campholenal, trans-p-mentha-2-en-1-ol, cis-
verbenol, trans-verbenol, inocarvone, p-mentha-1,5-
dien-8-ol, borneol, 4-terpineol, p-cymen-8-ol, α-
terpineol, myrtenol, safranal, decanal, verbenone, 2-
methyl-2-nonen-4-one, trans-carveol, -cyclocitral,
isobornyl acetate, 2-undecanone, trans-pinocarvyl
acetate, methyl geranate, α-copaene, β-bourbonene,
β-cubebene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, β-
gurjunene, trans-α-bergamotene, [E]-geranyl
acetone, α-humulene, germacrene D,
bicyclogermacrene, α-muurolene, trans-γ-cadinene
-cadinene, trans-nerolidol, dendrolasin, spathulenol,
germacrene D-4-ol, caryophyllene oxide, T-cadino,
desmethoxy encecalin, epi-13-manoyl oxide[48].
The protein content of the defatted meal ranged from
28 to 32%. Analysis of amino acid contents [g/
100g] showed that the range of contents in the
defatted meal and dehulled defatted meal of E122
and F2 BRS varieties were [g/ 100g]: lysine: 1.19-
1.48, histidine: 0.64-0.88, arginine: 2.01- 3.00,
aspartic acid: 2.37- 3.28, threonine: 0.96-1.20,
serine: 1.14- 1.46, glutamic acid: 5.34- 7.72, proline:
0.73-1.65, glycine: 1.41-1.87, alanine: 1.13-1.52,
cystine: 0.64-0.81, valine: 1.28-1.75, methionine:
0.59- 0.78, isoleucine: 1.07-1.52, leucine: 1.65-2.19,
tyrosine: 0.57-0.83 and phenylalanine 1.21-1.69[49].
Nutritional values of sunflower seed kernels [dried]
from Pakistan, per 100 g were: energy: 2,385 kJ
[570 kcal], carbohydrates: 18.76 g, sugars: 2.62 g,
dietary fiber 10.5 g, fat: 49.57 g, saturated 5.20 g,
monounsaturated 9.46 g, polyunsaturated: 32.74 g,
protein: 22.78 g, thiamine 2.29 mg [199%],
riboflavin 0.25 mg, niacin 4.5 mg, pantothenic acid:
6.75 mg, vitamin B6: 0.77 mg, folate [vit. B9]: 227
μg, vitamin C: 1.4 mg, vitamin E: 34.50 mg, calcium:
116 mg, iron 6.77 mg, magnesium: 354 mg,
manganese: 2.02 mg, phosphorus: 705 mg, sodium 3
mg and zinc: 5.06 mg [37].
Ent-kaurane glycoside [helikauranoside A] and ent-
kaurane-type diterpenoids: []-kaur-16-en-19-oic
acid, grandifloric acid, and paniculoside IV were
isolated from the aerial parts of Helianthus annuus
[50].
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Germacranolide with a-methylene-y-lactone moiety,
the heliangolide niveusin B and its ethoxy derivative
were isolated from the methanolic extract of
Helianthus annuus [51-52].
Benzyl alcohol β-d-apiofuranosyl-[1→6]-β-d-[4-O-
caffeoyl] glucopyranoside, together with eight
phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, methyl caffeoate,
chlorogenic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-
caffeoylquinic acid, methyl chlorogenate, 3,5-di-O-
caffeoylquinic acid, eriodictyol 5-O-β-d-glucoside
cinnamic acid and monoester of quinic acid were
isolated from the seed of sunflower [Helianthus
annuus][53-54].
[2R]-2-hydroxy-N-[[2S,3S,4R,10E]-1,3,4-
trihydroxyicos-10-en-2-yl]docosanamide, [2R,3R]-
2,3-dihydroxy-N-[[2S,3S,4R,10E]-1,3,4-
trihydroxyicos-10-en-2-yl] docosanamide, N-[2-
phenylethyl] tetracosanamide, [2R]-N-
[[2S,3S,4R,8E]-1-[β-d-Glucopyranosyloxy] -3,4-
dihydroxyoctadec-8-en-2-yl] -2-
hydroxyhexadecanamide were isolated from acetone
extract of flower disc of Helianthus annuus [55].
Flavonoids, tambulin, the chalcones kukulcanin B,
heliannone A, heliannones B and C were also isolated
from Helianthus annuus [56-57].
Sixteen compounds were isolated from the seeds of
Helianthus annuus included 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic
acid,3-hydroxy-1-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl]-1-
propanone,3-[hydroxyl-acetyl]-1H-indole,6-acetyl-7-
hydroxy-2,3-dimethylchromone,ayapin, p-
hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, trans-
caffeic acid, courmaric acid, nicotinic acid, indole-3-
carboxaldehyde, indole-3-carboxylic acid,
stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and β-daucosterol[58].
