Article

Video Content Marketing: The Making of Clips

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Abstract

Consumers have an increasingly wide variety of options available to entertain themselves. This poses a challenge for content aggregators who want to effectively promote their video content online through original trailers of movies, sitcoms, and video games. Marketers are now trying to produce much shorter video clips to promote their content on a variety of digital channels. This research is the first to propose an approach to produce such clips and to study their effectiveness, focusing on comedy movies as an application. Web-based facial-expression tracking is used to study viewers’ real-time emotional responses when watching comedy movie trailers online. These data are used to predict both viewers’ intentions to watch the movie and the movie’s box office success. The authors then propose an optimization procedure for cutting scenes from trailers to produce clips and test it in an online experiment and in a field experiment. The results provide evidence that the production of short clips using the proposed methodology can be an effective tool to market movies and other online content.

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... On the one hand, entertainment advertising provides consumers an opportunity to try the product prior to purchase. Trailers and video clips used across digital marketing channels are central advertising tools in the entertainment industry and are even relevant for entertainment products that rely less on visual elements, such as books (Arons, 2013;Karray & Debernitz, 2017;Liu et al., 2018). By watching these trailers, customers can experience a sample of the emotions that will be evoked when they consume the entire product (Liu et al., 2018), which should be effective in reducing their uncertainty. ...
... Trailers and video clips used across digital marketing channels are central advertising tools in the entertainment industry and are even relevant for entertainment products that rely less on visual elements, such as books (Arons, 2013;Karray & Debernitz, 2017;Liu et al., 2018). By watching these trailers, customers can experience a sample of the emotions that will be evoked when they consume the entire product (Liu et al., 2018), which should be effective in reducing their uncertainty. On the other hand, high advertising pressure, fostered by exceptionally high advertising budgets, provides a signal for the quality of the product (Basuroy et al., 2006;Vakratsas & Ambler, 1999). ...
... We could not compare advertising elasticities for specific, individual media (e.g., television versus social media). Further, many researchers have investigated the effects of the amount and the distribution of advertising budgets on the success of entertainment products, but differences in the advertisements themselves (e.g., specific advertising strategies) have received little attention (Karray & Debernitz, 2017;Liu et al., 2018;Rao et al., 2017). Our database further highlights that two control variables, star power and production budget, have been investigated only for movies, not video games, even though they are relevant in practice, which could be an interesting route for further research. ...
Article
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How does advertising affect supply and demand in the entertainment industry? Different advertising and distribution mechanisms and unique product characteristics limit the transferability of findings from other industries to the entertainment industry. This meta-analysis focuses on 290 documented elasticities, drawn from 59 studies of movies and video games, and establishes new findings and empirical generalizations. First, the average advertising elasticity in the entertainment industry is .33 (method bias-corrected .20), approximately three times higher than the average identified for other industries. Second, average advertising elasticities are higher for demand (e.g., revenue) than for supply (e.g., screens). Third, elasticities of pre-launch advertising are higher than those of overall advertising budgets, but with respect to the success period, elasticities are higher for later periods, and in total, compared to the launch period. Fourth, elasticities tend to be rather recession-proof and consistent across geographic regions but decreased after the rise of social media platforms.
... Online videos are digital audio-visual communication media that have become an essential part of today's digital communications and marketing (Liu, et al., 2018). We already know that videos or films are able to trigger consumer behaviour (e.g. ...
... In short marketing videos, we expected that visual cues affected consumers through less logical evaluation. Previous research (Liu et al., 2018) on short marketing videos pointed out that viewers experience a sample of emotions from the topic, product, or destination that a video aims to market. ...
... In video content marketing, the viewers of video clips experience a sample of emotions from reallife service experiences (Liu et al., 2018). Previous work has shown an increase in the understanding of human emotional contagion and context dependency, and it is being increasingly thought that emotions are an integral part of the choice and purchase behaviour of consumers (DuBrow et al., 2017;Knutson and Greer, 2008). ...
Article
By drawing from imagery and consumer choice theories, we examine how visuals of faces and social groups can foster behavioural intention and emotional effects in the case of nature tourism video marketing. We implemented an experimental study by creating three different videos with altering levels of human presence. Data were analysed using linear regression and partial least-squares path analysis methods. Unlike prior research had suggested, video content with fewer direct visuals of human beings was found to be more entertaining. Thus, scenery performed better than people as visuals in our destination marketing case. The visuals of faces and social groups had no effect on consumers’ behavioural intention or emotions, even if they did arouse feelings of social presence. Behavioural intention was mainly associated with entertainment value, while social presence had only a minor effect. Gender, nationality and outdoor activity also affected the media effects of videos, showing them to be complex and context-dependent phenomena.
... Despite the vitality and abundance of internet video advertisements, they are also short of effective method to attract the attention of consumers (Teixeira et al., 2012). Therefore, to better engage and maintain the attention of viewers in communication through digital channels, online content producers begin to create short video advertisements (featured by its limited length within 30, 20, or even 10 s) to promote the dissemination of product information and consumer purchase (Liu et al., 2018). A derivative of the Internet age, short video differs from the tradition long video in that filming and editing of a seconds-long video can be completed on mobile intelligent terminals and shared in real-time on social media platforms. ...
... However, few studies have been found to concern about changes and influencing factors in consumer behavior in relevant context. Although Liu et al. (2018) found that effective editing of short video scenes can enhance the willingness of consumers to watch the video. The findings of which are more applicable to the edition of old videos produced by brand owners, rather than to the creation of new ads, both showing significant difference (Diwanji and Cortese, 2020). ...
... For example, Tellis et al. (2019) found that drama, plot, characters, and surprise are positive factors that trigger emotions and sharing activities, while mood and music can build emotions and orientations (Yoo and MacInnis, 2005). More importantly, Liu et al. (2018) found that effective editing of rhythm, sequence, and sound in a short video can control the emotional experience of consumers and improve their willingness to watch. Generally speaking, except under some risky conditions, the emotional characteristics displayed in the ads will produce a greater impact on consumer behavior. ...
