Article

Art as strategic branding tool for luxury brands

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Abstract

Purpose The study aims to understand the lasting relationship between luxury fashion and art. The purpose of the paper is to explore whether the application of art, the cooperation with artists, the implementation of experiential strategies focusing on retail spaces and shows embedded in the strategic concept of a luxury brand leads to a competitive advantage, and to a sustained value creation for luxury brands. Design/methodology/approach Based on the literature, the strategic role of art and the importance of experiential marketing for the value creation of European luxury fashion brands was explored through empirical data collection, consisting of 26 semi-structured in-depth interviews. The gained data have been analysed through a thematic analysis approach and triangulated to avoid bias. Findings The exploratory study revealed that when art is applied as a strategic tool, it is of relevance to achieve an authentic fit to the brand. When integrating art consistently and authentically within the whole value chain system, it leads to a higher brand equity. Practical implications The paper provides a guide for both academics and marketers as theoretical frameworks are examined, analysed and future recommendations given, which are suited to be applied within the brand management principles. Originality/value The outcome contributes to a wider delineation regarding the future of luxury brands. The study reveals novel viewpoints concerning the integration of arts in luxury brand marketing and adds to existing literature.

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... Notwithstanding, artification is more than a mere de-commoditization strategy (Jelinek, 2018) as it reinforces luxury brands' singularity and symbolic value (Kapferer, 2014;Chailan, 2018) through the cultural elitism of those brands (Hagtvedt & Patrick, 2008). In doing so, the artification of luxury brands transcend their status and allows them to be viewed as cultural players (Kapferer, 2014;Joy et al., 2014) as well as to benefit from an "irrefutable aura" (Masè, 2020). ...
... First, it has been extensively acknowledged that the various links between luxury brands and art may be seen as collaborations (Hagtvedt & Patrick, 2008;Dion & Arnould, 2011;Kastner, 2013;Baumgarth et al., 2014;Jelinek, 2018). This trend, that was the first one to emerge, is also the most widely spread among marketing scholars (Lee et al., 2015;Codignola & Rancati, 2016;Baumgarth & Kastner, 2017), even though its use is tending to decrease over the years. ...
... "By binding modes, we refer to the type and nature of the relationship between an artist or an artistic event and a luxury brand." Besides the three main terms used in academic literature to define and conceptualize the different types of links between art and luxury brands (namely collaborations, arts-based initiatives and "art to luxury brand" binding modes), those links may also be defined around two marketing concepts in existing literature: Some authors refer to the strategic dimension of such links by using strategies (Joy et al., 2014), art-based strategies (Masè & Cedrola, 2017) or even art as strategic branding tool (Jelinek, 2018), while other scholars focus on the artification concept (Kapferer, 2015;Vukadin, Lemoine & Badot, 2016). According to some academics, the concept of artification strategies can merge both the aforementioned constructs (Passebois-Ducros et al., 2015 ;Massi & Turrini, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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Luxury has long thrived on a storytelling where craftmanship, rarity, exclusivity and uniqueness were central. Both the industrialization and the financialization of luxury industry have led to a risk of losing its rarity and exclusivity values associated to the idea of craftmanship. Leveraging on the structural proximity that exists between art and luxury, many luxury brands have been developing connections to art to capitalize on the benefits that could arise in terms of positioning and legitimacy. This conceptual paper studies and extensively investigates the different kinds of existing links between art and luxury brands as well as their related constructs in existing literature, which appear to be marginal and lacking consensus. However, this study identifies a conceptualization, which encapsulates all types of linkage between luxury brands and art that aim at enhancing the perception of luxury brands and luxury goods by consumers. It further proposes a definition of this conceptualization, which will benefit both academics and practitioners.
... The relationship between art and fashion, albeit often perceived as two worlds apart, is becoming increasingly indissoluble over years, nourished by the mutual collaboration and the innumerable advantages that both realities have drawn from it (Jelinek, 2018). ...
... Furthermore, art has a vital spirit that nothing else can equal and such a strong identity value that it is able to increase the power of a brand, improving the overall corporate image and guaranteeing both a good positioning and a stable financial situation (Kastner, 2013;Joy, Wang, 4 Chan, Sherry and Cui, 2014;Jelinek, 2018). A positive image return creates a universe of meanings around the brand that influences consumers to prefer it during purchase decisions. ...
... In this chapter, we specifically explore the hybridizations strategy that Balenciaga undertook from a business point of view. With the term hybridization, the chapter points to a collaboration process among companies belonging to fashion and art sectors that decide to undertake a strategy aimed at creating a unique and authentic product/service in order to stand out among competitors (Kastner, 2013;Joy, Wang et al. 2014;Jelinek, 2018). Being the realities considered those of the world of luxury and arts, the process of artification should be first taken into consideration as it allows the object to be perceived as an authentic and unique artwork. ...
Chapter
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This chapter deals with Balenciaga, a brand that carries the name of the designer known as “The Master of Haute Couture”, one of the most revered and influential fashion designers of the twentieth century. Characterized by sculptural quality, deft manipulation of textiles, and dramatic use of color and texture, Balenciaga creations are inspired by works of art and become works of art themselves through overlapping forms and genres. In this way, artification turns an elitist–but still commercial product—into a hybrid that acquires aesthetic and symbolic value and restores that aura lost due to production logics. Following this perspective, the main contribution of the chapter is to highlight how Balenciaga developed hybridization processes since contemporary artists are involved in the creation of the new flavor of the Balenciaga brand. Through the analysis of primary and secondary data from different sources, the authors will also underline the relevance of luxury brands adopting this strategy that brings art and fashion to get innumerable mutual advantages. In conclusion, the authors draw main managerial implications.
