ArticlePDF Available

Effect of Selenium in Treatment of Male Infertility

Authors:
Article

Effect of Selenium in Treatment of Male Infertility

Abstract and Figures

Mossa M Morbat1, Azzawi M Hadi2* and Dekhel H Hadri3
1Department of Physiology, Tikrit Medical Collage, Iraq
2Department of Surgery, Tikrit Medical Collage, Iraq
3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University, Iraq
*Corresponding author: Azzawi M Hadi, Department of surgery, Tikrit Medical Collage, Iraq, Tel: 9.64771E+12; Email:
Submission: December 10, 2017; Published: March 23, 2018
Effect of Selenium in Treatment of Male Infertility
Introduction
The infertility rates vary between countries and from region to
regions [1]. It is documented that around 15% of married couples
are infertile and that approximately 50% of infertility is due to male

12 months of regular unprotected intercourse [3,4]. Spermatozoa
like all cells living in aerobic conditions, constantly face the oxygen
(O2) paradox: O2 is required to support life, but its metabolites
such as Reactive Oxygen Species ROS can modify cell functions,
endanger cell survival or both [5]. Hence, ROS must be continuously
inactivated to keep only a small amount necessary to maintain
normal cell functions [6]. Malondialdehyde MDA is reactive species
occurs naturally and is a marker for oxidative stress [7]. Glutathione
itself also plays an important role in the protection of cells against
oxidative and electrophilic stress caused by ROS and radiation [8,9].
Zinc salts have been shown to protect against oxidative damage and
glutathione depletion in mice.
Testosterone synthesis is zinc dependent in human. The sperms
 
  
        
affect oxidative stress due to decrease in glutathione & increase in
MDA in both semen & serum [11,12]. (Se) is an essential dietary
micronutrient required for maintenance of male fertility. [13] About

        
The biological functions associated with selenium besides male
fertility include prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, viral
mutation, endocrine and immune function as well as modulating

of selenium on male reproduction. Hurst et al .reported that fertile

than infertile men. This study shows the importance of selenium
in male reproduction and the probable relationship between male
infertility and selenium [16].
Materials and Methods
A longitudinal study in which samples were obtained from
urology clinic in Tikrit teaching hospital, private clinic, from 1-11-
2009 to 1-9-2010. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain the
information from the infertile men before semen analysis which
       
Research Article
Experimental Techniques in
Urology & Nephrology
CCRIMSON PUBLISHERS
Wings to the Research
1/4
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Azzawi M Hadi.
Volume 1 - Issue - 5
Abstract
Infertility is a problem of global proportions. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 8-12% of couples around the world experience


Materials and methods: A longitudinal study involves 12 infertile men were treated with Selenium capsule 50microgram (one cap.) once daily
at night. The treatments continued for 3months. History and clinical examination with semen analysis, as well as serum and seminal plasma study for

Statistical analysis done.
Results and discussion:     
 
          
results supported by many studies published that explained and conclude the effect of selenium on semen quality.
Conclusion: Selenium can be used as a single agent in treatment of male infertility.
Keywords: Selenium; Male infertility; Semen analysis
Exp Tech Urol Nephrol
Copyright © Azzawi M Hadi
2/4
How to cite this article: Mossa M M, Azzawi M H, Dekhel H H. Effect of Selenium in Treatment of Male Infertility. Exp Tech Urol Nephrol. 1(5). ETUN.000521.
2018.
Volume 1 - Issue - 5
operation, chronic disease and genetic problem. Twelve infertile
men were treated with capsules containing selenium (50micg)
once daily. MDA determination is based on the colorimetric
reaction with Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA) at 90-100 °C and pH 2-3
for 15minutes to form pink color product, which can be measured

Tikrit University.
        
method of Tietz, 1999, and depended procedure on used Elleman’s
solution. Semen or serum (GSH) were performed at the Central
        
        
      
magnesium concentrations in human plasma and semen were
determined in North Gas Company by means of atomic-absorption
spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis done.
Results and Discussion
The sperm count, motility, viability & normal morphology are
       
(Table 1). Present study supported these results that low dietary
intake of antioxidants (Se) and high levels of oxidizing agents in
semen have been associated with decreased motility, count, viability
and abnormal morphology in both human and animal sperm
[17]. Wong et al. [18]. Show that antioxidants may be particularly
important in protecting human sperm from peroxidative damage
due to the high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in sperm.
Akinloye et al. [19] examined the selenium status of idiopathic
infertile Nigerian males. In this study, selenium concentrations in
the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia
and 20 azoospermia) and 40males with proven evidence of
fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated by atomic
absorption spectrophotometry.
Table 1: Changes in semen parameters before and after treatment with selenium.
Parameters Before$ After$ % Increase
Sperm count Million/ml 39.24±27.4 *58.1±21.6 32.70%
Sperm motility % 22.14±12.9 *50.7±17.6 56.30%
Sperm viability % 32.14±12.2 *60±19.1 46.40%
Normal Sperm morphology % 68±5.7 *82.1±6.4 17.10%
 2.2±0.57 *3.61±0.32 39%
$=mean+/- standard deviation *=(p<0.01)
The results of the study were correlated with spermatogram
and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship
to male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium
         
    
correlation was also observed between serum selenium levels and
sperm count. It was also observed that seminal plasma selenium
levels correlated with sperm motility, viability and morphology.
However, in a double-blind study of infertile men with reduced
sperm motility, supplementation with selenium (100 mcg per day

selenium in testis appears to underlie the impaired male fertility.
        