Article
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It is believed that stimulating the inspiration of short video consumers might be an effective way to attract and maintain the attention of consumers so that they are willing to respond positively to short video ads. Therefore, in order to explore the source of customer inspiration in short video and its cognitive psychological process, the text and grid data collected from an interview among 25 short video users have been qualitatively analyzed by Kelly Grid Technology in order to construct the formation path model of short video customer inspiration, and find out its source, triggering mechanism, and influencing factors. It is found that the inspiring informational content characteristics include richness, reliability, vividness, and fluency of emotional content characteristics, fun, novelty, and narrative. However, the characteristics of commercial content in short video ads hinder the inspiration of consumers. The study also reveals that an internal mechanism of inspiration stimulation is built on some cognitive processes (i.e., presence, processing fluency, perceived innovation, perceived convenience) generated by informational content, and emotional responses by emotional content (i.e., curiosity, surprise, enjoyment, etc.). In addition, it is shown that personal involvement enhances the relationship between the inspiring content characteristics and consumer inspiration. As a result, customer inspiration and engagement in short video ads are highly enriched. Findings provide implications for short video platforms and online marketers.
... Nonetheless, many prominent video-related applications have already emerged, e.g., predicting movie success (Eliashberg & Sawhney, 1994;Himes & Thompson, 2007), creating engaging video games (Wood et al., 2004), or explaining virality of commercials (Akpinar & Berger, 2017;Dessart & Pitardi, 2019;Simmonds et al., 2019;Tellis et al., 2019). Recently, a few researchers have started to work with automated video analyses (e.g., Liu et al., 2018). Automated analysis is important because it allows studying more observations to investigate more nuanced effects, interactions, or rarely occurring (but potentially important) events. ...
... However, we are not aware of a consolidated open-source video mining toolbox for business research. While some recent publications employ automated analyses (e.g., Liu et al., 2018), these are limited to specific subsets of video-based features (typically from 2-3) and often do not provide source code or utilize proprietary software services. We therefore consolidate feature extraction theory from both image-and video-related research to build an open-source tool to extract and aggregate video features that are relevant for the types of econometric models investigated in business research. ...
... Other popular use cases include various analyses of human behavior, such as frontline staff interactions (e.g., Marinova et al., 2018), in-store consumer behavior (e.g., Hui et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2014), or management performance (e.g., Choudhury et al., 2019;Gylfe et al., 2016). Moreover, previous research has employed video analyses to optimize video products such as movie clips (Liu et al., 2018) or TV shows (Hui et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Video content has become a major component of total internet traffic. Growing bandwidth and computational power conspire with an increasing number of video editing tools, smartphones, and online platforms that have facilitated video production, distribution, and consumption by businesses and consumers alike. This makes video content relevant across business research disciplines. However, analyzing videos can be a cumbersome manual task. Automated techniques are scattered across technical publications and are often not directly accessible to business researchers. This article synthesizes the current state of the art and provides a consolidated tool to efficiently extract 109 video-based variables, requiring no programming knowledge. The variables include structural video characteristics such as colorfulness as well as advanced content-related features such as scene cuts or human face detection. The authors discuss the research potential of video mining, the types of video features of likely interest, and illustrate application using a practical example.
... Marketers have examined an array of biometric data sources, including eye tracking (e.g., Pieters and Wedel 2004), electroencephalogram (e.g., Pozharliev et al. 2015), functional magnetic resonance imaging (e.g., Yoon, Gonzalez, and Bettman 2009), and emotion detection (e.g., Liu et al. 2018). A compelling aspect of biometric data is its real-time nature. ...
... The use of such data by marketers depends on its being made available by manufacturers. In discussing growth opportunities using biometric data, we focus on eye tracking (e.g., Pieters and Wedel 2004) and emotion detection (e.g., Liu et al. 2018), which can be implemented at scale. Methods are being developed and improved to detect emotions from individuals in a crowd (e.g., Favaretto et al. 2019). ...
... Until recently, methods for automated unstructured data analysis have been limited. While we have seen increased interest in automated analyses of textual data (Berger et al. 2020), the development of methods for visual (e.g., Liu, Dzyabura, and Mizik 2020), audio, and video data (e.g., Liu et al. 2018) lags. Moreover, the analysis of unstructured data must be conducted over time and linked to customer behaviors to assess the relationship between customer-firm interactions and retention. ...
Article
Marketing is the functional area primarily responsible for driving the organic growth of a firm. In the age of digital marketing and big data, marketers are inundated with increasingly rich data from an ever-expanding array of sources. Such data may help marketers generate insights about customers and competitors. One fundamental question remains: How can marketers wrestle massive flows of existing and nascent data resources into coherent, effective growth strategies? Against such a backdrop, the Marketing Science Institute has made “capturing information to fuel growth” a top research priority. The authors begin by discussing the streetlight effect—an overreliance on readily available data due to ease of measurement and application—as contributing to the disconnect between marketing data growth and firm growth. They then use the customer equity framework to structure the discussion of six areas where they see substantial undertapped opportunities: incorporating social network and biometric data in customer acquisition, trend and competitive interaction data in customer development, and unstructured and causal data in customer retention. The authors highlight challenges that obstruct firms from realizing such data-driven growth opportunities and how future research may help overcome those challenges.
... Nonetheless, many prominent videorelated applications have already emerged, e.g., predicting movie success (Eliashberg and Sawhney 1994;Himes and Thompson 2007), creating engaging video games (Wood et al. 2004), or explaining virality of commercials (Akpinar and Berger 2017;Dessart and Pitardi 2019;Simmonds et al. 2019;Tellis et al. 2019). Recently, a few researchers have started to work with automated video analyses (e.g., Liu et al. 2018;. Automated anal-ysis is important because it allows studying more observations to investigate more nuanced effects, interactions, or rarely occurring (but potentially important) events. ...
... However, we are not aware of a consolidated open-source video mining toolbox for business research. While some recent publications employ automated analyses (e.g., Liu et al. 2018;, these are limited to specific subsets of video-based features (typically from 2-3) and often do not provide source code or utilize proprietary software services. We therefore consolidate feature extraction theory from both image-and video-related research to build an open-source tool to extract and aggregate video features that are relevant for the types of econometric models investigated in business research. ...