... Young viewers who are tired of advertising are accepting this technique, especially as they seem to have become less susceptible to traditional forms of advertising (Saucet and Cova 2015); brands are taking this evolution into account, incorporating art and beauty into their brands to capture the attention of the younger generations Jelinek 2018). However, little is known about the value and meaning of street art for consumers, creators/artists, and brands. ...
... According to Lacey et al. (2011), artwork activates the brain's reward circuit when viewing an image. Companies around the world are borrowing art from the streets to give their products an artistic edge ) that can enhance brand equity (Jelinek 2018). ...
... As part of these luxification strategies, brands use, for example, limited editions of their products or collaborations with celebrities to reinforce perceptions of scarcity and exclusivity (Jelinek, 2018). Extravagant colors and original styles have also been used in luxury goods as a way to enhance elegance and aesthetic beauty (Greenberg et al., 2019). ...
... These collaborations have been researched on different levels across the academic field. Kapferer (2014) described perhaps the most complex and involved type of partnership between brands and art and named it "Artification," where art is integrated into every step of the value chain and creative process (Jelinek, 2018). However, more common and simpler examples of collaborations are "arty limited editions" and "artistic collaborations" (Kastner, 2014;Chailan, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of adding the name of an artist to an art-infused product as a way to improve luxury perceptions. Additionally, the underlying processes are explored through the mediation of perceptions of aesthetics, exclusivity and brand quality. Design/methodology/approach Two experimental studies were conducted with two independent samples of students ( n = 215) and the general population ( n = 291). A between-subjects design (artist name: present versus absent) was used to test the main effect and mediation, and it was replicated in two different conditions: low- and high-quality brands. Findings The results indicate that when an artist’s name is added to the description of an art-infused product, luxury perceptions improve significantly. These results are also explained by a significant complementary mediation of aesthetics, exclusivity and product quality. Originality/value This paper addresses important issues in the understanding of alternative ways to gain luxury associations through an artification strategy. This paper clearly contributes to expanding the effects of art infusion in branding, considering the use of artists’ names as a luxury perception booster. In addition, this paper provides insight into the underlying processes and guides marketers on how to manage potential artist collaborations in low- or high-quality brand contexts.
... For example, Levi's and Victoria's Secret companies rely on excitement, modernity and youth in presenting their brand (Ismail and Spinelli, 2012). Brands such as Westwood, Chalayan and McQueen are building strong relationships with consumers through the personality of their brands (Jelinek, 2018), while Tommy brand focuses on the freedom and independence of the American consumer. Focusing on personality traits enable the brand to demonstrate these traits continuously and consistently (Malär et al., 2012). ...
... One of the most cited articles in this cluster is "The measurement and dimensionality of brand associations" (TC = 471) authored by Low and Lamb (2000). More study is needed, according to the articles, on issues including the influence of fake news on brand equity (Flostrand et al., 2019;Mills and Robson, 2019), the management of brand communities using social media Villegas and Marin, 2021), the effectiveness of luxury-branding strategy (Jelinek, 2018;Shin et al., 2021) and the transformation of brands through corporate social responsibility (Pratihari and Uzma, 2018;Muniz et al., 2019). ...
Article
Abstract Purpose – The Journal of Product and Brand Management (JPBM) has a 30-year long history. To commemorate the journal’s 30th anniversary, this research aims to present a retrospective overview of JPBM. Design/methodology/approach – This research examines the performance of the research constituents, social structure, and intellectual structure of scholarly publications produced by JPBM between 1992 and 2021 using bibliometric analysis. Findings – This research sheds light on the growing influence of JPBM through four major knowledge clusters (themes): (1) strategic brand management, (2) consumer behavior, (3) product development and innovation management, and (4) brand engagement. A temporal analysis of decade-by-decade cataloguing of the JPBM corpus revealed another set of three distinct knowledge clusters (themes): (5) retailing and pricing strategies, (6) marketing communications, and (7) relationship marketing. Research limitations/implications – Though the state-of-the-art overview herein offers seminal and useful insights about product and brand management research curated by JPBM, which can be used by the editorial board and prospective authors to curate and position the novelty of future contributions, it remains limited to the accuracy and availability of bibliographic records acquired from Scopus. Originality/value – This research advances the internal review and subjective evaluation of the evolution of brand management thinking in JPBM by Veloutsou and Guzmán (2017) with an objective retrospection on the performance and scientific evolution of product and brand management research in JPBM. Keywords Bibliometric analysis, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Review. Paper type Research paper
... Moreover, artists are actively engaged in "developing, nurturing and promoting themselves as recognizable products in the competitive cultural sphere" (Fillis, 2014;Kapferer, 2012Kapferer, , 2014Pearse and Peterlin, 2019;Schroeder, 2005). While art is regarded as a strategic branding tool for luxury brands (Jelinek, 2018) and successful artists have been equated with brand managers (Schroeder, 2005), it is worthwhile to investigate the designer jewelry entrepreneur's branding process and the associated practices (Dumont and Ots, 2020). ...
