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Anti-Nosemosis Activity of Aster scaber and Artemisia dubia Aqueous Extracts

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In our previous study, we demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of Artemisia dubia ( A. dubia ) and Aster scaber ( A. scaber ) have anti-nosemosis activity. In our present study, we intend to establish the anti-nosemosis activity of aqueous, ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol (BuOH) extracts of A. dubia and A. scaber . In order to determine the optimal dose, we performed both in vitro and in vivo toxicity for all the extracts and also carried out anti-nosemosis experiments. Although all of the extracts (aqueous, EA, and BuOH) showed in vitro and in vivo anti-nosemosis activity in a dose-dependent manner, the aqueous extracts of A. dubia and A. scaber showed more potent anti-nosemosis activity than the EA and BuOH extracts. Moreover, an aqueous extract of A. dubia + A. scaber demonstrated stronger anti-nosemosis activity compared with the aqueous extracts of either A. dubia or A. scaber alone. Although the main ingredients in A. dubia and A. scaber remain unclear, our results suggest that the active components of A. dubia and A. scaber could dissolve in the aqueous fraction.
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J. APIC. SCI. Vol. 62 No. 1 2018
1
ANTI-NOSEMOSIS ACTIVITY OF ASTER SCABER
AND ARTEMISIA DUBIA AQUEOUS EXTRACTS
Jae Kwon Lee1*
Jeong Hwa Kim1
Mina Jo1
Balamurugan Rangachari2
Jin Kyu Park2
Abstract
In our previous study, we demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of
Artemisia dubia
(
A. dubia
) and
Aster scaber
(
A. scaber
) have anti-nosemosis activity. In our present study,
we intend to establish the anti-nosemosis activity of aqueous, ethyl acetate (EA), and
butanol (BuOH) extracts of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
. In order to determine the optimal
dose, we performed both
in vitro
and
in vivo
toxicity for all the extracts and also carried
out anti-nosemosis experiments. Although all of the extracts (aqueous, EA, and BuOH)
showed
in vitro
and
in vivo
anti-nosemosis activity in a dose-dependent manner, the
aqueous extracts of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
showed more potent anti-nosemosis activity
than the EA and BuOH extracts. Moreover, an aqueous extract of
A. dubia
+
A. scaber
demonstrated stronger anti-nosemosis activity compared with the aqueous extracts of
either
A. dubia
or
A. scaber
alone. Although the main ingredients in
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
remain unclear, our results suggest that the active components of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
could dissolve in the aqueous fraction.
Keywords:
Artemisia dubia
,
Aster scaber
,
Nosema ceranae,
nosemosis
1 Department of Biology Education, College of Education, Chungbuk National
University, Cheongju, 361-763, Republic of Korea
2 Beesen Co., Ltd., Bioventure Town, Yuseong Daero 1662, Dae Jeon, Republic of
Korea
INTRODUCTION
Nosemosis is a disease of adult bees caused by
Nosema
species which belongs to the class of
Microsporidia of the fungal kingdom (Sprague
& Becnel, 1998; Sprague & Becnel, 1999). The
genus
Nosema
contains 322 species including
the sub-species prevalent in honey bees
Nosema
ceranae
(
N. ceranae)
and
Nosema apis
(
N.
apis)
(http://www.indexfungorum.org).
N. apis
is a parasite of the western honey bee (
Apis
mellifera
) and
N. ceranae
is a parasite of the
eastern honey bee (
Apis ceranae
). Honey bees
are important pollinators and crucial to the food
supply (Calderone, 2012), and those affected by
Nosema
species can be found across the world.
Generally, a spore of
N. apis
reproduces in the
midgut epithelium of the honey bee. However,
this is not the only anatomical location where
it can survive, as; it also appears in fat body,
the alimentary canal, malpighian tubules, hy-
popharyngeal glands and salivary glands;
(Chen & Huang, 2010; Ptaszyńska et al., 2012).
N. ceranae
is considered a more dangerous mi-
crosporidian than
N. apis
due to its potential to
infect the entire body of
A. mellifera
(Williams
et al., 2014). Nosemosis is most common during
the spring and autumn than summer, which
could be due to the excess energy consumed
by the bees to enhance the immune defense
for combatting any microbial attack. Addition-
ally, higher humidity and colder temperatures
during spring was also one of the reasons that
decreased the rate of nosemosis in summer
(Ptaszyńska, Paleolog, & Borsuk, 2016). During
these seasons, brown feces due to dysentery,
a common sign of nosemosis, were found in the
comb and around the hive (Klee et al., 2007).
*corresponding author: chemokine@cbnu.ac.kr
Received: 1 July 2017; accepted 8 January 2018
DOI: 10.2478/JAS-2018-0003
Original Article
J. APIC. SCI. VOL. 62 NO. 1 2018
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Anti-nosemosis activities
A beekeeper can recognize the nosemosis
infection when there are weakened and dead
bees found around the hive, and then the
prognosis at this point is severe.
