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The longitudinal association between the context of physical activity and mental health in early adulthood

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Abstract

This study examined the associations between the context in which physical activity (PA) is undertaken (team sports, informal group, individual PA), and each of positive mental health, anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. It also investigated whether social connectedness or PA volume mediate these associations. A total of 460 students (62.4% female; mean age at baseline = 18.5, SD 2.6) completed questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up 6 months later. Multivariate linear regression was used to model the associations between PA context at baseline and each outcome at follow-up controlling for sex, age, perceived socioeconomic status and baseline values of the outcome. Mediation analyses used causal inference methods to estimate the controlled direct effect (CDE), natural direct (NDE) and indirect effects (NIE) of social connectedness and PA volume. Relative to individual PA, informal group PA and team sports were positively associated with positive mental health (βˆ (95% CI) = 2.24 (0.01, 4.46) and 3.39 (0.74, 5.59) respectively), and inversely associated with depressive symptoms (−0.65 (−1.29, −0.01) and −0.76 (−1.43, −0.09), respectively). A significant CDE was observed for PA volume on the association between team sports and positive mental health (βˆ (95% CI) = 2.72 (0.03, 5.34)), suggesting that there is no benefit from increasing PA volume and that it is specifically the context of team sports that provides the benefit on positive mental health. Efforts to promote mental health and prevent depressive symptoms may benefit from intervention promoting PA in informal group and team sport settings.

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... Some research indicates that mental health benefits may relate more to the context of physical activity, rather than the behavior of being active itself Doré, O'Loughlin, Beauchamp, Martineau, & Fournier, 2016;Evans et al., 2017;Lubans et al., 2016). For instance, participation in team-sport and informal group activities was found to be inversely associated with depressive symptoms relative to individual physical activity (Doré, O'Loughlin, Schnitzer, Datta, & Fournier, 2018). Furthermore, Doré et al. (2018) identified that there was a controlled direct effect of physical activity volume on the association between participation in team sport and positive mental health, suggesting that there is no benefit of increasing the volume of physical activity and that it is the context of team sport that provides the benefits to mental health. ...
... For instance, participation in team-sport and informal group activities was found to be inversely associated with depressive symptoms relative to individual physical activity (Doré, O'Loughlin, Schnitzer, Datta, & Fournier, 2018). Furthermore, Doré et al. (2018) identified that there was a controlled direct effect of physical activity volume on the association between participation in team sport and positive mental health, suggesting that there is no benefit of increasing the volume of physical activity and that it is the context of team sport that provides the benefits to mental health. The context of team sport is believed to be beneficial to mental health as it offers an opportunity for social interaction, thereby strengthening social networks and perceived feelings of support and integration (Doré et al., 2018;Eime, Harvey, Brown, & Payne, 2010;Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity, & Payne, 2013). ...
... Furthermore, Doré et al. (2018) identified that there was a controlled direct effect of physical activity volume on the association between participation in team sport and positive mental health, suggesting that there is no benefit of increasing the volume of physical activity and that it is the context of team sport that provides the benefits to mental health. The context of team sport is believed to be beneficial to mental health as it offers an opportunity for social interaction, thereby strengthening social networks and perceived feelings of support and integration (Doré et al., 2018;Eime, Harvey, Brown, & Payne, 2010;Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity, & Payne, 2013). ...
Article
The mental health benefits of physical activity may relate more to the context of the behavior, rather than the behavior of being active itself. The association between varsity sport (VS) participation, depression, and anxiety symptoms was explored using data from 70,449 high school students from the Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behavior study. The model adjusted for potential covariates; interactions by sex and participation in outside of school sport (OSS) were explored. Overall, 70% and 24% of respondents met or exceeded cutoff values for depression and anxiety, respectively. Students participating in VS had lower symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with nonparticipants. Results were consistent regardless of OSS participation; associations were strongest among students who participated in both VS and OSS and males. Participation in VS may prove beneficial for the prevention and/or management of depression or anxiety symptoms, particularly among males. An additive beneficial effect of OSS on depression and anxiety scores may exist.
... [15][16][17] Longitudinal evidence indicates that engaging in sport within a team context or in an informal group can have long-term benefits on depressive symptoms six months later. 18 Specifically, the elevated levels of social connectedness experienced when engaged in team sports may reduce the risk of negative mental health consequences such as depression. 18,19 Team sport participation may be a catalyst for increased social interactions 3 and contribute to feelings of social identity 20 and social support, all of which are positively related to mental health. ...
... 18 Specifically, the elevated levels of social connectedness experienced when engaged in team sports may reduce the risk of negative mental health consequences such as depression. 18,19 Team sport participation may be a catalyst for increased social interactions 3 and contribute to feelings of social identity 20 and social support, all of which are positively related to mental health. Overall, there is strong and consistent evidence that participation in sport teams relates to better mental health. ...
... In NDIT, health-related behaviors were measured among 1294 adolescents over the five years of high school (grade 7-11 in Quebec) in 20 data collection cycles and also three years after high school at age 20.4 years on average, in cycle 21. Data on team sport participation during adolescence (cycles [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] and in cycle 21 three years post-high school were aggregated to define pattern of team sport participation from adolescence to young adulthood, and these patterns were related to mental health data collected in cycle 21. 24 Data were collected from 875 individuals in young adulthood. ...
Article
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We examined relationships between pattern of team sport participation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., non‐participants, initiators, discontinuers, sustainers) and indicators of mental health. Data on team sport participation and mental health from high school to young adulthood were drawn from the longitudinal NDIT study. After controlling for demographics, physical activity, and previous mental health, one‐way MANCOVA and ANCOVAs indicated that pattern of team sport participation was associated with stress, F(2,706) = 8.28, p < .01, and coping, F(2,706) = 10.66, p < .01 in young adulthood. Compared to non‐participants (24% of sample) or those who discontinued team sport after adolescence (51%), individuals who sustained team sport participation from adolescence to young adulthood (22%) reported lower stress, and better coping levels. Bivariate regression analysis indicated that, compared to non‐participants, team sport sustainers were less likely to experience panic disorder symptoms (OR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.34, 0.94], p = .03). There were too few team sport initiators (2%) to be included in analyses. Sustained team sport participation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may promote better mental health. Further research is needed to ascertain causality and develop strategies to encourage individuals to join sport teams during adolescence and sustain participation while transitioning to young adulthood.