selenium in the diet results in increased oxidative stress negatively
affecting spermatogenesis [22].
Table 2: Changes in seminal plasma element before and after treatment with selenium.
Semen Parameters Before Ttreatment$ After Treatment$ % Increase
Zn (µg/dl) 44.43±7.0 *68.55±5.4 35.10%
Mg (µg/dl) 25.57±2.2 *33.5±2.83 23.60%
MDA (µmol/l) 5.812±0.296 *2.212±0.35 
Glutathione (µmol/l) 8.27±1.34 *12.01±1.04 
$=mean+/- standard deviation *=(p<0.01)
In another study, 69 infertile Scottish men were given either
selenium or selenium in combination with vitamins A, C and E for
three months. At the end of the clinical trial, all the patients showed
       
reported that selenium by itself protected against oxidative DNA
damage in human sperm thereby enhancing sperm motility and

of semen zinc & Mg, parameters post-treated in each infertile men

the effectiveness each treatments.
       
selenium. In a study conducted by Keskes- Ammar et al. [24]
it was observed that vitamin E and selenium supplementation
     
glutathione concentrations in infertile men. Table 3 shows that
       
3/4
How to cite this article: Mossa M M, Azzawi M H, Dekhel H H. Effect of Selenium in Treatment of Male Infertility. Exp Tech Urol Nephrol. 1(5). ETUN.000521.
2018.
Exp Tech Urol Nephrol
Copyright © Azzawi M Hadi
Volume 1 - Issue - 5
infertile men after treatment with selenium 0.837±0.11 comparing
this increment with the levels before treatment 0.61±0.12 with
a recorded increments of up to 27.1%. In regard the serum Mg
      
patients treated by selenium 19.43±2.03 as compared with before
treatment 15.22±2.9. The study observe an increase in serum Mg
up to 21.6%.
Table 3: changes in serum element before and after treatment with selenium.
Serum Parameters Before Treatment$ After Treatment$ % Increase
Zn (µg/dl) 0.61±0.12 0.837±0.11 27.10%
Mg (µg/dl) 15.22±2.9 *19.43±2.03 21.60%
MDA (µmol/l) 5.55±0.75 *2.398±0.47 56.70%
Glutathione(µmol/l) 7.398±0.68 *10.61±0.42 30.20%
$=mean+/- standard deviation *=(p<0.01)
Table 4: Changes in serum hormonal levels before and after treatment with selenium.
Serum Parameters Before Treatment$ After Treatment$ % Increase
FSH mlU/ml 5.24±1.22 *7.83±0.88 33%
 5.22±0.63 *7.78±0.79 32.90%
testosterone ng/ml 8.58±1.73 *11.23±0.9 23.50%
$=mean+/- standard deviation *=(p<0.01)
        
treatment with selenium. It was also observed that serum selenium
levels showed a positive correlation with serum testosterone levels
(Table 4). The authors concluded that selenium appears to have a

testosterone [19]. It also could be due to indirect effect mediated
by increase level of serum zinc. Selenium is considered to be
essential for normal spermatogenesis of mammals and the critical
role it plays is principally mediated by two selenoproteins, namely
Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase (PHGPx) and

     
multiple functions and representing an important link between
selenium, sperm quality and male fertility [21].
References
1. Wiersema N, Drukker A, Dung M (2006) Consequences of infertility in
developing countries: results of a questionnaire and interview survey
in the South of Vietnam. J Transl Med 4: 54.
2. Chaudhury K, DAS T, Chakravarly B, Bhattacharyya A (2005) Acrosin
activity as a potential marker for sperm membrane characteristics in
unexplained male infertility. Fertile Steril 83(1): 104-109.
3. Gracia CR, Sammel MD, Coutifaris C, Guzick DS, Barnhart KT (2005)
Occupational Exposures and Male Infertility. Am J Epidemiol 162(8):
729-733.
4. Philippov OS, Radionchenko AA, Bolotova VP, Voronovskaya NI, Potem-
kina TV (1998) Estimation of the prevalence and causes of infertility in
western Siberia. Bull World Health Organ 76(2): 183-187.
5.      
     
effects. Hum Repord 10(supply 1): 15-21.
6. Sies H (1993) Strategies of antioxidant defence. Eur J Biochem 215(2):
213-219.
7. Janero DR (1990) “Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactivity
as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and per oxidative tissue in-