... Other popular use cases include various analyses of human behavior, such as frontline staff interactions (e.g., Marinova et al. 2018), in-store consumer behavior (e.g., Hui et al. 2013;Zhang et al. 2014), or management performance (e.g., Choudhury et al. 2019; Gylfe et al. 2016). Moreover, previous research has employed video analyses to optimize video products such as movie clips (Liu et al. 2018) or TV shows (Hui et al. 2014). ...
Preprint
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Video content has become a major component of total internet traffic. Growing bandwidth and computational power conspire with an increasing number of video editing tools, smartphones, and online platforms that have facilitated video production, distribution, and consumption by businesses and consumers alike. This makes video content relevant across business research disciplines, including commercials, product presentations, and manager interactions. However, analyzing videos can be a cumbersome manual task. Automated techniques are scattered across technical publications and are often not directly accessible to business researchers. This article synthesizes the current state of the art and provides a consolidated tool to efficiently extract 109 video-based variables, requiring no programming knowledge for standard use cases. The variables include structural video characteristics such as colorfulness as well as advanced content-related features such as scene cuts or human face detection. The authors discuss the research potential of video mining, the types of video features of likely interest and illustrate application using a practical example.
... In step 4, we focused on the video track and used a face-detection model to measure the prevalence of human faces in the visual frames to detect possibility of on-the-screen communicators. In step 5, we developed measures that relate to the frame-by-frame, pixel-by-pixel variation to account for visual characteristics, following recent studies (e.g., Liu et al. 2018). In step 6, we analyzed the text descriptions of the project pages to derive project controls from the project webpages (e.g., Li et Figure 1 is a graphical overview of our parsing procedure and variable construction. ...
... We analyzed the frame-by-frame, pixel-bypixel characteristics of all visual frames to account for visual features that may affect consumer attention. Specifically, "Number of scenes" is a discrete measure to characterize the amount of visual information, based on a conceptualization of scenes as building blocks of videos (see Liu et al. 2018). "Visual variation" is a measure by Li et al. (2019) for the variation in visual imagery across frames, operationalized as a continuous metric of the change of pixels. ...
Article
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The authors posit that in an initial exposure to a broadcast video, hearing different voices narrate (in succession) a persuasive message encourages consumers’ attention and processing of the message, thereby facilitating persuasion; this is referred to as “the voice numerosity effect.” Across four studies (plus validation and replication studies)—including two large-scale, real-world datasets (with more than 11,000 crowdfunding videos and over 3.6 million customer transactions, and more than 1,600 video ads) and two controlled experiments (with over 1,800 participants)—the results provide support for the hypothesized effect. The effect (1) has consequential, economic implications in a real-world marketplace, (2) is more pronounced when the message is easier to comprehend, (3) is more pronounced when consumers have the capacity to process the ad message, and (4) is mediated by the favorability of consumers’ cognitive responses. The authors demonstrate the use of machine learning, text mining, and natural language processing to process and analyze unstructured (multimedia) data. Theoretical and marketing implications are discussed.
... On-demand media consumption has shifted dramatically in the past 20 years, transforming the landscape of consumer behaviour (Liu et al., 2018). The Internet has disposed of traditional barriers of content distribution and management, and the new emerging patterns of media consumption are often dubbed as 'binge watching,' where individuals are found to consume condensed media content over an extended period (Schweidel & Moe, 2016). ...
... Their findings advance viewers' interpretation of recommendation and consumption adoption behaviour, whereas viewers with less experience are particularly susceptible to algorithmic manipulation (Srinivasan & Sarial-Abi, 2021). In contrast to social and behavioural science-based research, the psychological literature has focused on the perception of online streaming content as a unit of analysis (Liu et al., 2018). ...
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The management literature has extensively studied viral marketing in the last decade; however, there is a lack of research in understanding network structures and the role of influencers within popular cultural consumption, such as on-demand digital media and binge-watching. In this article, we investigate the role of social media in popularising the East Asian dystopian cultural drama Squid Game. We studied this phenomenon by analysing social network structures, dynamics and influencer characteristics that transformed Squid Game into a popular global digital cultural consumption sensation. Stemming from the foundational theories of popular culture binge-watching, network theory and the social media echo chamber effect, we demonstrate how careful ‘seeding’ and ‘broadcasting’ behaviour adopted by Netflix and key influencers helped the ‘reciprocal merging’ of creative media content within the broader social media space. Our study found that 13,727 Twitter users were tweeting or mentioned on the day show was released. Our research findings further present the characteristic of individual group-based echo chambers and their role in value co-creation towards expanding the network boundary through e-WOM. This phenomenon led to the show’s unprecedented popularity amongst a global audience within a short period. Contributions of our work expand viral marketing and echo-chamber concepts into the binge-watching and popular digital culture realm, where the interplay between dramatized Asian and Western dystopian social norms provided the very fabric of user-led promotion and value co-creation.
... Second, advances in artificial intelligence (AI) permit capturing and analyzing the massive amount of unstructured and structured data from the video footage not previously possible (Syam & Sharma, 2018). Whereas, for instance, the current literature that examines the "service with a smile" maxim relies on human raters to manually code the facial expressions of frontline employees (Du, Fan, & Feng, 2011;Pugh, 2001;Wang et al., 2017), recent efforts deploy convolutional neural networks to automate the facial coding process, extract the sender's facial expressions, and subsequently associate visual and/or verbal signals with business outcomes (Choudhury, Wang, Carlson, & Khanna, 2019;Liu, Shi, Teixeira, & Wedel, 2018). ...
... Peterson et al. (1995) draw on linguistic theory to extract how a sender conveys his message, and the characteristics of the sender's delivery yield another set of variables (e.g., rate of speech, fundamental frequency contour, and loudness variability). To assess facial activity, researchers (e.g., Liu et al., 2018) rely on Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System (FACS) to categorize a set of emotional displays (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger). The presence of the face in a video and the six basic emotions generated in FACS yields distinct 7 variables. ...