Furanoheliangolide derivative, 4,5-dihydroniveusin
A, as well as niveusin B, argophyllin A and B and
three diterpene acids [grandifloric acid, ciliaric acid
and 17-hydroxy-ent-isokaur-15[16]-en-19-oic acid]
were isolated from a Texas population of Helianthus
annuus[59]. Oleanane-type triterpene glycosides,
helianthosides 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and B were isolated from
an n-butanol-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of
sunflower [Helianthus annuus] petals[60].
Fractionation of a petroleum ether extract of
Helianthus annuus led to the isolation of three
diterpene acids: grandiflorolic, kaurenoic and
trachylobanoic acids [61].
Pharmacological effects:
Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects:
The antiinflammatory effect of helianthosides
compunds isolated from an n-butanol-soluble fraction
of a methanol extract of sunflower was studied
against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA]-
induced inflammation [1.7 nmol/ear] in mice, all of
the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-
inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range
65-262 nmol per ear[60].
Three diterpene acids [grandiflorolic, kaurenoic and
trachylobanoic] were studied for potential anti-
inflammatory activity on the generation of
inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-
activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. At non-toxic
concentrations, these compounds reduced, in a
concentration-dependent manner nitric oxide [NO],
prostaglandin E 2 [PGE 2] and tumor necrosis factor
[TNF-α] production, as well as expression of
inducible nitric oxide synthase [NOS-2] and
cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2]. All diterpenoids
displayed significant in vivo anti-inflammatory
activity and suppressed the 12-O-
tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA]-mouse ear
edema. In addition, inhibition of myeloperoxidase
[MPO] activity, an index of cellular infiltration, was
observed [61].
The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the
ethanol extract of leaves of Helianthus annus [0.5, 2
and 4 g/k] were investigated in rats using the
albumin induced paw edema model of inflammation
as well as the hot plate and tail immersion analgesic
test methods. The treatment with the tested doses of
the extract effectively inhibited paw edema induced
by egg albumin. This effect was comparable if not
better than 10 mg/kg of indomethacin orally.
Treatment with the extract was also significantly
increased the mean tolerance time of rats to thermal
noxious stimuli compared to control animals and
appeared to be more effective than 10 mg/kg of
indomethacin treatment [62].
The methanol extract of seeds of Helianthus annuus
was evaluated for analgesic activity using acetic acid
induced writhing and hot plate methods. In acetic
acid-induced writhing test, the extract showed
significant [P<0.05] analgesic potential at doses of
100 and 200 mg/kg bw [50.35 and 57.85% inhibition,
respectively]. In the hot plate method, increase
[P<0.05] of latency period was also observed in
comparison to standard aspirin. At 60 minutes, the
latency period of two different doses [100 and 200
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mg/kg bw] was found at 13 ± 0.91 and 16.5 ± 1.55
second[45].
Antimicrobial effects:
The antimicrobial properties of sunflower seed oil
were investigated against different pathogenic
microorganisms [Staphylococcus aureus,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus
subtilis and Candida albicans]. The results revealed
that the oil possessed antimicrobial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus
subtilis and Candida albicans [42].
The antimicrobial properties of the ethanol stem
extract of Helianthus annuus was evaluated against
Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericha coli, Aspergillus
Niger and Candida albicans. Ethanolic extract of
Helianthus annuus stem possessed antimicrobial
activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus
niger and Candida albicans, while Escherichia coli
resisted the extract. MIC and MBC/MFC of the
ethanol stem extract of Helianthus annuus against
Staphylococus aureus were 70 and 90 mg/ml,
against Aspergillus niger were 80 and 80 mg/ml,
and against Candida albicans were 50 and 70 mg/ml
respectively[44].
The antibacterial effect of the aqueous and ethanolic
leaf extracts of Helianthus annuus was evaluated
using disc diffusion method and agar well diffusion
method. In the disc diffusion method, the aqueous
extract had an inhibition zone [mm] of 1.1±0.5 on
Staphylococcus aureus, 1.2±0.1 on Klebsiella
pneumonia, 1.6±0.3 on Pseudomonas aeroginosa,
1.7±0.5 on Bacillus subtillis, 1.3±0.5 on Escherichia
coli, 1.1±0.2 on Salmonella typharium, and 1.1±0.3
on Micrococcus luteus, while the ethanol extract had
6.1± 0.2 on Staphylococcus aureus, 5.88±0.7 on
Klebsiella pneumonia, 6.12±0.3 on Pseudomonas
aeroginosa, 7.1 ±0.5 on Bacillus subtilis, 5.5 ± 0.1
on Escherichia coli, 5.6 ±0.2 on Salmonella
typharium and 5.3 ±0.2 on Micrococcus luteus. For
the agar well diffusion method, the aqueous extract
had inhibition zone [mm] of 1.9± 0.5 on
Staphylococcus aureus, 1.3 ±0.2 on Klebsiella
pneumonia, 1.67 ±0.2 on Pseudomonas aeroginosa,
2.1 ± 0.1 on Bacilus subtilis,1.3±0.1 on Escerichia
coli, 1.1±0.5 on Salmonella typharium and 1.7±0.1
on Micrococcus luteus. The ethanol extract had 5.8 ±
0.1 on Staphylococcus aureus, 5.71 ±0.5 on
Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 5.7 ± 0.1 on Bacillus
subtilis, 5.8±0.2 on Escherichia coli. 5.2 ±0.1 on
Salmonella typharium and 5.5±0.3 on Micrococcus
luteus[46].
