Décontamination des sols contenant des métaux lourds à l'aide de plantes et de microorganismes

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Cette recherche est focalisée sur la biodepollution des sols contaminés par des métaux lourds. On a sélectionné des champignons et des plantes susceptibles d'accumuler les métaux lourds et de diminuer leurs quantités dans les sols pollués. L'effet toxique des boues industrielles contenant des quantités élevées de métaux lourds sur la croissance des champignons et des plantes a été déterminé. Les champignons métallo-tolérants peuvent survivre dans un milieu contenant jusque 30 g/l de métaux lourds. Une souche d'ascomycètes (penicillium expansum) peut accumuler environ 90 fois de métaux lourds par rapport au champignon témoin. Cependant, la quantité des métaux lourds retenue par ces micro-organismes, par rapport à leurs quantités totales, est négligeable. Certaines plantes cultivées ou spontanées présentent une grande tolérance aux sols contenant des doses élevées de métaux lourds. Parmi ces derniers certaines espèces montrent une capacité d'accumulation jusque 11 fois celle de plantes témoins. Ces plantes peuvent réduire la pollution du sol. Ces résultats confirment la réduction de la teneur des agents nocifs dans le sol. Ceci représente une première étape de la biodepollution du sol et contribue à la protection de l'environnement.

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... Toxic metals present in soils are also taken into account but do not play any physiological role in the plant. The trace elements: iron, zinc, copper, manganese are bivalent heavy metals (Malayeri, 1995) that participate in the nutrition of plants, animals and humans, as well as the macroelements calcium and magnesium. Trace elements are not dangerous and are necessary for life. ...
... At very low concentrations in the living tissues of plants and animals, they play important roles in metabolic reactions, coordinate the structure and stability of enzymes and proteins (Burdin, 2014). They can create metalprotein bonds and are capable of modifying the tertiary structure of the protein (Malayeri, 1995). The availability of trace elements in the organs of a plant strengthens its nutritional and therapeutic quality in relation to their role in biological reactions. ...
... The availability of trace elements in the organs of a plant strengthens its nutritional and therapeutic quality in relation to their role in biological reactions. At high concentrations of the toxic metals lead and cadmium in the soil, the plant absorbs these metals in preference to the essential elements iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium and manganese (Malayeri, 1995). ...
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Vernonia amygdalina is a vegetable widely used in nutrition and phytotherapy. Its toxicological quality poses real concerns for its use. Greenhouse cultivation is carried out with twelve batches of six vegetative vases in order to evaluate the soil-plant transfer. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry analysis allowed an investigation of the lead, cadmium and bivalent iron, magnesium, calcium, manganese, zinc and copper contents of the different plant organs. Lead and cadmium concentrations vary according to the concentration of the two metals in the crop soil. The lowest concentrations of lead and cadmium are found in the leaves, that are the most consumed part of the plant. In the leaves, cadmium (0.937-33.004ppm); lead (0.945-31.701ppm). Lead concentration is positively correlated with the trace elements iron (r = 0.465), manganese (r = 0.342), magnesium (r = 0.349); there is a weak correlation between cadmium and trace elements in leaves. In the stem, cadmium (0.145-96.680ppm); lead (0.050-288.364ppm). Lead and cadmium correlate respectively with zinc (r = 0.552; r = 0.547), manganese (r = 0.741; r = 0.708); iron (r = 0.432; r = 0.452). There is a strong negative correlation between cadmium-calcium r =-0.341. At root level cadmium (0.572-237.043); lead (2.594-151.358ppm). The following correlations can be observed: cadmium-copper r = 0.648; cadmium-zinc r =-0.379; cadmium-iron r =-0.412; lead-magnesium r = 0.369; lead-calcium r = 0.410. This study permits to orient the cultivation of this vegetable in order to guarantee its virtues and protect the consumers.