... [15][16][17] Longitudinal evidence indicates that engaging in sport within a team context or in an informal group can have long-term benefits on depressive symptoms six months later. 18 Specifically, the elevated levels of social connectedness experienced when engaged in team sports may reduce the risk of negative mental health consequences such as depression. 18,19 Team sport participation may be a catalyst for increased social interactions 3 and contribute to feelings of social identity 20 and social support, all of which are positively related to mental health. ...
... 18 Specifically, the elevated levels of social connectedness experienced when engaged in team sports may reduce the risk of negative mental health consequences such as depression. 18,19 Team sport participation may be a catalyst for increased social interactions 3 and contribute to feelings of social identity 20 and social support, all of which are positively related to mental health. Overall, there is strong and consistent evidence that participation in sport teams relates to better mental health. ...
... In NDIT, health-related behaviors were measured among 1294 adolescents over the five years of high school (grade 7-11 in Quebec) in 20 data collection cycles and also three years after high school at age 20.4 years on average, in cycle 21. Data on team sport participation during adolescence (cycles [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] and in cycle 21 three years post-high school were aggregated to define pattern of team sport participation from adolescence to young adulthood, and these patterns were related to mental health data collected in cycle 21. 24 Data were collected from 875 individuals in young adulthood. ...
Article
Background: Team sport participation contributes to positive outcomes, including increased physical activity, better mental health, and enhanced social engagement. However, longitudinal studies show that team sport participation during adolescence is also associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits, including harmful substance use behaviors. Our objectives were to examine these associations in an adolescent sample, assess differences between sexes, examine the association by sport type, and investigate whether associations carry into young adulthood. Method: Over five years of high school participants reported team sport participation, smoking status, and frequency of alcohol use, three years post-high school participants reported the same behaviors as well as marijuana use. Results: Regression analyses accounting for individual clustering revealed that participation in team sport during high school was associated with an increased likelihood of current smoking in males and more frequent drinking in both sexes during adolescence. These relationships were strongest in individuals who participated in football. Further analyses revealed that team sport participation in high school was associated an increased likelihood of more frequent binge drinking in young adulthood; however, team sport participation in young adulthood was associated with a decrease in the likelihood of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Conclusion: Overall, results confirm that team sport participation in adolescence is positively associated with substance use in adolescence, and this association differs by sex. However, team sport participation in young adulthood is negatively associated with harmful substance use. Further research is needed to understand if these trends generalize beyond White adolescents and young adults.
... Despite of growing evidence on a positive association between PA and PMH [22,24,[29][30][31][32], this topic has not been adequately explored from the perspective of factors predicting low and high level of PMH. These factors are known to be partly different and to follow different patterns [24,[33][34][35]. ...
... One of the largest crosssectional studies [6], based on 1.2 million individuals, suggested that regular exercise associates with better mental health, while PA more than 23 times a month or for sessions longer than 90 min is associated with worse mental health. Similar findings were found in the study of Mummery et al. [54] with a cross-sectional study design and in the longitudinal study by Dore et al. [31] suggesting that increased levels of leisure time PA do not reliably result in increased mental health status despite the positive association between PA and mental health. In these studies, however, the samples included both males and females with wide-ranging age profiles and they are therefore not fully comparable with the present study. ...
... This finding emphasizes the importance of providing young men with leisure time PA opportunities in different social contexts that can facilitate socializing with others. Dore et al. [31] examined the associations between the context in which PA was undertaken (team sports, informal groups, individual physical activity) and PMH in young adults. They found that particularly the context of team sports provides the benefits of PA on PMH. ...
Article
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Background: There is growing evidence on positive effects of physical activity (PA) on mental health. However, the focus of previous research on this relationship has typically been on mental health from the perspective of mental health problems rather than from the perspective of mental wellbeing. Further, previous research has commonly focused rather on leisure time PA without evidence on the role of other domains of PA. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between positive mental health (PMH) and different domains of PA in young Finnish men. The secondary aim was to examine the reasons for physical inactivity among individuals with a low level of PMH. Methods: Positive mental health (measured with Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, SWEMWBS), self-reported leisure time, occupational and commuting PA as well as reasons for physical inactivity were measured using questionnaires (n = 456, mean age 29 years) among young Finnish males. Logistic regression modelling was used to generate odds for low and high levels of positive mental health for different levels of PA and sociodemographic variables. Results: A weak positive association between leisure time PA and PMH was found in men with a low level of PMH (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.86). No association was found in the domains of commuting and occupational PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed lower level of leisure time PA, unemployment and being single independently predicting low level of PMH. No associations were found between any domains of PA and high level of PMH. The most common reasons for physical inactivity among men with a low level of PMH were lack of interest (28%) and unwillingness to practise sports alone (27%). Conclusions: The relationship between physical activity and positive mental health seems to vary between different domains of physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of leisure time physical activity, particularly in men with a low level of positive mental health. Strategies aimed at increasing physical activity for mental health benefits should focus particularly on providing opportunities for leisure time physical activity involving social interactions for men with lower mental wellbeing.
... A six-month follow up found that taking part in group physical activity, whether in team sports or informally, was associated with better mental health outcomes and decreased depressive symptoms, compared to independent exercise. Students exercising in groups also reported feeling more connected to people around them [27]. Similarly, a cross-sectional study of students in Norway found that physical activity in a sports club was associated with significantly fewer depressive symptoms, compared to independent exercise [28]. ...
... Linking Leeds found that after participation there was an improvement in anxiety scores for 44% of young people and 71% described themselves as "more relaxed". Grant and colleagues found that a social prescribing intervention conducted with 161 young people resulted in significant improvements in anxiety scores [25], while Dore et al. found group exercise significantly improved mental health outcomes of 16-24-year-olds, compared to those who engaged in independent exercise [27]. ...