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B2B buyers are exhibiting an increased preference to transact digitally with vendors. A topic which has yet to receive sufficient academic attention in this modern selling environment is salesperson communication effectiveness. Accordingly, this article: 1) defines digital sales interactions (DSIs) as technology-enabled, face-to-face buyer-seller exchanges; 2) proposes a typology of DSIs to set the stage to examine salesperson communication effectiveness; 3) introduces a framework that reifies the sender's auditory and visual cues that can influence receivers' thoughts (i.e., cognition, affect, intention) and activity (i.e., purchase behavior, advocacy); 4) suggests theoretical lenses that can illuminate various aspects of the salesperson's communication barrage; 5) advances how machine learning can be applied to understand what constitutes effective communication in a digital interaction by asking: to what extent does what a salesperson says (auditory cues) and how s/he says it (visual cues) impact her/his effectiveness in a DSI?; and 6) concludes by noting promising future research directions for B2B marketing researchers.
... With the rapid development of online live stream in recent years, consumers can choose more and more entertainment and shopping methods. Marketers are also looking for more attractive livestreaming e-commerce content to facilitate dissemination across digital channels and platforms (Liu et al., 2018). Data show that livestreaming e-commerce industry of China has made a huge leap since 2017, with the output value increasing by 400% yearon-year. ...
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Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, this paper studies the impulsive consumption mechanism of consumers participating in livestreaming e-commerce from the perspectives of information source characteristics and social presence and examines the mediating effect of flow experience and the moderating effect of time pressure. Based on the consumption data of 268 live shoppers, multiple regression analysis and Bootstrap method were used to test the research hypothesis. The empirical results show that the credibility, professionalism, attractiveness, and interactivity of live information sources have significant positive impacts on consumers’ flow experience and impulsive consumption intention. Furthermore, coexistence, communication and emotional presence of social presence have a significant positive impact on consumers’ flow experience and impulsive consumption intention. Flow experience plays part of the mediating role in the process of the characteristics of livestreaming information sources and social presence affecting consumers’ impulsive consumption intention, while time pressure has a positive moderating effect in the relationship between livestreaming information source characteristics and coexistence presence and flow experience. The higher the time pressure, the stronger the promotion of live information source characteristics and coexistence presence on flow experience. This study enriches the research literature on the consumption driving mechanism of livestreaming e-commerce and offers practical enlightenment and reference to improve the effectiveness of livestreaming e-commerce anchors. It is also one of the first studies to apply the theory of flow and social presence to the impulsive consumption intention of livestreaming e-commerce.
... WoM, which is part of the marketing communication strategy, will be designed and prepared as part of supporting promotional activities. Various forms of stimulants can cause WoM, such as Video clips or clips (Liu et al., 2018), Stories on the platform content (Kanuri et al., 2018), or very well-known examples of Farmville and Cityville games (Schulze et al., 2013). With massive distribution, excellence can be achieved in Fast, Easy and Cheap. ...
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This research was conducted to examine the mediating role of information dissemination (seeding) in the relation between marketing campaigns (content feeding) and electronic word of mouth (eWOM). The research object is three marketing campaigns from three online marketplaces in Indonesia, named: Shopee, Tokopedia, and Bukalapak. A model was built to test and evaluate and test the mediation effect existence. The number of participants was involved in this research is 200 participants, and they answer the specific question related to the research. We found that all regression path in the models is significant, that indicate direct and indirect effect happened simultaneously. Our conclusion is information dissemination (seeding activity) playing an important role as a partial mediating variable. Other implications and future research discussed. Keywords — E-WoM, Marketing Campaign, Content Feeding, Content Seeding
... Additionally, it will be interesting to see how these methods translate to an ever-increasing amount of video content becoming available and relevant for marketing activities (e.g., YouTube Shorts, TikTok, or streaming platforms such as Twitch). As videos are essentially a sequence of images, some papers included in our comparison take advantage of convolutional neural networks for video analysis already (e.g., Lu et al. 2016;Liu et al. 2018;Li et al. 2019;Schwenzow et al. 2021;Cheng and Zhang 2022). Furthermore, many marketing applications are also interested in object detection (e.g., logos, other marketing assets) and studying the impact of presence, size, and location. ...
... Recent studies in this nascent stream of literature investigate videos on Kickstarter and Netflix to optimize the outcome of projects (Liu et al. 2018;Li, Shi and Wang 2019). Future studies may investigate whether our results may be extended to social media platforms focusing on video content (e.g., TikTok). ...
Article
With users increasingly spending time on social media platforms, firms are expanding their activities to cover more than one platform. Each has a unique vernacular—its popular communication style—which increases the need for firms to use platform-specific content optimization. This study distinguishes between textual and visual content intentions, depending on the degree of informative and affective appeals used. We examine how congruency between visual content and platform type and textual content affects users’ sharing. We distinguish between hedonic platforms, such as Facebook, primarily used for entertainment and social interaction, and utilitarian platforms, such as Twitter, primarily used for receiving timely information. We develop a new approach to examine how textual and visual content composition affects users’ sharing behavior across platforms. Based on this new approach, we analyze posts by S&P 500 members operating on Facebook and Twitter. Our results show that posts with visual content congruent with the primary user intent of the platforms are more likely to be shared. Furthermore, Facebook users prefer affective textual and visual content, while Twitter users are more inclined toward a combination of informative visual and affective textual content.
... We utilized various machine learning methods to measure four sets of control variables relating to persuasion, following prior research. These are controls to account for (1) audial features of the video (e.g., Goldberg, Chattopadhyay, Gorn, and Rosenblatt, 1993), (2) linguistic features of the spoken verbal content (Pennebaker et al., 2015), (3) project-level characteristics (Li et al., 2019) and (4) visual elements (Liu et al., 2018;Li et al, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
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Voiceover narration is a production technique commonly used in reward-based crowdfunding videos. We posit that in these videos, hearing more narrator voices describing the crowdfunding product can systematically influence consumers' attention and processing of the message, thereby facilitating persuasion. We employed a multi-method approach, including experimentation, natural language processing, text mining, and machine learning. Results across four studies-including real-world datasets and controlled experiments-show that the effect (1) has consequential, economic implications in a real-world marketplace, (2) is more pronounced when the message is easier to comprehend, and (3) is more pronounced when consumers have the capacity to process the narrated message. Substantive and theoretical implications are discussed.
