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Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System


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The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling) analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.
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Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on
Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire
Pressure Monitoring System
Kai-Ying Chen 1and Chih-Feng Yeh 2, *
1Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology,
Taipei 10608, Taiwan;
2College of Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
*Correspondence:; Tel.: +886-09-3310-1443
Received: 8 February 2018; Accepted: 5 April 2018; Published: 9 April 2018
The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is
responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system
(TPMS) to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect
between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM
(partial least squares structural equation modeling) analysis, the results indicate a significant positive
relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret
and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is
not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by
providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout
accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the
protection afforded them by using TPMS.
in-vehicle technology; tire pressure monitoring system; risk perception; anticipated regret;
optimism bias; road safety
1. Introduction
Tire pressure must be checked regularly before driving to ensure that tires are properly inflated.
Drivers typically do not check the tire pressure unless they notice unusual vehicle tire performance.
According to the roadside survey PMDT (potential mechanical defect tests) in South Africa, 40% of
vehicles on suburban roads and 29% of vehicles on highways had mechanical defects which could
potentially result in an accident [
]. Velupillai and Guvenc [
] argued that approximately three-fourths
of all automobiles operate with at least one underinflated tire, and visual checks are often insufficient
to determine if the tires are underinflated. A survey, RRCGB (Reported Road Casualties Great Britain),
found that around 2% of fatal road accidents and casualties over the five-year period from 2008 to
2012 had tire defects recorded as a contributory factor, as did around 1% of serious and slight injury
reported accidents and casualties [
]. Similarly, Table 1shows that over the 10-year period from 2007
to 2016, 809 people were killed in accidents on super highways, and the condition of the vehicle tires
had been the contributory factor to cause 9.52% (77) of people dead in accidents in Taiwan (Ministry
Of Transportation and Communication (MOTC), Taiwan, 2017).
Safety 2018,4, 16; doi:10.3390/safety4020016
Safety 2018,4, 16 2 of 14
Table 1. Injury accidents and casualties involving tire-related factors, 2007–2016, Taiwan.
Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Accidents (freq).
88 64 67 62 58 66 60 77 67 719
7 11 8 9 6 4 5 5 4 3 62 8.62
Casualties (people) 1648 (176)
Fatal total
98 82 74 72 68 71 73 89 70 809
7 11 11 13 9 4 5 5 9 3 77 9.52
Serious total 86
104 102
75 47
70 83 89 80 839
13 16 23 17 2 4 8 11 4 1 99
Tires running in flat can damage the tires and lead to an unexpected blowout. Ockert, Johannes,
and Grobbelaar [
] noted that a substantial number of road accidents are associated with mechanical tire
imperfections. Statistics provided by Michelin Tire show that tire blowouts result in 23,000 collisions
and 535 fatalities each year [
]. Ratrout [
] pointed out that statistics on road security personnel
indicate that 13% of the accidents they attended were caused by tire blowouts or tread separation.
Obviously, a significant number of vehicles operate with tire pressures below the manufacturer’s
specifications. Properly inflated tires will ensure the shortest braking distance, a reduction in blowouts,
the mitigation of hydroplaning for better road handling, and an increase in tire life [6].
The purpose of a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), as an aspect of in-vehicle technology
(IVT), is to help drivers maintain the correct tire pressure for their vehicles and thereby reduce the
risk of tire-related accidents. TPMS also alerts drivers to pressure loss, tires running at low pressure,
tire failure, inflating tire, and location of wheels [
]. Many countries are planning to take similar
action requiring vehicles to have a TPMS sensor installed on every wheel [
]. Taiwan has taken action
with a mandatory TPMS requirement, which came into effect on 1 November 2014. Although all new
passenger vehicles now have TPMS installed by the manufacturer, there are still about 6.5 million
older vehicles in Taiwan without TPMS which run the risk of tire-related accidents (Ministry Of
Transportation and Communication (MOTC), Taiwan, 2015).