Article
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The use of social prescribing interventions for common mental health issues is expanding as clinicians seek to diverge from the traditional medical model of treatment. This intervention allows for the referral of patients to a nonclinical social activity via a link worker. Evidence for the benefits of social prescribing is growing. Most evidence is based on adults; however, a smaller number of studies involving children and young people have produced encouraging results. This evaluation reports on data routinely collected by the Linking Leeds service between 9 January 2019–11 January 2020. Linking Leeds provides Social Prescribing for people aged 16 years and above; however, the current paper focuses on service users aged between 16 and 25. Their aim is to connect people to services and activities in their community in order to benefit overall health and mental wellbeing. This evaluation of the Linking Leeds program supports the growing body of evidence to support the benefits social prescribing can have on young people’s mental health. Two main mechanisms were identified which underpin social prescribing in young people: social connectedness and behavioural activation.
... Previous findings have demonstrated that leisure-time PA is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, while other domains, such as occupational PA, were not (White et al., 2017). Leisure-time PA can take place in different organizational and social aspects, such as individual, small groups, or even large teams, with different levels of social interaction (Doré et al., 2018;Hallgren et al., 2017). Despite this, little is known about the context and impact of the potential different associations between individual and group leisure-time PA participation and depressive symptoms. ...
... Previous studies have found that group PA was more protective for depressive symptoms than individual PA during adolescence (Brunet et al., 2013;Doré et al, 2016Doré et al, , 2020Kleppang et al., 2018) and young adults (Doré et al., 2018). In addition, a recent review revealed that team sports participation is associated with a number of psychological health outcomes (Andersen et al., 2019), such as sense of belonging, emotional support, higher self-esteem, and social interaction. ...
Article
Our aim was to analyze the association between different social contexts of physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) (n = 59,722; ≥18 years) were used. The social context of leisure-time PA [classified according to the higher probability of being practiced in group (group PA) or individually (individual PA)] and total PA time were self-reported. Depressive symptoms were evaluated through the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Chronological age, ethnicity, educational status, employment status, tobacco smoking, alcohol ingestion, and soft drink consumption were co-variables. Logistic regression models were applied for association analyses. Among men, individual and group PA were associated with lower depressive symptoms compared with the no PA group among men [Individual: OR:0.59 (95%CI:0.40 to 0.86); Group: OR:0.42 (95%CI:0.29 to 0.59)]. Sensitivity analysis revealed that men involved in group PA were 40% [OR:0.60 (95%CI:0.38 to 0.94)] less likely to present elevated depressive symptoms when compared with individual PA. In females, no differences in depressive symptoms were observed comparing individual PA [OR:0.89 (95%CI:0.71 to 1.11)] and group PA [OR:0.86 (95%CI:0.54 to 1.37)] with the no PA group. Activities that are more likely to be a group PA demonstrated a stronger association with low depressive symptoms among men, but not women.
... Additional validated depression tools included the Major Depressive Inventory (used by Brunet et al., 2013) and the Beck Depression Inventory (used by Boone & Leadbeater, 2006). Meanwhile, anxiety scales included the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (used by McMahon et al., 2017), Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale (used by Doré et al., 2018), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (used by Dolenc, 2015). Across the 15 measures of anxiety and depression symptoms that were adequately reported on, most scales were validated within adolescent populations (97%), with many validated for use as screening tools in clinical contexts (76%). ...
... However, we could not test the mediating role of physical activity or social interactions because mediation was neither directly tested within the studies reviewed, nor were these constructs measured frequently enough to use meta-regression models to test associations indirectly. An exception is a study conducted by Doré et al. (2018) that investigated whether social connectedness mediated the relationship between team sport and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, some investigations (e.g., Ashdown-Franks et al., 2017;Sabiston et al., 2016) contrasted team and individual sport participation as a proxy for social interaction, finding early evidence that depressive symptoms were less frequent for adolescents involved in team sport. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sport may protect against symptoms of mental disorders that are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. This systematic review explores the relationship between adolescent organized sport participation and self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. From 9,955 records screened, 29 unique articles were selected that included 61 effect sizes and 122,056 participants. Effects were clustered into four categories based on the operationalization of sport involvement: absence or presence of involvement, frequency of involvement, volume of involvement, and duration of participation. Results from the random-effects meta-analyses indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly lower among sport-involved adolescents than in those not involved in sport, although this effect size was small in magnitude. Meta-regression was used to identify how age and sex explained heterogeneity in effects. Although these results do not signify a causal effect, they do support theorizing that sport participation during adolescence may be a protective environment against anxiety and depressive symptoms.
... While our findings are consistent with previous studies reporting increased benefits of participating in a sports club, e.g. lower depressive symptoms [13,28,29], our study expands previous research by relying on the concept of physical activity modalities, which has been operationalized and measured in terms of 16 physical activity categories. The explanation for the reported patterns of association remain tentative. ...
... The explanation for the reported patterns of association remain tentative. A recent study reported that the benefit of team sports on depressive symptoms and positive mental health, was not explained by an increase in PA volume [28]. This is in line with a longitudinal study, which reported no association between volume of physical activity and the development of depressive symptoms [30]. ...