The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of
seeds from Helianthus annuus was studied against
Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella
typhi, Vibrio cholera, Rhizopus stolonifer,
Aspergillus fumigatus, Fuserium oxisporium and
Candida albicans. The seed extract of Helianthus
annuus showed high activity against Salmonella
typhi, moderate activity against Staphyllococcus
aureus and Vibrio cholera and less activity against
Bacillus subtilis. The extract also showed high
activity against Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus
fumigates, moderate activity against Candida
albicans, while, Fusarium oxysporum resisted the
extract [43].
The effect of topical application of sunflower seed oil
3 times daily to preterm infants <34 weeks gestation,
on skin condition, rates of nosocomial infections and
mortality was studied in Kasr El-Aini neonatal
intensive care unit at Cairo University. Treatment
with sunflower seed oil resulted in a significant
improvement in skin condition [P=0.037] and a
highly significant reduction in the incidence of
nosocomial infections [adjusted incidence ratio: 0.46;
95%, confidence interval: 0.26-0.81; P= 0.007]
compared with infants not receiving topical
prophylaxis. No adverse effects were recorded as a
result of topical therapy [63].
The effect of polar oil extract from the seeds of
Helianthus annuus in Napkin dermatitis and its
antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,
Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and
Candida albicans were studied. The extract was
efficient as topical treatment in Napkin dermatitis.
The results also showed that the extract inhibited the
growth of all the tested microorganisms at different
concentrations [64].
Sunflower oil was easily absorbed by the skin and
provides deep nourishment and moisturizing. For
these reasons, it was a popular ingredient in over the
counter and homemade beauty products including
lotions, creams and massage oils. It can retain
moisture in the skin. It may also provide a protective
barrier that resistsed infection in premature infants.
Infants receiving a daily skin treatment of sunflower
oil were 41% less likely to develop infections in the
hospital[65].
Anti-plasmodial effect:
The anti-plasmodial effect of the ethanol extract of
the leaves of Helianthus annus [2g and 4g / kg bw/
day for 3 days] was investigated in Plasmodium
berghei infected Swiss albino mice. The chemo-
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suppression of the infection was found to be 98.1 and
98.3% for 2g and 4g / kg BW respectively [66].
Among many plants, Helianthus annus showed
good to moderate antiplasmodial activity.
Helianthus annus seeds showed 50% inhibitory
concentration [IC50] of 0.1μg/ml [methanol extract]
and 0.6 μg/ml [petroleum ether extract] against
Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain[67].
Hepato- , nephro- and cardio- protective effects:
The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and
aqueous extracts of Helianthus annus flowers was
studied in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats.
Treatment with the Helianthus annus flower extracts
significantly [P<0.001] reduced elevated serum
enzymatic level of serum glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate
transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin
in CCl4 induced rats treated with 200mg/kg bw. The
biochemical effects of the ethanolic and aqueous
extracts of Helianthus annus flowers were further
confirmed by histopathological examinations of liver
[68].
The effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts [500 mg
for each for 10 days] of Helianthus annuus leaves on
calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis was studied in male
rats. Ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride feeding
resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal
excretion of calcium and phosphorus. The increased
deposition of stone forming constituents in the
kidneys of calculogenic rats was significantly
lowered by treatment with aqueous and ethanolic
extracts [69].
Oil of Helianthus annuus at doses of 20 mg/kg for
two weeks, protected New Zealand rabbits from
myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine [70].
Applying 12% sunflower seed oil in rat food pellet
for 4 weeks decreased the incidence of reperfusion-
induced ventricular fibrillation both after 6 min [2/15
vs. 7/11] and 12 min [0/11 vs. 2/8] of myocardial
ischemia and the incidence of other arrhythmias was
also decreased. The number of animals developing no
arrhythmias during reperfusion was increased [8/15
after 6 min of ischemia, 4/11 after 12 min of ischemia
vs. 0/11 and 0/8 in controls, respectively][71].
Antidiabetic effect:
The antihyperglycemic effect of ethanol seed extract
[250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, po] was studied in
normal, glucose loaded hyperglycemic and
streptozotocin [STZ] induced Type 2 diabetic rats.
Alcoholic seed extract of Helianthus annuus showed
less significant changes in blood glucose level of
normoglycemic rats [P<0.05], while, it caused much
reduction in blood glucose levels [P<0.01] in diabetic
rats. Administration of extract in streptozotocin-
nicotinamide induced diabetic rats, significantly
decreased the blood glucose level [P<0.001], restored
the lipid profile, showed improvement in body
weight, liver glycogen content, glycosylated
haemoglobin, plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione
level and serum insulin levels[72].