... But today, it is clear that some heavy metals are not only non-toxic, but only a small amount have a significant effect on the metabolism of living organisms (Dikilitas et al., 2016), (Chojnacka and Mikulewicz, 2014), (Zhuang, 2019). On the other hand, some lighter metals, such as beryllium with a specific gravity of 1.85 have a high toxicity (Malayeri, 1995). The ecotoxicological risk of metal contamination in nonagricultural terrestrial environments generally follows the path from soil to plant, then to animals and humans (Remon, 2006). ...
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Citation: M'hamdi Z., Sabiri M., Elhourri M., Amechrouq A. (2023) Thermal analysis and determination of the heavy metal content of the plant Urtica Dioica L. by atomic absorption spectroscopy, Mor. Abstract: Today, medicinal plants are still the primary reservoir of new drugs. They are considered an essential source of raw material for the discovery of new molecules needed for the development of future remedies. Among these plants, we find Urtica dioica L., which belongs to the Urticaceae family. It is a perennial herbaceous plant commonly known as "nettle" it has been reported to have various pharmacological activities like antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer effects. In the present work, we are interested in one hand, in valuing this plant which was harvested from the region of Meknes, by thermal and gravimetric analysis ATD/ATG to determine the loss of mass as a function of temperature. This phenomenon was confirmed by the calcination technique in a muffle furnace at different temperatures (110°C and 300°C, 600°C). on the other hand, after the calcination of the plants, detection of the heavy metal content by an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique was performed. The results obtained showed simultaneously high concentrations of Ca, K, Na, Li, and Cd and low concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn.
... Cadmium is a silvery white metal, is slightly bluish, is very malleable and ductile, is largely used in industrialized countries, is relatively rare, is not essential to the development of animal or plant organisms, and belongs to the family of transition metals [1,2]. On the other hand, its physical and chemical properties, close to those of zinc and calcium, allow it to cross biological barriers and accumulate in tissues. ...
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ABSTRACT Objective: The present study shows the beneficial effect of zinc 10 mg/kg + magnesium 10 mg/kg against cadmium poisoning at a dose of 15 mg/kg on biochemical parameters and neurobehavioral functions in Wistar rats during a period of 45 days. Methods: The experiment was carried out on 20 Wistar rats, weighing 180–232 g for an initial weight before starting treatment with cadmium. The rats are grouped in cages at a rate of 5 in groups: Group (1) control was supplied only with water. Group (2) contaminated with cadmium (Cd): Water plus oral administration cadmium dose 15 mg/kg/l. Group (3) contaminated with (Cd) dose 15 mg/kg/l in water plus magnesium (Mg) dose 10 mg/kg/l oral administration. Group (4) contaminated with (Cd) dose 15mg/kg/l in water plus zinc (Zn) dose 10 mg/kg/l oral administration. Results: The rats exposure to cadmium showed a very highly significant decrease in body weight of cadmium-contaminated rats (p<0.001) compared with the control group. Regarding the biochemical parameters, there was a very highly significant increase (p<0.001) in the cadmium group blood glucose level compared to the control group, a highly significant increase (p<0.01) in the group urea level. Cadmium compared to the control, a very highly significant increase (p<0.001) in the creatinine level of the cadmium lot compared to the control, a very highly significant increase (p<0.001) of transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) of the group cadmium relative to the control, complete blood count demonstrated a very highly significant increase (p<0.001) in the white blood cell count, the hematocrit of the cadmium lot compared to the control, a very highly significant decrease (p<0.001). The red blood cell and hemoglobin levels of the cadmium group compared to the control. A significant improvement (p<0.001), (p<0.01), and (p<0.05) of lots: Zinc, magnesium, cadmium + zinc, and cadmium + zinc compared to cadmium. However, the results obtained from the neurobehavioral tests reveal a significant elevation (p<0.001), (p<0.01), and (p<0.05) in the number of cells crossed, the number of straightening in the test. Open field in the group exposed to cadmium resulting in locomotors hyperactivity compared to the control and it is minimal in other groups treated with zinc and magnesium. On the other hand, the plus maze (labyrinth test) revealed a very highly significant increase (p<0.001), (p<0.01), and (p<0.05) of the time spent in the closed arms of the cadmium group compared to the control, a significant improvement (p<0.001), (p<0.01), and (p<0.05) of the lots: Zinc, magnesium, cadmium + zinc, and cadmium + zinc compared with cadmium. Conclusion: Subchronic cadmium toxicity has harmful effects on the biochemical, hematological, and neuro-behavioral parameters of Wistar rats, with the installation of anxiety that will lead to a depressive state, which will be reduced and improved by the antioxidant effect of zinc + magnesium. Keywords: Cadmium, Zinc, Magnesium, Wistar rats, Subchronic , Labyrinth test, Open field, Neurobehavioral.