Article
Creative entrepreneurship have contributed to economic development of regions and countries and have become models for the countries in the western world. Jewelry designer entrepreneurs are one of the contributor towards creative economy for their role in economic prosperity. This article investigates brand building efforts of jewelry designer entrepreneurs. We explore how jewelry designer entrepreneurs develop and communicate brand narrative and brand backstories confer value to jewelry. This study used a qualitative approach. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 7 Portuguese designer jewelry. The study identified seven themes to reflect the brand narratives of the Portuguese jewelry designer entrepreneurs: 1) Designer artists considered the importance of international recognition; 2) Designer jewelry uses the ontological metaphor to connect emotionally; 3) Designer jewelry making a jewelry piece that is fluid and organic; 4) Limited association with fashion; 5) Distinctive brand communication; 6) Fair pricing strategy and 7) Identifying self as artistic worker.The study also shows that jewelry designer entrepreneurs adopts a distinctive brand communication tactics to connect emotionally with imagine customers. This study proposes a general and managerial guide to boost personal brand jewelry designers entrepreneurs through brand narratives. This study bridges an academia gap on personal branding exploring how jewelry designer entrepreneurs develop and communicate brand narrative and brand backstories adding value to the jewelry industry.
... The consumers in these countries seem to be showing more symbolic ownership of the brands primarily influenced by both symbolic brand attributes and the non-utilitarian brand attributes. Further, the changes in the society need to be considered every time Jelinek (2018). The behavioural patterns in the society showcase the social distinctions among the consumers and symbolic ownership of brands (Batra et al., 2000;Akram et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Luxury is concept that has been viewed by different scholars and industry experts in the brand marketing evolutionary process. Many studies have found that a number of factors affect the purchase of luxury goods and many researchers have shown their interest in luxury consumption. Because of globalization, global luxury products have gained their presence in emerging nations such as Sri Lanka. Luxury consumption involves reflection of the social class, lifestyle and consumer’s personality backed by the prestige consumption mindset rooted in their financial power, individual values, social values and attitudes. The perceived luxuriousness is often identified and argued under different dimensions such as quality, hedonism, prestige, exclusiveness, uniqueness, conspicuous consumption and tradition by many scholars. However, these dimensions have not been tested, discussed and analyzed from consumer behavior standpoint in an emerging country like Sri Lanka which consists of a new consumer segment that wishes to enjoy a luxurious living.
... Nevertheless, the logic of the market which are permeating the modern society are also undermining the authenticity of the artistic offer; thus, the store is no longer the most effective place to provide these experiences (Kozinets, 2002). Furthermore, if the art investment is not coherent with the brand identity, there is the risk of deteriorating the situation and of losing credibility (Jelinek, 2018). Engagement has to be considered pivotal, in the spirit of creating an experience alongside with the consumers which might be perceived as more authentic (Dessart et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Purpose This paper explores an opportunity for luxury fashion brands to strengthen their engagement with consumers through the arts and without undermining the exclusivity of the luxury product. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on an interpretive qualitative approach aiming to specifically investigate Fondazione Prada – a contemporary art gallery owned and managed by the fashion brand Prada. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a focus group implemented with the “mystery shopper” technique. Template analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings Fondazione Prada has the potential for a deep engagement, but specific lack of dialogue and interaction needs to be addressed. Learning from and sharing values with the public through a two-way peer conversation elicited by contemporary art will benefit both the foundation and the fashion brand, in generating value as the result of a spillover effect. Thus, a significant competitive advantage might be gained. Originality/value This paper extends work on consumer brand engagement in physical and non-commercial “brand's places”, by evaluating the engagement provided by contemporary art foundations owned by luxury fashion brands. By leveraging the engaging nature of contemporary art, luxury fashion brands could provide an inclusive and engaging experience without undermining the characteristic of exclusivity of the luxury product and hence, gain a significant competitive advantage for the brand.
... 2. Traditional vs. innovative logo [44,93] Tradition (also named typical in the old-world countries) is one common or typical theme for wine label logos, while the opposite is often named atypical or innovative 3. Affinity towards sports/culture [94][95][96] Sports and arts are two major out-of-home activities, therefore suitable for brand differentiation; brand strategies and culture/arts have a long history of fruitful cooperation. ...
Article
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The article explores SME (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises) brand strategies as a means to position and successfully engage in competitive markets. A derived typology of brand strategy types deals with social profiling and sheds light on brand strategy internalization of two current managerial paradigms—sustainability and co-creation. N = 895 German SME wineries in need to differentiate their offer while facing a drive-out market were examined, leaning on a netnographic analysis of predominantly websites and social media interactions. A two-step clustering method thereby identified eightwinery SME brand strategy types. The importance of sustainability across the identified eight brand strategy types is significant. Co-creation turned out to be a key profiling trait characterizing one brand strategy type. The typology illustrates strategic richness, with brand strategies leaning predominantly on traditional values, on sustainability, on external reputation, or on more innovative customer centric concepts such as co-creation. Hereby, the typology and the identified brand levers invite to strategically design brand management, governance, and sustainability. Wineries which focus on traditional positioning and legitimacy were found to be cautious in deploying co-creation through social media. Winery brands that are characterized by engagement in digital co-creation apparently either tend to expand their scope or partially combine it with traditional values, making them the most diverse type identified. Sustainability obviously needs to be addressed by all brand strategies. Despite industry and country focus, the analyses illustrate the relevance of socially-oriented profiling and highlights that sustainability has reached a status of a fundamental business approach still allowing to differentiate thereon. Furthermore, the business models of the SMEs need to deliver communicated values.
Chapter
The authors who loosely define the Art and Business as a relational model conceives it as a business relationship in which donor and recipient are both actives beneficiaries.