There have been a few attempts to develop
nosemosis therapy. The traditional approach
is to remove the
Nosema
infection through
the sterilization of the hives (with boiling
water, 6% soda, and blue ame) and destruc-
tion of the combs after the infected bees are
killed. Since the discovery of its anti-nosemosis
effects, fumagillin has been considered the
rst treatment choice (Whittington & Winston,
2003). Williams et al. (2008) reported that the
appropriate administration of fumagillin ef-
ciently combats
N. apis
, but its activity against
N. ceranae
is not very promising (Williams et al.,
2008). Thus, there is a need to nd a suitable
substance to combat
N. ceranae
infection of
A. mellifera
. Anti-nosemosis effects has been
showed for caffeine (Strachecka et al., 2014a),
curcumin (Strachecka, Olszewski, & Paleolog,
2015), coenzyme Q10 (Strachecka et al., 2014b)
and also ethanol extracts of
Aster scaber
(
A.
scaber
) and
Artemisia dubia
(
A. dubia
)
(Kim et al.,
2016).
In our previous study (Kim et al., 2016) we had
reported the anti-nosemosis activity of
A. scaber
and
A.
dubia
in ethanol solvent, since it is a polar
solvent whose extract consists of both polar
and non-polar compounds. Thus in our current
study, we sequentially extracted the
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
, based on the polarity of solvents
(water, butanol (BuOH) and ethyl acetate (EA))
and they were screened for
in vitro
and
in vivo
anti-nosemosis activity. IPL cell culture is a
perfect tool to screen the activity of substances
against
Nosema
species, so we employed these
cells for
in vitro
anti-nosemosis analysis (Gisder
et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2016).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Plant material
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
were purchased from
the Kyungdong Oriental Herbal Market in Seoul,
Korea in April 2016. The plants were identied
at the Wild Vegetable Experiment Station,
Gangwon ARES, and the voucher specimen was
deposited at Chungbuk National University,
Korea.
Plant extraction preparation
Whole plants of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
were
shade-dried
for one week and powdered by
using a blender. To obtain aqeous extract, about
20 g of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
were soaked in
400 mL of water and reux extraction was
carried out at 100ºC for three hours. The con-
centrated aqueous extracts of both plants
were lyophilized separately to obtain nal
powdered form. The lyophilized plant powders
were soaked in water and EA at 1:1 ratio in a
separating funnel, where the EA portion was
separated and evaporated
in vacuo
to yield 8-13
g of extract. The same procedure was followed
to obtain BuOH extract, where EA was replaced
with BuOH, and the nal yield of the BuOH
extract was 8-13 g. These extracts were then
dissolved in dimethylsulfoxid (Sigma-Aldrich, St.
Louis, MO, USA) for further estimation.
Reagents and maintenance of cells
The IPL-LD-65Y cell line (IPL cell) was obtained
from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorgan-
ismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ, Braunschweig,
Germany) and maintained for routine culture in
a TC-100 medium (Sigma-Aldrich) with 11% fetal
calf serum (FCS, Hyclone Laboratories). The
cells were seeded at an initial concentration of
2×10 5 cells/mL in tissue culture asks (Nunc,
Roskilde, Denmark) and incubated at 27°C in a
cooling incubator. The cell pass was carried out
on every seventh day.
Cell viability test
The cell viability test was conducted by using
the IPL-LD-65Y cell line, where the cell line was
treated with various concentrations (0.625-10
μg/mL) of the plant extracts. The cell viability
was measured using the Wst-8 based colorimet-
ric assay (Dojindo, Japan), which was based on
the ability of live cells to reduce tetrazolium salt
into a soluble colored formazan product. The cell
suspension with 5×104 cells/well was cultured in
triplicate in a at-bottomed 96-well plate for 96
hours. The Wst-8 reagent was added to both the
cells and the blank samples, which were then
incubated for three hours at 37°C and 5% CO2.
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The level of the dye formed was the measured
using a spectrophotometer (Bio-Rad, Hercules,
CA) at a wavelength of 450 nm. The blank values
without cells were subtracted from each experi-
mental value. Cell viability was expressed by
the percentage of live cells compared with that
found in the negative controls. The percentage
of cell viability was calculated as follows: cell
viability (%) = (OD level of experimental group/
OD level of negative control) × 100.
Isolation of Nosema spores
Nosema
spores were isolated from a naturally
infected hive located in the experimental apiary
of BEESEN CO., LTD., in Chungnam, Republic of
Korea.
Nosema
spores were isolated from the
honey bee midguts as previously described
(Gisder et al., 2011). Briey, after dissection the
midgut contents were collected, and macerated
in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with the
use of a tissue grinder, and the suspension was
ltered with a 70-μm mesh lter. Then, the
suspension was centrifuged at a range of 1500
to 12000 rpm to remove large particles, and the
mixture was resuspended in distilled water to
calibrate the number of spores using a hemocy-
to meter.