Article
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Background The purpose was to analyse the association between physical activity taking place in different contexts (sports club, gym, exercise independently and other organized physical activities) and symptoms of depression. Methods The study was based on self-reported cross-sectional data from the Ungdata survey, conducted in 2017 by the Norwegian Social Research (NOVA) institute in cooperation with regional centres for drug rehabilitation. The target group comprised 5531 15–16 years old adolescents (Grade 10 students) and 11,655 students in grades 8 and 9 in Norway. Based on Rasch analysis, six items on depressions symptoms were used to create a composite measure of depression. Binomial logistic regression was used to analyse the association between physical activities in different contexts and symptoms of depression. Results In the crude model, the odds for symptoms of depression were lower for those who were physically active in a sports club (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.30–0.53), in a sports club and gym (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.28–0.56), in a sports club and exercise or keep fit independently (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.38–0.72) and in a sports club, gym and exercise or keep fit independently (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41–0.81). After adjustment for potential confounders, the association became significant only for those who were physically active in a sports club (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40–0.81) and other organized physical activities, e.g. dance, martial arts (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31–0.86). Analysis for grade 8 and 9 showed the same patterns for the associations between sports club and symptoms of depression (grade 8: crude model, OR: 0.47, adjusted model, OR: 0.63, grade 9: crude model, OR: 0.44, adjusted model, OR: 0.49). Conclusions Physical activity in a sports club was associated with significantly lower odds for symptoms of depression, suggesting a possible role for social interaction in addition to physical activity per se. It is important, therefore, to consider in which types of contexts physical activities take place, not only focusing on physical activity frequency and volume when investigating the association between adolescents’ physical activity and mental health. Additional research is needed to further explore these associations as well as measures of physical activity and mental health.
... We have to admit that when we started this study, we were conceptually based on findings from [22] suggesting that organised and thus social leisure activities would cover more explanatory value regarding reduced depressive symptoms compared with physical activities [39,40]. In this respect, we were a little bit surprised when our findings so clearly showed that physical activities, whether organised in sports clubs or played together with friends in an informal setting, showed fewer associations with symptoms of depression compared with activities that were 'only' social. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between physical activity organised in sports clubs, non-organised physical activity, other organised leisure-time activities, and depressive symptoms among adolescents. This study was based on cross-sectional data from the Ungdata survey conducted between 2017 and 2019. The sample comprised 7656 adolescents (aged 13–16 years). Binominal logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the three different leisure-time activities and depressive symptoms. All models were adjusted for gender, family economy, parents’ higher education, having friends, alcohol intoxication, and smoking. The odds for symptoms of depression were higher for those who were less physically active in a sports club (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.15–1.57) and in non-organised physical activities (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.29–1.74) and lower for those who participated less in other organised leisure-time activities (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68–0.92) compared with those who were physically active (sports club and non-organised) and those who participated in other organised leisure-time activities. Our findings suggested that being physically active, both in a sports club and in non-organised activities, was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms among adolescents. Additional research is needed to confirm a possible causal relationship.
... The results of the current study also demonstrate low levels of healthy lifestyle behaviours, and are in partial agreement with previous literature, with sleep mindfulness, and MVPA remaining significantly associated with psychological distress in our final model. This has been demonstrated in research both prior to [22,50,53] and during COVID-19 lockdowns [4,38,61], highlighting the importance of mindfulness, sleep and physical activity to mental health. In the current study, mindfulness and sleep quality may have more directly addressed drivers of psychological distress during the pandemic (i.e., fear, worry, uncertainty), both of which have been shown to have benefits for student mental health in the past [4,36,53]. ...
Article
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Background Australia experienced significant COVID-19 lockdown restrictions throughout 2020 that had an impact on mental health and disrupted health-promoting lifestyle behaviours. Lockdowns may have exacerbated existing mental health concerns among tertiary students, who experience higher levels of mental health concerns compared to the wider community. This study aimed to investigate the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and wellbeing of students at a Melbourne-based tertiary education institution during COVID-19 lockdown. Methods This quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted across campuses in Melbourne and Sydney. Data was collected via online questionnaire during the 7th week of a second-wave lockdown. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic variables (n = 239). Linear regression models were estimated to determine multivariate associations between lifestyle variables and psychological distress. Results Participants were on average 30.98 years old (SD = 9.78), predominantly female, domestic students, undergraduate, not the first member of their family to attend university and living out of family home. Mindfulness, diet quality, sleep quality and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were all inversely correlated with psychological distress. Unadjusted and adjusted models show that mindfulness, sleep quality, and MVPA were all independently inversely related to psychological distress. Greater mindfulness, sleep quality and engagement in MVPA were associated with lower psychological distress during COVID-19 lockdowns. Limitations As this study is cross-sectional and we cannot rule out reverse causality. Conclusion This study highlights the potential for lifestyle focused mental-health promotion delivered through tertiary education institutions to support students in times of crisis as well as more generally.
... The psychological (11) and physiological (12) health benefits that can be gained by emphasizing the importance of PA within adolescent psychiatric units could possibly be strengthened by the addition of structured exercise training. Therefore, given that participation in structured PA yields proven health protective properties (13), the combination of exercise training and PA can be viewed as important complementary features of traditional psychiatric treatment methodologies (14). ...
... In light of this realization of the important role PA and PS can play in the development of a healthy life, many researchers have gone further and analyzed how the specific ways people take part in sports and physical activity can affect this development (Predovan et al., 2019;Netz, 2019). For instance, one study (Doré et al., 2018) looked at the associations between the context in which physical activity is undertaken (team sports, informal groups, individual PA) and a range of positive mental health outcomes, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression in early adulthood. Here, the researchers showed that programs to promote PA in a social setting, whether organized (team sports) or nonorganized (informal groups), were more effective than individual PA at enhancing positive mental health and reducing depressive symptoms among youth in transition to adulthood. ...
Article
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Activity and participation in sport have garnered a great deal of attention over the past few decades, due in part to growing awareness of the benefits they offer that lead to a better quality of life. This situation has opened up new lines of investigation in the sport sciences field, including the study of physical activity and sport participation according to the perspective of Lifespan Developmental Psychology, the approach that underlies this study. The aim of this research is (1) to design an instrument to collect information on individuals’ lifelong relationships with sport and physical activity (2) to implement the instrument through a pilot test to create profiles that can be compared with other variables, all in order to study the role that physical activity and sport participation play in a range of aspects throughout the lifespan. The results indicate the questionnaire was effective and capable of collecting data on the physical and sport activities of the members of the sample at different moments in the lifespan. It was also able to generate profiles that can be used to analyze the variables of participation in sport and/or physical activity in conjunction with other variable, thus offering a way to measure the impact of physical activity on human development. Keywords: Sports trajectories; lifespan; physical activity questionnaire; physical activity profiles
... Some support from previous research can be found to explain these findings (Downward and Rasciute, 2011;Vella et al., 2014;Sabiston et al., 2015;Dore et al., 2018a,b). Dore et al. (2018b) found that particularly team sports and PA in informal groupslike engagement in yard games-were positively associated with mental well-being in young adulthood. The important role of team sports and opportunity for social interaction through sports will be supported also by several other the studies, especially from the perspective of mental health (Downward and Rasciute, 2011;Eime et al., 2013b;Vella et al., 2014;Sabiston et al., 2015). ...