8. Beckett GJ ,Hayes JD (1993) Glutathione S-transferases: biomedical ap-
plications. Adv Clin Chem 30: 281-380.
9. Shan XQ, Aw TY, Jones DP (1990) Glutathione-dependent protection

10. Stoltenberg M, Ernst E, Andreasen A (1996) Histochemical localization
of zinc ions in the epididymis of the rat. The Histochemical Journal
28(3): 173-185.
11. 
in human semen. Andrologia 30(6): 317-323.
12. Nair N, Bedwal S, Prasad S, Saini MR, Bedwal RS (2005) Short-term

epididymis of rats. Indian J Exp Biol Sep 43(9): 786-794.
13. 
and reproduction. Bio Factors 10: 251-256.
14.       
Braunwald E, Wilson J and Martin B (Eds.), Harrison’s Principles of In-
ternal Med. (13 edn), New York, McGraw Hill, USA.
15. Beckett GJ, Arthur JR, Millier SM, McKenzie RC (2004) Minerals and
immune responses-selenium in diet and human immune function.
-
na Press, United States, pp. 217-240.
16. Hurst R, Bao YP, Ridley S (1999) Phospholipid hydroperoxide cyste-
ine peroxidase activity of human serum albumin. Biochem J 338(pt 3):
723-728.
17.      
individual antioxidants of sperm and seminal plasma in fertile and in-
fertile men. Fertil Steril 67(1): 142-147.
18. Wong WY, Thomas CM, Merkus JM, Zielhuis GA, Steegers-Theunissen
RP (2000) Male factor subfertility: possible causes and the impact of
nutritional factors. Fertil Steril 73(3): 435-442.
19.          
(2005) Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males. Biol
Trace Ele Res 104(1): 9-18.
20. Scott R, MacPherson A, Yates RW, Hussain B, Dixon J (1998) The effect
of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. Br J Urol
82(1): 76-78.
Exp Tech Urol Nephrol
Copyright © Azzawi M Hadi
4/4
How to cite this article: Mossa M M, Azzawi M H, Dekhel H H. Effect of Selenium in Treatment of Male Infertility. Exp Tech Urol Nephrol. 1(5). ETUN.000521.
2018.
Volume 1 - Issue - 5
21. Ursini F, Heim S, Kiess M, Maiorino M, Roveri A (1999) Dual func-
tion of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation. Science
285(5432): 225-228.
22. Shalini S, Bansal MP (2005) Role of selenium in regulation
of spermatogenesis: involvement of activator protein 1. Biofactors
23(3): 151-162.
23. -
ally exposed to lead. Am J Ind Med 22(4): 567-571.
24. 
(2003) Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and
selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men. Arch Androl
49(2): 83-94.
For possible submissions Click Here Submit Article
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0

Experimental Techniques in Urology & Nephrology

High-level peer review and editorial services
Freely accessible online immediately upon publication
Authors retain the copyright to their work

