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Can emotional intelligence be trained? A meta-analytical investigation

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Abstract

Human resource practitioners place value on selecting and training a more emotionally intelligent workforce. Despite this, research has yet to systematically investigate whether emotional intelligence can in fact be trained. This study addresses this question by conducting a meta-analysis to assess the effect of training on emotional intelligence, and whether effects are moderated by substantive and methodological moderators. We identified a total of 58 published and unpublished studies that included an emotional intelligence training program using either a pre-post or treatment-control design. We calculated Cohen's d to estimate the effect of formal training on emotional intelligence scores. The results showed a moderate positive effect for training, regardless of design. Effect sizes were larger for published studies than dissertations. Effect sizes were relatively robust over gender of participants, and type of EI measure (ability v. mixedmodel). Further, our effect sizes are in line with other meta-analytic studies of competency-based training programs. Implications for practice and future research on EI training are discussed.

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... One way to improve moral sensitivity and emotional regulation is to carry out various forms of EI training for clinical ICU nurses (e.g., narrative writing). The review shows that many studies have shown that the intervention plan to cultivate emotional skills in nursing education significantly improves the level of EI in nurses [49], which indicates that EI training is effective [50]. However, training based on emotional development is rare in nursing education programs or healthcare education in general, and the diversity of models and tools used complicates comparisons between studies [49]. ...
... Currently recommended training programs guided by the tripartite model of EI focusing on knowledge, ability, and traits have been proven to enable the average healthcare professional to effectively develop EI [51]. A literature review found a trend in research that suggested training is more effective when lectures are avoided and when instruction, practice, and feedback are included [50]. This model suggests the need to personalize EI training and provide accurate feedback on participants' skills, and that EI can be better trained using active/experiential approaches rather than passive ones [50]. ...
... A literature review found a trend in research that suggested training is more effective when lectures are avoided and when instruction, practice, and feedback are included [50]. This model suggests the need to personalize EI training and provide accurate feedback on participants' skills, and that EI can be better trained using active/experiential approaches rather than passive ones [50]. Researchers should further test specific interventions rooted in the EI literature. ...
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Moral sensitivity helps individuals resolve moral dilemmas as a precursor to moral decision-making. Intensive care unit (ICU) nurses are at high risk for encountering moral dilemmas and should have the moral sensitivity to recognize moral issues. The activities of ICU nurses in moral decision-making are guided by moral sensitivity but are also based on emotional intelligence (EI). EI, be recognized as an integral part of moral sensitivity with long-standing theoretical foundations. It is necessary to explicate the true role of EI in moral sensitivity through empirical research. To measure the level of moral sensitivity of ICU nurses and determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and EI. We recruited 467 ICU nurses of ten hospitals from March to June 2021 in Hunan Province, China for a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The moral sensitivity and EI were measured using the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire-Revised Version into Chinese (MSQ-R-CV) and the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale-Version into Chinese (WLEIS-C). A self-report questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics. The average moral sensitivity score of ICU nurses was 39.41 ± 7.21. The average EI score was significantly positively correlated with the moral sensitivity score (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the moral sensitivities of ICU nurses were at medium levels. EI of ICU nurses can indeed affect their moral sensitivity, and the impact of each element of EI should be clarified for practical application.
... To the best of our knowledge, ES interventions for managers in the context of RTW after cancer have not been studied in the scientific literature, whereas previous research showed that ES interventions could be easily implemented and assessed (Kotsou et al., 2019;Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019). Current research primarily focuses on cancer survivors' ES in the return to work process with one study conducted by Gómez-Molinero and Guil (2020). ...
... Managers should be given the option to choose the format of the modules on ES theoretical knowledge. Similarly, a face-to-face or hybrid format could be proposed for the ability stage (Mikolajczak et al., 2009;Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019;Mikolajczak, 2021). ES interventions in companies to support the return to work of cancer survivors is an emerging field of interest, which lacks elements on interventions content, research protocols and assessments. ...
... This finding is consistent with the findings of previous studies. [41,42] In line with the current study, the results of a study showed that early education reduces the risk of PPD. [21,22] Another study examined 4000 women during 4-6 weeks after delivery and concluded that mental health improvement programs lead to lower PPD risk in comparison to those who did not receive the intervention. ...
... [38] The people who learn to manage emotional conditions showed lower vulnerability to depression. [41] The mechanism of action of EI to reduce PPD is related to the promotion of skills such as stress management in face of postpartum stress such as baby care, sleep disturbance, and breastfeeding. In fact, these skills are protective against stress and depression in this period. ...
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Context: Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most common psychological conditions in the postpartum stage. PPD negatively affects the baby, family, and mother’s life. Aims: This study aimed to survey the effectiveness of group counseling based on emotional intelligence (EI) in the prevention of PPD. Setting and Design: In this semi‑experimental study, one hundred cases were selected among pregnant mothers who were referred to health centers of Tehran, Iran, during June–September 2019. Materials and Methods: Four health centers were allocated to the intervention and control group by simple randomization and participants were recruited by convenience sampling. Participants in the intervention group attended an educational program based on EI during five weekly sessions (each 90 min). The control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed demographic questionnaires, Beck Depression Inventory, Bar‑On EI Inventory, and Edinburgh PPD Inventory. Follow‑up was done 8 weeks after delivery. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed through descriptive (mean, standard deviation, and frequency) Chi‑square and independent t‑test. Results: The intervention group reported significantly lower PPD than the control group eight weeks after delivery (11.71 ± 3.16 and 14.47 ± 3.65, respectively, P < 0.001). The scores of EI were significantly (P < 0.001) higher 8 weeks after delivery in the intervention group (234.60 ± 8.94) compared with the control group (211.41 ± 9.62). Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, EI program is effective in preventing PPD, so it is recommended that counseling services along with medical services be provided to improve the mental health of mothers to prevent PPD.
... In this model, emotional intelligence includes the ability in four areas of correct perception of emotions in self (i.e., personal intelligence) and others (i.e., social intelligence), using emotions to facilitate thinking, understanding the meaning of emotions, and managing emotions. Emotional intelligence generally involves the processing of emotional information [24]. The focus of the Salovey and Mayer's (1990) emotional intelligence model is on the application of emotional knowledge and specific emotion regulation mechanisms in emotional situations and performance. ...
... It seems that education based on this model can help individuals regarding psychology and stress management [23]. The results of studies showed that cancer patients with higher emotional intelligence are more compatible with cancer diagnosis and treatment and experience fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression following cancer [23,24]. On the other hand, emotional intelligence in cancer patients can be a predictor of quality of life related to health [25] and concerns related to the diagnosis of cancer [26]. ...
Article
Background: Cancer stigma is an important issue in cancer patients and affects the follow-up, adherence, and acceptance of treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to take action to reduce cancer stigma. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of group training of emotional intelligence components of Salovey and Mayer’s (1990) model on stigma in cancer patients. Methods: This clinical trial with a pretest-posttest design was performed on 52 patients with cancer admitted to Omid Oncology Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, during 2018-2019. The participants were selected by the convenience sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of intervention (n=25) and control (n=27). The intervention group received emotional intelligence group training based on Salovey and Mayer’s (1990) model during 10 sessions. The control group received routine care during the study. The data collection tool was the Cancer Stigma Scale. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software (version 25) using the paired t-test and independent t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered the significant level. Results: Based on the results, there was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups regarding the mean total stigma score in the pretest (P=0.46). However, there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the changes in the mean total stigma score after the intervention (P
... If EI exerts its effects on ill-being through avoidant coping, there are implications for EI training programs. There is clear meta-analytic evidence that EI training programs increase ability EI (Hodzic et al., 2018;Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019), and emerging evidence that they also affect secondary outcomes such as well-being and psychological health (Kotsou et al., 2019). Often, the ultimate goal of EI training is the change to secondary outcomes-decreases in employee stress, student misbehavior, workplace incivility, or a more positive institutional climate. ...
Article
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Emotional intelligence (EI) abilities relate to desirable outcomes such as better well-being, academic performance, and job performance. Previous research shows that coping strategies mediate the effects of ability EI on such outcomes. Across two cross-sectional studies, we show that coping strategies mediate the relationships of ability EI with both well-being (life satisfaction, psychological well-being) and ill-being (depression, anxiety, stress). Study 1 ( N = 105 first-year university students, 78% female) assessed EI with the Situational Test of Emotion Understanding (STEU) and Situation Test of Emotion Management (STEM). Avoidant coping significantly mediated the relationship of both the STEU and STEM with depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological well-being. EI was associated with lower avoidant coping, higher well-being and lower ill-being. Study 2 ( N = 115 first-year university students, 67% female) assessed EI with the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Avoidant coping mediated the relationship between EI and ill-being, but not the relationship between EI and well-being. These effects were significant for three of the four EI branches—emotion perception, understanding, and management. We discuss possible reasons why avoidant coping may be an active ingredient by which lower EI relates to lower well-being. We also discuss a possible application of our findings—that EI training programs might benefit from including content aimed at reducing avoidant coping.