The crude methanol extract of Helianthus annuus was
separated into fractions and evaluated for antidiabetic
effect. The extract yielded thirteen fractions.
Bioactivity screening of the fractions [60 mg/kg]
using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats showed
that fraction 8, 9, 10 and 13 caused various degrees of
reduction in fasting blood glucose in time-dependent
manner. The activities of the fractions were compared
to the crude extract [600 mg/kg]. The crude extract,
glibenclamide, fractions 8, 9, 10 and 13 caused
66.74%, 57.43%, 61.36%, 59.80%, 70.63% and
78.03% reductions in fasting blood glucose,
respectively, at 6 h[73].
The antidiabetic, oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT],
and antioxidant effects of methanol extract
of Helianthus annuus leaves were investigated using
alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract [150, 300,
and 600 mg/kg] showed a significant [P < 0.05] dose-
and time-dependent decrease in blood glucose level
of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. At 6 h posttreatment,
there was a significant [P < 0.05] decrease in blood
glucose level at 600 mg/kg extract [66.74 %]
compared with the negative control group [10 mg/kg
distilled water]. The OGTT in normoglycemic rat
showed no significant [P > 0.05] difference in blood
glucose level among the treatment groups. In diabetic
OGTT, the blood glucose level of the extract
[600 mg/kg]- treated group was significantly
[P < 0.05] lower when compared to the that of the
negative control group at 120 min post glucose load,
but there was no significant [P > 0.05] difference
between the extract- and glibenclamide [2 mg/kg]-
treated groups. The extract also produced
concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant
activity [74].
Among three plants, the sunflower sprout exhibited
the strongest inhibitory effects against the formation
of advanced glycation end products [AGEs]. At a
concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, its inhibitory rate
achieved 83.29%, which was stronger than that of
aminoguanidine [1 mM], a well-known synthetic
antiglycative agent [with an inhibitory rate of
80.88%]. The antioxidant capacity of Helianthus
annuus was also much stronger than other sprout
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samples in terms of free radical scavenging and
reducing properties. An active ingredient contributing
to these activities was identified as cynarin [1,5-
dicaffeoylquinic acid]. Sunflower sprout rich in
cynarin may be regarded as a beneficial food choice
for diabetic patients[75].
Anti-ulcer and antidiarrheal effects:
The anti-ulcer activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of
A. indicum, Helianthus annuus and a combination of
both was evaluated against ethanol induced gastric
ulcer and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in
Albino Wistar Rats. All extracts showed significant
anti-ulcer activity. The protective effect was found to
be in the following order: combined hydro alcoholic
extract of A. indicum and Helianthus annuus > hydro
alcoholic extract of Helianthus annuus > hydro
alcoholic extract of A. Indicum [76].
The antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of the
leaves of Helianthus annuus was evaluated using
castor oil induced diarrhoea model and
gastrointestinal transit model in mice. Ethanolic
extract of the leaves of Helianthus annuus [250 and
500mg/kg bw] significantly decreases the severity of
diarrhea [77].
Antihistaminic effect:
The antihistaminic activity of ethanolic extract of the
leaves of Helianthus annuu was evaluated in
histamine induced bronchoconstriction on guinea pigs
and microshock model in rabbits for antihistaminic
activity. Helianthus annuus possessed marked anti-
histaminic potential [77].
Central nervous system effects:
The central nervous system activity of methanolic
extract of Helianthus annuus seeds was evaluated in
mice model. The results revealed that the methanol
extract of Helianthus annuus seeds at 100 and 200
mg/kg caused a significant increase in the
spontaneous activity [general behavioural profile].
Helianthus annuus showed significant increase in
grip strength and pain responses at dose of 200
mg/kg. It also showed strong movement response in
spontenuous activity, pinna reflex and touch response
at dose 200 mg/kg. There was also moderate increase
in awareness and alertness at dose 200 mg/kg. The
methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds also
caused moderate anxiolytic activity [light-dark box
and elevated plus maze test]. Helianthus annuus
showed moderate increase in the latency of entry into
the light box with peak effect produced at the dose of
200 mg/kg [72±0.85 seconds] compared to control
[34±5.63 seconds]. In respect of latency of entry into
the light box and number of entries, Helianthus
annuus showed moderately significant anxiolytic
effect at the dose of both 100 mg/kg [63±0.62
seconds] and 200 mg/kg [72±0.85 seconds].
Helianthus annuus produced a significant increase in
the time spent in the open arms model with peak
effect at the dose of 100 mg/kg [51±0.62 seconds]
relative to control [30.23±0.62 seconds]. In respect of
entry into open arms, the extract at the dose of 100
mg/kg significantly [P<0.05] increased the number of
entries compared to control. The number of entries
into the closed arms was reduced by Helianthus
annuus at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. The
methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds also
caused remarkable antidepressant activity [tail
suspension test]. Helianthus annuus showed
significant antidepressant activity [P<0.05] by
decreasing the immobility time [Helianthus annuus
100mg/kg: 93±0.47; Helianthus annuus 200mg/kg:
78±1.3] as compared with imipamine [60mg/kg:
30.2±0.64] and control [190.8±0.75][78].