Visibility through different online platforms
... Supplementation with Se (200 µg) in combination with vitamin E (400 units) improved sperm motility, morphology, and induction of spontaneous pregnancy in over 50% of cases after 14 weeks of combined therapy. This was also confirmed by another study in which a group of 12 infertile men were administered Se in 50 µg (1 capsule) once a day for 3 months [164]. After the therapy, there was a significant increase in sperm count, mobility, viability, normal sperm morphology, and ejaculate volume. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous factors affect reproduction, including stress, diet, obesity, the use of stimulants, or exposure to toxins, along with heavy elements (lead, silver, cadmium, uranium, vanadium, mercury, arsenic). Metals, like other xenotoxins, can cause infertility through, e.g., impairment of endocrine function and gametogenesis or excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The advancement of nanotechnology has created another hazard to human safety through exposure to metals in the form of nanomaterials (NMs). Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a specific ability to penetrate cell membranes and biological barriers in the human body. These ultra-fine particles (<100 nm) can enter the human body through the respiratory tract, food, skin, injection, or implantation. Once absorbed, NPs are transported to various organs through the blood or lymph. Absorbed NPs, thanks to ultrahigh reactivity compared to bulk materials in microscale size, disrupt the homeostasis of the body as a result of interaction with biological molecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins; interfering with the functioning of cells, organs, and physiological systems; and leading to severe pathological dysfunctions. Over the past decades, much research has been performed on the reproductive effects of essential trace elements. The research hypothesis that disturbances in the metabolism of trace elements are one of the many causes of infertility has been unquestionably confirmed. This review examines the complex reproductive risks for men regarding the exposure to potentially harmless xenobiotics based on a series of 298 articles over the past 30 years. The research was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases searching for papers devoted to in vivo and in vitro studies related to the influence of essential elements (iron, selenium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, copper, and molybdenum) and widely used metallic NPs on male reproduction potential.
... This importance is due to its role in testosterone biosynthesis, and consequently, in the typical development and formation of spermatozoa (9). To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid and selenium on male reproductive hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone (10,11). The findings of several studies conducted by numerous researchers showed the strong capacity of vitamin C and selenium to reduce the stress effects in living creatures (12,13). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background:Hydatid cyst is a disease that is transmitted from the lactating animals that come into contact with a person, and its danger is to generate hydatid cysts that may put pressure on some vital organs in the human body. Here comes the role of joint infection with other pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, especially in the same organs that are infected with the parasite, which may result from these mixed infections serious disease complications Aim of study: The present study aimed to examine the possibility of a relationship between interleukin-8 concentration level with the size of Hydatid cyst patients with mixed infection of hydatidosis and hepatitis C virus. Patients and Methods: The current research was run for the period January 2019 to January 2020. The patients were referred to AL-Furat al-awsat Hospital , Al-Sadder medical city, Public Health Laboratory and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf governorate, Iraq. Eighty samples were divided into two groups. This frst group was comprised of 40 patients with hydatidosis, the second group comprised of 40 patients with hydatidosis and hepatitis c virus mixed infection. The patients were aged 10 to 60 years old. Result: A higher interleukin-8 concentration was observed in patients with hydatidosis compared to the healthy group, as the interleukin-8 concentration was (89.36) While the concentration of interleukin- 8 reached in the healthy group (30 .14) ,while A high concentration of interleukin 8 is observed in combined infection of hydatidosis and hepatitis C virus compaer with healthy group ,As the concentration of interleukin 8 in the combined infection of hydatidosis and hepatitis C virus (108.73) while in the healthy group (30.14 ). Conclusion: The presence of a high level of interleukin-8 in mixed-infection patients is higher than in single-infection patients, which may lead to exacerbation and complications of hydatidosis disease.
... A deficiency of this trace element results in poorer quality sperm. Morbat et al. [151] observed that in 12 infertile men, who were given 50 µg Se/day for three months, sperm quality had improved in terms of number, viability, motility, and spermatozoa morphology. The same conclusions were reached in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) performed in Scotland, Tunisia, and Iran. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review answers the question of why selenium is such an important trace element in the human diet. Daily dietary intake of selenium and its content in various food products is discussed in this paper, as well as the effects of its deficiency and excess in the body. Moreover, the biological activity of selenium, which it performs mainly through selenoproteins, is discussed. These specific proteins are responsible for thyroid hormone management, fertility, the aging process, and immunity, but their key role is to maintain a redox balance in cells. Furthermore, taking into account world news and the current SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, the impact of selenium on the course of COVID-19 is also discussed. Another worldwide problem is the number of new cancer cases and cancer-related mortality. Thus, the last part of the article discusses the impact of selenium on cancer risk based on clinical trials (including NPC and SELECT), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Additionally, this review discusses the possible mechanisms of selenium action that prevent cancer development.