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The aim of the study was to examine whether sports participation (SP), engagement in competitive sports (CS), and the type of sport undertaken at the age of 12 are associated with the physical and mental components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young adulthood. The data were collected using questionnaires prior to a compulsory military refresher training course in Finland. The sample consisted of 784 men (mean age 26 years). HRQoL was measured with RAND 36 and childhood SP with a series of questions. Data were analyzed with logistic regression. Higher frequency of SP, participation in district-level CS; performing team, endurance, or extreme sports; and playing yard games in childhood were after adjustments all associated with better HRQoL in early adulthood. The association was mainly found with the mental component, and to a lesser extent with the physical component, of HRQoL. Team (OR 1.43, CI 1.00-2.06) and extreme sports (OR 1.77, CI 1.19-2.63) were associated with better mental HRQoL, while playing yard games (OR 0.62, CI 0.44-0.89) reduced the likelihood for having low physical HRQoL. SP in childhood-in the forms of team or individual sports, but also as informal physical activity, such as playing yard games-is associated with HRQoL in young adulthood.
... In the current study those who were 'low' active or reported that PA was less important during the lockdown had scores reflecting 'moderate' depression and 'mild' stress and anxiety (Henry and Crawford, 2005). These findings further support the growing body of evidence demonstrating links between PA and mental wellbeing (Biddle, 2016;Dore et al., 2018); and are in line with evidence indicating that increased time spent in PA during the coronavirus lockdown was associated with improved mental wellbeing via reductions in depression and anxiety and improved life satisfaction (Bu et al., 2020). ...
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This study assessed physical activity (PA) and wellbeing during lockdown. UK adults reported their PA in the previous week, perception of PA importance (more, less, same) and wellbeing, depression, anxiety and stress. One-way ANOVA compared PA and wellbeing by PA importance. The 'less' importance group did less PA than the 'more' and 'same' (p < 0.05) importance group; and scored worse on all wellbeing measures than the 'same' importance group (p < 0.01). They also had worse wellbeing, depression and anxiety than the 'more' importance group (p < 0.05). Strategies to overcome the impact of the pandemic should aim to increase PA.
... Finally, because this study involved secondary data analyses, we could only assess variables present in the selected dataset. Consequently, other factors associated with depression, such as sleep problems, 5 body weight, 5 life satisfaction, 5 physical activity, 40 and stressful life events, 5 were not captured in this study Furthermore, relevant confounding factors related to depression in young adults were unavailable in the dataset. The gap of 7 years in this survey could also have affected depression because many major events occurred during those years in Indonesia, such as several economic crises and unstable national politics following the presidential election in 2009 and 2014, which were not captured in this survey. ...
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Background/purpose Depression is highly prevalent among young adults in Indonesia; despite this, information pertaining to the associated factors of depression remains scarce. In this study, we aimed to identify these associated factors among young adults in Indonesia by using a longitudinal study design. Methods We undertook secondary data analyses of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Questionnaires related to smoking behavior, acute morbidities, perceived health, experience of natural disasters, and sociodemographic records from 2007 were used as independent variables and depression in 2014 was used as the outcome variable. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to investigate the associated factors of depression. Results The prevalence of depression among 1960 young adults was 27.86%. Based on the GEE results, perceived health was significantly negatively correlated with depression in 2014 (p < .001), whereas smoking behavior, smoking cessation, and acute morbidities in 2007 were significantly positively correlated with depression in 2014 (p < .001). Conclusion We report that the early identification of depression in this population is pivotal and relevant associated factors should be considered when developing preventive programs to avoid depression in the community.
... Neuroplasticity mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and structural changes in hippocampal volume may also drive part of the association between MVPA, ST and higher wellbeing 46,47,48 . In addition, MVPA as part of group activities is associated with higher social connectedness and social support, increasing mental wellbeing 49,50 . ...
Article
Although physical activity and sedentary behaviour have established associations with mental illness, the extent to which they impact on mental wellbeing is not well understood. We examined associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sitting time (ST) and mental wellbeing in 4526 participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (UK) in the age 46 survey (2016–18). MVPA and ST were measured using a thigh mounted accelerometer device (activPAL 3 micro) worn continuously for 7 days and participants completed the 14-item Warwick-Edinburg Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) to assess mental wellbeing. In linear regression models MVPA (per hr) was associated with an additional 0.57 points on the WEMWBS (95% CI 0.03–1.12) regardless of gender, wear time, education, socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, disability and psychological distress. ST was not associated with WEMWBS in the adjusted models (B = -0.11, −0.23, 0.02). In MVPA stratified analyses, ST showed a linear trend with WEMBS in participants with low levels of MVPA but not in medium and high MVPA categories. In this large, nationally representative cohort, device-measured MVPA showed an association with higher mental wellbeing whilst ST was only associated with reduced mental wellbeing in participants with low levels of MVPA. Our main limitation was the cross-sectional design which precludes any inference of direction of association or causality. Nevertheless, interventions to promote MVPA may be an effective public health policy to promote mental wellbeing. Further investigation of the effect different sitting behaviours has on mental wellbeing is warranted.
... Given that the burden of mental health globally and in old age is depression (Chang & Weng, 2013), several studies have sought to investigate the association between physical activity and depression. These studies report that physical activity reduces the odds of experiencing depression (Doré, Loughlin, Schnitzer, Datta, & Fournier, 2018;Mcphie & Rawana, 2012). There are two competing psychological theories when it comes to explaining the effects of exercise on mental health: the distraction theory and the self-efficacy hypothesis (Mikkelsen et al, 2017). ...