Identication of Nosema spores
A qualitative microscopic diagnosis of the
spores was performed to detect
Nosema
-in-
fected bee colonies. To differentiate the spore
species,
molecular species differentiation was
analyzed with the use of a polymerase chain
reaction (PCR); according to the procedure of
previous reports (Genersch et al., 2010; Gisder
et al., 2010). The DNA was isolated using GeneAll
Exgene (GeneAll, Seoul, Korea) per the manufac-
turer’s instructions. Briey, DNA was extracted
fr om 1×10 4
Nosema
spores and then amplied
with specic primers for
N. ceranae
or
N. apis
and a universal primer (
Nosema
species) for
N.
ceranae
and
N. apis
. The PCR primers used in
this study are listed below and were purchased
from Bioneer (Daejeon, Korea):
sense strand
Nosema
5’-GGCAGTTATGGGAAG-
TAACA-3’,
anti-sense strand
Nosema
5’-GGTCGTCA-
CATTTCATCTCT-3’;
sense strand
N. ceranae
5’- CGGATAAAAGAGTC-
CG T TACC-3 ’,
anti-sense strand
N. ceranae
5’-TGAGCAGGGTTCTAGGGAT-3’;
sense strand
N. apis
5’- CCATTGCCGGATAAGA-
GAGT-3 ’,
ant-sense strand
N. apis
5’-CACGCATTGCTGCAT-
CATTGAC-3’.
Each PCR was preheated to 94ºC for 2 minutes
followed by 94ºC for 15 seconds, 60ºC for 30
seconds, and 72ºC for 45 seconds, with a nal
extension phase at 72ºC for 7 minutes. A
variable number of cycles were used to ensure
that amplication occurred in the linear phase.
The PCR products were separated on a 1.5%
agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide
staining and ultraviolet irradiation.
Infection of IPL cells and application of test
extracts
Previously described methods were followed
to infect the IPL cells with
Nosema
(Gisder et
al., 2010; Williams et al., 2008). To induce spore
germination in every sample approximately
1×10 8
Nosema
spores were suspended in 200
μL of freshly prepared germination buer (0.5
M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium hydrogen
carbonate, pH to 6.0 with orthophosphoric acid)
followed by 15-minute incubation at 37ºC to
allow spore germination (de Graaf et al., 1993).
After incubation, the IPL cells were harvested
by centrifugation at 210×g for ve minutes.
The cell pellet was then washed twice with 1
mL of freshly prepared 0.1 M sucrose in 1×PBS
buffer and resuspended in a sucrose buffer at
a concentration of 2.5×107 cells/mL. The ger-
minating spores (1×108) were resuspended in
100 μL of the IPL cell suspension (2.5×106 cells),
and the cell-spore suspension was incubated
for ve minutes at room temperature. Infected
cells were resuspended in 9.5 mL of a TC-100
cell culture medium supplemented with 11%
FCS, 250 μg/mL penicillin/streptomycin, and
250 μL antibiotic/antimycotic-solution (Sigma
Aldrich). Finally, 100 μL of the cell suspension
(2.104 infected cells) was carefully trans-
ferred into each well of a 96-well microplate. For
evaluation, 1 μL of EA and BuOH extract of
A.
dubia
and
A. scaber
were added to the mixture
of germinating spores and IPL cell suspension
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Anti-nosemosis activities
in a TC-100 medium to achieve the desired nal
concentrations (0.625-10 μg/mL). The cells were
then incubated for 72 hours at 27°C, and their
infection status was subsequently determined
via microscopic and PCR analysis.
To perform microscopic analysis, infected cells
and oating spores were harvested from each
well and the number of spores ware counted
using a hemocytometer. PCR analysis was
performed after the isolation of DNA from
harvested infected cells and oating spores. The
percentage of inhibition by microscopic analysis
was calculated as follows: Inhibition rate (%) =
[((number of
Nosema
spores in the treated cells
at the initial stage - number of
Nosema
spores
in the treated cells after 72 hours) / (number
of
Nosema
spores in the untreated cells at
initial stage - number of
Nosema
spores in the
untreated cells after 72 h) × 100)-100] × -1.
Experimental design of the in vivo study
At least 300 healthy bees were collected from
each of the three different source colonies and
they were carefully transferred to two mesh
cages (16.5×16.5×48 inches), and stored at 33
± 1°C. Microscopic analysis was carried out to
identify the normal bees and included in our
experiment.
Prior to the anti-nosemosis experiment with live
bees, an
in vivo
toxicity test was performed in
which about twenty honey bees per cage were
employed and usually treated in the morning
by 10 am. While normal control was fed with
50% sugar solution alone; cage 2 was fed with
fumagilin (fumidil B) (20 mg/mL), a commercial
reference drug. The rest of the cages were
treated with
A. dubia
water extract 0.125 - 10
(μg/mL);
A. scaber
water extract 0.125 - 10
(μg/
mL);
A. dubia
BuOH extract 0.125 - 10 (μg/mL);
A. scaber
BuOH
extract 0.125 - 10
(μg/mL);
A.
dubia
EA extract 0.125 - 10 (μg/mL);
A. scaber
extract 0.125 - 10 (μg/mL). The live bees were
counted at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The
results were expressed in percentage.
In vivo
activity tests of
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
were performed with uninfected (ie, healthy)
bees. The study lasted one week (2 day for
Nosema
infection induction and 5 days for
treatment) and on day 0 the bees were split into
two experimental groups each of twenty bees.