... Recently, Table 5 Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for abnormal sperm parameters and seminal plasma metals/metalloids levels (μg/L). Morbat and colleagues showed that Se supplementation was associated with significant improvement of sperm parameters (Morbat et al., 2018). According to these evidences, we found that blood and seminal plasma Se levels were lower in men with abnormal sperm parameters. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Exposure to metals/metalloids, including essential and nonessential elements, has been associated to male reproductive health in animals. However, findings from human studies are inconsistent. Objectives To investigate the impact of exposure to multiple metals/metalloids at environmental levels on the conventional human semen-quality parameters. Materials and methods Men living in rural or industrial areas were recruited by personalized letters. No exclusion criteria were applied. Each man provided one semen sample and one blood sample. We analyzed the semen sample both to determine conventional sperm parameters (concentration, progressive motility and normal forms) and to quantify lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V) and selenium (Se) levels. The levels of these metals/metalloids were also quantified in venous blood and spermatozoa samples. Associations between the blood/seminal plasma metal/metalloid levels and semen quality parameters were assessed using confounder adjusted logistic regression models. Correlation and interactions between blood/seminal plasma and semen metal/metalloid levels were investigated using the Spearman’s correlation. Results We found a positive association of seminal plasma cadmium level with lower Total count (OR = 4.48, 95%CI 0.25–80); whereas lead (OR = 4.51, 95%CI 0.86–23) and cadmium (OR = 3.45, 95%CI 0.77–16) seminal plasma levels had a positive association with progressive sperm motility. Overall, these associations remained suggestive after adjustment, though statistically unstable risks. Finally, we found weak interactions between beneficial effects of Se and detrimental ones only for Cd and Pb blood level on sperm concentration, total sperm count and progressive sperm motility. Conclusions Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to Pb and Cd contributes to a decline in human semen quality, whereas Se can have beneficial effects. Measurements of metals/metalloids in the seminal fluid may be more predictable of semen quality than conventional blood measurements
... During spermatogenesis, however, GPx4 crosslinks to other proteins and becomes an integral part in the mid-piece of spermatozoa, where Se is mainly located [223]. Consequently, in mammals, Se deficiency has been associated with impaired sperm motility [224], morphological alterations [225,226] up until infertility [227]. ...
Thesis
Selenium (Se) nutrition in rainbow trout broodstock and their F1 progeny fed plant-based diets was studied. The diets were unsupplemented or added with 0.3 ppm Se as inorganic (sodium selenite) or organic (hydroxy-selenomethionine, OH-SeMet). Parental Se, especially as organic form, improved reproduction performance and increased body Se levels in the progeny before first feeding. In the F1 progeny, tissue Se distribution was modified pending on parental and dietary Se level and form. OH-SeMet efficiently raised muscle Se content, but the direct sodium selenite feeding resulted in higher liver Se levels. In short-term the antioxidant system including glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was supported by parental OH-SeMet, even if a decreased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was also noticed. We found that parental Se can cause long-term modifications in the glutathione metabolism that even persist after the beginning of exogenous feeding. Fingerling showed lower stress tolerance towards hypoxia when originating from parents fed Se-supplemented diets, but direct Se feeding increased stress resistance. The contrary effect observed between direct and parental Se nutrition on the GPx and antioxidant system might relate to a nutritional programming effect, where either the progeny of the control group compensated the low dietary Se levels or the fry originating from Se-supplemented groups was less tolerant towards low dietary Se levels. Epigenetic modifications can underlay nutritional programming effects and indeed we found that the liver DNA methylation pattern at swim-up fry stage was sensitive towards the parental Se regime in terms of both Se level and form. Genes identified in the study point towards several metabolic pathways that might be affected by parental Se nutrition. Overall, this work highlighted modifications in short and long term of different metabolic pathways including antioxidant system by parental and dietary Se in rainbow trout fry in interaction with dissolved oxygen levels, which could allow further optimization of new feed formulations for broodstock and fry stages.
... Also, in this research, it was demonstrated that the addition of different levels of Nano Selenium to freezing medium was able to reduce free radicals and increase the motility and viability of post-thaw sperm (Keshtgar et al. 2016). The reduced ram semen MDA when using Nano-Se in the present study is agreed with findings in previous studies (Safa et al., 2016;Morbat et al. 2017;Hozyen et al. 2019;Khalil et al. 2019 andAbd-Allah andHashem 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of Nano selenium as antioxidant was studied on ram semen. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 months from 4 rams. Extenders were supplemented with Nano selenium (1 and 2 µg/ml) and no antioxidants (control group). The frozen sperm samples were stored for 30 days. Sperm viability, total motility and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, abnormal sperms and the damage of acrosome membrane were measured on days 0, 15 and 30 of storage and level of Malondialdehyde on day 30. The results showed that 1 µg/ml Nano-Se significantly increased the percentage of viability, total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity (HOST) and decreased acrosome membrane damaged and abnormal sperms compared to 2 µg/ml Nano-Se and control groups (P < 0.01). Storage time of 30 days compared to 0 and 15 days decreased significantly viability, total and progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity (P < 0.01), and increased the percentage of sperms and acrosome membrane damage (P < 0.01). The amount of lipid peroxidation (nmol/ml) in Nano selenium 1 µg (0.508 ± 0.098) and 2 µg (0.878 ± 0.098) was less than the control group (1.17 ± 0.098, P < 0.01). It can be concluded that the addition of 1 µg/ml Nano-Se to extender improved the post-thawing quality and oxidative variables of ram semen during storage. Highlight • Nano Selenium reduced MDA after freeze-thawing. • Nano Selenium improved motility rate after freeze-thawing. • Nano Selenium improved plasma membrane integrity after freeze-thawing.