... Previous research findings have shown that similar interventions to improve EI or EC, for instance in two meta-analyses consulted, pointed to moderate improvements (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019;Hodzic et al., 2018). Montalvo (2021), on the other hand, reported 31 studies that demonstrated in general positive improvements in EC in similar programs. ...
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Research on emotional competence development (ECD) in university students is scarce and shows mixed results. This research establishes what is possible to expect from an optional self-leadership program (SLP) consisting of eight workshops of three hours each, and with a student-centered and experiential approach. The research method was a mixed DEXPLIS design (n=126), which is quasi-experimental ex-post-facto for the first quantitative phase, with experimental and control groups where the CDE A35 self-informed instrument of Bisquerra and Pérez-Escoda was administered, and with participation in qualitative interviews in the second phase. The results indicate global progress in ECD, more evident in intrapersonal emotional competence (EC), although the SLP has not been effective in interpersonal EC. The students perceive their ECD as being very important. In the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), ECD is part of the acquisition of generic or transversal competences, which contribute to more effective and integral training, as well as to a better preparation for the world of work.
... Emocinio intelekto terminas -viena labiausiai prieštaringų sąvokų moksliniuose tyrimuose. Įvairių autorių pateikiami emocinio intelekto apibrėžimai kai kuriais aspektais sutampa, tačiau esama ir požiūrių skirtumų (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019). Kai kurie mokslininkai emocinį intelektą apibrėžia kaip gebėjimą samprotauti apie emocijas, kiti jį traktuoja kaip asmenybės bruožų, tokių kaip pasiekimų motyvacija, lankstumas, laimingumas, savigarba ir t. t., rinkinį (Mayer et al., 2008). ...
... Understanding the environmental determinants of emotional intelligence is important. Increasing emotional intelligence may be possible through training programs, but such interventions require people to be recruited and enrolled in such programs (Hodzic et al., 2017;Kotsou et al., 2019;Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019). In contrast, if the environment impacts emotional intelligence without the need for training or intentional behavior modifications, these interventions could have impacts in long-lasting and cost-effective ways (Branas et al., 2016;Chen, 2020). ...
Article
Trait emotional intelligence reflects a set of self-perceptions and behavioral tendencies to empathize with others and manage one's own emotions. Trait emotional intelligence is a valuable characteristic since it can aid social interaction, bolster subjective wellbeing, and predict career success. Past research suggests that brief exposures to greenspace can enhance outcomes related to facets of trait emotional intelligence. The current study employed a retrospective life course analysis to examine whether residential greenness and other aspects of the residential environment predict trait emotional intelligence in early adulthood. Childhood exposure for 297 college students was based on up to three home addresses from birth to age 18, weighted by residency duration. Greenspace was calculated with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values in 500 m and 1000 m buffers. Partially supporting our predictions, we found emotional intelligence in young adults growing up in lower-income areas was positively associated with cumulative neighborhood greenness around childhood homes. The opposite pattern was found for those who grew up in higher-income areas, with greater greenness500-m being associated with lower emotional intelligence scores. These are the first reported findings involving physical/natural environmental correlates of emotional intelligence and among the first to suggest an equigenic effect of greenspace on socio-emotional outcomes whereby exposure might help overturn inequalities rather than merely reduce them. If a causal link exists between nature exposure and emotional intelligence, then neighborhood greening might help children who begin life at a societal disadvantage through enhancing their ability to understand, use, and manage emotions.
... As emotional intelligence enables employees to manage emotions elicited by the work environment (Daus and Ashkanasy, 2005), the current study makes it clear that organizations should consider making an effort to train or otherwise improve employees' emotional intelligence. Coaching, practice and feedback have been shown to be more effective than class lecturing (Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019). The inward-focused emotion of envy may be difficult for managers to control in employees, but they can take steps to foster employees' self-esteem and initiate selfaffirming activities to reduce envy (Brockner, 2002). ...
Article
With the emergence of a variety of communication channels on social media, employees have more opportunities to engage with external stakeholders for or against their organizational brand. In such a context, focusing on negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) as an employees’ negative discretionary brand-oriented behavior, the current study aimed to identify negative emotions which can serve as drivers for NWOM more strongly than for counterproductive workplace behavior (CWB), relying on the discrete emotion perspective. The study also aimed to examine whether employees’ perceived brand knowledge can directly diminish employees’ NWOM and CWB and attenuate the influence of negative emotions. A questionnaire was used to gather relevant data, which was analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings showed that anger was more strongly associated with employees’ NWOM than withdrawal and that envy was more strongly associated with CWB toward individuals than employees’ NWOM. Employees’ perceived brand knowledge was negatively associated with both NWOM and CWB directly and mitigated the association of negative emotions such as anger and envy with CWB, but not with NWOM. Based on the discrete emotion perspective, the current study explored the relative magnitude of emotional antecedents for employees’ NWOM and conventional CWB. Also, it expanded the previous findings on the positive effects of perceived brand knowledge on the positive outcomes of employees’ actions and its mitigating effects on NWOM and CWB.
... Two meta-analyses (Hodzic et al., 2018;Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019) have also found consistent support for the effectiveness of training people in emotional intelligence abilities and competencies. Given the multitude of positive benefits that accrue from emotional intelligence, training people in emotional intelligence is likely to be the most important step that HR staff can do to mitigate negative emotions and to improve employee well-being and performance. ...
... The study in [53] referred to four dimensions of the ability to solve problems: flexible panning (e.g., the dominant affect of emotionally intelligent people is positive, and positivity is more likely to facilitate the generation of a large number of plans for themselves), creative thinking (e.g., positive mood facilitates creativity), redirected attention (e.g., attention is directed to new problems when powerful emotions occur that help to reprioritize and allocate attentional resources accordingly), and motivation (e.g., positive moods motivate persistence at challenging tasks as they increase confidence in one's ability to face obstacles and aversive experiences). Fortunately, these can all be easily developed with the help of training and interventions [103]. Accordingly, such interventions should be implemented via a training plan to ensure the development of these important competencies among employees. ...
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The ability to retain and engage employees is now, more than ever, a major strategic issue for organizations in the context of a pandemic paired with a persistent labor shortage. To this end, teleworking is among the work organization conditions that merit consideration. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of teleworking on work engagement and intention to quit, as well as the potential moderating effect of organizational and individual characteristics on the relationship between teleworking, work engagement, and intention to quit during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on a sample of 254 Canadian employees from 18 small and medium organizations. To address these objectives, path analyses were conducted. Overall, we found that teleworking, use of emotion, skill utilization, and recognition appear to be key considerations for organizations that wish to increase work engagement and decrease intention to quit, in the context of a pandemic paired with a labor shortage. Our results extend the literature by revealing the pathways through which teleworking, use of emotion, skill utilization, and recognition are linked to work engagement and intention to quit, and by suggesting specific interventions and formation plans that are needed. Keywords: teleworking; work engagement; intention to quit; individual characteristics; organizational characteristics; emotional intelligence; use of emotion; recognition; COVID-19 pandemic; labor shortage.
... Emotional intelligence is defined as a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to observe one's own and others' emotions, manage thoughts and actions, and regulate one's own and others' emotions (Mayer & Salovery, 1993;Joseph et al., 2015;Serrat, 2017;Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019). People with high levels of emotional intelligence find it easier to deal with difficulties and obstacles in daily life (Peterson, 2019). ...
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Environmental behavior and recycle behavior both are related to having emotional intelligence by the way of thinking environment. Recent studies about the environment and recycle behavior paid attention to human's individual sensitiveness as environmental value, west management, or environmental protection. However, the influences of emotional intelligence on behavioral satisfaction were left out. To fill this gap, the current study investigates the association emotional intelligence on behavioral satisfaction among university students, and recycle behavior mediates this association. The model is empirically tested with data collected from 477 participants of university students by questionnaire. Dataset adopts the method of structural equation modeling to explore the mediating role of recycle behavior between emotional intelligence and behavioral satisfaction. Results indicate that participants' emotional intelligence toward environmental behaviors positively affects their behavior satisfaction, and in this result, recycle behavior has mediating affect between emotional intelligence and behavior satisfaction.
... Thus, emotional intelligence interventions use activities such as short lectures, role playing and group discussions to teach and model the knowledge and skills related to emotional intelligence and to provide opportunities to practise them (Durlak et al., 2011). Existing emotional intelligence interventions, although they vary slightly in format and length, have been generally successful in enhancing emotional intelligence among diverse adult populations, e.g., university students, business managers, care workers (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019) and adolescents (Viguer et al., 2017;Waheed & Ghazal, 2020). ...