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Ce travail de thèse a concerné l’évaluation des impacts écotoxicologiques de rejetsindustriels complexes issus de la filière du traitement de surface et de solutionssynthétiques mono- et polycontaminées sur la laitue Lactuca sativa L. Il est ainsimontré que les résultats des tests écotoxicologiques de germination des semences delaitue reflètent la variabilité de la composition chimique des rejets et de leuramélioration après traitement d’abattement de la charge métallique et/ou organique.Ces tests ont également permis de classer selon leur toxicité croissante certains ETM(Fe, Cr, Co, Cu, B, Al, F, Ni, Cd, Ag, Zn, Sn) et quelques molécules organiques (4NP,NAP, DBP, NP9). En revanche, quelle que soit la qualité chimique du rejet testé, lestaux de germination des semences et les élongations des plantules (principalement leslongueurs racinaires) dépendent de la variété de laitue choisie pour le test. Cetteobservation s’applique aussi aux solutions synthétiques métalliques monocontaminées.Ainsi, pour un même rejet, la Batavia dorée de printemps apparait plus résistante auxpolluants que la Kinemontepas et la Grosse Blonde Paresseuse, et que l’Appia (CE50estimées respectivement à ~99, 59, 43 et 25 %). Ces différences intraspécifiquess’observent également pour la composition interne et les tendances d’enrichissement encertains nutriments et ETM, malgré la présence de Cd dans le péricarpe de semences“vierges”.
The accumulation of the heavy metals in the soil received a particular interest because of their toxicity and retention time in the soil which is slower than in other compartments of the biosphere. Knowledge of the total concentration of metals in soils and sediments is frequently insufficient to ascertain environmental risk. Simple and sequential extractions are useful tools for estimating the mobility of metals. In this study we were interested in highly toxic metals such as cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, and zinc in the soil of a controlled dump and the witness soil as well as the sediment of this dump in order to assess the mobility of these metals and their toxicity. The physicochemical parameters pH, organic matter, total calcium, cation exchange capacity, and total nitrogen were determined on the samples. Results show that average contents of heavy metals exceed the threshold recommended by the AFNOR NF U 44-041 standard. The results of the sequential extraction of heavy metals in the composite samples of soil and sediment according to the Community Bureau of Reference method show that cadmiumis mainly associated with the exchangeable fraction (for sediment 77.7 % and for soil 40 %). Cadmium is therefore mainly associated with the mobile fraction and the risk of its transfer is high. Zinc is mainly bound to the metallic oxyhydroxides and carbonates, while Cu and Pb are mostly bound to organic matter and metallic oxyhydroxides in the proportions of 96.12 % (Cu) and 84.38 % (Pb), respectively.