Article
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In this study, the symbolic reflections of mythological elements in today's fashion designs, their applications as colors, patterns and silhouettes and the meanings they represent are examined by associating them with clothing and accessory visuals.This research is limited to the symbolic effects of Greek mythology on fashion designs due to the richness of mythological visual elements, their universal meanings, and the frequent use by many fashion brands in both logo and designs.In the introduction part of the study, the relationship between the concepts of symbol, mythology and fashion design was evaluated and the effects of mythology on social structure and the semiotics in art were revealed.In the second part of the study, the importance of the symbolic language of fashion in the history and how use the major fashion brands this symbolic language was presented.In the final part of the study, the Greek mythological elements used in the fashion design collections were examined since the beginning of the 20th century, and their symbolic meanings and their reflections on clothes and accessories as design elements were presented.
Article
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Over the past two decades, the Japanese apparel industry has lost its competitiveness after experiencing a period of fast growth from the postwar years to the early 1990s. In international literature in social sciences, most scholars offer ethnic-based explanations of fashion in Japan, stressing some specificities such as street fashion or star designers in Paris. This article, however, argues that such views are biased and cannot explain the current lack of competitiveness of the Japanese apparel industry. Using the concept of the “fashion system” and following a business history-oriented approach, we offer a new interpretation of the emergence of Western clothing and fashion in Japan during the second part of the twentieth century. This interpretation demonstrates that the characteristics of the Japanese fashion system lie in a focus on the issues of production and technology, both of which led both to an extreme segmentation of the domestic market and to weaker brands.
Article
Purpose A growing number of consumers expect brands to take a stand on social issues. When Gillette launched its video with a social message in 2019, the popular press described it as divisive and controversial. This study aims to examine themes behind the polarized consumer response, aiding brands in the development of social narrative videos. Design/methodology/approach The authors use an existential-phenomenological approach to investigate the meaning behind consumers’ reactions to the Gillette video. Empirical data collection consisted of 24 semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the hermeneutic method. Findings By viewing the Gillette video through the lens of a story, this research uncovers how marketing stories can lead to different interpretations. Specifically, the roots of polarization lie in perceived realism activation and character activation. Additionally, product placement may activate persuasive intent, interrupting immersion into the story. Practical implications Brand managers should consider the potential for alternative interpretations when using storytelling. By measuring a viewer’s narrative transportation, it is possible to identify different interpretations. From a tactical standpoint, brand managers should be cautious about using celebrity endorsers and prominent product placement in social narrative videos. These cues activate persuasive intent, leading to alternative interpretations. Originality/value While marketing research has tended to focus on storytelling’s positive outcomes, this research considers how stories can result in polarizing outcomes for brands. The concept of social narrative videos is introduced and a framework is presented that outlines facilitators and inhibitors for this type of brand communication.
Chapter
As a burgeoning area of research, Arts and Business still lacks clearly defined boundaries, thus requiring the largest possible contribution from previously validated research. So as not to neglect any important contributions, the review of the relevant literature which follows focuses mainly on research conducted in the area of management. In order to assure that literature review was as complete as possible, we adopted a method called systematic literature review. After an overview of this methodology, its application will be deeply described. A description of the results obtained will follow, together with the main literature strands highlighted in the field of Art and Business.
Chapter
This chapter attempts to define luxury and show how and why its meaning and perception evolved over time. An attempt to define luxury shows what an ambiguous, subjective and changeable concept we are dealing with. In addition to analyzing traditional and emerging features of luxury the history of the development of the luxury goods market is also presented. The description of the successive stages of development of the luxury market as a business and the changing approach to luxury (in terms of the types of goods considered to be luxurious and their availability) reflects a gradual shift from goods available to the few anointed with power to their mass dissemination.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate how consumers respond to global brands adapting to local elements. Specifically, this study identified three factors (i.e., cultural compatibility, cultural elements authenticity and cultural pride) affecting the purchase intentions (PIs) toward global brands using Chinese elements among Chinese consumers in China and Chinese immigrants in North America. Another aim is to examine the moderating role of acculturation in the relationship between cultural pride and PIs among Chinese immigrants. Design/methodology/approach Three studies were conducted to test the hypotheses in China and North America. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the factor structure. Hierarchical regression was used to test the main effects and moderated regression analysis was used to test the moderation effect. Findings Results show that cultural compatibility, cultural elements authenticity (CEA) and cultural pride positively affect the PIs toward global brands with Chinese elements for both Chinese consumers and Chinese immigrants. Further, among Chinese immigrants, acculturation moderates the relationship between cultural pride and PIs. Originality/value This study explored the factors influencing the PIs toward global brands using Chinese elements, filling a research gap. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine how perceived CEA affects consumers’ PIs toward global brands with Chinese elements. Further, the findings have implications for global brands that want to target Chinese consumers and Chinese immigrants in overseas markets.
Article
This paper explores the artification process from three perspectives: the brand, the artist or art institution and the consumer. The paper is based on three Russian cases of brand‐and‐artist collaborations in the spheres of fashion and hospitality. The study consists of two phases. Phase 1 uses in‐depth expert interviews to investigate the benefits and risks of artification for brands and artists. Phase 2 uses an online survey to measure the art‐infusion effect along the five dimensions of consumer experience: sensory, affective, behavioural, intellectual and social. The results show that both partners of brand‐and‐artist collaboration receive marketing benefits and create new meanings for their brands. Values fit, target audience fit and careful consideration of the artificated product concept are the main premises of successful collaboration. The findings demonstrate that the sensory, affective and behavioural dimensions of consumer experience are mostly affected by the art‐infusion effect. The interest of a person in art affects the intellectual dimension of the consumer experience. The study confirms that the perception of the product as art is a prerequisite for the art‐infusion effect and shows a significant impact on the art‐infusion effect of consumer awareness of the fact that a famous artist participates in the product creation.