On the same day, group 1 was fed with only
50% sucrose solution and considered normal
control and group 2 was fed with
Nosema
spores 1x107 in 50% sucrose solution for 48
hrs to induce nosemosis. Afterwards, cage 1
was considered normal control and fed with
DMSO dissolved in 50% sucrose solution only,
and cage 2 was
Nosema
infection control. The
rest of the cages of the
Nosema
infected honey
bees were treated with
A. dubia
water extract
(0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1 μg/mL);
A. dubia
BuOH
extract (0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1 μg/mL);
A. dubia
EA extract (0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1 μg/mL) and
A.
scaber
water extract (0.125, 0.250, 0.50, 1 μg/
mL);
A. scaber
BuOH extract (0.125, 0.250, 0.50,
1 μg/mL);
A. scaber
EA extract (0.125, 0.250,
0.50, 1 μg/mL) and fumagillin (20mg/mL). The
treatment usually occurred in the morning by 10
am. After one weak of the experiment, all the
normal infection control and treated honey-bee
cages were anesthetized with CO2 to facilitate
handling. To assess the anti-nosemosis activity,
the three honey-bee midguts were dissected
and introduced into antiseptic micro tubes lled
with 200 μL distilled water. After thorough
grinding, the spores were counted using a hemo-
cytometer under a phase-contrast microscope.
RESULTS
Identication of Nosema species
The spindled shaped spores isolated from
naturally infected bees were nosema (Fig 1A).
To differentiate the spore species,
molecular
species differentiation was performed with PCR
following the procedure of previous reports
(Gisder et al., 2011; Whittington & Winston,
2003). As shown in Fig. 1B, DNA from the
isolated spores was amplied with a universal
Nosema
primer and
N. ceranae
primer. However,
DNA was not amplied using an
N. apis
primer.
Viability of IPL cells with plant extracts
Since toxicity studies for this assay were
paramount, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of all
the extracts in a broad range of concentrations
(0.625-10 μg/mL) using Wst-8 assays. Concen-
trations below 1% DMSO did not inuence the
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viability of the IPL cells. As shown in Fig. 2, each
extract of
A. dubia
(A) and
A. scaber
(B) showed
a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, but
there was no effect on cell viability, even at high
concentrations.
In vitro screening of anti-nosemosis extracts
Fig. 3 exhibits the
in vitro
anti-nosemosis
activity of the extracts of
A. dubia and A. scaber
.
Although the level of activity varied, all of the
extracts of
A. dubia
(Fig. 3A) and
A. scaber
(Fig.
3B) showed anti-nosemosis activity in a dose-
dependent manner. Interestingly, the anti-nose-
mosis activity of both plants increased in the
order of aqueous, BuOH and EA. The aqueous
extract of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
reduced the
population of
N. ceranae
to 33-34%, the BuOH
extract to 53-58%, and the EA extract to
64-76% of the original population. There was
no signicant difference in the anti-nosemosis
activity of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
at the highest
concentration.
To conrm the anti-nosemosis activity of
A.
dubia
and
A. scaber
, PCR analysis was performed
in the highest concentration of each extract. As
shown in Fig. 4, the band intensities of the
N.
ceranae
DNA decreased after treatment with
aqueous extracts of
A. dubia
(Fig. 4A) or
A.
scaber
(Fig. 4B). However, the extracts of BuOH
and EA did not signicantly inuence the DNA
band intensity of
N. ceranae
.
Fig. 1. Identication of
Nosema
species. A
Nosema
spore was isolated from the midgut of the honey
bees and conrmed by microscope (A). Representa-
tive pictures of
Nosema
spores are shown. DNA was
extracted from 1×104 spores, and then the amplied
region indicated the specic primer. PCR analyses
using a specic primer were performed in triplicate,
and all ndings showed similar results (B).
Fig. 2.
In vitro
toxicity of water, BuOH and EA
extracts of
A. dubia
(A) and
A. scaber
(B). The IPL
cells were treated with various concentrations of
the plant extracts, and cell viability was measured
using the Wst-8 based colorimetric. The values that
are shown are the means ± SDs of the three inde-
pendent experiments.
Fig. 3. Effect of water, BuOH and EA extracts of
A.
dubia
(A) and
A. scaber
(B) on the development of
Nosema
spore. Germinated spores of
N. ceranae
were mixed with IPL cell line suspension and then
treated with plant extracts. Inhibition rate of spore
population was determined by microscopic analysis
with hemocytometer. The values that are shown
are the means ± SDs of the three independent ex-
periments.
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Anti-nosemosis activities
In vivo toxicity of each extract of A. dubia
and A. scaber
In the untreated control group, more than 90%
of the bees survived during the experimental
period (Fig. 5). At the same time, the Fumagi-
lin-treated group showed intermediate toxicity
after 120 hours of incubation. Interestingly, all
extracts up to a concentration of 1 μg/mL in 50%
sucrose solution showed the survival rate of
bees between 81.3-98.1%. However, increasing
the concentrations of extracts to 2-10 μg/mL
caused a slight decrease in the percentage of
live bees to 63-79% of the original population.