The antidepressant [tail suspension test] and
anxiolytic activity [light-dark box test and elevated
plus maze test] of methanolic extract of Helianthus
annuus seeds were investigated in mice. The
efficacy of extract [100-200 mg/kg] was compared
with standard antidepressant drug, imipramine 60
mg/kg and anxiolytic drug diazepam [1mg/kg]. The
results revealed that the methanol extract of
Helianthus annuus seeds possessed a significant
result in tail suspension test at 100 mg/kg [93 ± 0.47
seconds] and 200 mg/kg [78 ± 1.3 seconds] and
moderate result in light-dark box test at 100 mg/kg
[63±0.62] and 200 mg/kg [72±0.85], in elevated plus
maze test at 100 mg/kg [51± 0.58 seconds] and 200
mg/kg [60±0.62 seconds]. Accordingly, the methanol
extract of Helianthus annuus exhibited significant
antidepressant and moderate anxiolytic activity[79].
Reproductive effects:
The effects of ethanol extract of leaves of Helianthus
annus [0.5 g/kg of orally for 2 weeks] on the
fecundity was studied in rats. The results showed
that coital frequency was unaffected by the extract
treatment but pregnancy rate and number of pups per
rat and per group were reduced significantly. The
histo-degenerative changes induced by the ethanol
extract in the gonads may be responsible for the
reduced fecundity observed in treated adult rats[80].
In studying the effects of the ethanol extract of the
leaves of Helianthus annuus on the histology of the
testes, blood level of some reproductive hormones
and epididymal sperm properties in Wistar rats, it
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appeared that the extract possessed some anti-fertilty
effects[81].
Anticancer effect:
The antiproliferative effect of Helianthus annuus
chloroform root extract was studied against HeLa,
MCF-7 and A-431 cell lines. MIC50 of the extract
was 3.51, 3.36 and 4.19 μg/ml against the three cell
line respectively [82].
Antioxidant effect:
In studying the antioxidant activity of methanolic
extract of seeds from Helianthus annuus, the results
revealed that the extract possessed very significant
DPPH [1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl] radical
scavenging activity compared to standard antioxidant.
The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract
was increased with the increasing concentration [43].
Lutein, which identified in the hexane extract of
Helianthus annuu effectively inhibited peroxidation
of lipids, hydroxyl radical formation and DPPH
radical formation 86%, 92% and 90% respectively at
concentration of 20μg/ml, it showed more antioxidant
activity than α -tocopherol, curcumin and butylated
hydroxy anisole, which, when used at dose ~12 times
more [400μM] than lutein, they showed 7595%
inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of
hydroxyl and DPPH radicals[83].
The crude methanol extract of Helianthus annuus was
separated into fractions and evaluated for
antioxidant effect. The extract yielded thirteen
fractions. In vitro anti-oxidant tests at the
concentration of 400 μg/ml showed that the crude
methanol extract, fraction 8, 9,10 and 13 gave
89.00%, 30.42%, 47.90%, 88.03% and 92.72% anti-
oxidant activity, respectively, in DPPH model; and
3.69, 0.95, 0.23, 0.67 and 0.28 μM anti-oxidant
potential, respectively, in FRAP model[73].
Anti-obesity activity:
The anti-obesity activity of the methanolic extract of
Helianthus annuus seeds was studied in mice model.
The mice received cafeteria diet, atorvastatin [10
mg/kg] and Helianthus annuus 200 mg/kg daily for 6
weeks. Parameters such as food consumption,
locomotor activity, body weight, body mass index
[BMI], lee index of obesity [LIO], total cholesterol,
triglyceride, LDL, HDL and glucose were studied.
The the methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus
seeds significantly increased locomotor activity
[rearing, grooming, ambulation] with HDL and
significantly decrease food consumption, body
weight, BMI, LIO, total cholesterol, triglyceride,
LDL and glucose[84].
Side effect and toxicity:
The LD50 of the ethanol extract of leaves of
Helianthus annuus was found to be 14g/kg in
rats[55]. The methanol extract of Helianthus annuus
leaves at the dose range of 300-3600 mg/kg was
tolerated by the rats[74].
Health risks or side effects following the proper
administration of designated therapeutic dosages of
sunflower oil in human, were not recorded[86]. No
adverse events were recorded as a result of topical
therapy in infants [63].
Sunflower seeds were a rare source of allergy,
however, several cases of occupational allergies to
sunflowers were described [87].
Ethanol extract of leaves of Helianthus annus
reduced the fertility and fecundity of rats [80].
CONCLUSION:
The review highlighted the chemical constituent,
pharmacological and therapeutic effects of
Helianthus annus as promising source of drugs
because of its safety and effectiveness.
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... The mice received a cafeteria diet and Helianthus annuus extract (200 mg/kg) / day for 6 weeks. The methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds significantly increased locomotor activity (grooming, ambulation, rearing) with HDL and significantly decreased f triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, body weight, food consumption, body mass index, and lee index of obesity 33,34 . ...