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The uptake of Ni, Co, and Cu by the nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum troodii Boiss and the non-accumulator Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desv. were studied in pot trials using artificial rooting media with varying concentrations of the metals added as soluble salts, singly and in combination. The ability of five other Ni hyperaccumulating species of Alyssum to hyperaccumulate Co was also investigated. Leaves and stems of A. troodii accumulated Ni to almost the same extent (8000–10 000 μg g-1). In roots, the highest Ni concentration was 2000 μg g-1. In leaves of Au. saxatilis, the maximum Ni concentration was only 380 μg g-1 and the level in roots was even lower. In media containing Co, the maximum concentration of this element in A. troodii (2325 μg g-1) was ten times higher than in the non-accumulator species. Slightly less Co was found in stems and roots of both species. Among the other Ni hyperaccumulators, the maximum concentration of Co in leaves ranged from about 1000–8000 μg g-1. Copper concentrations were the same in all organs of both species when they were grown in copper-rich media and were in the range 40–80 μg g-1, showing that neither plant was capable of taking up Cu at levels comparable to those of Ni and Co. When both plants were grown in media containing equal amounts of both Co and Ni, the Co concentrations in plant organs were the same as for specimens grown in media containing Co only. However, the Ni levels were lower in both species. Uptake of Co therefore appeared to suppress Ni uptake. Pot trials showed that the order of tolerance was Ni>Cu>Co for A. troodii and Ni>Co≈Cu for Au. saxatilis, whereas the seedling tests showed the order to be Co>Ni>Cu. At metal concentrations ≥10 000 μg g-1, the overall tolerance of A. troodii was greater than that of Au. saxatilis which exhibited equally low tolerance to Ni and Cu. We conclude that in A. troodii, A. corsicum Duby, A. heldreichii Hausskn., A. murale Waldstein & Kitaibel, A. pintodasilvae T.R. Dudley, and A. tenium Hálácsy, Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation conveys the same character towards Co. This behaviour should be investigated in other hyperaccumulators of Ni and/or Co.
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A small number of wild plants that grow on metal-contaminated soil accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their roots and shoots. This property may be exploited for soil reclamation if an easily cultivated, high biomass crop plant able to accumulate heavy metals is identified. Therefore, the ability of various crop plants to accumulate Pb in shoots and roots was compared. While all crop Brassicas tested accumulated Pb, some cultivars of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern, showed a strong ability to accumulate Pb in roots and to transport Pb to the shoots (108.3 mg of Pb/g DW in the roots and 34.5 mg of Pb/g DW in the shoots). B. juncea was also able to concentrate Cr6+, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu in the shoots 58-, 52-, 31-, 17-, and 7-fold, respectively, from a substrate containing sulfates and phosphates as fertilizers. The high metal accumulation by some cultivars of B. juncea suggests that these plants may be used to clean up toxic metal-contaminated sites in a process termed phytoextraction.
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Addition of 5 micromolar Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) was inhibitory to 10 micromolar H(2)O(2)-supported Hill activity (dichlorophenolindophenol reduction) and O(2) evolution in membrane preparation from Anacystis nidulans. The reversal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) inhibition, in contrast to Cu(2+), by exogenously added catalase (EC suggested that the former cations were inhibitory to H(2)O(2) degradation. Ascorbic acid (20 micromolar) supported 27% of the Hill activity which was insensitive to DCMU (10 micromolar) and the remaining activity, attributable to the DCMU sensitive process, was sensitive to inhibition by Cu(2+) only. It is suggestive that the action site of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) is located between the electron donation sites of H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid, while that of Cu(2+) is located beyond it. Electron donation by reduced glutathione was insensitive to DCMU and Cu(2+), indicating that the action site of Cu(2+) is prior to its electron donation site. Further, the phenanthroline (10 micromolar) reversal of Cu(2+) inhibition of Hill activity suggested a tentative action site of Cu(2+) at the level of cytochrome.
The past three decades have seen a remarkable advance in the appreciation of the significant role played by the so-called ‘trace metals’ in the health and productivity of plants. The effort has been spread widely, from the macroecological viewpoint at one extreme, down to the molecular viewpoint and, encouragingly, some highly successful attempts have been made to deal with the intimate details of the actions of metal ions, both ‘essential’ and ‘toxic’ Whilst it is certainly true that real advances have been made over a broad front, it is also disturbingly true that the picture remains fragmented, and as with most areas of scientific research today, the sheer volume of experimental data now available makes it impossible to scrutinise more than a fraction of the existing material. The problem is aggravated by the constant necessity to make a critical re-appraisal of much published material, since it is sadly apparent that the quantity of data greatly outweighs its quality.