In particular, feeding 10 μg/mL of the
A. dubia
BuOH extract showed the lowest percent of live
bees (63%). Concentrations from 0.125-10 μg/
mL of each of the extracts showed the following
live bee viability: aqueous extract of
A. dubia
75-90%, BuOH extract of
A. dubia
63-98%, EA
extract of
A. dubia
68-89%, aqueous extract of
A. scaber
68-88%, BuOH extract of
A. scaber
64-95%, and EA extract of
A. scaber
65-86%.
The aqueous extract showed lower toxicity
than either the BuOH or EA extracts.
In vivo activity of three different kinds of
extract
Fig. 6 shows the anti-nosemosis activity of
different extracts of
A. dubia and A. scaber,
where the DMSO-only control group had the
highest number of
Nosema
spores compared
with the groups treated with extracts. Among
the three kinds of solvents used for extraction
Fig. 4. Anti-nosemosis screening by PCR analysis. In
the same condition with Fig. 3, PCR analyses using a
specic primer were performed in triplicate, and all
of them produced similar results.
Fig. 5.
In vivo
toxicity of each extracts. Healthy bees
were divided into nine groups and then treated with
various concentrations of each extract (
A. dubia
:
AD,
A. scaber
: AS) with 50% sucrose solution for 5
days. The survival rate was calculated on the fth
day as follows: Survival rate (%) = [(number of live
bees)/(total number of bees)] x 100. The values that
are shown are the means ± SDs of the three inde-
pendent experiments.
Fig. 6.
In vivo
activity of each extract. Infected bees
by
N. ceramae
were treated with 0.125 - 1 μg/ml
extracts of
A. dubia
(A) and
A. scaber
(B) in a 50%
sucrose solution for 5 days. The spores, which were
derived from the midgut, were counted using a
hemocytometer. The values that are shown are the
means ± SDs of the three independent experiments.
∗∗p < 0.01 as compared to the untreated bees.
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(aqueous, BuOH, and EA), the highest inhibition
of spore proliferation was observed in the
groups treated with aqueous extracts. Notably,
1 μg/mL of the aqueous extract of
A. dubia
reduced the number of spores by around 75%.
The aqueous extract of
A. scaber
also reduced
the number of spore by almost 72% at the 1
μg/mL concentration. The positive control drug,
fumagillin (20 mg/mL), showed less anti-nose-
mosis activity (27-33%), whereas the BuOH and
EA extracts of
A. dubia
reduced the number
of spores by 57% and 52%, respectively. The
BuOH and EA extracts of
A. scaber
reduced the
number of spores by 55% and 54%, respectively.
In vivo activity of aqueous extract of A.
dubia + A. scaber
In order to evaluate the anti-nosemosis activity
of the aqueous extracts, the aqueous extract of
A. scaber
+
A. dubia
was prepared in addition to
the
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
extracts. As shown in
Fig. 7, 85% of the untreated, uninfected control
bees survived for 120 hours, but only 70% of
the fumagillin-treated bees were survived. In-
terestingly, none of the three extracts tested
showed toxicity at any concentration. Even in
bees treated with
A. scaber
1 μg/mL
,
showed a
less toxicity with
85% survival rate.
The anti-nosemosis activity of each extract
was analyzed using the same methods depicted
in Fig. 6. Fumagillin (20 mg/mL) was used as a
positive control drug. As shown in Fig. 8, all of
the aqueous extracts exhibited anti-nosemosis
activity. Among the three aqueous extracts,
those treated with both
A. scaber
+
A. dubia
showed the highest inhibition of spore prolifera-
tion. The aqueous extracts of
A. dubia
and
A.
scaber
alone also reduced the number of spores
by almost 58% and 64%, respectively at 1 μg/
mL. However, the aqueous extract of
A. dubia
+
A. scaber
reduced the number of spores by
almost 76% at 1 μg/mL.
DISCUSSION
In our previous paper (Kim et al., 2016), we
prepared ethanol extracts of
A. scaber
,
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
+
A. dubia,
and demonstrated the
anti-nosemosis activity of both
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
at non-toxic concentrations. Although
both
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
separately had
showed anti-nosemosis activity, combined
A. scaber
+
A. dubia
exhibited even stronger
activity. Therefore in the present study, we
Fig. 7.
In vivo
toxicity of water extracts. Healthy
bees were treated with water extracts of
A. dubia
(AD),
A. scaber
(AS) and
A. dubia
+
A. scaber
(AD+AS)
as in Fig. 5. The survival rate was represented by
percent of live bees. The values that are shown are
the means ± SDs of the three independent experi-
ments.
Fig. 8.
In vivo
activity of water extracts. Infected
bees by
N. ceramae
were treated with water
extracts of
A. dubia
(AD),
A. scaber
(AS) and
A. dubia
+
A. scaber
(AD+AS) in a 50% sucrose solution for
5 days. The spores, which were derived from the
midgut, were counted using a hemocytometer.