Most previous research on road safety has focused on risky driving behavior [
], with
some researches being carried out on risk perception [
] and IVTs [
]. Although
IVTs have been discussed in areas such as seat-belt use [
], backing aid systems, and rear-view
video cameras [
] and event-triggered videos [
], to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive
investigation of the intention to use TPMS is lacking. According to previous models conducted
by Li et al. [
], the research model in this study was based on risk perception, anticipated regret,
and optimism bias. The purpose of this study is to explore the correlations between risk perception,
anticipated regret, and intention, and to determine which of these factors is most likely responsible
for the intention to use TPMS. The discussion includes the topic of whether the optimism bias has a
moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention.
2. Method and Theory Description
2.1. Risk Perception
Risk perception concerns how people perceive and understand risks [
], and it can influence
consumer behavior [
]. Sjöberg et al. [
] pointed out risk perception as the subjective assessment of
the probable occurrence of a specific type of accident and our degree of concern as to the consequences.
Many studies have shown that the tendency to take a certain risk is decreased when people have
information regarding a specific high-risk situation. Nordgren et al. [
] stated that the subject of how
people make judgments about risks has been of longstanding interest, in terms of how risk perception
influences our decisions and behaviors, particularly as the perception of risk is often at odds with the
actual risk a behavior entails. While risk perception is theoretically based on two basic judgments,
Safety 2018,4, 16 3 of 14
the probability that a negative outcome will occur and the severity of its consequences [
], there
are other factors which can have a significant impact on people’s risk perception. One such factor
concerns the risk characteristics which refer to features of the risk [
]. Previous studies have suggested
that young drivers are more likely to underestimate the probability of the specific risks in certain
traffic situations [
]. Milech et al. [
] argued that young drivers tend to perceive the hazards in
traffic less holistically and so overestimate their own driving skills [
]. Rundmo and Iversen [
pointed out that the great majority of studies on young drivers’ risk perception have concluded that
the misperception of hazards, as well as the optimism bias related to one’s own driving skills, are
core causal factors in traffic accidents, and that this limitation in perception and the processing of
information can result in misjudgments and bad perceptions. The results of traffic safety research
have also shown that a driver’s behavior is mainly determined by how information is perceived
and processed, i.e., the perception of risk is a cognitive or belief-based judgment. Risk perception is
often related to certain preventive actions. Stasson and Fishbein [
] argued that the hypothesis that
perceived risk is related to seatbelt use has little support. Fhaner and Hane [
] found correlations
ranging from
0.02 to 1.3 between a composite perceived risk score and seatbelt usage. However,
the present study has posited that the intention to use TPMS is a preventive action which, by detecting
the tire pressure, protects a driver against tire blowouts and decreases the incidence of accidents.
According to previous studies conducted by Becker [
] and Rogers [
], reasoning that people are
inclined to take preventive action if they believe that inaction significantly increases their risk. Thus,
we have suggested that the higher the perceived probability that a negative tire-related accident will
occur and the higher the perceived severity of the consequences, the more positive the influence on the
intention to use TPMS. Therefore, we hypothesize that:
Hypothesis 1 (H1). Risk perception positively influences the intention to use TPMS.
2.2. Anticipated Regret
While the vast majority of studies have focused on the cognitive factors that influence
decision making, a growing body of research has emphasized the importance of emotions [
Previous studies on the relationship between emotions and decision making have focused on
anticipated emotions [
], such as disappointment or regret, which might arise from counterfactual
comparisons; while typically not experienced in the immediate present, they are expected to be
experienced in the future [
]. Regret is an unpleasant emotion that is said to be experienced when:
(1) an obtained outcome compares negatively to a possible other outcome; and (2) there is a sense of
personal responsibility over the obtained negative outcome [
]. Loomes and Sugden [
] pointed
out that an important feature of regret is that it can be anticipated and taken into account when
making decisions. An action-based theory called “regret theory”, a model of decision making with
anticipatory aspects of regret, formulated by Bell [
] and Loomes and Sugden [
], suggested that
the utility of a chosen option additionally depends on the feelings evoked by the outcomes of the
rejected options. Consequently, people compare the actual outcome with what the outcome could have
been if a different choice had been made, and experience emotion as a consequence. These emotional
consequences of decision making are future anticipated and taken into account when making decisions
in situations of uncertainty [55].