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Objective: Obesity is a major public health issue in developed and developing countries. An individual with a body mass index equal to or higher than 30 is considered obese. The pathophysiology of obesity included alterations in neuropeptides, hormones, and adipokines in the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. This review was designed to investigate the plants with anti-obesity effects as alternative weight loss remedies with minimal adverse effects. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, Web Science, and Scopus were searched to investigate the plants which possessed anti-obesity effects. Results: Many medicinal plants possess anti-obesity activity via different mechanisms, including pancreatic lipase activity inhibition, thermogenesis enhancement, adipocyte differentiation prevention, boosting lipid metabolism, and lowering appetite. Conclusion: Plants contain many pharmacologically active ingredients that possess anti-obesity by many mechanisms. Further investigations were required to determine the molecular mechanism and the clinical efficacy of the natural anti-obesity agents.
... 81; P = 0. 007) compared with infants not receiving topical prophylaxis. No adverse events were recorded as a result of topical therapy (230)(231) . ...
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Plants are a valuable source of a wide range of secondary metabolites, which are used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavours, fragrances, colours, biopesticides and food additives. In the current review, PubMed, Web Science, Science Direct, Researchgate, Academia. edu and Scopus were searched to determinethe medicinal plantswhich pass the clinical trials with documented efficacy and safety.
... Parameters such as food consumption, locomotor activity, body weight, body mass index (BMI), lee index of obesity (LIO), total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL and glucose were studied. The methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds significantly increased locomotor activity (rearing, grooming, ambulation) with HDL and significantly decreased food consumption, body weight, BMI, LIO, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and glucose (146)(147) . ...
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Hyperlipidemia refers to elevated levels of lipids and cholesterol in the blood. It plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, the main cause of death in the world. Medicinal plants can lower blood lipids by many mechanisms included inhibition of the expression of fatty acid synthase, decreasing free fatty acid release, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, increasing the fecal excretion of fat and cholesterol, inhibition of the activity of pancreatic lipase and inhibition of cholesterol absorption. The current review will highlight the hypolipidemic effects of medicinal plants as promising effective and safe therapies.
... Hedera helix possessed cytotoxic activity on the brine shrimp bioassay and showedanti proliferative effect against Mat-LyLu cells (strongly metastatic), AT-2 cells (weakly metastatic) and mouse B16 melanoma cell lines (419)(420) . Helianthus annuus showed antiproliferative effect against HeLa, MCF-7 and A-431 cell lines (421)(422) . Helianthus tuberosus showed cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, A549, HeLa cancer, Hp G2-cells, HCT-116, MCF-7 and1301-cell lines (423)(424)(425) . ...
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The alternative natural therapies are required as they considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current chemotherapy. In the current review Web Science, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, were searched to provide information about medicinal plants that have shown anticancer activity against various forms of cancer.
... Parameters such as food consumption, locomotor activity, body weight, body mass index (BMI), lee index of obesity (LIO), total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL and glucose were studied. The methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds significantly increased locomotor activity (rearing, grooming, ambulation) with HDL and significantly decrease food consumption, body weight, BMI, LIO, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and glucose [43][44]. ...
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Obesity and overweight have increased and became a major public health problem in the world during the last decades. Obesity and overweight increased the risk of diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis, bile diseases and certain cancers. In the current review, PubMed, Web Science, Science Direct, Researchgate, Academia.edu and Scopus were searched to highlight the anti-obesity activities of medicinal plants.
... increased the number of entries compared to control. The number of entries into the closed arms was reduced by H. annuus at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg[83][84]. ...
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Insomnia and anxiety are worldwide medical problems. Plant extracts possessed sedative and anxiolytic effect via different mechanisms included interactions with Na+ channels, γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and chatecholamines. In the current review, Web Science, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, were searched to investigate the plants with sedative and anxiolytic effects.
Chapter
The operation of the central nervous system (CNS) has been a mystery until recently when its structures are being linked to activity and/or pathologies. The drugs that influence the CNS were seen as spiritual manipulators, and often times they were used to invite the spirit into the human body. Researches have proven that these myths are unfounded and have provided explanations for the observed effect of the agents on the brain and human behavior. Most of the agents used to influence the brain in prescience ages were derived from plants. These actions of plant-related substances were termed as mystical. Science has unraveled the causes of the actions of plants on the CNS. The substances in plants that influence the brain are the biomolecules it contained. This chapter examines these biomolecules and their effects and mechanism of action. The biomolecules could produce stimulant, depressive, antidepressant, cognitive, toxic, and dependence effect on the brain. Substances like caffeine, cocaine, tobacco, ergot, opioids, etc., have been well studied to obtain an explanation for their effects on the brain and behavior. This review also revealed that biomolecules that influence the CNS does so by: acting as an agonist or antagonist at receptor sites, releasing neurotransmitters, inhibiting enzymes that are involved in neurotransmitter physiology, altering intracellular enzyme or protein levels, altering ion level in the brain, interacting with gamma aminobutyric acid receptors at different sites, or acting as precursor/false precursor for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. These effects could be beneficial or harmful to the human body. Some may result in the amelioration of disease or cure of CNS disease conditions. The beneficial effects of herbal biomolecules are indeed enormous and have contributed to the advancement of CNS science and the quantity of life of human race.