The values that are shown are the means ± SDs of
the three independent experiments. ∗∗p < 0.01 as
compared to the untreated bees.
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 4/12/18 2:25 PM
lee et AL.
8
Anti-nosemosis activities
have tried to demonstrate the chemical char-
acteristics of the active compounds in each
extract. In our previous study, 100 μg/mL of
the ethanol extract of
A. scaber
+
A. dubia
showed 77% spore reduction without
in vivo
toxicity, but as expected, the aqueous extract
of
A. dubia
+
A. scaber
, in which BuOH and EA
soluble compounds were eliminated, reduced
the number of spores to almost 76% at 1 μg/mL.
As a result, the active molecule had to dissolve
in water. Both the BuOH and EA extracts also
showed anti-nosemosis activity albeit not as
strong as the aqueous extracts. These results
indicate that
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
have
more than one anti-nosemosis compound with
different solubility in each solvent (aqueous,
BuOH, and EA).
The anti-nosemosis effects of
A. dubia
and
A. scaber
have not been reported except in our
previous paper. As
A. dubia,
Artemisia absinthium
has also been tested against
Nosema
species
by two different research groups (Pohorecka,
2004; Porrini et al., 2011). Pohorecka (2004) rst
reported that an ethanol extract of
Artemisia
absinthium
inhibited
N. apis
, and
Porrini et al.,
(2011) reported the anti-nosemosis activity of
Artemisia absinthium
seven years later.
Unfortunately, the results of these two research
teams are inconsistent. While Pohorecka (2004)
reported that
Artemisia absinthium
had an an-
timicrobial effect, Porrini et al. (2011) reported
no such effect. Porrini and his colleagues (20 11)
reported that different susceptibilities of
N.
ceranae
and
N. apis
to the ethanol extract of
this herb or other factors that could inuence
the chemical composition (eg, the extraction
method) might explain this difference between
the two studies Ahameethunisa & Hopper,
(2010) and by Tariq et al., (2009). But in our
opinion,
A. scaber
which contains ve important
secondary metabolites namely, Caffeoyl quinic
acid, (-) 3, 5-dicaffeoyl-muco-quinic acid, (-) 3,
5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid, (-) 4, 5-dicaffeoyl quinic
acid, (-) 5-caffeoyl quinic acid with anti-fungal
property, and
A. dubia
composed of caffeic acid,
gallic acid, catechin, coumarin, and camphor could
act against fungus.
Nosema
’s place
in the fungi
kingdom lead us to speculate that both
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
could have anti nosemosis activity
(Kwon.et al., 2000; Rhimi et al., 2017; Sardi et al.,
2016; Li et al., 2017; Hirasawa & Takada, 2004;
Montagner et al., 2008; Mahilrajan et al., 2014;
Kiani et al., 2016).
Fumagillin, isolated from the microbial organism
A. fumigatus,
has been used against a variety of
microsporidial parasites in both bee and human
medicine. It has also been shown to inhibit an-
giogenesis (Chung et al., 1993) and thus been
studied in cancer treatment research. Moreover,
it has been the most commonly used medicinal
product in the treatment of
Nosema
infection in
western honey bees,
A. mellifera
(Bai ley, 1953;
Higes et al., 2011).
Although the most valuable compound in
human medicine and apiculture, fumagillin is not
free from such side effects as gastrointestinal
cramping, diarrhea, and signicant weight loss,
and has limited application in humans (Chung
et al., 1993; Molina et al., 2000; Molina et al.,
2002; Yanase et al., 1993). Moreover, chro-
mosomal aberrations and genotoxic potential
have been observed in mice (Kulić et al., 2009;
Stanimirović, 2010). Enhanced
Nosema
species
infection leads to increased fumagillin sales,
and residues of fumagillin have been detected
in harvested apicultural products (Lopez et al.,
2008). Therefore, the potential fumagillin con-
tamination of apicultural products intended for
human consumption could be eliminated by the
development of alternative treatments against
Nosema
species.
Fumagillin is used as a primary treatment for
Nosema
infection, but the latest report has
shown it to be ineffective against
N. ceranae
(Huang et al., 2013).
Some reports state that
N. ceranae
can regrow six months after a
treatment is terminated, despite some evidence
that
N. apis
has never developed a resistance
to fumagillin (Higes et al., 2011; Pajuelo, Torres,
& Bermejo, 2008). Neither susceptibility nor
quick recuperation after fumagillin treatment
could account for the replacement of
N. apis
by
N. ceranae
, which has seemingly occurred in
North America and elsewhere (Chen et al., 2009;
Huang et al., 2008; Klee et al., 2007).
Therefore, in this study, we suggested two anti-
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 4/12/18 2:25 PM
J. APIC. SCI. Vol. 62 No. 1 2018
9
nosemosis plants,
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
, which
reduced the spore development of
N. ceranae
in both
in vitro
and
in vivo
experiments. In
particular, the mixture of
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
showed stronger activity than treatment with
only a single plant, which could be due to the
synergetic activity of secondary metabolites
present in
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
. Moreover,
the anti-nosemosis effects are conrmed to be
better when the extracts are dissolved in water
compared with butanol or ethyl acetate. The
mechanisms of action of
A. scaber
and
A. dubia
against
N. ceranae
remains unclear, and further
research is necessary to identify these active
compounds. In conclusion, our results suggest
new possibilities for controlling
N. ceranae
infection in honey bees.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was nancially supported by
the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy
(MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement
of Technology (KIAT) through the Research and
Development for Regional Industry.