The effect of excess concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) on water relations in young sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was studied in water culture under greenhouse conditions. The accumulation of the heavy metals was more intensive in the root than in the shoot. The rates of heavy metal accumulation in root were arranged in the following decreasing order: Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb. Their transport into the above‐ground parts followed the order: Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Transpiration and relative water content were significantly decreased by excess concentrations of the heavy metals. The number of stomata per unit leaf area was increased while the size of the stomata was decreased. The concentration of free proline significantly increased in the leaves of intact plants as well as in leaf discs incubated in the presence of heavy metals. The concentration of soluble proteins decreased as well, particularly when plants were exposed to high concentrations of the heavy metals. It was concluded that excess concentrations of the heavy metals significantly affected plant water status, causing water deficit and subsequent changes in the plants. The most intensive effect on the plants was exerted by Cd, less intensive by Cu and Zn and the least intensive by Pb.
Corn plants, were water-cultured by varying pH and concentration of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and iron in nutrient solution containing graded levels of cadmium.The results obtained were summarized as follows:1) With an increase of the cadmium concentration, the cadmium content of plants increased and the total dry weight and grain yield decreased markedly in the absence of calcium. Under these conditions the addition of calcium or iron caused a decrease of the cadmium content, and an increase of the dry weight and grain yield. The pH and the addition of phosphorus or zinc had no notable effect on the cadmium uptake.2) The relationship between dry weight and cadmium content indicated that the critical cadmium content, above which plants suffer from the cadmium toxicity, was about 20 ppm on a dry matter basis, independent of treatments.3) Calcium or iron at an adequate concentration in nutrient solution are effective to depress cadmium uptake by corn plants.
Redox potential and pH are two of the major factors influencing the mobilization and immobilization of heavy metals in flooded soils and sediments, and their availability to plants. A system developed for growing plants in soil suspensions were redox potential and pH can be controlled was used to study the uptake of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Uptake of Cd and Pb by root and shoot tissue, and their translocation from root to shoot, was determined at six different redox potentials (-200, -100, 0, +100, +200, and +400 mV) and four pH values (5, 6, 7, and 8). The effects of redox potential and pH on the levels of water-soluble Cd and Pb in the soil suspensions were also studied. Almost all Cd entering the rice plants accumulated in the shoots. Total Cd uptake and shoot uptake increased with an increase in suspension redox potential and a decrease in pH. Water-soluble Cd in the soil suspension was significantly correlated with total plant Cd and Cd uptake by shoot. Total Pb uptake, including Pb associated with the roots, decreased with an increase in suspension redox potential and pH. Uptake of Pb by shoot decreased with an increase in pH. No definite redox potential effect was found on Pb uptake by the shoot. Lead was less mobile than Cd in the rice plants and was primarily associated with the roots. Water-soluble Pb decreased with an increase in redox potential and pH, and was significantly correlated with total plant Pb uptake and Pb uptake by shoot.
Continuing studies towards finding means of reducing the potentially hazardous dietary intake of excessive cadmium (Cd) via food crops involved a solution culture experiment wherein nine varieties of lettuce were subjected to various substrate Cd concentrations. Differential tolerance of varieties to phytotoxicity was not readily visible but a significant interaction of substrate Cd and variety was obtained for dry matter yields. Significant interactions indicated that response of tissue Cd concentration, total plant Cd uptake and translocation of Cd to the edible leaf portion were dependent on variety as well as substrate Cd. Evidence that Cd uptake and translocation are genetically controlled warrants the selection of varieties that assimilate the least Cd and translocate the least to the plant part used for human or animal consumption.