... This part can be extracted as a bumper ad. Also, automated facial recognition systems can help identify the segment of the ad to feature in the ad (Liu et al. 2018). ...
Article
Using an experimental tool that tracks viewers’ real-time ad-skipping behavior, the current research tested when and why a highly arousing emotional appeal ad that induces a set of complex discrete emotions can reduce the ad-skipping rate on social media platforms such as YouTube. Across three experiments, we showed the following results. First, the ad-skipping rate of emotional appeal ads was lower among consumers who had the goal of watching emotional (versus informational) videos. Second, ad-elicited empathy mediated this effect. Third, the effects of the emotional appeal ad on ad-skipping behaviors were contingent upon consumers’ predisposition to approach emotional experiences. Among consumers who were seeking emotional experiences, higher levels of empathy resulted in lower adskipping rates and longer ad-viewing duration when the emotional appeal of the ad matched with the emotional goal of video watching; in contrast, among consumers who were not seeking emotional experiences, the opposite effect was found.
... In summary, most of the important textual features ranked in our top 30 are consistent with the prior literature. The amount of textual words and words relating to money, perception, cognitive information or thinking, risk, reward and relativity (time and space) Li et al. (2019) report the significant effect of the existence and duration of video and face presence for crowdfunding success, while Liu et al. (2018) identify the impact of scene (shot) count on movie viewers. As a new measure in the video content literature, the amount of visual information at object and action level in video across all video scenes is also important (15th). ...
Article
Purpose For the case of many content features, This paper aims to investigate which content features in video and text ads more contribute to accurately predicting the success of crowdfunding by comparing prediction models. Design/methodology/approach With 1,368 features extracted from 15,195 Kickstarter campaigns in the USA, the authors compare base models such as logistic regression (LR) with tree-based homogeneous ensembles such as eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and heterogeneous ensembles such as XGBoost + LR. Findings XGBoost shows higher prediction accuracy than LR (82% vs 69%), in contrast to the findings of a previous relevant study. Regarding important content features, humans (e.g. founders) are more important than visual objects (e.g. products). In both spoken and written language, words related to experience (e.g. eat) or perception (e.g. hear) are more important than cognitive (e.g. causation) words. In addition, a focus on the future is more important than a present or past time orientation. Speech aids (see and compare) to complement visual content are also effective and positive tone matters in speech. Research limitations/implications This research makes theoretical contributions by finding more important visuals (human) and language features (experience, perception and future time). Also, in a multimodal context, complementary cues (e.g. speech aids) across different modalities help. Furthermore, the noncontent parts of speech such as positive “tone” or pace of speech are important. Practical implications Founders are encouraged to assess and revise the content of their video or text ads as well as their basic campaign features (e.g. goal, duration and reward) before they launch their campaigns. Next, overly complex ensembles may suffer from overfitting problems. In practice, model validation using unseen data is recommended. Originality/value Rather than reducing the number of content feature dimensions (Kaminski and Hopp, 2020), by enabling advanced prediction models to accommodate many contents features, prediction accuracy rises substantially.
... A total of 10 studies confirmed that consumers' purchase behavior was affected because of their exposure to digital brand content. In this regard, consumers indicated a purchase intent because of, for example, ease of use, convenience, usefulness, perceived enjoyment, perceived convenience, valuable, timely, and alluring content (Al-Gasawneh & Al-Adamat, 2020; Barry & Gironda, 2019;Gao, 2018;Järvinen & Taiminen, 2016;Liu et al., 2018;Lou et al., 2019;Mathew & Soliman, 2020). When celebrities endorsed digital brand content, e-sales increased (Geng et al., 2020). ...
Article
Notwithstanding the body of research on the characteristics and benefits of content marketing as a digital marketing strategy, evidence of how online consumer behavior is affected by digital brand content remains inconclusive. The current state results from the scattered and fragmented literature about content marketing which impedes a full understanding of scientific results that confirm the effect of content marketing activities on online consumer behavior. The purpose of this scoping review was therefore to provide a broad synopsis of pertinent studies in a structured and comprehensive way over 12 years. The scoping review upheld the five-stage framework of Arksey and O’Malley and was guided by the principles of PRISMA-ScR and the JBI Methodological guidelines. In doing so, the findings from 32 studies conducted in 21 different countries were analyzed and suggestions made for future research. The results not only synthesize existing empirical evidence of the causal linkage between content marketing and online consumer behavior but also identify some knowledge gaps in the literature to guide future studies.
... For example, many papers study how ads change TV tuning in large field samples (Danaher 1995, Shachar and Emerson 2000, Goettler and Shachar 2001, Wilbur 2008, Schweidel and Kent 2010, Swaminathan and Kent 2013, Wilbur 2016. A distinct literature studies how ads change viewer attention and emotion in small laboratory samples (Zhang et al. 2009, Teixeira et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2018. A third literature studies ad viewing in small-scale ethnographic samples (Jayasinghe and Ritson 2013, Voorveld and Viswanathan 2015). ...
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This paper uses data from a new technology that passively and continuously measures TV viewer presence and attention, enabling the first distinction between true ad exposures from ads that air to empty rooms.
... Researchers may also deploy EEG in contemporary, digital contexts in order to detect and assess real-time responses to particular scenes in online videos. This is, for instance, especially valuable for movie trailers since their optimization is vital for viewers' intention to watch the movie (see Liu et al., 2018). Another aspect where EEG is practically relevant is an examination of the narrative dynamics of ads. ...
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Existing literature compares neuromarketing and traditional methods, making the questionable assumption that these are monolithic measurement alternatives all serving the same, predictive purpose. This study examines and empirically challenges this notion by relying on a neuroscientific perspective and a robust empirical study to examine the correspondence of expanded sets of diverse electroencephalogram (EEG) and survey advertising indicators. The key findings are that EEG and survey indicators measure different kinds of emotions (and attention) and that the newly developed, momentary EEG indicators are superior to the conventional, aggregated ones. The findings suggest that moment-to moment EEG advertising indicators, such as peak emotions during branding moments, distinctively enhance advertising effectiveness evaluation and enhancement.