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The association between physical activity and mental health has been found bidirectional in the literature. However, evidence of this bidirectional association is lacking from developing countries. This study was aimed at investigating the bidirectional relationship between physical activity frequency and mental health in old age using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey with a sample of 8,323 old individuals aged between 45 and 90 years. The results revealed that the bidirectional association holds true in old age. Specifically, an increase of one unit in frequency of physical activity is associated with a decrease of 14% in depression after controlling for a set of confounding variables. Similarly, an increase of one unit in depression is associated with a decrease of 3.4% in frequency of physical activity. The results of this study suggest that health policies should take into account the importance of the frequency of physical activity.
... There is growing research showing that participation in team sports during high school protects against depressive symptoms in early adulthood, 71 and recently a study with young adults found that informal physical activity groups and team sports were positively related to mental health and inversely related to depressive symptoms. 72 Enjoyable physical activities that promote positive social interactions may be the best option to reduce depressive symptoms, improve mental health and promote long-term maintenance. ...
Article
Executive Summary Depression is the most common and prevalent mental disorder today, affecting an estimated 1 in 4 Canadians at some point in their lifetime. Physical activity is recommended as a primary treatment for mild to moderate depression and a secondary treatment for moderate to severe depression. Despite this, specific guidelines are still lacking on how to best promote physical activity in this population. Accordingly, this policy brief provides evidence-based recommendations for primary care providers and allied health professionals to promote lifelong physical activity in individuals with depression. Recommendations include asking for permission to discuss physical activity with the individual; framing physical activity as something that they have control over in order to feel better; clarifying that incorporating even a few more minutes of weekly physical activity is better than nothing and that mild forms are enough to achieve mental health benefits; and providing choices of activities to try and accompanying them on their first few sessions. Moreover, this article highlights the importance of promoting physical activity enjoyment for this population, which can be done by guiding the individual to slowly build up the frequency, duration and intensity of activity; encouraging them to be selfcompassionate toward physical activity; suggesting they engage in outdoor activity, listen to music, and/or participate with a buddy or group; and incorporate self-monitoring or journalling to solidify the link between physical activity and improved mood. Practitioners are encouraged to use these evidence-informed recommendations—especially maximizing choices, enhancing physical activity enjoyment and emphasizing personal preferences—to help individuals with depression move, recover and flourish. These recommendations may also be used to tailor future interventions and inform policy guidelines to reduce depression rates in Canada.
... Although some studies have shown statistical associations between PA and various mental health outcomes (see e.g. Breistøl et al., 2017;Doré et al., 2018;McDowell et al., 2016), many have considerable methodological weaknesses. In addition, these studies are limited in the extent to which they can explain any associations in terms of causal mechanisms, which requires a much more careful and detailed process of inference. ...
Article
In the past decade or more, improving young people’s mental health has been identified as a priority for policy-makers in many countries, including Norway. Physical education, as a setting for physical activity, is increasingly viewed as having a potentially significant role to play in addressing mental health among the young. This paper reports the findings from a study of 148 Norwegian youngsters (68 girls and 80 boys) from the 10th grade (15–16 years old) in eight secondary schools in Norway in 2017. It explores Norwegian youngsters’ experiences of physical education in relation to aspects of their mental health – specifically, being judged and, by extension, ‘othered’. The findings suggest that physical education may undoubtedly serve to generate positive feelings associated with physical activity and games and, in doing so, bolster some youngsters’ self-esteem and self-identities. On the other hand, however, for those less competent in sporting terms, and whose bodily self-image is not particularly positive, the public nature of physical education and the nature of the activities that constitute the subject can give rise to unplanned and unintended harm to some youngsters’ mental health – especially in countries, such as Norway, where sport is a significant aspect of the group habitus and collective ‘we-group’ identity.
... Using cross-sectional methods, in a very large sample of 1.2 million adults, S.R. Chekroud et al. (2018) demonstrated that mental health burden was lower in individuals who took part in team-or groupbased exercise in comparison to other physical activity types. Moreover, and specifically in students aged 16-24, similar findings were presented where better mental health and social connectedness were observed in those engaging in team-and group-based physical activity when compared with physical activity performed alone (Dore, O'Loughlin, Schnitzer, Datta, Fournier, 2018). Additionally, in a recent meta-analysis, in adults, physical activity was purported to improve mental health most effectively when undertaken as a leisure-time pursuit, as opposed to physical activity taken part in in any other domain (White et al., 2017). ...
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The purpose of the current study was to assess servant leadership dimensions, perceived mental health benefits, and correlations between the two following an eight-week servant leadership theory-driven salsa dance programme taught to novice learners at a West Midlands, UK university. Upon completion of the salsa dance programme (frequency - once per week, intensity - moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, time - 90 minutes, type - group-based Cuban style salsa dance), a paper questionnaire was administered to the participants to complete in person. The questionnaire contained 18 items related to servant leadership dimensions (authenticity, empowerment, humility, standing back, and stewardship) in terms of the teaching and learning of salsa dance and four items related to perceived mental health benefits (mood enhancement, self-confidence, skill mastery, and social well-being). Authenticity and stewardship were rated higher in females when compared to males. Differences were found between perceived mental health benefits in both females and males with mood enhancement rated highest in both genders. This is the first study we are aware of to have applied principles of servant leadership in the teaching of salsa dance as a leisure-time physical activity. Servant leadership may have facilitated the high perceived mental health benefits observed.
... Mediation analysis based on the causal inference approach relies on the assumption of no unmeasured confounding [45]. Based on the literature, the most important confounders of the associations between PA and mental health, between PA and each potential mediator, and between the mediators and mental health, included sex, age and income [46,47]. Previous mental health level could potentially confound the associations. ...