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The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology program for adolescents with moderate levels of anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. The program combined elements and techniques of gratitude and emotional intelligence intervention delivered in the group format. Adopting a two-armed randomized controlled trial research design, a total of 92 secondary school students who scored 9–11 in the Chinese Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. After the seven-session program, participants of the intervention groups showed a significant decrease in anxiety and significant increase in subjective happiness. Furthermore, the two active components of this program, gratitude and emotional intelligence, mediated the relationship between the intervention and the change in subjective happiness. In addition, emotional intelligence mediated the effect of the intervention on the change in anxiety symptoms. Findings of this study shed light on the applicability and efficacy of multicomponent positive psychology programs in alleviating anxiety and enhancing subjective happiness of adolescents. Future research is called for to advance our understanding of multicomponent positive psychology programs across different types of active components, samples, and conditions.
... Emotional intelligence can be learned, cultivated, and mastered through training, interventions, and life experiences and its training is effective and has a positive impact on research participants [17,18]. The human brain has plasticity and has also the ability to change and adapt. ...
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Emotional intelligence constitutes an important 21st century skill that impacts positively several areas of everyday life. It contains competencies that enhance the ability of other significant skills for self-development. The main purpose of this study is to present the way we can develop and improve our emotional intelligence based on the pyramid model and its nine layers. To achieve this goal, the paper seeks to address the following question: What are the metacognitive and metaemotional skills and strategies that can play a key role in developing, enhancing and improving emotional intelligence? Extensive reference is made to the skills that involved in each layer and have been identified as necessary and should be cultivated by the individual leading gradually to the higher levels of self-actualization and transcendence. Furthermore, we suggest some strategies in each layer that work auxiliary and supportive for the cultivation of the specific skills. Metacognitive and metaemotional skills and strategies are necessary to conquer the levels of emotional intelligence and to apply in a variety of contexts
... Gender Equality was made part of international human rights law by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 discrimination of emotions with the ultimate aim of the emotional development of our potential, selfactualization, transcendence and finally the unity of emotions because humans are part of a united world" . Emotional intelligence (EI) refers broadly to skills and/or abilities that enable awareness of the emotional states of oneself and others and the capacity to regulate or use emotions to positively affect role performance (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019). ...
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Gender equality is a fundamental human right and is essential for the existence of peaceful societies, with human resources that are fully utilized and sustainable development. Emotional Intelligence is not gender biased and it is an integral key to successful personal and working life. In (Drigas & Papoutsi, 2021) there was an attempt to construct a reliable and valid measurement instrument of emotional intelligence with 81 items, based on the theoretical nine- layer pyramid model of emotional intelligence. The sample was consisted of 520 teachers (129 males and 391 females) from primary and secondary school grade and the data was collected with the Nine Layer Pyramid Model Questionnaire for Emotional Intelligence. Among other results we examined gender differences in emotional intelligence. The results revealed some differences between the two genders on emotional intelligence with women scoring higher on overall emotional intelligence. This article also provides an overview of the prevailing emotional intelligence status of both sexes as it emerges through research, beliefs about emotions between women and men, and suggestions for avoiding stereotypes and proper interventions for raising emotional both men and women. Finally, a reference is made to technology in its various forms, including Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which is also associated with emotional intelligence and has great potential to empower women worldwide and promote gender equality Keywords. Emotional Intelligence, Gender Differences, Women, Equality, ICTs, Social Stereotypes
... Other researchers have suggested that emotional intelligence influences how well employees interact with their colleagues. EQ is also thought to play a role in how workers manage stress and conflict as well as overall performance on the job (Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019). Their studies have shown that employees with higher scores on measures of EQ also tend to be rated higher on measures of interpersonal functioning, leadership abilities, and stress management. ...
... In short, educating and training referees in various mental skills, especially emotional ones, constitutes an essential initiative that would enable them to face the adversity to which they are exposed and prevent burnout, thus increasing satisfaction and perception of health. Some authors (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019), claim that training in EI has a positive effect and improves results in the workplace. ...
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Football referees must undergo unique physical, tactical and psychological preparation to face the demands of the game and perform efficiently. Psychological factors, particularly emotional intelligence, are directly linked to sports performance, but it is also affected by other variables such as health and burnout. The objective of this study is focused on evaluating emotional intelligence and its relationship with subjective perceptions of health and burnout syndrome in Spanish football referees. Participants in the study were 4099 referees from all categories in Spain between the ages of 14 and 66 years, of which 3773 were men and 362 women. Three instruments were used: the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24), the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Oldenburg burnout inventory (OLBI). The results of the study reveal that the clarity and emotional repair dimensions of the emotional intelligence construct are inextricably connected with subjective perceptions of health, and, furthermore, that burnout acts as a mediating variable when it comes to a better perception of health. The results highlight the importance of working on psychological variables to foster better performance and the need to promote training programs to ensure efficient emotional management, eliminating disconnection and/or exhaustion syndrome that affects referee health. Resumen. Los árbitros de futbol requieren de una singular preparación física, táctica y psicológica para hacer frente a las exigencias del partido y realizar una eficiente actuación. Los factores psicológicos y en particular la inteligencia emocional está directamente implicada en el rendimiento deportivo, pero también, está relacionada con otras variables como la salud y el burnout. El objetivo de este estudio se ha centrado en evaluar la inteligencia emocional y su relación con la percepción subjetiva de salud y el síndrome de burnout en árbitros de fútbol españoles. Los participantes del estudio fueron 4099 árbitros españoles de todas las categorías entre 14 y 66 años, de los cuales 3773 fueron hombres y 326 mujeres. Se utilizaron tres instrumentos: el Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24), el General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) y el Oldenburg burnout inventory (OLBI). Los resultados del estudio muestran que las dimensiones claridad y reparación emocional del constructo de inteligencia emocional están relacionada directamente con la percepción subjetiva de salud, y, además, el burnout actúa como variable mediadora frente una mejor percepción de salud. Los resultados destacan la importancia de entrenar las variables psicológicas para promover un mejor rendimiento y la necesidad de promover programas formativos para una eficiente gestión emocional y prevenir el síndrome por desconexión y/o agotamiento que afecta a la salud de los árbitros.
... These sessions could be interrupted at any point to provide immediate and detailed feedback as well as allowing participants to rewind and modify their approach to the situation. While emotional intelligence training efforts to date have shown modest improvements, they suggest that practice and feedback are key to developing these skills (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019). As such, it seems that a training program based on affective computing technology offers a means of improving the relationship management skills which are the most challenging aspect of emotional intelligence to develop. ...
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Affective computing, which is a noteworthy field within the sphere of artificial intelligence, interprets, analyzes, and reproduces human emotional expressions. More specifically, affective computing involves two separate computer technologies – emotion recognition and emotion expression – that may operate independently or in concert. Both of these applications are experiencing rapid growth and advances due to corresponding developments in the underlying hardware and software. The rise of wearable technology will almost certainly accelerate the expansion of affective computing systems in real-world applications. Some of these technologies are already creeping into use in consumer and organizational applications. In this chapter, we will explore how affective computing can be applied in organizational settings, particularly in the field of human resource management, to improve and potentially revolutionize a few processes within the employee life cycle. To that end, we will first introduce the reader to the current state and likely future of affective computing. We then explore several areas within human resources where affective computing might be employed. More specifically, we discuss applications in personnel selection, human resource training, and performance management. These are not meant to be exhaustive, but rather a few of the most promising ways that affective computing technologies can be applied in the very near future.
... It has a current orientation and helps employee master specific skills, and abilities needed to be successful. According Mattingly et al. (2019) components of training program consist of training needs assessment, instructional objectives of the training, selection and design of instructional program, the training procedures, and developing criteria of evaluation. Amos et al (2016) and Gilar-Corbi et al. (2019stated the similar definition with above mentioned that the training program is an attempt to alter or change the knowledge, skills and behavior of employees in such a way that organizational objectives are achieved. ...
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Training effectiveness is one of the determinant factor that could improve employees’ job performance. When we found in a government district office at Jambi Province where the organization had provided many training program to the employees but it had not had significant impact on their employees’ job performance. We realized that we need to study the factors which assumed to have relationship with the training effectiveness. Prior research in training effectiveness found that employees perceived toward the training program designed by organization and individual employees’ emotional intelligence had influence the training effectiveness. Based on those findings we formulated the aim of this study that is to investigate the relationship between the training program and employees’ emotional intelligence with the training effectiveness. This study designed as a quantitative research used sample of 209 employees derived by random sampling from its population. This study utilized questionnaires as instruments to collect empirical data. The correlational analysis technique used to analyze the data. This study had generated findings that there were strong relationship between the training program and employees’ emotional intelligence with training effectiveness.
... EI reflects an ability of a person to identify, express, understand, regulate, and use his or her emotions and those of others. Many scientific studies [3] have proved that the level of EI considerably affects many important domains of human life like wellbeing, physical health, relationships, and academic or work performance. Having good emotional competence is considered a true asset and the person can lead to success in life. ...