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Anti-nosemosis activities
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... Aqueous extract of A. dubia and A. scaber at 1 µg/mL decreased spore levels by 76%. Butanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed less activity than aqueous extract [48]. Extracts of six adaptogenic plants, including Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, were tested. ...
Article
Full-text available
The most significant pollinators of crops globally are thought to be honey bees. Unfortunately, bee loss is an issue brought on by a variety of circumstances, such as pesticide use, poor nutrition, parasitic mites, and climate change. The spore-forming unicellular fungi Nosema apis and N. ceranae cause nosemosis, a serious microsporidian disease of adult European honey bees. The disease has an effect on honeybee productivity and reproduction. Antibiotic fumagillin is still used in some countries for the treatment of Nosema sp. infection. However, using fumagillin has adverse effects on human health, as well as on honey bee physiology. Therefore, there are trends to develop non-antibiotic alternatives with already existing therapeutics. The present work attempts to emphasize the natural compounds now available for treating nosemosis. Abstract: The honey bee is an important economic insect due to its role in pollinating many agricultural plants. Unfortunately, bees are susceptible to many pathogens, including pests, parasites, bacteria , and viruses, most of which exert a destructive impact on thousands of colonies. The occurrence of resistance to the therapeutic substances used against these organisms is rising, and the residue from these chemicals may accumulate in honey bee products, subsequently affecting the human health. There is current advice to avoid the use of antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and other drugs in bees, and therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative strategies for the treatment of bee diseases. In this context, the impact of nosema diseases (nosemosis) on bee health.
... Therefore, many studies have recently focused on finding substances with the therapeutic potential to fight the disease. Numerous plant extracts were tested for their potential in nosemosis inhibition (Pohorecka 2004;Porrini et al. 2011b;Chen et al. 2015;Kim et al. 2016Kim et al. , 2017Bravo et al. 2017;Moradi 2017;Xu et al. 2017;Arismendi et al. 2018;Lee et al. 2018;Nanetti et al. 2021), as well as single components (Maistrello et al. 2008;Costa et al. 2010;Strachecka et al. 2014aStrachecka et al. , 2014bStrachecka et al. , 2015Ptaszyńska et al. 2018;Borges et al. 2020;Buczek et al. 2020). The natural microbiome facilitates the digestion of food, takes part in the detoxification of harmful substances, provides valuable nutrients and participates in the immune response and protects against pathogens and parasites. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nosemosis is one of the most widespread honeybee diseases. Its epidemical state can be determined as panzootic. The infectious agents are the microsporidia Nosema apis and N. ceranae. Numerous substances and preparations were tested in order to find a way to combat this disease. However, methodology used in artificial infection experiments is not unique; concentrations of N. ceranae spores in inoculum vary as well as the age of honey bees when they are infected. In addition, the disease itself is still relatively poorly understood. This makes the interpretation of such research difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bee age and inoculum concentration on the development of N. ceranae infection. Honeybee workers were collectively infected at the age of 2 and 10 days post-emergence with concentrations of 10^4 , 5 × 10^4 , and 10^5 spores/bee. While the results indicate a significant effect of both tested factors on the development of N. ceranae, the relationship is not simple, and age alters the pattern of nosemosis development in response to the given concentrations.
... Oxalic acid and Api-Bioxal ® , a formulation based on dihydrate oxalic acid, were demonstrated to be active against N. ceranae, both in the laboratory and field [325][326][327]. The biological activity of other natural compounds towards Nosema infections has also been extensively explored; among them, essential oils and other organic extracts were reported to have anti-Nosema activity [328][329][330][331][332][333]. ...
Article
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Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are agriculturally important pollinators. Over the past decades, significant losses of wild and domestic bees have been reported in many parts of the world. Several biotic and abiotic factors, such as change in land use over time, intensive land management, use of pesticides, climate change, beekeeper’s management practices, lack of forage (nectar and pollen), and infection by parasites and pathogens, negatively affect the honey bee’s well-being and survival. The gut microbiota is important for honey bee growth and development, immune function, protection against pathogen invasion; moreover, a well-balanced microbiota is fundamental to support honey bee health and vigor. In fact, the structure of the bee’s intestinal bacterial community can become an indicator of the honey bee’s health status. Lactic acid bacteria are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and their presence in the honey bee intestinal tract has been consistently reported in the literature. In the first section of this review, recent scientific advances in the use of LABs as probiotic supplements in the diet of honey bees are summarized and discussed. The second section discusses some of the mechanisms by which LABs carry out their antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Afterward, individual paragraphs are dedicated to Chalkbrood, American foulbrood, European foulbrood, Nosemosis, and Varroosis as well as to the potentiality of LABs for their biological control.