... Video technologies provide a sample of affective visuals from real-life experiences (X. Liu et al., 2018), whereas VR technologies create not only samples from real-life experiences but also the sense of a real-life environment with stronger impressions among users (Yeo et al., 2020). ...
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Aim/Purpose: This case study examines students’ affective responses to and relationships with two-dimensional (2D) and 360° videos that were experienced with or without low-cost virtual reality (VR) headsets. Background: The prior research on low-cost VR technology is scant. Schools and universities are not financially able to purchase tens or hundreds of expensive inbuilt VR headsets. Therefore, we recommend an alternative, low-cost solution. Methodology: We conducted the experiment with students’ (N=100) responses to videos and VR technologies used in a higher education setting. We also applied a quantitative research approach examined in light of media richness and affective experience theories. Contribution: This study provides evidence of the integral role that VR technologies and 360° video content play, because using low-cost VR headsets potentially decreases the initial affective experiences of 360° videos among students. Although VR headsets improve media richness, they might simultaneously weaken students’ overall affective experiences if they experience usability challenges. Findings: The results showed that using low-cost VR headsets decreased positive user experiences when they were watching 360° videos. The 360° video experience was noted to be better without low-cost VR headsets. Low-cost VR headsets with a smartphone and 360° videos were found to be complicated to set up and use among first-time users. However, 360° videos created a more positive affect than did 2D videos. We also found that the positive affect of videos enhanced the social sharing intention. Recommendations for Practitioners: Educational institutes and teachers with limited financial budgets need to plan and manage courses that increases their need to adopt low-cost VR headsets. However, a poor initial user experience of low-cost VR technology usability might create negative student attitudes, which might hinder VR’s adoption rate in higher education. Recommendation for Researchers: This study provides a new understanding about students’ affective experiences of 2D videos and 360° videos with and without low-cost VR headsets. The results show that positive user experiences of 2D and 360° videos enhance students’ interest in sharing and collaboration in digital learning environments. Impact on Society: The results help educators to predict possible usability challenges in selecting the proper rich media for different learning situations. Additionally, the results assist educators to design VR assisted courses that motivate students. Future Research: The experimental comparison of different VR solutions and traditional learning technologies merits further examination. Additionally, more research is needed to determine the relationship of VR technologies, video content and learning methods, because technological features and content are tightly integrated in VR.
... Las redes sociales, teniendo en consideración la atención flotante de los usuarios (Liu et al.;, apuestan por contenidos que destacan por su brevedad, dinamismo, musicalización y uso de colores y recursos visuales de impacto (Lin et al., 2017), consolidándose estas como un objeto de estudio constantemente vinculado con los jóvenes. Piscitelli (2010), Colás et al. (2013), Bernal y Angulo (2013) y Pérez Tornero et al. (2015, entre otros, han advertido acerca de la preferencia de los jóvenes por este tipo de plataformas; llegando incluso a abandonar otros espacios informativos por la atracción de la comunicación instantánea que potencian las redes (Schwarz, 2011). ...
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El populismo ha experimentado un crecimiento preocupante en la última década en diferentes enclaves del planeta. Este proceso, de cariz globalizador, se ha visto potenciado por las características de inmendiatez, interacción y participación de las redes sociales, los cibermedios y otras plataformas digitales. En este contexto, la percepción que la juventud confiere a este tipo de fenómenos constituye un campo de estudio de gran interés para las Ciencias Sociales. Partiendo de ello, esta investigación examina las correlaciones entre las actitudes populistas, la percepción de la opinión pública y las opiniones sobre los medios de comunicación en estudiantes de Ciencias de la Comunicación de Colombia y España. Metodología: A partir de un enfoque exploratorio-correlacional y un diseño cuantitativo sobre una adaptación del instrumento de Schultz, Wirth y Müller (2020), la presente investigación ha analizado las reflexiones y las prioridades de un grupo de n=499 estudiantes de grados y postgrados afines a Ciencias de la Comunicación de Colombia y España. Conclusiones: El estudio ha corroborado el papel protagónico que desempeñan las redes sociales en la formación de opiniones radicales, al tiempo que detecta una caída del influjo de la televisión entre el público joven. Además, el trabajo establece que el índice de percepción de la opinión pública resulta mayor en España, mientras que el de percepción mediática o el de actitudes anti-elitistas son superiores en Colombia. Se concluye que la media literacy es una estrategia crucial frente al crecimiento y expansión del populismo.
... Social networks, taking into account the floating attention of users (Liu et al.;, bet on content that stands out for its brevity, dynamism, musicalization and use of colors, and impactful visual resources (Lin et al., 2017), consolidating themselves as an object of study constantly linked to young people. Piscitelli (2010), Colás et al. (2013), Bernal andAngulo (2013), andPérez Tornero et al. (2015), among others, have warned about the preference of young people for this type of platform; even going so far as to abandon other informational spaces due to the attraction of instantaneous communication promoted by networks (Schwarz, 2011). ...
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This research examines the correlations between populist attitudes, perception of public opinion, and opinions about the media in students of Communication Sciences in Colombia and Spain. Methods: Based on an exploratory-correlational approach and a quantitative design, this research has analyzed the reflections and priorities of a group of n=499 undergraduate and graduate students related to Communication Sciences in Colombia and Spain. Results: The study has confirmed the leading role played by social networks in the formation of radical opinions while detecting a decline in the influence of television among young audiences. In addition, the study establishes that the index of public opinion perception is higher in Spain, while the index of media perception or anti-elitist attitudes is higher in Colombia, and there is no clear link between populist attitudes and a political ideology of extremes. Conclusions: The correlations examined note a tendency towards disaffection and discredit towards politics in general, especially by the young population, which affects actors and institutions. It alludes to the preference of this population group for interacting and informing themselves on digital platforms and presents populist attitudes, without clear ideological identification, but with a clear tendency towards simplification of messages, thus emphasizing the need to educate the critical view of citizens and to work on media literacy as a crucial strategy against the growth and expansion of populism.