Research
ABSTRACT Introduction: Antioxidant can be defined as a compound with an ability to prevent oxidative stress due to imbalance amount of reactive oxygen species inside our body. Oxidative stress can lead on to various kind of diseases. To prevent it, one of the sources of antioxidant is sunflower petal (Helianthus annuus). Objective: This research objective is to know the phytochemical content, phenolic content, alkaloid content, and toxicity value on sunflower petals. Method: This is an in vitro experimental research and bioassay examination. Phytochemical compound quantitative identification was conducted with Harborne method. Phenolic compound test was executed with Singleton and Rossi method, compared to tannin standard and measured with spectrophotometry. Alkaloid content is measured with Trivedi et al method and Berberine chloride standard as comparison. Antioxidant capacity was measured with Blois method using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picryhydrazyl) and compared with vitamin C standard. Toxicity and antimitotic potential test were carried out with BSLT (Brine shrimp lethality test). Results and Discussion: In the quantitative test, sunflower petal extract contains phytochemical compounds including alkaloid, betacyanin, cardioglycosides, coumarin, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic, quinone, tannin, steroid and terpenoid. Sunflower petal extract has antioxidant capacity (IC50 =167,414 μg/mL), total phenolic content (573,25 μg/mL), total alkaloid content (8,96 μg/mL), and toxicity test (LC50 = 131,563 μg/mL) Conclusion: Sunflower petal extract has potential as an antioxidant and inhibits growth of cancer cells. Keywords: DPPH, BSLT, Alkaloid, Antioxidant, Phenolic, Phytochemical, Helianthus annuus, Oxidative Stress
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Medicinal plants can exert antidepressant activity by many mechanisms included neutralization of various stress mediators (regulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and reduce CRF, and ACTH and corticosterone) [5], interaction with serotonergic systems (5-HT3, 5HT2A, 5-HT1A), noradrenergic (α1 and α2 receptors) and dopaminergic (D1 and D2) receptors [6],restoring monoamine transmitters and their receptors to normal limits in certain regions of the cortex, in addition to reducing of oxidative stress and amelioration of inflammatory mediators. The current review discussed the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants, with emphasis on their mechanisms of action.
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Many Arabian medicinal plants possessed anticancer activitys by many mechanisms as tested by different anticancer tests. These plants included: Adonis aestivalis, Ailanthus altissima, Alhagi maurorum, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Allium schoenoprasum, Althaea officinalis, Althaea rosea, Ammannia baccifera, Anagyris foetida, Anchusa italica, Antirrhinum majus, Apium graveolens, Arctium Lappa, Aristolochia maurorum, Artemisia campestris, Arundo donax, Asclepias curassavica, Asparagus officinalis, Astragalus hamosus, Bauhinia variegata, Bellis perennis, Betula alba, Bidens tripartita, Brassica rapa, Bryonia dioica, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caccinia crassifolia, Caesalpinia crista, Calendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capparis spinosa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsicum annuum , Capsicum frutescens, Carthamus tinctorius, Casuarina equisetifolia, Celosia cristata, Chenopodium album, Chrozophora tinctoria, Cicer arietinum, Cichorium intybus, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrus species, Clerodendron inerme, Clitoria ternatea, Convolvulus arvensis, Convolvulus scammonia, Corchorus aestuans, Corchorus capsularis, Coriandrum sativum, Coronilla scorpioides, Coronilla varia, Cotoneaster racemiflora, Crocus sativus, Cuminum cyminum, Cupressus sempervirens, Cuscuta planiflora, Cydonia oblonga, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotuntdus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Datura metel , Daucus carota, Delphinium brunonianum, Desmostachya bipinnata, Dianthus caryophyllus, Digitalis lanata , Digitalis purpurea, Dodonaea viscosa, Lablab purpureus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Equisetum arvense, Erigeron canadensis, Erodium cicutarium, Eryngium creticum, Eucalyptus species, Eupatorium cannabinum, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia macroclada, Fagopyrum esculentum, Ficus carica , Ficus cunia and Ficus religiosa. The current paper will discuss the anticancer effects of some medicinal plants as a first part of this review.