Chapter
This introductory chapter provides the theoretical foundation for the phenomenon of artification—that is, the transformation of nonart into art—which has been increasingly strategically employed by luxury fashion brands in recent times. The chapter provides context and background to position the case studies analyzed in the following chapters of the book. First, it reviews the literature on artification, tracing the origins of the concept and illustrating its transdisciplinary nature. Second, it lays the groundwork for the identification of the benefits of artification for luxury fashion brands and art institutions. In particular, it illustrates how two apparently far-removed sectors, such as art and luxury fashion, are increasingly interacting and collaborating to achieve mutual benefits. Finally, the chapter proposes a classification of artification processes based on different degrees of interaction between the luxury fashion and art sectors. Notably, the authors identify synergies, contaminations, and hybridizations as incremental stages of the artification of luxury fashion brands.
Chapter
This chapter deals with the artification strategies developed by Trussardi, a renowned Italian luxury fashion brand. Trussardi represents an illustrative example of a formal separation between Trussardi art foundation and luxury fashion brand that counterintuitively leads in a positive authentic contamination between art and fashion from the consumers point of view. Indeed, through the analysis of secondary data and an exclusive interview with Beatrice Trussardi, the President of the Trussardi Foundation, this chapter investigates the idiosyncratic dichotomy between the company—the Trussardi Fashion Maison—and the Nicola Trussardi Foundation—an institution aimed at the promotion of contemporary art. By outlining the main findings, this chapter aims to clearly identify the distinct origins and developments of both realities, thus eliciting the positive externalities of the two separated entities.
Article
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For some good years, there have been frequent returns to ethnic motifs in design, seen as a necessity in terms of inspiration, but also as a cultural reference present within the fashion system. Through this return to the ethnic motives and elements, the importance of the cultural and social archetypes, developed during an important historical duration, archetypes that have kept their meaning and essence until today, persists. Ethnic motifs have a special importance as a symbol and as an archetype in contemporary fashion. The effect of symbols on the transfer of meaning can be clearly seen when examining textile products and clothes. These cultural meanings are expressed in fashion and textile, in points such as color, motif and weaving. At this point, it is stated that some symbols, such as colors or the qualities represented by some birds and animals, do not need to be explained because people react to symbols in a universal context and instinctively. The human mind is equipped to think and communicate with symbols, and the language of symbols and especially archetypes transcends time and space. Fashion attracts attention as an important area in the ability of nations to transfer folk symbols within their own culture and to spread them to other cultures, or at least to create a sense of familiarity. In this study, the use and importance of Romanian folk symbols in contemporary fashion designs are emphasized.
Thesis
The Chinese luxury market is characterized by a great desire for global luxury products in recent years, but the underlying values driving such purchasing intentions remain unknown. This study explores consumers’ value perceptions of luxury goods in the Chinese context. Based on data gathered via a survey from 6 representative cities throughout China (N1=261, N2=644), the findings systematically summarize a framework of luxury values as perceived by Chinese consumers. The values derived are constituted by functional value, financial value, individual value, and social value. Moreover, these values vary across demographic factors such as gender, age, income and city of residence. The results further provide evidence that functional and individual values together with income significantly affect real consumption of luxury goods. Based on the results, this study offers theoretical and practical implications for global luxury brands targeting the Chinese luxury market for business development. Purpose: the purpose of this study is to figure out the framework of value perceptions of Chinese consumers, and test the validity of the constructs of values. By concluding such framework of Chinese consumer value perceptions in luxury market, the paper aims at identifying major influential values that affect the luxury consumption. Methodological approach: Based on the literature review, this study collected luxury value constructs first. And in order to find out whether such value constructs fit for Chinese consumer, this study use qualitative method to summarize the value constructs for further analysis by interview field people. After identifying the possible luxury values perceived by Chinese consumer, this study does quantitative research by using data from 6 Chinese Cities with designed questionnaire. The FCA (Factor Component Analysis) method, a method of exploratory factor analysis, is used to analyze the data, and Structural Equation Modeling (software Amos) is used to identify the influential power of luxury value perceptions on real luxury consumption. Findings: By empirical test of luxury values with the structural equation modeling method, this study finds that the framework of luxury value perceived by Chinese consumers includes functional value, financial value, individual value, and social (conspicuous/status) value. And individual value and functional value will affect the luxury consumption significantly. While the social value negatively affect the luxury consumptions. Practical Application: This study analyzes the luxury values and provides the characteristics of consumer behavior held by Chinese consumers comparing with consumers elsewhere. Chinese consumers pay special emphasis on functional and individual/hedonic values, and at the same time they are very sensitive and show contradictive attitude to social value, some Chinese luxury consumers even avoid to be associated with luxury products or brands in public deliberately, which will push the marketers in luxury field to modify their marketing strategy in Chinese luxury market. So this study can also provide an insight look of Chinese consumer behavior with Chinese cultural background.
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study is built on primary and secondary data sources, including personal interviews with experts and managers. Findings: The multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis suggests that firms should apply sensorial strategies and three explanatory levels within an SM model. It allows firms through means as sensors, sensations, and sensory expressions to differentiate and position a brand in the human mind as image. Research limitations/implications: A theoretical implication is that the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis emphasizes the significance of the human mind and senses in value-generating processes. Another theoretical implication is that the hypothesis illustrates the shortcomings of the transaction and relationship marketing models in considering the multi-sensory brand-experience concept. It is worth conducting additional research on the multi-sensory interplay between the human senses in value-generating processes. Practical implications: The findings offer additional insights to managers on the multi-sensory brand-experience concept. This research opens up opportunities for managers to identify emotional/psychological linkages in differentiating, distinguishing and positioning a brand as an image in the human mind. Originality/value: The main contribution of this research lies in developing the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis within a SM model. It fills a major gap in the marketing literature and research in stressing the need to rethink conventional marketing models.