... This measure can also be employed for regular EI assessment of existing employees to determine their job allocation and optimal training regime to improve EI. Past research has established that employees" EI can be improved with training and intervention programs (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019), hence MFIs should incorporate EI courses in their regular employee training. The EI-MF score along with 360-degree assessment can be used as employees" key performance indicator and appraisal criteria by HR and top management. ...
... Some meta-analysis studies have concluded that emotional capabilities can be improved through an EI training program using either a pre-post or treatment-control design (Hodzic et al., 2017;Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019). However, despite significant evidence on the importance of EI, there is still a limited number of studies conducted on the effects of EI among undergraduate students enrolled in various university programs (Alexander, 2014;Conley, 2015;Jensen et al., 2007;Lin et al., 2011;Pool & Qualter, 2014;Salami, 2010). ...
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This study has two aims: first, to compare the effectiveness of emotional intelligence intervention through online learning versus face-to-face (traditional) learning methods among undergraduate students at a local university in Malaysia. Second, it assesses the impact of emotional intelligence learning on students’ mental health improvement. It is a 2 x 3 factorial quasi-experimental (online learning) using an equivalent control group (face-to-face learning) pre-post-test. Both experimental and control groups comprised 40 students, respectively. The study is set in a classroom and several computer labs in the designated university e-learning facilities. Mixed ANOVA repeated measures analysis results indicate that the online learning group shows no difference from the face-to-face learning group in emotional intelligence learning. Despite that, this study significantly impacts the growth of emotional intelligence skills on students’ mental health among online learning groups. In addition, there is improvement in students with depression over seven weeks of pre-post-test. We propose online learning to be as effective as face-to-face learning in teaching emotional intelligence in light of these findings. We further argue that online learning is more accessible and meaningful to undergraduate students’ emotional intelligence. This study suggests that emotional intelligence is a crucial skill for students to maintain optimal mental health during their studies. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to develop a feasible and cost-effective online learning medium accessible to students of all backgrounds.
... This highlights a limitation of the present study; it was not able to show whether training was able to affect EI improvement in male subjects. Although it has been reported that females are more likely to benefit from EI training [21], the influence of gender on EI training shows inconclusive results in literature [46]. ...
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Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered to present a significant predictor of work performance whereas Transactional analysis (TA) is the relational perspective in communication in managing emotions. We evaluated the effect of psycho-educational training in EI and TA (TEITA) on EI among health professions undergraduates, with post-training, and at 1-month follow-up. Methods A total of 34 participants participated in the study where 17 participants were in the TEITA group and another 17 were in the control group. A quasi-experimental non-randomised, controlled cohort study was conducted, in which participants in the TEITA group were introduced to EI and TA concepts on a weekly basis for four weeks, at 90 min each time, and provided with opportunities for experiential sharing of emotions and coping mechanisms experienced in the previous week. Both TEITA and control groups received weekly EI and TA reading materials. All completed the 16-item Wong and Law EI Scale at baseline and post-training. The training group also completed the questionnaire at a 1-month follow-up. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and Mann Whitney tests were used to analyse within a group and between group changes in EI scores. Results Baseline EI scores in the TEITA group were lower than the control group. On completion of TEITA, EI scores in the TEITA group increased, and differences were not detected between groups. Within the TEITA group, paired increases in all domains were statistically significant, whereas, in the control group, the paired increase was only detected in the domain addressing regulations of emotion (ROE). Pre to post-training increases in EI scores were statically significantly greater in TEITA compared to control groups. At the 1-month follow-up, EI scores were sustained. Conclusion The psycho-educational training based on EI and TA is effective in enhancing EI among health professions undergraduates. Future research should investigate the effect of such training on observable inter-personal and socio-economic behaviours.
... Gender Equality was made part of international human rights law by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 discrimination of emotions with the ultimate aim of the emotional development of our potential, selfactualization, transcendence and finally the unity of emotions because humans are part of a united world" . Emotional intelligence (EI) refers broadly to skills and/or abilities that enable awareness of the emotional states of oneself and others and the capacity to regulate or use emotions to positively affect role performance (Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019). ...
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... A partir de los resultados obtenidos y considerando que es posible aumentar la inteligencia emocional con programas de instrucción apropiados (Hodzic, Scharfen, Ripoll, Holling, & Zenasni, 2018;Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019), se puede concluir, por tanto, que fomentar la inteligencia emocional a través de programas de entrenamiento y reforzar redes de apoyo social, en especial las familiares, es una estrategia adecuada para aumentar la satisfacción vital de los jóvenes. ...
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... First, according to the literature survey, they are the most correlated employee outcomes with emotional intelligence. Second, the three streams of emotional intelligence and the selected employee outcomes form part of future research suggestions in studies undertaken by Ashkanasy and Daus (2005), Joseph and Newman (2010), and Mattingly and Kraiger (2019). ...
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... This may lead employees to have favourable perceptions of fairness in the organization, thereby also increasing their commitment to the organization as well (Suifan et al., 2017). Thirdly, there is growing awareness of the importance of training for and developing employees EI (Mattingly and Kraiger, 2019). Accordingly, organizations may seek to provide training opportunities to employees to raise their EI, as this will help them cope wihtin the worplace, while improving their positive perceptions of their job (Ouyang et al., 2015). ...
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... This indirect effect points to an intervening mechanism, which may link TEI and mental health and has been hitherto overlooked in the literature (e.g., Sarrionandia & Mikolajczak, 2020). From an applied point of view, TEI is amenable to change via training (e.g., Mattingly & Kraiger, 2019), and an increase of TEI might affect mental health, at least in part, via a parallel increase of the subjective importance of openness to change values, which may promote the pursuit of intrinsically satisfying needs of autonomy and competence (e.g., Ryan & Deci, 2000). The role of values as an intervening mechanism for the effects of TEI trainings needs to be investigated in future research. ...
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A number of additional limitations to EI intervention studies are addressed which are of particular relevance to translator training contexts. For instance, the chapter covers the potential influence of cultural and environmental factors on emotion perception, regulation, and expression processes. It addresses the issue that particular emotions may not be of equal importance across cultures, and that translators with varying cultural backgrounds may respond differently as a result of variations in the expression of emotions across cultures. As such, students or professionals from different cultural backgrounds may respond differently to EI interventions. Another aspect addressed in this chapter is the differential impact of EI training on men and women, adults of different ages, and individuals with different levels of motivation.
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This concluding chapter summarises key arguments made in the volume and briefly reiterates the need for this type of training intervention based on a sound theoretical basis with the aim of helping translators improve their emotional intelligence. It reinforces the idea that EI skills should be taught during professional training in order to develop translation graduates who can enter the workforce with enhanced self-awareness and confidence about their capacity to adapt, deal with uncertainty, and seize opportunities. It sums up the main benefits and limitations of carrying out intervention studies and highlights that EI training could be used by anyone seeking to improve performance and affective outcomes for translation professionals. Avenues for further research are also presented.
Chapter
In this chapter, the research design for an effective EI intervention is outlined for readers to follow if they want to undertake an intervention in their teaching programme. Limitations in the research design of previous studies are used as safeguards and a detailed description of the suggested methodological approach is provided. The chapter includes information on measures, procedure, and the basic components of an EI intervention; it explains which self-report measures could be included pre- and post-intervention to assess relevant inter-individual variables. The chapter contains descriptions of a theory-based training using strategies that have been previously shown to be effective in scientific EI interventions. It presents a selection of coaching activities to provide a focus for difficult or emotion-eliciting conversations.
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Marco teórico: la inteligencia emocional es una de las variables psicológicas más estudiadas en la actualidad, así como el apoyo social, que puede actuar como protector de la salud y el bienestar psicológico. El objetivo principal del trabajo es el estudio del impacto que la inteligencia emocional y el apoyo social percibido tienen en la felicidad subjetiva y la satisfacción vital en universitarios de dos culturas y contextos diferentes: España y Ecuador. Método: 760 estudiantes universitarios, incluyendo 379 españoles (83.1% mujeres) y 381 ecuatorianos (76.6% mujeres), completaron las escalas Trait Meta Mood Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction With Life Scale y Subjective Happiness Scale. Resultados: a pesar de encontrar diferencias entre las muestras en cada variable, los análisis correlacionales muestran la existencia de relaciones estadísticamente significativas y positivas en ambas muestras entre las dimensiones de claridad emocional y reparación de las emociones, pertenecientes a la inteligencia emocional, tanto con la satisfacción vital como con la felicidad subjetiva, y en dimensiones del apoyo social percibido, siendo la familia un predictor tanto de la satisfacción con la vida como de la felicidad subjetiva. Conclusiones: la presente investigación contribuye a una mayor comprensión de la influencia de la inteligencia emocional y el apoyo social sobre el bienestar subjetivo en dos culturas diferentes.