Several studies on road safety have shown that anticipated regret influenced participants towards
the safer, risk-aversion choice [
]. Anticipated regret may predict the intention to perform a
behavior, whether by action or inaction [
]. Sheeran and Orbell [
] have found that anticipated
regret increased the consistency between participants’ intentions and their behavior, as failure to act
was associated with adverse effects. Therefore, anticipated regret might not only intensify intention,
but it could also increase the likelihood of intentions being acted on. Conner, Sandberg, McMillan,
and Higgins [
] conducted their research on how far anticipated regret influenced the intention to
quit smoking and found significant positive correlations. Thus, we hypothesize that:
Hypothesis 2 (H2). Anticipated regret positively influences the intention to use TPMS.
Safety 2018,4, 16 4 of 14
2.3. Optimism Bias
The concept of optimism bias is that people perceive their likelihood of experiencing negative
events to be less when compared with an average individual or a group which is similar to them [
This concept has been obtained for a wide variety of health risks [
]. In a study of AIDS-related
risks, Van der Pligt et al. [
] found that for groups aware of their relative risk status, high-risk groups
gave higher ratings of their own risk than low-risk groups, and all groups showed an optimism
bias and thought their risks were lower than those of an average person of their age and gender.
Harre et al. [
] found that a higher perception of driving skill was associated with a lower perception
of accident risk. Harre and Sibley [
] noted that a number of studies have found that drivers tend to
consider themselves superior to their peers in areas such as driving skill, reflexes, judgment, and safety.
Optimism bias can lead to overconfidence [
], and lead drivers who believe that they are safer than
the average driver tend to think injury prevention campaigns do not apply to them [
]. Martha and
Delhomme [
] pointed out that most of the participants expressed comparative optimism regarding
speeding-ticket risk and speeding-induced crash risks. Consequently, we suggest that people who
tend to consider themselves superior to others in driving skills, reflexes, judgment, and safety will
have a lower degree of risk perception, which will in turn affect their intention to use TPMS. Thus,
we hypothesize that:
Hypothesis 3 (H3).
Optimism bias moderates the relationship between risk perception and the intention
to use TPMS.
As noted earlier, optimism bias allows people to perceive the likelihood of their experiencing
negative events to be less when compared with an average individual or a group similar to them. This
can lead to positive feelings and emotions, such as rejoicing, elation, and pride, rather than negative
emotions, such as regret, disappointment, and self-recrimination. In keeping with the context of
our study, we argue that individuals with a high optimism bias have intense positive emotions as
regards tire-related accidents, because they perceive their risks to be lower than that of the average
person. On the other hand, people with a low optimism bias will have negative emotions as regards
tire-related accidents. Thus, optimism bias could affect the relationship between anticipated regret and
the intention to use TPMS. We hypothesize that:
Hypothesis 4 (H4).
Optimism bias moderates the relationship between anticipated regret and the intention
to use TPMS.
2.4. Method
According to relevant research questionnaires and scales used by other scholars, a questionnaire
was designed using a 7-point Likert-scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree),
to measure participants’ risk perception, anticipated regret, personal optimism bias, and intention
to use TPMS. The risk perception scale was adapted and modified from Rundmo and Iversen [
the anticipated regret scale was adapted and modified from Abraham and Sheeran [
] and Li, Zhou,
Sun, Rao, Zheng, and Liang [
]; the personal optimism bias scale was adapted and modified from
Coogan et al. [89]; and the intention scale was adapted from Lee [90].