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Purpose – The purposes of this editorial are first, to review the background to, and development of, the Special Issue call for papers issued in March 2013 on the topic of “Brands in the Arts and Culture Sector”, second, to introduce the eight papers in the double issue (seven in the Special Issue plus one paper (by Caldwell)) which was submitted to the journal in the normal course and whose topic fits well with the arts and cultural branding topic, and third, to set out a framework designed to facilitate the analysis of individual arts and cultural brands, as well as the directions for future research in the area. Design/methodology/approach – The papers in this Special Issue use a variety of approaches-some qualitative (e.g. ethnography, expert interviews), others quantitative (e.g. laboratory experiment, surveys); others deal with conceptual issues for individual artists and for the arts market. Findings – Findings and insights relate to topics such as: how the “in-between spaces” (e.g. art studios) can be key building blocks of a strong artist’s brand; the importance of western ideas for the Chinese art market; how pro-activeness, innovation, and risk-taking are the three key drivers for the decision to integrate blockbusters as a sub-brand in museum brand architecture; the importance of experiential design for low-involvement museum visitors; the utility of the notion of brand attachment in explaining volunteering; the potential of visual arts branding for general branding theory; the concept of millennial cultural consumers and how to reach them; and celebrity casting in London’s West End theatres. Research limitations/implications – The authors believe that all of the papers have implications for future thinking, research, scholarship, paedagogy, and practice in the area of arts and cultural branding. Originality/value – As far as the editors are aware, this is the first ever journal Special Issue on arts and cultural branding. More specifically, the authors have taken the opportunity to present in this editorial essay the “C-Framework” of arts and cultural brands, which offers a new way of thinking about arts and cultural brands − one which can accommodate classical or so-called “mainstream” branding ideas as well as insights from cultural, media, and consumer studies, and other disciplines. This framework can be applied to individual arts and cultural brands as well as to the entire field.
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Through an ethnographic study of how consumers perceive and experience Louis Vuitton flagship stores, we show that luxury stores are becoming hybrid institutions, embodying elements of both art galleries and museums, within a context of exclusivity emblematic of luxury. We create the term "M(Art)World" to capture the essence of this aesthetically oriented strategy. Participants take note of the company's sleekly elegant architecture, interior design, and adroit use of lighting that are modelled after those of museums housing world-class exhibits. The store's merchandize is artisanal, often produced in collaboration with artists. Objects for sale are displayed alongside actual art, rendering both products equivalent. Employees function as curators, offering guidance and knowledge, as well as goods for sale. We analyze how luxury consumers experience and evaluate the ways in which luxury stores operate as contemporary art institutions, and extrapolate those insights into managerial implications for other retail venues.
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Growth is the biggest challenge for a luxury brand in that volume dilutes the brand cachet. In addition, it violates the credo of rarity on which the luxury sector is originally based. This article reveals how the current leading luxury brands use ‘artification,’ a process of transformation of nonart into art, to circumvent the volume problem. Artification takes time and substantial investment. It cannot be undertaken by the brands alone: It requires the active collaboration of art authorities and renowned artists. The goal is to change the status of the brand, of its founder and products, and in so doing, to reinforce the idea of a better-than-ordinary brand whose price and symbolic power are undisputed. It is also strategic for the globalization of luxury: Art is universal.
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Luxury retail strategy differs from other retail strategies not merely in distinctive formulations of product, price, distribution, and appeals to customer distinction. Instead, it increasingly stands or falls on the legitimacy of a charismatic creative director. The director offers an aesthetic brand ideology. Luxury retail draws on the principles of art and magic to assemble the charismatic persona of the creative director and to diffuse his aesthetic ideology to the brand. Moreover, luxury retail strategy enlists magical and aesthetic principles within and without the store to achieve these ends. Finally, retail luxury is producer rather than consumer oriented and seeks to generate awe rather than community. This strategy appears to be to some extent a response to legitimacy crises provoked by recent strategic extensions of luxury brands into mass marketing. We offer some implications for marketing in which the charisma of a key personage is at stake.
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While luxury brands are one of the most profitable and fastest growing segments of the brand pantheon, they are the least understood. There is no established definition as to what a luxury brand is; no clear understanding of the value dimensionality of luxury brands; and no rigorous conceptualization of the different types of luxury brands. They are generally treated as homogenous. Little wonder that the management of these brands is shrouded in mystery. This article explores the value dimensionality of luxury brands, differentiates among luxury brands, and proposes a typology to help firms understand the managerial implications and challenges of each type. All luxury brands are not the same - they can mean different things to different people or even different things to the same people, which makes target marketing of luxury brands both difficult and important. This also means that they react differently to each other both in times of economic prosperity and in downturns. This article also explores strategies for migrating mass-market brands into luxury brand markets.
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Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.
Book
The most researched, documented, and comprehensive manifesto on experiential marketing. As customers take control over what, when, why, and how they buy products and services, brands face the complete breakdown and utter failure of passive marketing strategies designed more than a half-century ago. To connect with a new generation of customers, companies must embrace and deploy a new marketing mix, powered by a more effective discipline: experiences. Experiential marketing, the use of live, face-to-face engagements to connect with audiences, create relationships and drive brand affinity, has become the fastest-growing form of marketing in the world as the very companies that built their brands on the old Madison Avenue approach-including Coca-Cola, Nike, Microsoft, American Express and others-open the next chapter of marketing. . . as experiential brands. Using hundreds of case studies, exclusive research, and interviews with more than 150 global brands spanning a decade, global experiential marketing experts Kerry Smith and Dan Hanover present the most in-depth book ever written on how companies are using experiences as the anchor of reinvented marketing mixes. You'll learn: The history and fundamental principles of experiential marketing How top brands have reset marketing mixes as experience-driven portfolios The anatomy of a brand experience The psychology of engagement and experience design The 10 habits of highly experiential brands How to measure the impact of experiential marketing How to combine digital and social media in an experiential strategy The experiential marketing vocabulary How to begin converting to experiential marketing Marketers still torn between outdated marketing models and the need to reinvent how they market in today's customer-controlled economy will find the clarity they need to refine their marketing strategies, get a roadmap for putting their brands on a winning path, and walk away inspired to transition into experiential brands.