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Introduction: In a framework of an education focused to the needs of children, emotional education offers valid tools and resources for the development of emotional competences. Especially, because we live in an era hen young people deal with many challenges such as family conflicts, bullying and cyberbullying, addiction to technology and emotional stress. The following study analyses the educational model implemented by teachers in a school in Copenhagen. Specifically, it exposes the organization of the Danish school system, focusing attention on how teaching strategies reflect the development of students' social-emotional skills. Method: The participants are teachers from a school located in the district of Nørrebro in the city of Copenhagen, selected by analysing how their teaching style addresses emotional education goals. The variables measured refer to the strategies, practices and methodologies implemented by means of a qualitative observation methodology. Results: The practices that lead students to promote personal well-being are analysed. Strategies that favour, in a transversal way, positive emotions in the socioemotional profile of the student are presented. Discussion: Finally, the beneficial contributions of strategies and practices developed on a daily basis during the teaching of school disciplines are highlighted. In particular, the effectiveness of the implementation of practices that encourage the active role of students in relation to their peers is highlighted. Future perspectives are about professional development for teachers and specific projects on emotional education. Key words: Primary education, socioemotional education, education to freedom, methods, active techniques.
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Objectives. The study focuses on the emotional intelligence (hereafter „EI“) of members of the Police of the Czech Republic and on its differences according to the selected demographic characteristics (gender, age, and education). The outcomes are subsequently compared with the results of the general population. Sample and setting. The research sample comprised 531 adult respondents (222 police officers and 309 members of the general population). SEIS self-description questionnaire and anamnestic questionnaire were used to measure selected variables. Hypotheses. The authors assumed that the police officers would show a higher level of overall EI and particular EI factors than the general population. A higher level of overall EI would occur in female, higher age, and higher education groups – for both police members and the general population. Statistical analysis. The analysis of the data was focused on the determination of the factors forming EI by exploratory factor analysis, non-parametric tests were used to verify the hypotheses. Results. There was no statistically significant difference found between the police officers and the common population in total EI, only in particular EI factors. While no difference between gender, age, or education groups and overall EI was indicated among the police officers, significant differences between all variables were revealed among the general population. When dividing the sample according to gender and type, statistically significant differences were found with the men from the general population scoring the lowest compared to the highest score of policewomen. Study limitation. Given the sampling method, caution must be exercised to generalise the findings. A self-description method was used to measure EI.
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Psychological research consistently demonstrates that affect can play an important role in decision-making across a broad range of contexts. Despite this, the role of affect in clinical reasoning and medical decision-making has received relatively little attention. Integrating the affect, social cognition, and patient safety literatures can provide new insights that promise to advance our understanding of clinical reasoning and lay the foundation for novel interventions to reduce diagnostic errors and improve patient safety. In this paper, we briefly review the ways in which psychologists differentiate various types of affect. We then consider existing research examining the influence of both positive and negative affect on clinical reasoning and diagnosis. Finally, we introduce an empirically supported theoretical framework from social psychology that explains the cognitive processes by which these effects emerge and demonstrates that cognitive interventions can alter these processes. Such interventions, if adapted to a medical context, hold great promise for reducing errors that emerge from faulty thinking when healthcare providers experience different affective responses.
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Although much research on emotional intelligence (EI) and coping with stress has been performed in recent years, little is known about these dimensions of individual differences in both foster and biological parents. The main purpose of this study is to examine emotional intelligence and coping styles in foster parents in comparison to biological parents. The study included 124 individual participants aged between 30 and 64 years old (M = 45.18, SD = 8.72), including foster parents (n = 63, 50.81%) and biological parents (n = 61, 49.19%). The cross-sectional survey study was conducted using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). In comparison to biological parents, foster parents demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional intelligence (EI), more frequently used task-oriented coping styles, and less often pursued emotional and avoidant coping strategies to deal with stress. EI was positively correlated with task-oriented coping and negatively so with emotional coping. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that EI was a strong predictor of task-oriented coping. Training focused on the enhancement of both EI and coping with stress should be considered as an effective way to improve parents’ competence.
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Emotional intelligence is a main area in educational psychology and a key factor in the academic life of students. It deals with deviant behavior through self-awareness and self-motivation, regulates emotional and social skills, and converts emotional energy into positive energy. This study examined direct and indirect relationships between emotional intelligence and study habits in blended learning environments. Blended learning is conceptualized as a hybrid learning approach that combines online learning opportunities and the traditional classroom approach. Furthermore, the study explored the mediating role of cognitive engagement in the relationship between emotional intelligence and study habits. We used 26 items in a paper-based questionnaire in a quantitative study to collect data on emotional intelligence, cognitive engagement and study habits from health sciences students (N = 338) enrolled in blended learning courses in universities in the Hunan province of China. Emotional intelligence included self-awareness, self-motivation, and the regulation of emotion; social skills were also examined. A partial least squares structural-equation modeling approach was applied through SmartPLS software to explore the relationships. The results indicate that self-awareness and self-motivation have direct, significant, and positive connections with study habits. Similarly, the results indicate that all four dimensions of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-motivation, emotion regulation and social skills) had indirect, significant, and positive relationships with study habits using cognitive engagement as a mediator variable. It was concluded that students face higher-than-usual challenges in building study habits in blended learning environments during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that emotional intelligence helps them to develop their study habits to greater effect. Similarly, it was concluded that cognitive engagement strengthens the connection between emotional intelligence and study habits. Therefore, it is recommended that universities take specific measures to enhance students’ emotional intelligence and cognitive engagement, which will ultimately improve their study habits. Moreover, valuable and practical implications for teachers, practitioners, and university management were also discussed in the study.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine whether work-related emotional intelligence (W-EI) benefits job performance among knowledge-intensive workers. Design/methodology/approach Postdoctoral researchers (Study 1) and industry researchers (Study 2) were recruited (total N = 304). These knowledge workers completed an ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) test and characterized their work-related performance. Potential moderators were also assessed. Findings There were positive relations between W-EI scores and both task performance and creative performance. In addition, these relationships were stronger in the context of higher levels of job negative affect and/or role overload. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, these findings are among the first to demonstrate the value of the EI construct within a knowledge-intensive workforce.
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H ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα φαίνεται ότι επηρεάζεται και από μη γνωστικούς παράγοντες, όπως οι συναισθηματικές ικανότητες και τα κίνητρα μάθησης. Σκοπός της μελέτης ήταν η διερεύνηση της σχέσης ανάμεσα στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα, στη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη και στην ακαδημαϊκή κινητοποίηση. Οι συμμετέχοντες ήταν 108 προπτυχιακοί φοιτητές του τμήματος Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας. Συμπλήρωσαν ερωτηματολόγιο με τις κλίμακες Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale και Academic Motivation Scale. Τα αποτελέσματα ανέδειξαν αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα σε όλες τις ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και επιπλέον αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα στην αυτόνομη κινητοποίηση και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα. Ειδικότερα, η κατανόηση των συναισθημάτων του εαυτού, η χρήση των συναισθημάτων για ενίσχυση της επίδοσης και η εσωτερική ρύθμιση προβλέπουν χαμηλότερα επίπεδα ακαδημαϊκής αναβλητικότητας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας υποστηρίζουν τις ευεργετικές επιδράσεις της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και της αυτόνομης κινητοποίησης στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και θα μπορούσαν να συμβάλουν στον τρόπο με τον οποίο τα πανεπιστημιακά τμήματα οργανώνουν το πρόγραμμα σπουδών τους αλλά και στην ανάδειξη του αντικειμένου σπουδών από τους ίδιους τους πανεπιστημιακούς δασκάλους, ώστε να ενισχυθούν οι ακαδημαϊκές επιδόσεις των φοιτητών.
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Resumen En los últimos años, las personas con Discapacidad Intelectual han pasado a ocupar un lugar central en el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para la consolidación de servicios de apoyo personal. El objetivo fue evaluar el potencial mediador de la Inteligencia Emocional sobre la Calidad de Vida. Participaron 79 sujetos (n=79), con una edad media de 36.82 años (±13.50) y grado de discapacidad promedio del 61.70%. Se utilizaron los instrumentos: Trait Meta Mood Scale 24, Escala INICO-FEAPS y Satisfaction with Life Scale. Se utilizó el enfoque de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS) del modelo de ruta. Los resultados evidenciaron la relación moderada entre las dimensiones de los instrumentos utilizados, siendo los coeficientes de determinación: Inteligencia Emocional (r²=.411) y satisfacción vital (r²=.385), con un error cuadrático medio (SRMR) de .072. Las consecuencias prácticas permitirán profundizar sobre el valor instrumental de la Inteligencia Emocional en los procesos de desarrollo personal y social. Palabras clave: calidad de vida, discapacidad intelectual, inteligencia emocional, satisfacción vital Abstract Over the last few years, people with Intellectual Disability have become increasingly important in the development of new strategies to consolidate personal support services. The objective was to evaluate the mediating potential of Emotional Intelligence on Quality of Life and life satisfaction. 79 subjects (n=79) with Intellectual Disability participated, with a mean age of 36.82 years (±13.50) and mean level of disability of 61.70%. The following instruments were used: Trait Meta Mood Scale 24, INICO-FEAPS Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The partial least squares (PLS) path model approach was used. The results showed a moderate relationship between the dimensions of the instruments used, the determining coefficients were: Emotional Intelligence (r²=.411) and life satisfaction (r²=.385), with a root mean square error (SRMR) of .072. The practical consequences will enable a deeper understanding of the instrumental value of Emotional Intelligence in the processes of personal and social development.