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Background: Physical activity (PA) can promote mental health, but the mechanisms underpinning this association are not well-established. This study examined if perceptions of three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) mediate the association between number of years participating in PA and mental health in adolescence. Methods: Participants included 937 children (55% female) age 10-11 at inception of the longitudinal MATCH study, who provided data every 4 months over 6 years. Mediation analyses were used to assess the natural direct effect of number of years of PA participation (cycles 1-15) during late childhood and adolescence on later mental health (cycle 16), measured with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), and the natural indirect effect through each of self-perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness, and self-report MVPA (cycle 15). Results: In single mediator models, indirect effects of autonomy, competence, relatedness and self-report MVPA were statistically significant. In joint mediation models (each of three models including one basic psychological need and MVPA), autonomy, competence and relatedness mediated 71%, 27%, and 51% of the association respectively; MVPA mediated 27-31% of the association. In the mediation model including all four mediators, relatedness mediated the largest proportion of the association, followed by autonomy and MVPA. Conclusion: Results support developing strategies to encourage adolescents to engage and remain involved in PA. This could foster perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness as well as MVPA, which in turn may enhance mental health.
Article
Mood deterioration in response to exercise cessation is well documented, but moderators of this effect remain unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that physically active individuals with higher levels of cognitive vulnerability (i.e., tendencies toward negative thought content and processes in response to stress or negative mood states) are at greater risk for increased anxiety and depressive symptoms when undergoing exercise cessation. Community adults meeting recommended physical activity guidelines ( N = 36) participated in a 4-week prospective, longitudinal study with 2 weeks each of maintained exercise and exercise cessation. Cognitive vulnerability measures included dysfunctional attitudes, brooding rumination, and cognitive reactivity (i.e., change in dysfunctional attitudes over a dysphoric mood induction). Anxiety and depression symptoms increased during exercise cessation. Brooding emerged as a risk factor for increases in tension scores on the Profile of Mood States–Brief during exercise cessation. Future studies should explore brooding as a mediator (i.e., potential mechanism) of exercise-induced mood deterioration.
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Objective: The objective of the review was to describe the incidence and prevalence of injuries among female cricket players of all ages, participating in all levels of play. Introduction: Cricket, a bat-and-ball sport, is becoming popular among women of all ages and abilities worldwide. However, cricket participation carries a risk of injury. Injuries negatively affect sport participation, performance, and short- and long-term health and well-being. Injury prevention, therefore, is the key to safe, long-term cricket participation as a physical activity goal. Epidemiological data are needed to underpin evidence-based injury-prevention strategies. Inclusion criteria: Studies reporting incidence and prevalence of injuries in female cricket players of all ages, participating in all levels of play, were included in this review, including studies that report data by sex or by sport. Studies were excluded if they did not have enough data to calculate prevalence or incidence, did not distinguish female injury data from male injury data, focused on athletes participating in other sports, or focused on case studies. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted according to the JBI and PRISMA 2020 guidelines. MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), EBSCO MasterFILE Premier, EBSCO CINAHL Complete, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were systematically searched from inception to August 2021. Additionally, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. EBSCO MegaFile Premier, OpenGrey (SIGLE), WorldCat, Grey Matters, Grey Literature, and Google Scholar were searched for gray literature. Full-text articles that met the inclusion criteria were critically appraised using tools from JBI, and were extracted and synthesized in narrative summary and tabular format. Three meta-analyses were conducted: injury incidence rates, injury prevalence proportions, and injury incidence proportions. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic and the random-effects model. Results: Of the 7057 studies identified, 4256 were screened after duplicates were removed. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was low for 21 studies. The injury incidence rate for elite cricket was 71.9 (SE 21.3, 95% CI 30.2–113.6) injuries per 1000 player hours, time-loss injury incidence rate was 13.3 (SE 4.4, 95% CI 4.6–22.0) injuries per 1000 player hours, and non-time-loss injury incidence rate was 58.5 (SE 16.9, 95% CI 25.6–91.7) injuries per 1000 player hours. The injury prevalence proportion for community to elite cricket was 65.2% (SE 9.3, 95% CI 45.7–82.3) and the injury prevalence proportion for community cricket was 60% (SE 4.5, 95% CI 51.1–68.6). The injury incidence proportion for community cricket was 5.6 (SE 4.4, 95% CI 0.1–18.3) injuries per 10,000 participants. Elite cricket players were more frequently injured than community cricket players. The most prevalent body regions injured were the shoulder and knee, and most were sustained by fast bowlers. Injuries to the hand, wrist, and fingers had the highest incidence and were most sustained by fielders. Conclusions: The study's findings can help stakeholders (including players, coaches, clinicians, and policymakers) make informed decisions about cricket participation by informing and implementing strategies to promote cricket as a vehicle for positive public health outcomes. This review also identified gaps in the available evidence base, and addressing these through future research would enhance women's cricket as a professional sport.
Article
Background Our aim was to investigate whether different types and social contexts of physical activity (PA) participation are prospectively associated with psychological distress and well-being among middle-aged adults. Methods Data from the 1970 British Cohort Study was used (N=5,144-2,733 women). At age 42y, participants reported their type of leisure-time PA, which was classified as individual PA or group PA (exposure). At age 46y, participants reported co-primary outcomes: psychological distress (Malaise Inventory) and well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh scale). Highest academic achievement, employment status, country of interview, baseline values of psychological distress and well-being, smoking, alcohol use, TV-viewing and total physical activity at 42y were used as covariates. Main analyses included linear regression stratifying by sex. Results Jogging, cross-country, road-running (both sexes) as well as team sports (men) were associated with higher well-being. Health, fitness, gym or conditioning activities and jogging, cross-country (women), road-running (women) and team sports (men) were associated with lower psychological distress. Participation in both individual and group PA were associated with lower psychological distress and higher well-being for both sexes in crude models. However, adjusted models revealed that only group PA was associated with lower psychological distress (B: -0.106; 95%CI:-0.188 to -0.025) and higher well-being (0.835; 0.050 to 1.619) among men but not women. In the sensitivity analysis, group PA was associated with higher well-being (0.855; 0.094 to 1.616) when compared with individual PA among men. Group PA was not associated with psychological distress among both sexes and well-being among women when compared with individual PA. Conclusion Group PA was prospectively associated with lower psychological distress and higher well-being among men but not females. Future PA interventions could focus on group activities for males. Further research to understand the relationship between individual/group PA and mental health is required in females.