... In fact, both products (NH and NHP) contain basic polyphenols-flavonoids and phenolic acids-as biologically active compounds. According to some authors, the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts is not due to a single biologically active substance (flavonoids vs phenolic acid), but rather to the totality of all, with potentially synergistic effects [59,100]. Phenolic compounds extracted from Artemisia dubia and Aster scaber have shown a clear antinosemosis effect, which is a promising strategy for controlling nosemosis [101,102]. ...
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... While breeding for Nosema resistant lines of honey bees has been conducted for over a decade with some success [73], chemical alternatives are also being investigated. One such investigation [74] showed that the combination of aqueous extracts of Artemisia dubia (Asteraceae, Plantae) and Aster scaber (Asteraceae, Plantae) worked best at inhibiting N. ceranae spore proliferation. Continued exploration and testing of Anti-Nosema compounds is necessary, as management of these fungi will most likely require a combination of solutions. ...
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The high infection of adult honey bees with Nosema spores is known as nosemosis and can destroy bee colonies. In a previous study, we have reported the anti-nosemosis effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Artemisia dubia, Aster scaber, and A. dubia + A. scaber. In the current study, we isolated five phenolic compounds [chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffaeoylquinic acid(3,4-DCQA), 3,5-dicaffaeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA), 4,5-dicaffaeoylquinic acid(4,5-DCQA), and coumarin] from A. dubia, A. scaber, and A. dubia + A. scaber aqueous extracts and screened for their toxicities and anti-Nosema effects in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Among these five compounds, coumarin, chlorogenic acid, and 4,5-DCQA exhibited less toxic but more potent anti-Nosema effects than the other two compounds. Especially, chlorogenic acid and coumarin showed prominent anti-Nosema activities even at the lowest concentration (10 μg/mL). They might have the potential to be developed as alternative compounds for the control of Nosema disease.
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Nosemosis is one of the most common protozoan diseases of adult bees (Apis mellifera). Nosemosis is caused by two species of microsporidia; Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema ceranae is potentially more dangerous because it has the ability to infect multiple cell types, and it is now the predominant microsporidian species in A. mellifera. In this study, we identified two anti-nosemosis plants, Aster scaber and Artemisia dubia, which reduced the spore development of N. ceranae in spore-infected cells. The most important aspect of our results was that our treatment was effective at non-toxic concentrations. Anti-nosemosis activities of both plants were revealed in honey bee experiments. Specifically, a mixed extract of both A. scaber and A. dubia showed stronger activity than treatment with each single extract alone. Although the mechanisms of action of A. scaber and A. dubia against N. ceranae are still unclear, our results suggest new medicaments and therapeutic methods to control N. ceranae infection.
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Background Nosema ceranae infection not only damages honey bee (Apis melifera) intestines, but we believe it may also affect intestinal yeast development and its seasonal pattern. In order to check our hypothesis, infection intensity versus intestinal yeast colony forming units (CFU) both in field and cage experiments were studied. Methods/Findings Field tests were carried out from March to October in 2014 and 2015. N. ceranae infection intensity decreased more than 100 times from 7.6 x 10⁸ in March to 5.8 x 10⁶ in October 2014. A similar tendency was observed in 2015. Therefore, in the European eastern limit of its range, N. ceranae infection intensity showed seasonality (spring peak and subsequent decline in the summer and fall), however, with an additional mid-summer peak that had not been recorded in other studies. Due to seasonal changes in the N. ceranae infection intensity observed in honey bee colonies, we recommend performing studies on new therapeutics during two consecutive years, including colony overwintering. A natural decrease in N. ceranae spore numbers observed from March to October might be misinterpreted as an effect of Nosema spp. treatment with new compounds. A similar seasonal pattern was observed for intestinal yeast population size in field experiments. Furthermore, cage experiments confirmed the size of intestinal yeast population to increase markedly together with the increase in the N. ceranae infection intensity. Yeast CFUs amounted to respectively 2,025 (CV = 13.04) and 11,150 (CV = 14.06) in uninfected and N. ceranae-infected workers at the end of cage experiments. Therefore, honey bee infection with N. ceranae supported additional opportunistic yeast infections, which may have resulted in faster colony depopulations.
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Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the NCCLS (M38-A and M27-A2) standard method in vitro, and GA was found to have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with MICs for all the tested dermatophyte strains between 43.75 and 83.33 μg/mL. Gallic acid was also active against three Candida strains, with MICs between 12.5 and 100.0 μg/mL. The most sensitive Candida species was Candida albicans (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL), and the most sensitive filamentous species was Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 43.75 μg/mL), which was comparable in potency to the control, fluconazole. The mechanism of action was investigated for inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis using an HPLC-based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Gallic acid reduced the activity of sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51) and squalene epoxidase in the T. rubrum membrane, respectively. In vivo model demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection administration of GA (80 mg/kg d) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a mice infection model of systemic fungal infection. Overall, our results confirm the antifungal effects of GA and suggest a mechanism of action, suggesting that GA has the potential to be developed further as a natural antifungal agent for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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