Article
The study examines how surface acting and deep acting affect emotional exhaustion and job performance in the hotel industry and whether emotional intelligence has a moderating effect on the relationship. The study was conducted using a questionnaire survey, and the data were analyzed using a structural equation model. The main findings of the study demonstrate that surface acting has no effect on emotional exhaustion while deep acting has a negative effect on emotional exhaustion. This indicates that deep acting not only produces better service performance but also reduces emotional exhaustion. Moreover, surface acting and deep acting both have a positive effect on job performance, showing that both acting skills are all about demonstrating a better job performance at work. Furthermore, emotional intelligence has a moderating effect on the relationships between surface acting and job performance and deep acting and job performance, this indicates that employees with higher emotional intelligence are more likely to perform a more effective outcome of acting on job performance, regardless of whether it is surface acting or deep acting. But this phenomenon only occurs when employees are not experiencing emotional exhaustion. If employees are already experiencing emotional exhaustion, emotional intelligence does not have any moderation effect on job performance.
Chapter
The features of the influence of cognitive training methods on the improvement of the level of professional culture of prison staff and the growth of their creative potential are considered. The features and peculiarities of the penal system employees, who are in close contact with convicts, and engaged in the prevention of conflicts, criminal aggression, escapes, drug abuse, and riots have been investigated. The author concludes that the regular use of cognitive technologies contributes significantly to the professionalism of the penitentiary staff, to creative thinking, quick social/psychological adaptation to unfavorable situations, and prevention of burnout. The author's program of cognitive training contains six thematic sections related to specific methods that are aimed at: (1) the formation of creative thinking; (2) the formation of a high subjective significance of professional culture and effectiveness; (3) constructive change of interpersonal (in the broadest sense) relationships; the acquisition of communication skills; (4) the study of adaptive coping strategies, methods of self-analysis and autogenic training; (5) study of methods of rapid diagnosis of psychological qualities of a person and assessment of his emotional state, as well as the most effective ways to influence a person; (6) development of organizational skills. This program will be useful for such purposes as the selection of candidates, training and retraining of law enforcement officers, as well as the prevention of their professional deformation.
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This study investigated the psychometric properties of 3 frequently administered emotional intelligence (EI) scales (Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale [WLEIS], Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test [SEIT], and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire [TEIQue]), which were developed on the basis of different theoretical frameworks (i.e., ability EI and mixed EI). By conducting item response theory (IRT) analyses, the authors examined the item parameters and compared the fits of 2 response process models (i.e., dominance model and ideal point model) for these scales with data from 355 undergraduate sample recruited from the subject pool. Several important findings were obtained. First, the EI scales seem better able to differentiate individuals at low trait levels than high trait levels. Second, a dominance model showed better model fit to the self-report ability EI scale (WLEIS) and also fit better with most subfactors of the SEIT, except for the mood regulation/optimism factor. Both dominance and ideal point models fit a self-report mixed EI scale (TEIQue). Our findings suggest (a) the EI scales should be revised to include more items at moderate and higher trait levels; and (b) the nature of the EI construct should be considered during the process of scale development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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People respond to stressful events in different ways, depending on the event and on the regulatory strategies they choose. Coping and emotion regulation theorists have proposed dynamic models in which these two factors, the person and the situation, interact over time to inform adaptation. In practice, however, researchers have tended to assume that particular regulatory strategies are consistently beneficial or maladaptive. We label this assumption the fallacy of uniform efficacy and contrast it with findings from a number of related literatures that have suggested the emergence of a broader but as yet poorly defined construct that we refer to as regulatory flexibility. In this review, we articulate this broader construct and define both its features and limitations. Specifically, we propose a heuristic individual differences framework and review research on three sequential components of flexibility for which propensities and abilities vary: sensitivity to context, availability of a diverse repertoire of regulatory strategies, and responsiveness to feedback. We consider the methodological limitations of research on each component, review questions that future research on flexibility might address, and consider how the components might relate to each other and to broader conceptualizations about stability and change across persons and situations. © The Author(s) 2013.
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As first responders who are frequently exposed to job-related trauma, police officers are at an elevated risk of adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Evidence-based approaches to stress reduction are sorely needed to address the complex variety of problems that police officers face. In this pilot study we examined the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention designed to address police officer stress. A total of 43 police officers completed an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Resilience Training (MBRT) program, which was designed to improve mindfulness, resilience, stress, health outcomes, and emotional functioning. Using multilevel models we found significant improvement in self-reported mindfulness, resilience, police and perceived stress, burnout, emotional intelligence, difficulties with emotion regulation, mental health, physical health, anger, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Although there were no significant pre-to-post-MBRT changes in cortisol awakening response (CAR), while controlling for pre-MBRT increase area under the curve (AUCI), change in mental health was a significant predictor of post-AUCI. Implications of these findings and areas for future research are discussed.
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Background: Emotional Intelligence plays a significant role leading to improved organization outcomes. Previous studies offer limited evidence regarding the impact of emotional intelligence training on nurses' job satisfaction. Aim: To examine the impact of emotional intelligence training on nurses' job satisfaction at a Jordanian Hospital. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental-one group before-after study. A stratified random sample of 70 nurses completed Genos EI Assessment Scale and Job Satisfaction Survey pre and post training. Results: there were significant positive correlations between job satisfaction level and emotional intelligence scores pre and post training. In addition, the training significantly increased emotional intelligence scores and job satisfaction level. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is suggested that emotional intelligence could be used as an intervention to enhance nurses' job satisfaction which in turn leads to improved quality of nursing care, lead to create an organizational culture that is conducive for teamwork, autonomy, sense of motivation and empowerment.
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Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ̂ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ̂ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance-mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Working memory (WM), the ability to store and manipulate information for short periods of time, is an important predictor of scholastic aptitude and a critical bottleneck underlying higher-order cognitive processes, including controlled attention and reasoning. Recent interventions targeting WM have suggested plasticity of the WM system by demonstrating improvements in both trained and untrained WM tasks. However, evidence on transfer of improved WM into more general cognitive domains such as fluid intelligence (Gf) has been more equivocal. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis focusing on one specific training program, n-back. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for all n-back training studies with Gf outcome measures, a control group, and healthy participants between 18 and 50 years of age. In total, we included 20 studies in our analyses that met our criteria and found a small but significant positive effect of n-back training on improving Gf. Several factors that moderate this transfer are identified and discussed. We conclude that short-term cognitive training on the order of weeks can result in beneficial effects in important cognitive functions as measured by laboratory tests.
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A growing body of research in recent years has supported the value of emotional intelligence in both effective teaching and student achievement. This paper presents a pre–post, quasi-experimental design study conducted to evaluate the contributions of a 56-h “Emotional Intelligence” training model. The model has been developed and studied in an attempt to address educators’ growing needs to practice and implement “emotionally intelligent” learning environments. One hundred eighty-six teachers from ten elementary schools in Israel participated in this study. Findings indicated an increase in emotional intelligence and empathic concern from the beginning to the end of the course. Further regression indicated that both expression and regulation of emotions predicted empathy at the end of the course. Participants’ reflective assignments indicated an increase in self introspection, emotional awareness, emotional regulation and understanding others.
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This study aimed to contribute to a growing theoretical body of literature relating to the role of emotional intelligence abilities and emotion regulation strategies in creating optimally functioning in sport organizations. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 participants (athletes, coaches, administrators, national performance directors, and chief executive officers) representing 5 national sport organizations. Key emotion abilities (i.e., identifying, processing and comprehending, and managing emotions) associated with the use of specific experience and expression regulation strategies (e.g., forward-tracking, back-tracking, reappraisal, suppression, and impulse control) were identified, providing important insights into how such emotion abilities may be developed within sport. Emotion abilities were found to be highly contextualized and appeared to influence regulation strategy selection through sociocultural norms present within organizations. Based on these findings, approaches to developing emotion abilities may be effective in facilitating organizational functioning by assisting individuals to perceive, process, comprehend, and manage emotions intelligently.