... Further research might test the impact of moderators' TFL language use on member participation in larger ICs that explicitly provide no financial compensation. Fourth, in addition to textual data, which represent important, unstructured data sources, other types of unstructured data might be informative, such as images or videos (e.g., Liu et al., 2018;Villarroel Ordenes et al., 2019). Information extracted from these unstructured data sources could deliver new insights on how to steer member participation in ICs. ...
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... Currently, nearly 1,000 photos are posted on Instagram each second, and more than 50 billion photos have been posted to date (Aslam 2021). As a result, many marketing scholars have begun to address important marketing problems using either image (e.g., Burnap et al. 2020, Dew et al. 2019, Dzyabura and Peres 2021, Guan et al. 2020, Hartmann et al. 2021, Li and Xie 2020, Li et al. 2019, Liu et al. 2017b, Liu et al. 2020, Malik et al. 2019, Peng et al. 2020, Shin et al. 2020, Troncoso and Luo 2020, van der Lans et al. 2021, Xiao and Ding 2014, Zhang et al. 2014, Zhang et al. 2017, Zhang et al. 2021 or video (e.g., Liu et al. 2018, Lu et al. 2016 Berger 2019, Teixeira et al. 2012, Teixeira et al. 2014, Tellis et al. 2019 Jedidi 2020, Zhang et al. 2020) data. ...
Preprint
Recent advancements in computational power and algorithms have enabled unabridged data (e.g., raw images or audio) to be used as input in some models (e.g., deep learning). However, the black box nature of such models reduces their likelihood of adoption by marketing scholars. Our paradigm of analysis, the Transparent Model of Unabridged Data (TMUD), enables researchers to investigate the inner workings of such black box models by incorporating an ex ante filtration module and an ex post experimentation module. We empirically demonstrate the TMUD by investigating the role of facial components and sexual dimorphism in face perceptions, which have implications for four marketing contexts: advertisement (perceptions of approachability, trustworthiness, and competence), brand (perceptions of whether a face represents a brand's typical customer), category (perceptions of whether a face represents a category's typical customer), and customer persona (perceptions of whether a face represents the persona of a brand's customer segment). Our results reveal new and useful findings that enrich the existing literature on face perception, most of which is based on abridged attributes (e.g., width of mouth). The TMUD has great potential to be a useful paradigm for generating theoretical insights and may encourage more marketing researchers and practitioners to use unabridged data.
... How can studios reach large audiences with meaningful messages in such an environment? Research on social media sentiment and topics in the context of films has shed initial light on this issue (Kupfer 2018;Liu et al. 2018), but the ever-proliferating variety of channels (TikTok!) points to a need for more research. The difficulty of reaching audiences in this pinball environment on a limited budget has also contributed to the demise of smaller productions. ...
... Wang et al. [4], e.g., found CM effectiveness in the B2B domain to depend on the frequency of customers' content consumption. Taiminen and Ranaweera [9] identified specific helpful brand actions, i.e. approaching content marketing with a problemsolving orientation, as increasing the effectiveness of B2B content marketing. With respect to consumers and branded social content, Ashley and Tuten [10] identified frequent updates, incentives for participation, as well as experiential, image and exclusivity messages to be associated with effectiveness. ...
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Content marketing has gained momentum around the world and is steadily gaining importance in the marketing mix of organizations. Nevertheless, it has received comparatively little attention from the scientific community. In particular, there is very little knowledge about the effectiveness, optimal design and implementation of content marketing. In this study, the authors conceptualize content marketing as a set of activities that are embedded in and contingent on the specific organizational context. Based on this framework, the authors empirically investigate the context features determining content marketing effectiveness from a managerial perspective, using primary data collected from senior marketers in 263 organizations from various sectors and across different size categories, conducting multiple regression analysis. The empirical results indicate that clarity and commitment regarding content marketing strategy and a content production in line with the organization’s target groups’ content needs as well as normative journalistic quality criteria are context factors associated with higher content marketing effectiveness. The outcomes also reveal that regularly measuring content marketing performance and using the data obtained as guidance for improving content offerings positively influence content marketing effectiveness, as do structural specialization and specialization-enabling processes and systems. The insights provided in this study could offer important theoretical contributions for research on content marketing and its effectiveness and may help practitioners to optimize the design and implementation of content marketing initiatives.
... As online video content is proliferating, scholars have undertaken an increasing number of studies evaluating videos. Prior research has analyzed attitudes towards YouTube advertising, the likeability of online video advertisements (Liu, Shi, Teixeira, & Wedel, 2018), and online video advertising characteristics influencing purchase intention (Dehghani, Niaki, Ramezani, & Sali, 2016). However, despite the growing importance of video content on platforms such as Kickstarter, YouTube, Instagram, and TikTok, video analysis is still in its infancy, and most researchers use human coding to extract video characteristics (Jain, Rakesh, & Chaturvedi, 2018). ...
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Crowdfunding entrepreneurs increasingly use videos to present their venture and themselves to potential investors. To do this effectively, they consciously or unconsciously use several impression management techniques. Based on human and automated (AI-based analysis) of technology-related videos, we determine which impression management techniques help crowdfunding creators to attract a higher number of backers and meet their financial targets. Our results indicate that self-presentation and exemplification techniques are positively associated with crowdfunding success, while intimidation is negatively related to crowdfunding success. Our findings show that automated analysis of videos using advanced AI can replace human coding since measures based on human coding become insignificant when AI-based measures are included in the analysis. This illustrates the insights companies can create through the large scale automated analysis of video content using AI, including outside of a crowdfunding context.