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Purpose - This chapter provides a critical review of the emerging field of consumer experience and experiential marketing. Design/methodology/approach - We review definitions, perspectives, and key research areas on the topics of consumer experience, product and service experiences, off-line and online experiences, as well as consumption and brand experiences. We report empirical findings, seminal studies, and insight into the experience process (e.g., how consumers process experiential attributes, how they process experiences over time, and whether positive and negative experiences can co-occur). We present research on experiential dimensions, experiential themes, and the nature of extraordinary experiences. Value/originality - The chapter provides value by discussing the key measurement and marketing management issues of experiential marketing and discusses the original issue whether it is rational for consumers to include experiences in their decision making.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the strategic role of the flagship store geographic location in improving luxury brand positioning. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on the literature review on flagship store format, retail geography and place marketing, the study adopted a qualitative research design based on case studies of six luxury fashion retailers. A conceptual framework of flagship store location has been proposed, and the flagship store locations of these case studies have been examined in six worldwide capitals. Findings – The presence and the geographical proximity of many flagship stores in the same particular urban area contribute to developing a “luxury sense of place” related to their brands. Thus, through a co-branding strategy inherent in the selection of the best site for their flagship stores, luxury firms improve their brands’ positioning by the generated “luxury sense of place”. Research limitations/implications – The principal limitation of the research is the scale of the case studies, but the findings show the feasibility of extending the research basis to a larger number of luxury retailers. Originality/value – This study addresses an under-researched area in the retail literature, investigating the relationship between flagship store location and luxury branding. It is the only research to explore the social dimension of the geographic location of luxury flagship stores and the first one to examine cities in terms of flagship store density.
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Purpose This article analyses how contemporary artists construct and position their ´person brands´ and reflects on the extent to which artist brand building results from strategic brand management. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual framework proposes a spatial perspective on artist brand building to reach an analytical insight into the case of visual artists in London. The empirical analysis is qualitative, based on serial and in-depth interviews, complemented by participant observations. Findings Artist brand building relies on the creation and continuous redefinition of ´in-between spaces´ that exist at the blurred boundaries separating an individual and isolated art studio, and the social and visible art scene. Artist brand building is a bundle of mechanisms that, mainly occurring without strategic thinking, are ´nested´ within the art production process throughout which learning, producing and performing are heavily intertwined. Research limitations/implications This study was undertaken with a focus on visual artists and specific operations and spatialities of their individual art projects. Further empirical research is required in order to fully explore the manifold of practices and spatialities that constitute contemporary artistic practice. Practical implications This study fosters artists´ awareness of branding effects that spillover from artistic production, and thus potentially opens the way to a more strategic capitalization on these. Originality/value The adopted spatial perspective on the process of artist brand building helps to uncover ´relatively visible´ and ´relatively invisible´ spatialities that, usually overlooked in branding debate, play a significant role in artist brand building.
Purpose ‐ Since the concept of the flagship store format was first introduced to retailing in the 1970s, both its form and function have evolved considerably. The highest concentration of flagships can be seen in the luxury fashion market. This paper aims first to define the flagship concept in terms of its key characteristics, and second to outline the academic and industry developments, thereby charting its evolution. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Research was undertaken qualitatively due to the exploratory theory building nature of the subject area and the absence of accepted theoretical frameworks. This took the form of non participant observation and in-depth interviews with brand representatives within seven major fashion capitals. Findings ‐ The research identifies essential elements of the luxury store format: its scale and size which usually exceeds functional need; it is derived and built on the twin features of exclusivity and uniqueness; it seeks to offer the customer a justification for their visit. The format evolves and adapts to find new ways of generating and communicating differentiation. Research limitations/implications ‐ The findings provide direction for future research in the area, in particular, an opportunity to investigate how luxury flagship stores adapt in order to accommodate market conditions. Originality/value ‐ The paper delineates the characteristics of the luxury flagship store format and identifies a new characteristic of this format.
Article
Purpose ‐ Luxury shopping touches upon many facets of experience, ranging from the strategic objectives of the brand to the subjective, interpersonal experiences of individuals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the flagship's form and appearance: including architecture, decor, arrangement of space, symbolic elements, location, and its function to better understand the role of the aesthetic environment of the flagship as a means of communicating the brand's objectives, which are mediated by a consumer's perception of the brand and store, the goals he or she brings to the experience, and the situational determinants of the shopping experience. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The authors explore the strategic role and customer experience of flagships in major international locations through interviews with luxury flagship managers and customers. Site visits were made to multiple brands. Ethnographic research on the consumer experience was carried out in two locations of a major brand's flagship store. Findings ‐ The authors arrive at definite characteristics comprising branding strategies, retail practices, and the consumer experience. The findings contribute to a more comprehensive delineation of the meaning and purpose of luxury flagships. Research limitations/implications ‐ The exploratory study focused broadly on managers' views, and on the customer experience of one brand in two major cities. Comprehensive interviews and survey research should be conducted in targeted stores with a focus on customers at these flagships. Practical implications ‐ The paper yields practical information which can be used by brands to more effectively provide a satisfying customer experience. The paper adds to the empirical research on the aesthetic dimensions of flagship stores, its function in relation to the brand, and the experience it provides customers. Social implications ‐ This empirical study explores the meaning and usage of branded spaces and retailing strategies to those who experience the environment: managers and customers. Originality/value ‐ The paper explores the phenomena of the luxury flagship experience along two pivotal points: the point of view of managers who are charged with promoting the goals set forth by the brand and that of customers who experience the luxury environment on their own terms, as well as responding to the sensorial environment they encounter.