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This article examines the status of emotional intelligence (EI) within the structure of human cognitive abilities. To evaluate whether EI is a 2nd-stratum factor of intelligence, data were fit to a series of structural models involving 3 indicators each for fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, quantitative reasoning, visual processing, and broad retrieval ability, as well as 2 indicators each for emotion perception, emotion understanding, and emotion management. Unidimensional, multidimensional, hierarchical, and bifactor solutions were estimated in a sample of 688 college and community college students. Results suggest adequate fit for 2 models: (a) an oblique 8-factor model (with 5 traditional cognitive ability factors and 3 EI factors) and (b) a hierarchical solution (with cognitive g at the highest level and EI representing a 2nd-stratum factor that loads onto g at λ = .80). The acceptable relative fit of the hierarchical model confirms the notion that EI is a group factor of cognitive ability, marking the expression of intelligence in the emotion domain. The discussion proposes a possible expansion of Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory to include EI as a 2nd-stratum factor of similar standing to factors such as fluid intelligence and visual processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Recent literature places emotions at the center of leadership construed as a dynamic process. The present study, with an experimental pre–post design that included an experimental group formed by leaders and their employees, and a control group of employees whose leaders were not assessed, tested whether self-reported leaders’ emotional intelligence (LEI) is congruent with other-reported LEI, and whether a brief self-administered training program affects self- and other-reported LEI assessment, as well as job involvement and life satisfaction, in leaders’ employees. At Time 1, leaders in the experimental group and employees in both the experimental and the control groups completed the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI; Boyatzis et al., 2000) – leaders completed the self-reported version; employees completed the other-reported version, i.e., rated their leaders. All employees evaluated their own job involvement and life satisfaction. At Time 2 (after training experi- mental group leaders), experimental group leaders and both experimental and control group employees again rated LEI using the ECI; all employees also evaluated their own job involvement and life satisfaction. The results show a significant effect of the train- ing on Time 2 measures in the experimental group, both on self- and other-reported LEI assessments, and on employees’ outcomes. In particular, Time 2 showed an increase in leaders’ ECI self-assessed conf lict management and other-assessed service orientation competences, and in employees’ job involvement. The study indicates overall that training lead- ers for emotional intelligence can diminish the discrepancy between self- and other-reported LEI assessments, and increase employees’ positive outcomes.
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Despite the importance of self-awareness for managerial success, many organizational members hold overly optimistic views of their expertise and performance-a phenomenon particularly prevalent among those least skilled in a given domain. We examined whether this same pattern extends to appraisals of emotional intelligence (EI), a critical managerial competency. We also examined why this overoptimism tends to survive explicit feedback about performance. Across 3 studies involving professional students, we found that the least skilled had limited insight into deficits in their performance. Moreover, when given concrete feedback, low performers disparaged either the accuracy or the relevance of that feedback, depending on how expediently they could do so. Consequently, they expressed more reluctance than top performers to pursue various paths to self-improvement, including purchasing a book on EI or paying for professional coaching. Paradoxically, it was top performers who indicated a stronger desire to improve their EI following feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examined the effects of a leadership training program on participants’ emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) scores. It sought to determine if the program made a significant difference in the EQ scores of participants by comparing their scores prior to and after the training. Findings are presented that should help practitioners wishing to incorporate emotional intelligence training programs in their organizations explore how to design programs that are most effective in improving performance. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings for HRD theory building, research, and practice are also discussed.
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate claims that emotional intelligence is significantly related to transformational and other leadership behaviors. Results (based on 62 independent samples) indicated a validity estimate of .59 when ratings of both emotional intelligence and leadership behaviors were provided by the same source (self, subordinates, peers, or superiors). However, when ratings of the constructs were derived from different sources, the validity estimate was .12. Lower validity estimates were found for transactional and laissez-faire leadership behaviors. Separate analyses were performed for each measure of emotional intelligence. Trait measures of emotional intelligence tended to show higher validities than ability-based measures of emotional intelligence. Agreement across ratings sources for the same construct was low for both transformational leadership (.14) and emotional intelligence (.16).
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This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
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Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a consistent lack of gender differences both in creativity test scores and in the creative accomplishments of boys and girls (which if anything tend to favor girls). As a result, it is difficult to show how innate gender differences in creativity could possibly explain later differences in creative accomplishment. At the same time, the large difference in the creative achievement of men and women in many fields make blanket environmental explanations inadequate, and the explanations that have been proposed thus far are at best incomplete. A new theoretical framework (the APT model of creativity) is proposed to allow better understanding of what is known about gender differences in creativity.
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Developing the ability to operate a statistical package is a valuable student learning outcome in introductory statistics courses. Despite this, very little is known about the development of this specialised skill. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an Error-management training (EMT) strategy in learning to operate the statistical package SPSS. EMT uses minimal guidance to actively engage students in exploring the task domain and utilises errors made during training as valuable learning opportunities. EMT was compared to a conventional Guided training (GT) strategy which used error-avoidant, step-by-step instructions. A sample of 100 psychology students enrolled in a first year introductory statistics course were randomly allocated to either EMT or GT. Participants completed five fortnightly SPSS training sessions. Prior to the last training session, participants completed a post-training self-assessment task that assessed training transfer. The same self-assessment task was also completed as a follow-up in semester two. After controlling for covariates, the results of this study found no statistically significant difference between the training strategies on measures of training transfer. While a number of limitations hindered a conclusive result, issues and challenges discussed in this study provide valuable lessons for future research in this area.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) training and development on the EI profile scores of individual cricketers. 24 players attending the South African National Cricket Academy were randomised to an intervention group (EI training and development intervention program) or control group (no intervention). The experimental design was executed in 2007 and 2008 with different cohorts of players. The EI of the players was measured pre and post intervention using the Mayer, Salovey & Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In 2007 the baseline Total EI score for the intervention group was 84.9 and the post intervention Total EI score was 96.6, giving a relative increase of 13.7%. By comparison, the baseline Total EI score for the control group was 81.8 and post intervention the Total EI score was 83.4, giving a relative increase of 2%. In 2008 the baseline Total EI score for the intervention group was 89.4 and the post intervention Total EI score was 101.7, giving a relative increase of 13.8%. By comparison, the baseline Total EI score for the control group was 87.4 and the post intervention Total EI score was 84.8, a relative decrease of 3.1%. The estimated intervention effect for the percentage change in Total EI score over both years is 14.5% (95% CI: 11.9 to 17.2%) and is significant, indicating EI training and development may contribute to increasing the EI profile of individual cricketers.
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is a set of abilities that pertain to emotions and emotional information. EI has attracted considerable attention among organizational scholars, and research has clarified the definition of EI and illuminated its role in organizations. Here, I define EI and describe the abilities that constitute it. I evaluate two approaches to measuring EI: the performance-based and self-report approaches. I review the findings about how EI is associated with work criteria, organizing the findings according to three overarching models: the validity generalization, situation-specific, and moderator models. The support for the latter two models suggests that the organizational context and employee dispositions should be considered in order to fully explain how EI relates to criteria. I identify controversies in this area, describe how findings address some controversies, and propose future research to address those that remain. I conclude by listing best practices for future research on the role of EI in organizations.
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Over the course of the last half century, numerous training programs intended to develop creativity capacities have been proposed. In this study, a quantitative meta-analysis of program evaluation efforts was conducted. Based on 70 prior studies, it was found that well-designed creativity training programs typically induce gaïns in performance with these effects generalizing across criteria, settings, and target populations. Moreover, these effects held when internal validity considerations were taken into account. An examination of the factors contributing to the relative effectiveness of these training programs indicated that more successful programs were likely to focus on development of cognitive skills and the heuristics involved in skill application, using realistic exercises appropriate to the domain at hand. The implications of these observations for the development of creativity through educational and training interventions are discussed along with directions for future research.
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Teaching is a profession of high occupational stress and 'emotional labour' that can potentially result in job dissatisfaction, mental health problems, and leaving the profession. Emotional intelligence (EI) encompasses an array of emotional competencies that facilitate the identification, processing, and regulation of emotion and may enhance successful stress management, as well as augmentation of teacher well-being and classroom performance. Drawing upon research that EI can be developed through specific training, a modified version of the program, "Managing Occupational Stress through the Development of Emotional Intelligence" (Hansen, Gardner, & Stough, 2007), was administered to pre-service teachers over a five-week period. A control group completed only the questionnaire protocol of EI and other measures at the start, end, and one month following the program. Results were generally in line with those obtained by Poole and Saklofske (2009) suggesting that EI and related psychological well-being variables can be positively impacted by focused EI training.