... product reviews on Youtube). This can be used to extract content from audio and video, similar as with text data (Li, Shi, & Wang, 2019;Liu, Shi, Teixeira, & Wedel, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Attitudes, perceptions, and intentions of a firm's customers, which can be captured via customer feedback metrics (CFMs), provide valuable information about the state of a firm's customer base. CFMs can help capture the impact of marketing actions on future customer behavior and future firm performance, and thus can help make marketing become more accountable. CFMs have received much attention in marketing research and business practice since the 1970s. In this chapter, we provide a short historical overview of the development of, and research about, CFMs, we classify the different types of CFMs, we highlight the empirical findings of the drivers and consequences of CFMs, and we explore how CFMs can be integrated in a firm's customer dashboard in order to make marketing more accountable. We furthermore explore some of the challenges in accurately measuring CFMs, and in the end of this chapter, we provide information on how to capture CFMs in the age of social listening via modern tools involving text-, voice-, and video-mining.
... Similarly, recent research has developed approaches to analyze images (e.g., Liu, Xuan et al. 2018), either characterizing the content of the image or identifying features within an image. Research into the impact of the combination of text and images is sparse (e.g., Hartmann et al. 2019). ...
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The horror franchise [Rec] (2007-2014) is one of the most remarkable accomplishments in 21st century Spanish cinema. While banking on transnational modes of address such as the ‘found footage’ aesthetics and the imperfect look of digital technology, these films also build upon existing traditions within Spanish cinema and television. At the same, from an financial standpoint, it is the most successful Spanish franchise ever in the international arena while obtaining sizeable box-office receipts in the domestic market. This article analyzes how the [Rec] saga deploys a variety of discourses to appeal to horror aficionados while utilizing popular cultural artifacts to engage national audiences. Firstly, it situates [Rec] within the history of recent Spanish cinema, scrutinizing the generic hybridity at the core of several post-1990 national film products to ultimately study how this interplay will turn central in the constant re-articulation of the franchise. Secondly, it positions [Rec] within the transnational rise of the ‘found footage’ horror subgenre, contextualizing it by analyzing other significant efforts such as The Blair Witch Project. Thirdly, it explores this transnational dimension through a detailed analysis of the different films’s marketing campaigns and how they relate to other products like Quarantine (2008), US remake of the first Spanish film. In this regard, it approaches how [Rec] conceptualizes film spectators as Internet, socially networked, users who participate in diverse, complementary, discourses across multiple online platforms.
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Producing compelling film content profitably is a top priority to the long-term prosperity of the film industry. Advances in digital technologies, increasing availabilities of granular big data, rapid diffusion of analytic techniques, and intensified competition from user-generated content and original content produced by subscription video on demand platforms have created unparalleled needs and opportunities for film producers to leverage analytics in content production. Built upon the theories of value creation and film production, this article proposes a conceptual framework of key analytic techniques that film producers may engage throughout the production process, such as script analytics, talent analytics, and audience analytics. The article further synthesizes the state-of-the-art research on and applications of these analytics, discuss the prospect of leveraging analytics in film production, and suggest fruitful avenues for future research with important managerial implications.
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Conference Paper
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The paper concerns accuracy of emotion recognition from facial expressions. As there are a couple of ready off-the-shelf solutions available in the market today, this study aims at practical evaluation of selected solutions in order to provide some insight into what potential buyers might expect. Two solutions were compared: FaceReader by Noldus and Xpress Engine by QuantumLab. The performed evaluation revealed that the recognition accuracies differ for photo and video input data and therefore solutions should be matched to the specificity of the application domain.
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Several existing unconditional methods for setting confidence intervals for the difference between binomial proportions are evaluated. Computationally simpler methods are prone to a variety of aberrations and poor coverage properties. The closely interrelated methods of Mee and Miettinen and Nurminen perform well but require a computer program. Two new approaches which also avoid aberrations are developed and evaluated. A tail area profile likelihood based method produces the best coverage properties, but is difficult to calculate for large denominators. A method combining Wilson score intervals for the two proportions to be compared also performs well, and is readily implemented irrespective of sample size. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This book is a bold theoretical account of the role of emotions and cognition in producing the aesthetic effects of film and television genres. It argues that film genres are mental structures that integrate sensations, emotions, and actions, activating the viewer's body and mind. Using recent developments in neuroscience and cognitive science, in combination with narrative theory and film theory, the author provides an alternative account to that offered by psychoanalysis explaining identification and the correlation of viewer reaction with specific film genres. The book concludes with an analysis of the emotional structures of comic fiction, metafiction, crime fiction, horror, and melodrama. It is unique in describing a wide range of problems and issues within film studies, from a cognitive, neurophysiological, and ecological point of view.
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Concludes that frequent movie goers use previews more than any other information source as the basis of their selections. (FL)
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This research demonstrates the positive effects of moment-to-moment entertainment and the negative effects of moment-to-moment information value on consumers' likelihood to continue watching during a television commercial. A notable finding is that both the entertainment and the information value have a strong multiplicative effect on the probability to stop viewing.
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This research examines the effect of distractions while sampling a food item on the subsequent choice of that item. Drawing upon research on pain, we present a two-component model, which predicts that distraction may decrease subsequent choices for the sampled item. The model asserts that the ultimate pleasure arising from the taste of a food sample depends on two components, one informational and the other affective. Further, the model proposes that distraction increases (decreases) the impact on subsequent choice of the affective (informational) component. We provide support for the two-component model from three experiments and rule out several alternative accounts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This work examines how people form evaluations of extended experiences that vary in valence and intensity. It is documented that when people retrospectively evaluate such experiences, not all information is weighted equally. Some prior research demonstrates that earlier parts are weighted more than later parts, while other research shows the opposite. In this paper we suggest that differences in evaluation tasks shift the focus to different aspects of the experience, causing individuals to be differentially influenced by earlier or later parts of the experience. We show that ratings of feelings (hedonic evaluation tasks) lead to stronger preferences for improving experiences than do evaluative judgments (informational evaluation tasks), suggesting that later aspects of the experience are weighted more heavily in affective tasks. In addition, we investigate other evaluation tasks, demonstrating that whether the task is descriptive or predictive and whether the target of the evaluation is the source of the experience or the experience itself also alter the weight given to different parts of the experience. Our studies demonstrate systematic shifts driven by these different evaluation task, revealing changes in overall evaluations as well as changes in the underlying weighting of key characteristics of the experience (i.e., start, end, and trend). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.