... In a longitudinal study on 125 men with infertility, a positive correlation between seminal plasma selenium levels and sperm count and motility were observed and low levels of semen selenium were associated with male infertility [27]. Similarly, a recent study explored the impact of selenium (50 μg/day) for 3 months showed an increment in sperm concentration, motility, and morphology [44]. Administration of selenium to rats with varicocelectomy also improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased MAD levels [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress (OS) is a key contributing factor in 30–80% of male infertility cases. To date, several antioxidant treatments have been put forth to manage OS-induced male infertility. This study intended to elucidate the impact of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and selenium on seminal fluid parameters and antioxidant status in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT). In this prospective study, 70 patients with idiopathic OAT were randomly allocated to receive CoQ10 (200 mg/day) or selenium (200 μg/day) for 3 months. Semen quality parameters (following WHO guidelines, 5th edition), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were compared before and after the treatment. The results of the study showed an increase in sperm concentration with CoQ10 treatment (p < 0.01) as well as increased progressive sperm motility (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) and total sperm motility (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) with CoQ10 and selenium treatment respectively. There was also a significant improvement in TAC (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) and SOD (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) following treatment with CoQ10 and selenium respectively while CAT improved only with CoQ10 therapy (p < 0.05). Sperm concentration, motility, and morphology also correlated significantly with TAC, SOD, and CAT (r = 0.37–0.76). In conclusion, treatment with CoQ10 (200 mg) or selenium (200 μg) could improve sperm concentration, motility, and antioxidant status in infertile men with idiopathic OAT with CoQ10 providing the higher improvement.
Article
Background The influence of essential nutrients such as calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) on male fertility has been extensively studied. For reproductive health, adequate spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and motility, as well as optimal sperm function, these essential elements are required. Several pathologic and male infertility disorders have been linked to an imbalance of these elements. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between essential and toxic elements, such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg Se, and Zn, as well as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in human biological samples, such as blood, serum, and seminal plasma, from 96 referent male adults aged 21 to 49 years, who were further divided into three age groups. The biological samples of Eunuch people (n= 37), ranging in age from 21 to 42 years, were also analysed for comparison. The method of acid digestion was controlled by a microwave oven. The essential and toxic elements in the oxidised biological samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Certified reference material of blood and serum was being used to validate the methodology's accuracy. Result The Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Zn concentrations in blood and serum samples of Eunuch people were found to be lower, whereas Cd, Pb, and Hg levels were significantly higher than those found in data from normal adult male subjects (p 0.001). The results reveal that the concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Zn in the seminal plasma of adult male participants in the younger age group (21-29) were higher than those in the older age groups (30-39) and (40-49). Although essential trace element levels in Eunuch people's biological samples were significantly lower than those observed in adult male subjects. Conclusion Essential elemental deficiency and elevated levels of toxic heavy metals in all biological fluid samples may have significant negative effects on human reproductive health (sperm quality and function), leading to male infertility.
Article
Endocrine disruptor chemicals are exogenous molecules that generate adverse effects on human health by destabilizing the homeostasis of endocrine system and affecting directly human reproductive system by inhibiting or activating oestrogenic or androgenic receptors. Endocrine disruptor chemicals generate transgenerational epigenetic problems, besides being associated with male infertility. Epidemiological data indicate that the increase in reproductive problems in males in the last 50 years is correlated with the increase of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment, being associated with a decrease in semen quality and direct effects on spermatozoa, such as alterations in motility, viability and acrosomal reaction, due to the generation of oxidative stress, and have also been postulated as a possible cause of testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Diverse antioxidants, such as C and E vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, selenium and natural vegetable extracts, are among the alternatives under study to counter the effects of endocrine disruptor chemicals. In some cases, the usage of them has given positive results and the opposite in others. In this review, we summarize the recent information about the effects of endocrine disruptor chemicals on male reproduction, on sperm cells, and the results of studies that have tested antioxidants as a strategy to diminish their harmful effects.
Chapter
Full-text available
Within the male reproductive system, oxidative stress (OS) has been identified as prevailing etiology of male infertility. The effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on male fertility depend on the dimensions, “modus operandi” of the ROS and the oxido-reduction potential (ORP) of the male reproductive tract. Hereupon, for an adequate response to OS, the cells of our body are endowed with a well-sophisticated system of defense in order to be protected. Various antioxidant enzymes and small molecular free radical scavengers, maintain the delicate balance between oxidants and reductants (antioxidants), crucial to cellular function and fertility. Therapeutic use of antioxidants is an optimal and coherent option in terms of mitigating OS and improving semen parameters. Therefore, recognizing and managing OS through either decreasing ROS levels or by increasing antioxidant force, appear to be a requesting approach in the management of male infertility. However, a clear defined attitude of the experts about the clinical efficacy of antioxidant therapy is still deprived. Prominently, antioxidant such as coenzyme Q10, vitamin C and E, lycopene, carnitine, zinc and selenium have been found useful in controlling the balance between ROS production and scavenging activities. In spite of that, healthy lifestyle, without smoke and alcohol, everyday exercise, reduction of psychological stress and quality well-designed meals, are habits that can overturn male infertility.
Article
Full-text available