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Publication bias is the tendency to decide to publish a study based on the results of the study, rather than on the basis of its theoretical or methodological quality. It can arise from selective publication of favorable results, or of statistically significant results. This threatens the validity of conclusions drawn from reviews of published scientific research. Meta-analysis is now used in numerous scientific disciplines, summarizing quantitative evidence from multiple studies. If the literature being synthesised has been affected by publication bias, this in turn biases the meta-analytic results, potentially producing overstated conclusions. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis examines the different types of publication bias, and presents the methods for estimating and reducing publication bias, or eliminating it altogether. Written by leading experts, adopting a practical and multidisciplinary approach. Provides comprehensive coverage of the topic including: • Different types of publication bias, • Mechanisms that may induce them, • Empirical evidence for their existence, • Statistical methods to address them, • Ways in which they can be avoided. • Features worked examples and common data sets throughout. • Explains and compares all available software used for analysing and reducing publication bias. • Accompanied by a website featuring software, data sets and further material. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis adopts an inter-disciplinary approach and will make an excellent reference volume for any researchers and graduate students who conduct systematic reviews or meta-analyses. University and medical libraries, as well as pharmaceutical companies and government regulatory agencies, will also find this invaluable.
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This study aims to verify the communication skills training for nursing students by using a video clip on a smart phone. The study settings were the nursing departments of two universities in South Korea. This study was a quasi-experimental one using a nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design. The experimental and control groups consisted of second-year nursing students who had taken a communication course. The experimental group included 45 students, and the control group included 42 students. The experimental group improved more significantly than the control group in communication competence and emotional intelligence. Using a video clip on a smart phone is helpful for communication teaching method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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We studied publication bias in the social sciences by analyzing a known population of conducted studies—221 in total—in which there is a full accounting of what is published and unpublished. We leveraged Time-sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS), a National Science Foundation–sponsored program in which researchers propose survey-based experiments to be run on representative samples of American adults. Because TESS proposals undergo rigorous peer review, the studies in the sample all exceed a substantial quality threshold. Strong results are 40 percentage points more likely to be published than are null results and 60 percentage points more likely to be written up. We provide direct evidence of publication bias and identify the stage of research production at which publication bias occurs: Authors do not write up and submit null findings.
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Background Recent research addressed the relationship between staff behaviour and challenging behaviour of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID). Consequently, research on interventions aimed at staff is warranted. The present study focused on the effectiveness of a staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and interactions between staff and clients. The effects of the training on emotional intelligence, coping style and emotions of support staff were investigated.Method Participants were 214 support staff working within residential settings for individuals with ID and challenging behaviour. The experimental group consisted of 76 staff members, 138 staff members participated in two different control groups. A pre-test, post-test, follow-up control group design was used. Effectiveness was assessed using questionnaires addressing emotional intelligence, coping and emotions.ResultsEmotional intelligence of the experimental group changed significantly more than that of the two control groups. The experimental group showed an increase in task-oriented coping, whereas one control group did not. The results with regard to emotions were mixed. Follow-up data revealed that effects within the experimental group were still present four months after the training ended.ConclusionsA staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and staff-client interactions is effective in improving emotional intelligence and coping styles of support staff. However, the need for more research aiming at the relationship between staff characteristics, organisational factors and their mediating role in the effectiveness of staff training is emphasised.
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This article summarizes the empirical support for two conclusions: (1) environmental input is essential for the development of both spatial and mathematical skill; (2) environmental input of the essential sort is more common in the lives of boys than girls. A causal link between these two facts and the existence of sex-related differences in spatial and mathematical ability is less well established, however; the relevant studies have simply not been done. Given this lack of knowledge, but firm support for the first two conclusions, the best course for education is to nurture spatial and mathematical ability more intensively, in both boys and girls.
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IntroductionFew studies have investigated the relative utility of different measurement types of emotional intelligence (EI) to predict individual outcomes.Objective The objective of this study is to compare the criterion-related validity of four differing measures of EI (the MSCEIT, TEMINT, SREIS, and OREIS) in the prediction of individual's social functioning and academic performance.Method Data from 300 participants (100 self-reports and 200 other-reports) were analyzed to find the unique contribution of the four EI measures to the outcomes.Results and discussionRelative weight analyses indicated that other-report EI was the strongest predictor of social functioning (trust and relationship satisfaction), and that the TEMINT was the strongest predictor of academic performance. The relative utility of the different measures was discussed.RésuméPeu d’études ont porté sur l’utilité relative des différents types mesure de l’intelligence émotionnelle (IE) pour prédire les résultats individuels. L’objectif de cette étude a été de comparer la validité de quatre mesures différentes de l’intelligence émotionnelle (MSCEIT, TEMINT, SREIS et OREIS) pour la prédiction du fonctionnement social de l’individu et du rendement scolaire. Les données de 300 participants (100 auto-déclarations et 200 évaluations par autrui) ont été analysées pour déterminer la contribution des quatre mesures de l’IE. Les analyses indiquent que l’IE hétéro-rapportée constitue le plus fort prédicteur du fonctionnement social (la confiance et la satisfaction de la relation), et que le TEMINT a été le meilleur prédicteur de la performance académique. L’utilité relative des différentes mesures est discutée.
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Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
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This study investigated whether the effectiveness of an error management approach to training negotiation knowledge and skill depended on individual differences in conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience. Participants were randomly assigned to two training programs that incorporated key elements of an error management and behavioral modeling approach to training, and were trained in the complex interpersonal skill of negotiation. At the end of training, declarative knowledge acquisition, procedural knowledge acquisition, declarative knowledge retention, and transfer performance were assessed at different points in time. Results suggested that the effectiveness of the error management training program was dependent on individual levels of conscientiousness and extraversion. For several learning outcomes, the performance of highly conscientious and extraverted individuals was superior in the error management condition, while the performance of less conscientious and introverted individuals was superior in the behavioral modeling condition. The implications of these findings, and suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of codependency and emotional intelligence before and after participating in an educational intervention for codependency at a workshop on substance abuse. The setting for the study was a substance abuse workshop that was an elective for graduate students who were enrolled in counseling programs at a large urban university. A total of 23 individuals volunteered to participate in the study. The levels of emotional intelligence were investigated to determine if the characteristics sometimes associated with codependency could be better explained by emotional intelligence (EI). The participants completed three surveys, The Holyaoke Codependency Index, The Emotional Intelligence Scale, and a researcher-developed demographic survey prior to beginning and following completion of the substance abuse workshop, with a session on codependency. The workshop consisted of two weekends with a one month interval between the sessions. The data from the surveys were analyzed using PASW - Ver. 18.0. Statistical significance was found for the correlation between external focus (a measure of codependency) and emotion management (a measure of emotion management). The finding indicated that as scores for external focus increased, the scores on emotion management decreased. No statistically significant changes in the levels of codependency or emotional intelligence were found following participation in the substance abuse workshop with an educational session on codependency. Limitations of this study were greatly influenced by small sample size and time span over which the study was conducted. Suggestions for further research included replicating the study with a sample from more than one university to determine the effects of curricular differences on the development of codependency and emotional intelligence. A longitudinal study was suggested to determine how emotional intelligence changes with age and experiences.
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The main purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to investigate the mean effect size of relevant variables associated with creative person, process, product, and environment. Altogether, 2,013 effect sizes from 111 studies were analyzed. The unweighted grand mean effect size of the 111 studies was 0.69, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.63. Such result was significantly different from 0 at t (110)=11.52, p.01. When the averaged effect size of each study was weighted with the sample size of that study, the weighted grand mean effect size was 0.72. The important findings were: (a) the mean effect sizes associated with problem-solving creativity and verbal creativity were significantly larger than those associated with emotional creativity and nonverbal creativity, (b) variables having a large mean effect size were prestige of honors/awards, working circumstances favorable for creativity, defining problem, and retrieving knowledge, (c) most of the mean effect sizes of the problem solving procedures on the measures of problem solving exceeded the medium (0.5) of Cohen's guidelines. Areas to be further explored are suggested.
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This article examines critically the recent growth of emotion measurement in organizational behaviour. The epistemological and phenomenological consequences of psychometrically ‘boxing’ emotion are, it is argued, problematic and restrictive. This may be seen in the power and professional prestige it affords to the measurers and in the consequences to those classified by measurement. This is particularly so when an emotion is presented as key to personal or organizational success. Emotional intelligence is a strong illustration of these issues, where ‘experts’ ascribe positive value to people with high emotional intelligence quotients (EQ), and low EQs are regarded as suitable cases for training. How can emotion be ‘known’, other than through measurement and numbers? The article suggests some different approaches towards researching an important, but enigmatic, concept.
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This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision making, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions, are described. Then, I propose how emotional intelligence contributes to effective leadership by focusing on five essential elements of leader effectiveness: development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust; encouraging flexibility in decision making and change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.
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This paper explores approaches to the development of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and to the critical question ‘can EI be developed?’ Technical data on the instruments used to measure EI, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ) devised by Dulewicz and Higgs (2000c) and the EQ-i designed by Bar-On (1997), are reported. Findings from three studies involving managers, team leaders and the skippers and crews from a round-the-world yacht race are presented to explore whether Emotional Intelligence scores change after training and other experiences. A revised model to explain how the elements of Emotional Intelligence are related to each other is presented and tested, and possible explanations of why some elements are more amenable to development actions are proposed.