Chapter
When reading the literature on counterfeit branded luxury goods (henceforth counterfeit BLGs) in both the scientific and popular press, one quickly comes across what we will summarize as the conventional wisdom. We do not mean the phrase “conventional wisdom” to have disparaging connotations. On the contrary, this view is widely popular because it makes sense and fits with common observation.
Article
Although the definition of a ‘luxury’ brand is open for debate, the natural evolution of luxury, with luxury brands first being adopted by the affluent and wealthy before inevitably being translated and reinterpreted down to mass markets, raises new challenges for marketing strategists. Luxury brands need to stay in front of luxury consumers, through the discovery of new and different ways to give expression to their desires. This paper discusses the fundamental difference between communication and connection, and identifies a means of assuring the greatest long-term success for luxury marketers by connecting with the luxury consumer using brand-related experiences.
Article
Purpose – Employing the qualitative method, this paper sets out to investigate the role and function of flagship stores as a market entry mechanism employed by luxury fashion retailers. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs an interpretive research position, utilising qualitative techniques in the form of semi-structured interviews with élite informants. In total, 12 luxury fashion retailers form the empirical focus of the work. Findings – The paper identifies the defining characteristics of luxury retailers' flagship stores. It finds that luxury flagship stores represent a strategic approach to market entry that is employed to support, enhance and develop distribution activities within a foreign market. The interdependence of flagship stores and the wholesaling method of distribution is highlighted. The importance of the flagship store in reinforcing and enhancing the retailer's luxury status and enhancing and maintaining relationships not only with customers but also with distribution partners and the fashion media is found to be significant. Practical implications – The paper provides practical information to luxury retailers on the role and importance of flagship stores as a method of entering international markets. Originality/value – Flagship stores are a pivotal aspect of any luxury fashion retailer's internationalisation strategy. For the first time in the literature, the paper provides insights into their form and function and an understanding of why they are crucial to the international development of luxury retailers despite their prohibitively high cost.
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The question whether fashion can be regarded as a form of art begs the question of what kinds of things can legitimately be thus regarded. In the first section, some of the most recent contributions to dealing with this issue are critically analyzed. The conclusion that emerges is that—like art—clothes can provide the subject of historical research. The second section deals with the aesthetics of clothes. If sartorial fashion can be a form of art then we need an aesthetics of fashion. Whilst it would be difficult to contest the artistic quality of clothes throughout the centuries, fashion—like architecture—fulfills primarily a functional dimension. Some of the key concepts pertaining to classical aesthetics, such as taste in the writings of Edmund Burke, the Third Earl of Shaftesbury, and Immanuel Kant with special reference to Kant's less well-known writings on anthropology under which he classified fashion, are discussed. Some of the more recent contributions such as Curt J. Ducasse's brilliant 1944 article "The Art of Personal Beauty" are also discussed in this section. Finally, Karen Hanson in her article "Dressing Up, Dressing Down: The Philosophic Fear of Fashion" addresses this important issue, arguing that—like dance perhaps—fashion has systematically been disregarded by philosophers as a worthy subject of research. Like so many articles in Fashion Theory, this article is an attempt to redress this balance by seeking new ways of providing a serious theoretical and aesthetic basis for the study of sartorial fashion.
Article
“The aesthetic” has notably been overlooked in fashion research, but is arguably fashion's most important feature. In the early 1980s, the lack of research raised the controversial question of whether fashion can be considered art, as there was a groundbreaking Yves Saint Lauren retrospective at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Following this, other museums mounted exhibitions dealing with art and fashion. The author initiates a critical approach to fashion by arguing the relationship between fashion and art, and analyses critical fashion writings published in art magazines between 1980 and 1995 to identify and describe the critics' underlying concepts of fashion and to set out the development of a theory of fashion criticism as a domain of aesthetic inquiry. From analysing the fashion writings, it is indicated that postmodern concepts of fashion tend toward an interdisciplinary approach so as to embrace diverse aesthetic forms and practices that enrich human experience in the same way as postmodern art. The article concludes that fashion has become a recognizable subject within the postmodern artworld as a result of broadened conceptions of fashion and art.
Article
This article surveys the history of museum fashion exhibitions, and explores some of the reasons why they have so often been controversial. Issues such as corporate sponsorship, curatorial independence, and historical accuracy are analyzed in connection with a range of exhibitions. In particular, the article considers the influence of Diana Vreeland's exhibitions at the Costume Institute and the issues that are raised when an exhibition is devoted to a single famous designer, such as Armani, Versace, or Vivienne Westwood.
Article
This paper argues for the recognition of important experiential aspects of consumption. Specifically, a general framework is constructed to represent typical consumer behavior variables. Based on this paradigm, the prevailing information processing model is contrasted with an experiential view that focuses on the symbolic, hedonic, and esthetic nature of consumption. This view regards the consumption experience as a phenomenon directed toward the pursuit of fantasies, feelings, and fun.
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