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have beneficial or detrimental effects on sperm functions depending on the nature and the concentration of the ROS involved, as well as the moment and the location of exposure. Excessive generation of ROS in semen, mainly by neutrophils but also by abnormal spermatozoa, could be a cause for infertility. Hydrogen peroxide is the primary toxic ROS for human spermatozoa. Low concentrations of this ROS do not affect sperm viability but cause sperm immobilization mostly via depletion of intracellular ATP and the subsequent decrease in the phosphorylation of axonemal proteins. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide induce lipid peroxidation and result in cell death. On the other hand, the superoxide anion appears to play a major role in the development of hyperactivation and capacitation. The observations that: (i) exogenously generated superoxide anions induce hyperactivation and capacitation; (ii) capacitating spermatozoa themselves produce elevated concentrations of superoxide anion over prolonged periods of time; and (iii) removal of this ROS by superoxide dismutase prevents sperm hyperactivation and capacitation induced by various biological fluids, stress the importance of the superoxide anion in these processes.
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the autometallograpic zinc sulphide technique, an improved version of the original Timm sulphide-silver method, was used. This technique reveals a particular pool of ionic zinc that is chelatable by diethyldithiocarbamate. At the light microscopical level, no reaction for zinc was found in tissues of young prepubertal rats. In adult mating and non-mating rats low zinc staining was found in the head and intermediate epididymis whereas the tail of the epididymis demonstrated high levels of zinc ions. Sections from the epididymal tail revealed a 'compartmentalization', based on pronounced differences in staining intensity along the epididymal ducts. At higher magnification zinc ions were found in the apical part of the principal cell and in the lumen. At the ultrastructural level autometallographic grains were located in vesicles and in lysosome-like structures of the apical parts of the principal cells. The luminal grains were found either associated with sperm cells, with the surface of the large microvilli (stereocilia), or free in the seminal fluid. The variation in content of zinc ions in the epididymal epithelium and lumen suggests that zinc ions are secreted into the lumen from the epididymal tail and may somehow be involved in maturation of the sperm cells.
Article
The sperm characteristics of 38 male workers exposed to lead in a battery factory were studied. Sperm analysis was performed after 4 days of sexual abstinence. Parameters analyzed were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology. Exposure levels were estimated by measuring the concentration of lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid in the serum. Based on blood lead levels, the tested individuals were divided in three groups: A (12), B (11), and C (15). Significant levels of asthenospermia and teratospermia were found in exposed workers when compared with unexposed controls. Long-term exposure to lead may lead to changes in sperm characteristics and function.
Article
Increasing appreciation of the causative role of oxidative injury in many disease states places great importance on the reliable assessment of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of several low-molecular-weight end products formed via the decomposition of certain primary and secondary lipid peroxidation products. At low pH and elevated temperature, MDA readily participates in nucleophilic addition reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), generating a red, fluorescent 1:2 MDA:TBA adduct. These facts, along with the availability of facile and sensitive methods to quantify MDA (as the free aldehyde or its TBA derivative), have led to the routine use of MDA determination and, particularly, the "TBA test" to detect and quantify lipid peroxidation in a wide array of sample types. However, MDA itself participates in reactions with molecules other than TBA and is a catabolic substrate. Only certain lipid peroxidation products generate MDA (invariably with low yields), and MDA is neither the sole end product of fatty peroxide formation and decomposition nor a substance generated exclusively through lipid peroxidation. Many factors (e.g., stimulus for and conditions of peroxidation) modulate MDA formation from lipid. Additional factors (e.g., TBA-test reagents and constituents) have profound effects on test response to fatty peroxide-derived MDA. The TBA test is intrinsically nonspecific for MDA; nonlipid-related materials as well as fatty peroxide-derived decomposition products other than MDA are TBA positive. These and other considerations from the extensive literature on MDA. TBA reactivity, and oxidative lipid degradation support the conclusion that MDA determination and the TBA test can offer, at best, a narrow and somewhat empirical window on the complex process of lipid peroxidation. The MDA content and/or TBA reactivity of a system provides no information on the precise structures of the "MDA precursor(s)," their molecular origins, or the amount of each formed. Consequently, neither MDA determination nor TBA-test response can generally be regarded as a diagnostic index of the occurrence/extent of lipid peroxidation, fatty hydroperoxide formation, or oxidative injury to tissue lipid without independent chemical evidence of the analyte being measured and its source. In some cases, MDA/TBA reactivity is an indicator of lipid peroxidation; in other situations, no qualitative or quantitative relationship exists among sample MDA content, TBA reactivity, and fatty peroxide tone. Utilization of MDA analysis and/or the TBA test and interpretation of sample MDA content and TBA test response in studies of lipid peroxidation require caution, discretion, and (especially in biological systems) correlative data from other indices of fatty peroxide formation and decomposition.
Article
Functions of GSH in detoxication during radical-induced injury in specific pathological and toxicological conditions are discussed. GSH protects against oxidative damage in systems that scavenge radicals, eliminate lipid peroxidation products, preserve thiol-disulfide status of proteins, and repair oxidant damage. Several factors which affect cellular GSH homeostasis can affect these functions, including nutritional status, hypoxia and pharmacological intervention. Evidence from a variety of pathological and toxicological conditions, e.g. ischemia-reperfusion injury, chemically induced oxidative injury, radiation damage, aging, and degenerative diseases, indicate that GSH is a primary component of physiological systems to protect against oxidant and free-radical-mediated cell injury.
Article