Rice plants (Oryza sativa var. ''Colusa'') were grown to maturity in pots containing a soil (Domino silt loam, pH 7.5, Xerollic calciorthid) amended with 1 percent sewage sludge enriched with variable amounts of CdSO/sub 4/ ranging up to 640 Cd/g. Two sets of soil cultures were used, one for rice under continuous flood and the other under nonflood conditions. Grain production for rice under flood management was relatively unaffected by the Cd treatment: 25 percent yield decrement was associated with a treatment of 320 Cd/g. Under nonflood management, however, a comparable decrement in grain production was observed with a treatment of only 17 Cd/g. The Cd content of mature leaves at early flowering varied from approximately 0.3 Cd/g for the controls to 2.8 Cd/g for plants receiving the highest Cd treatments. Leaf Cd values were slightly higher under the nonflood culture. The Cd content of the grain under nonflood management was approximately 55 percent greater than that of grain under flood management. The Cd content of mature leaves correlated with grain production (r = 0.872) for rice produced under either flood or nonflood culture. Chemical analysis of saturation extracts revealed greatly reduced Cd concentrations in soil solutions under flood management which may account for the greater tolerance of the cultivar to soil Cd under flood culture. This reduced availability of Cd in flooded soils is attributed to precipitation of CdS.
The degree of infection of onions with the vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae was strongly reduced by additions of zinc, copper, nickel or cadmium to the soil medium, and could be completely eliminated by heavy rates of application. A split pot experiment was used to show that zinc translocated within the plant from other roots was effective in decreasing infection levels. Despite this, clover plants growing on areas which had been heavily contaminated with metal were found to be strongly infected with mycorrhizal fungi. A comparison of G. mosseae isolated from these plants with the isolate used at Rothamsted showed the former to be much more tolerant of zinc and cadmium in the soil. There was some indication that mycorrhizal infection, particularly with the tolerant isolate, could protect plants against the effects of heavy metal additions. These infections might be very important in revegetation of polluted sites.
Perennial ryegrass was sown in flowing solution culture at 7, 6, 5 and 4 weeks before the addition of cadmium to the nutrient solution. The concentration of cadmium in solution was held constant at 0.01 ppm for the following 15 days during which period uptake by the 4 sets of plants of different ages was followed by plant analysis at 3-day intervals. During the 15-day period the total uptake per g (dry weight) root remained nearly constant. The cadmium content of the roots was much greater than that of the corresponding shoots and, although older plants contained more cadmium than younger plants, the proportion of the total content retained by roots was much the same in the 4 sets of plants,i.e. >90 per cent. It is concluded that the roots of ryegrass restrict the transport of cadmium to the shoots. The concentration in the shoots increased only slightly during the 15-day period but to a different extent amongst the 4 sets of plants. These differences reflect differences in growth rate; thus the shoots of the younger sets of plants had lower growth rates and contained correspondingly higher concentrations of cadmium.
Administration of cadmium to laboratory animals causes hypertension. Necropsy specimens of the liver and kidneys of human patients who had had hypertension were previously reported as showing elevated cadmium concentrations. In the present study living normal humans were found to have a blood-cadmium level of 3-4 +/- 0-5 ng/ml, while a matched group of living untreated hypertensive humans had a blood-cadmium of 11-1 +/- 1-5 ng/ml. All of the normal subjects had blood-cadmium levels below 8-0 ng/ml, while 13 of the 17 hypertensive patients had blood-cadmium levels over 8-0 ng/ml.
A study was made of cadmium and lead levels around a small secondary metal recovery factory as part of an environmental monitoring programme in a London borough. Lead levels were essentially typical for an urban environment whereas the levels of cadmium-in-air and in household dust gave rise to very considerable concern. Some of the problems associated with assessing the potential hazard and the steps taken to control the emission are considered. It is suggested that clearly-defined standards and procedures are necessary in order to deal efficiently with similar cases as they are discovered.
Residues of cadmium in the environment are of particular concern because of known toxicities of it and its compounds to human beings and animals. Cadmium is absorbed through the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic exposure has been shown to result in accumulations which cause serious decline of health and even death. This paper examines the man-made and natural sources of cadmium pollution of soil, water, and air and the mechanisms by which it enters the food chains of plants, animals, and man. 79 references, 1 figure, 14 tables.
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