Article
Résumé La dépression est aujourd’hui le trouble mental le plus répandu, et on estime qu’un Canadien sur quatre en souffrira à un moment ou à un autre de sa vie. Même si l’activité physique est recommandée comme traitement principal de la dépression légère à modérée et comme traitement secondaire de la dépression modérée à grave, on ne dispose toujours pas de lignes directrices précises sur la meilleure façon de promouvoir l’activité physique auprès de la population atteinte de dépression. Cet exposé de politique vise donc à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes aux fournisseurs de soins primaires et aux professionnels paramédicaux afin de promouvoir l’activité physique à vie chez les personnes atteintes de dépression. Ces recommandations consistent notamment à demander la permission de parler d’activité physique avec les personnes concernées; à présenter l’activité physique comme un élément sur lequel elles ont un contrôle afin de se sentir mieux; à préciser qu’intégrer ne serait-ce que quelques minutes supplémentaires d’activité physique hebdomadaire vaut mieux que rien et que des exercices légers sont suffisants pour obtenir des bienfaits sur la santé mentale et enfin à proposer plusieurs choix d’activités et essayer d’accompagner les personnes lors de leurs premières séances. En outre, cet article souligne l’importance de promouvoir, auprès de cette population, le plaisir que procure l’activité physique, ce qui peut être fait en aidant la personne à augmenter progressivement la fréquence, la durée et l’intensité de l’activité; en l’encourageant à faire preuve de bienveillance envers elle­même à propos de l’activité physique; en lui suggérant de s’adonner à une activité de plein air, d’écouter de la musique, d’être accompagnée d’un(e) ami(e) ou de faire partie d’un groupe; en utilisant un système d’autosuivi ou un journal pour renforcer le lien entre activité physique et amélioration de l’humeur. Les praticiens sont encouragés à utiliser ces recommandations fondées sur des données probantes (en particulier l’offre d’un maximum de choix, l’insistance sur le plaisir procuré par l’activité physique et la mise en avant des préférences personnelles) afin d’aider les personnes atteintes de dépression à bouger, à se rétablir et à s’épanouir. Ces recommandations sont également utilisables pour concevoir les futures interventions et pour éclairer les lignes directrices visant à réduire les taux de dépression au Canada.
Abstract Youth mental health is a major public health concern. This study assesses whether baseline and short-term changes in mental health predict anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students. Not flourishing mental health at baseline was a risk factor for high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Compared to participants with stable flourishing mental health, those who declined to not flourishing and those who were stable not flourishing had increased risks of high anxiety and depressive symptoms. Assessing mental health may be effective in predicting mental disorder symptoms and supports the need for mental health promotion interventions. Résumé La santé mentale des jeunes représente un enjeu majeur de santé publique. Cette étude évalue si l’état initial et le changement dans l’état de santé mentale permettent de prédire les symptômes anxieux et dépressif chez les étudiants au collégial. Une santé mentale non-florissante prédit le risque de symptômes anxieux et dépressifs. Comparativement aux jeunes stables florissants, ceux qui déclinent à non-florissant et ceux stables non-florissants présentent un risque accru de symptômes anxieux et dépressifs. L'évaluation de la santé mentale permet de prédire le risque de symptômes de troubles mentaux et soutien l’importance des interventions de promotion de la santé mentale.
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The Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (GSLTPAQ) is one of the most often used questionnaires in oncology research, yet modifications to the scale are done with little evidence of psychometric testing. This study aimed to (i) document the frequency of use of the questionnaire for ranking (i.e., level of activity) and classification (i.e., active versus insufficiently active) purposes, (ii) summarize how the GSLTPAQ is used in terms of item content and scoring, and (iii) evaluate the extent to which validity evidence supports the use of the scale among cancer survivors. A systematic review was conducted with evidence drawn from English-written articles published between January 1(st) 1985 (year the GSLTPAQ was published) and December 31, 2014. A search of six databases, a scan of reference list of included articles, and a cited reference search identified articles that reported using the GSLTPAQ among cancer survivors. A total of 212 articles were retrieved. The GSLTPAQ was used for classifying cancer survivors into active and insufficiently active categories in 51 % of the articles. Moreover, a modified version of the questionnaire was used in 81 % of the research studies. Three studies reported validity evidence based on the relationship between the scores on the GSLTPAQ (i.e., leisure score index, LSI) and accelerometer or pedometer-derived activity data. Validity evidence supporting the use of the GSLTPAQ for assessing changes in LSI was computed from six randomized trials. The use of the GSLTPAQ for classification purpose in oncology research is common. Standardization in the use and interpretation of the GSLTPAQ in oncology research is warranted. Although limited, there is support for using the original form of the GSLTPAQ and interpreting the LSI for ranking cancer survivors from the lowest to highest levels of leisure-time physical activity.
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Adolescent physical activity (PA) levels track into adulthood. However it is not known if type of PA participated in during adolescence is associated with PA levels later in life. We aimed to identify natural groupings of types of PA and to assess whether number of years participating in these different groupings during adolescence is related to PA level in early adulthood. 673 adolescents in Montreal, Canada, age 12-13 years at baseline (54 % female), reported participation in 29 physical activities every 3 months over 5 years (1999-2005). They also reported their PA level at age 24 years (2011-12). PA groupings among the 29 physical activities were identified using factor analysis. The association between number of years participating in each grouping during adolescence and PA level at age 24 was estimated using linear regression within a general estimating equation framework. Three PA groupings were identified: "sports", "fitness and dance", and "running". There was a positive linear relationship between number of years participating in sports and running in adolescence and PA level at age 24 years (β (95 % confidence interval) = 0.09 (0.04-0.15); 0.08 (0.01-0.15), respectively). There was no relationship between fitness and dance in adolescence and PA level at age 24. The association between PA participation in adolescence and PA levels in young adulthood may be specific to certain PA types and to consistency of participation during adolescence. Results suggest that efforts to establish the habit of participation in sports and running in adolescence may promote higher PA levels in adulthood.