Cellular protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxidants generated in aerobic metabolism, called oxidative stress, is organized at multiple levels. Defense strategies include three levels of protection; prevention, interception, and repair. Regulation of the antioxidant capacity includes the maintenance of adequate levels of antioxidant and the localization of antioxidant compounds and enzymes. Short-term and long-term adaptation and cell specialisation in these functions are new areas of interest. Control over the activity of prooxidant enzymes, such as NADPH oxidase and NO synthases, is crucial. Synthetic antioxidants mimic biological strategies.
Article
This chapter focuses on the biomedical applications of ubiquitous and modest size enzymes, glutathione S-transferases (GST), found in bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, fish, birds, and mammals. They constitute a complex supergene family that collectively metabolizes chemotherapeutic drugs, carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and a broad spectrum of other harmful foreign compounds (xenobiotics). The fact that GST is present at high levels in the liver ensures that their concentration in plasma provides an exceptionally sensitive index of hepatocellular damage. Whereas the function of GST is considered primarily to be one of detoxifying foreign compounds, these enzymes possess activities other than catalyzing the formation of glutathione–xenobiotic conjugates. For example, GST exhibit peroxidase activity toward organic hydroperoxides and serve to combat oxidative stress. The conjugation between reduced glutathione (GSH) and xenobiotics represents the few subsequent steps that lead to the formation of mercapturic acids: the removal of the γ-glutamyl moiety from the glutathione conjugate by γ-glutamyltransferase, the enzymatic removal of glycine from the cysteinyl glycine conjugate, and the N-acetylation of the cysteine conjugate by an acetyl-CoA-linked acetylase. The final N-acetylcysteine thioethers, or mercapturic acids, produced by the enzymes that catalyze this pathway are water soluble and are readily excreted from the body.
Article
To measure individual antioxidants in sperm and seminal plasma from fertile and infertile men to determine if any particular antioxidant is reduced in infertile men. Semen samples were prepared by a discontinuous Percoll gradient to separate sperm and seminal plasma, and the antioxidant concentrations of each were assessed. Samples also were screened for phorbol ester-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Clinical Biochemistry, The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Fifty-nine male patients attending our infertility center: 18 men whose wives had ongoing pregnancies from IVF with normozoospermic semen profiles, 20 infertile men with normozoospermic and 21 men with asthenozoospermic semen profiles. Ascorbate, urate, sulphydryl groups, tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations were measured in sperm and seminal plasma from fertile and infertile men. In seminal plasma, ascorbate contributes almost twice as much as urate and thiol levels are about one third of ascorbate. Ascorbate levels in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic individuals (+ROS) are significantly reduced. In sperm, thiols contributed most and ascorbate only a fraction of the total. In seminal plasma, ascorbate, urates, and thiols are the major antioxidants present. In contrast, within sperm, this group is the major contributor. In samples exhibiting ROS activity, ascorbate concentrations in the seminal plasma are significantly reduced.
Article
The study examined the epidemiology and causes of infertility in Tomsk, Western Siberia, using methodological approaches recommended by WHO and was based on the findings for a randomly selected sample of 2000 married women aged 18-45 years. Among the respondents, 333 couples were considered infertile since they had not conceived after 12 months or more of unprotected intercourse. This group of infertile couples was offered comprehensive clinical investigations but only 186 couples completed them. The infertility rate in Tomsk was 16.7%, being caused by diseases of the female reproduction system in 52.7% of the couples and by male reproductive diseases in 6.4%. In 38.7% of couples, both spouses suffered from infertility, while in 2.2% of cases the cause of infertility was not determined. Among the causes of female infertility, secondary infertility dominated (12.9% of all the women questioned), while primary infertility affected 3.8% of the women. The most frequent causes of female infertility were disturbances to tubal patency (36.5%) and pelvic adhesions (23.6%). Endocrine pathology was found in 32.8% of cases. The most frequent cause of male infertility was inflammatory disease of male accessory glands (12.9%). In 8.6% of cases infection resulted in obstructive azoospermia. Varicocele was registered in 11.3% of cases, and idiopathic pathospermia in 20.9%. Inflammatory complications among females were 4.2 times more frequent than among males.
Article
To determine whether the decline in selenium intake and selenium status in men in the West of Scotland might be a contributory factor to male subfertility. Two semen samples were collected from patients attending a subfertility clinic and those patients with samples showing reduced motility were invited to participate in an ethically approved double-blind clinically controlled trial with informed consent. Sixty-nine patients were recruited and received either placebo, selenium alone or selenium plus vitamins A, C and E daily for 3 months. A further semen sample was collected at the end of the trial. Plasma selenium status was determined at the beginning and end of the trial period, as was total sperm density and motility. Plasma selenium concentrations were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in both selenium-treated groups than in controls. No significant effect of treatment on sperm density was recorded. Sperm motility increased in both selenium-treated groups, in contrast to a slight decline in the placebo group, but the difference was not significant. However, as the provision of additional vitamins had no effect on any variable measured it was considered justified to combine the two selenium-treated groups and compare them with the placebo treatment. On this basis, selenium treatment significantly (P < 0.002) increased plasma selenium concentrations and sperm motility (P = 0.023) but sperm density was again unaffected. Five men (11%) achieved paternity in the treatment group, in contrast to none in the placebo group. This trial confirms the result of an earlier study, that selenium supplementation in subfertile men with low selenium status can improve sperm motility and the chance of successful conception. However, not all patients responded; 56% showed a positive response to treatment. The low selenium status of patients not supplemented again highlights the inadequate provision of this essential element in the Scottish diet.