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Eucalyptus species grown in Iraq were included Eucalyptus bicolor (Syn: Eucalyptus largiflorens), Eucalyptus griffithsii, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Syn: Eucalyptus rostrata) Eucalyptus incrassate, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus microtheca (Syn: Eucalyptus coolabahs). Eucalypts contained volatile oils which occurred in many parts of the plant, depending on the species, but in the leaves that oils were most plentiful. The main constituent of the volatile oil derived from fresh leaves of Eucalyptus species was 1,8-cineole. The reported content of 1,8-cineole varies for 54-95%. The most common constituents co-occurring with 1,8-cineole were limonene, α-terpineol, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, globulol and α , β and ϒ-eudesmol, and aromatic constituents. The pharmacological studies revealed that Eucalypts possessed gastrointestinal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, insecticidal, repellent, oral and dental, dermatological, nasal and many other effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological and therapeutic activities of Eucalyptus species grown in Iraq.
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Phytochemical analysis of Dianthus caryophyllus showed that it contained triterpenes, alkaloids, coumaruns, cyanogenic glycoside, cyanidin, pelargonidin, the yellow isosalipurposide, essential oil, volatile oil and many other chemical contents. Pharmacological studies revealed that the plant possessed anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, repellent, antioxidant, reno-protective, anesthetic and analgesic effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dianthus caryophyllus.
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Chemical analysis showed that Ficus religiosa contained tannins, phenols, saponins, sugars, alkaloids, methionine, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, separated amino acids, essential and volatile oils and steroids. Previous pharmacological studies revealed that Ficus religiosa possessed antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, anti-Parkinson's, anticonvulsant, anti-amnesic, anticholinergic, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, cytotoxic, anti-ulcer, wound healing, antioxidant, anti-asthmatic, reproductive, hepato-, nephro-and dermato-protective effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Ficus religiosa.
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Erodium cicutarium contained tannin, catechins, gallic and elagic acids, sugars (glucose, galactose, fructose), amino acids (glycine,alanine, proline, histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamic acid), vitamins K and C. The essential oils of Erodium cicutarium contained isomenthone (11.2%), citronellol (15.4%), geraniol (16.7%) and methyl eugenol (10.6%). Erodium cicutarium possessed many pharmacological effects included antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, interferon inducing effects, antioxidant, spasmogenic effects on uterus and diaphragmtic muscles and cardiac negative ionotropic action. The current review discussed the constituents and pharmacological effects of Erodium cicutarium.
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The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Ephedra alata indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Ephedra species contain alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine. Beside the E-type alkaloids, ephedroxane, and macrocyclic spermidines called ephedradine AD , were isolated from some Ephedra species. The total amount of alkaloids isolated from Ephedra alata aerial parts was 0.2-0.22%. Phenolic compounds included chlorogenic acid, rutin, catechin, quercetin, coumaric acid, flavonoid (Vicenin II, lucenin III, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-glucoside, herbacetin 8-methyl ether 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside and herbacetin 7-O-6″-quinylglucoside) and furanofuran ((±)-syringaresinol, digalloylglucose, nilocitin, p-coumaric acid) were isolated from Ephedra alata. Ephedra foliata also produced ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The total alkaloids contents of Ephedra foliata (ephedrine and psudoephedrine) were 0.04-0.2%. Previous pharmacological studies revealed that Ephedra species possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and cardiovascular effects. This review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Ephedra alata and Ephedra foliata.
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Echium italicum contained naphthoquinone pigments such as alkannin and shikonin derivatives. However, nine shikonin pigments: shikonin, acetylshikonin, propionylshikonin, isobutyrylshikonin, tiglylshikonin, 3,3-dimethylacrylshikonin, angelylshikonin, 2-methyl-n-butyrylshikonin and isovalerylshikonin were isolated from the root epidermis of Echium italicum. The total phenolic content of the herb and root of Echium italicum was 11.46 ± 0.08 mg GA/g. The chemical analysis of three different stages (early, middle and late stage) of maturity of the seeds of Echium italicum from Turkey revealed that they contained total oil 15.22, 26.25 and 28.78 g/100 consisted of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic, ϒ-Linolenic, heneicosanoic acids, while stigmasterol and brassicasterol were recorded only in the last stage. pharmacological studies showed that the plant possessed anxiolytic, sedative, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and other effects. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Echium italicum.
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Fagopyrum esculentum contained alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phlobatannins and tannins. The nutritional analysis of Fagopyrum esculentum flour and bran revealed that they contained starch: 55, 75 and 18%; proteins: 12, 6 and 36%; lipids: 4, 1 and 11%; soluble carbohydrates: 2, 1 and 6%; total dietary fibers: 7, 3 and 15%; and ash: 2, 1 and 7% respectively. The pharmacological studies showed that Fagopyrum esculentum possessed antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, antigenotoxic, antidiabetic, reno-protective, anticancer, antimicrobial, wound healing, antistress, protected memory impairment and photoprotective effects. This review will highligh the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Fagopyrum esculentum.
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The preliminary phytocemical analysis showed that the fruits of Ficus carica contained alkaloids,-and hepato-protective effects. The current paper reviewed the chemical constituents, nutritional and pharmacological importance of Ficus carica.
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The phytochemical screening of Euphorbia hirta revealed that the plant contained reducing sugars, enzyme inhibiting and anti-dipsogenic activities. The current review discussed the chemical constituents, pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Euphorbia hirta.