The participants in this study were individuals over 18 years old. They were randomly selected
from the Greater Taipei Area and asked to fill in a questionnaire online. A total of 302 questionnaires
were completed. After 28 invalid samples were eliminated, 274 valid samples remained. Of the 274
participants, 165 (60.2%) were male and 109 (39.8) were female. Most of the participants were between
the age of 31 and 60 (85.4%), 181 (66.1%) had college degrees, 108 (39.4%) had held a driver’s license
for 11–20 years and drove a car 6–10 years old. Table 2shows the distribution of the basic information
of the valid samples.
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Table 2. Demographic information of respondents in this study.
Items N% Items N%
Gender Income (USD/Year)
Male 165 60.2 <20,000 21 7.7
Female 109 39.8 20,000~30,000 85 31.0
Age 30,001~40,000 90 32.8
18~30 8 2.9 40,001~50,000 43 15.7
31~40 88 32.1 50,001~60,000 22 8.0
41~50 88 32.1 60,001~70,000 6 2.2
51~60 58 21.2 70,001~80,000 7 2.6
61~ 32 11.7 Car Age (years)
Education 3~5 91 33.2
high school 17 6.2 6~10 93 33.9
collage 181 66.1 11~15 61 22.3
graduate school 76 27.7 16~20 22 8.0
Time held License license 21~ 7 2.6
<1 10 3.7 Experienced Times
1~10 40 14.6 No experienced 155 56.6
11~20 108 39.4 <5 108 39.4
21~30 62 22.6 6~10 11 4.0
31~40 42 15.3 11~ 0 0.0
40~ 12 4.4 Check Times
No check 113 41.3
<5 148 54.0
6~10 13 4.7
11~ 0 0.0
The investigation into the moderator effects of optimism bias between risk perception/anticipated
regret and the intention to use TPMS involved two steps. First, it was necessary to establish moderators
within the data by using principal component analysis (PCA), in order to find the components that
maximized the variance in the dataset and tease out the factors. The analysis was conducted using
a personal optimism bias scale [
], SPSS, to calculate factor 1 and factor 2. To comply with the
research context, we defined factor 1—items OB1, OB2, and OB6—as
general optimism
, and factor
2—items OB3, OB4 and OB5—as
drive skill optimism
to be the interaction terms (shown in Table 5)
in this study.
Second, to understand the correlation between the different degrees of personal optimism bias,
categories were established within the data; a hierarchical cluster analysis using Ward’s method and
Squared Euclidean Distance was performed on the data to tease out clusters of optimism bias.
3. Results
3.1. Model Analysis
The measurement model of this study was evaluated by the SmartPLS used in partial least squares
structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) for model validation. The main advantage of PLS is that it
does not need to consider the multivariate normal distribution of the sample data or total sample [
The measurement evaluation is conducted by the least squares method. PLS is a technique using
latent structural equation modeling to estimate the structural model and measurement model [
Gefen et al. [
] suggested that PLS should be selected for the exploration or extension of an existing
structural theory.
The construct reliability (CR) value consists of the validity values of all the measurement variables
to represent the internal consistency of the construct indicators. Higher validity suggests the higher
internal consistency of the indicators. The recommended CR value is above 0.7 [
]. In this
study, CR was in the range of 0.896–0.928, which was above the general recommended value of 0.7.
The average variance extracted (AVE) is the average amount of variation that a latent construct is
Safety 2018,4, 16 6 of 14
able to explain in the observed variables to which it is theoretically related [
]. If the AVE of the
latent variable is higher, it means the latent variable has higher degrees of convergence validity and
discriminant validity. When AVE is greater than 0.5, it means the dimension has sufficient convergence
validity [
]. The AVE values of the variables were between 0.681 and 0.771, over the threshold of
0.5. Therefore, the measurement questionnaire items of this study had a certain degree of convergent
validity, as shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Interconstruct correlations.
Item Construct CR αAVE 1 2 3 4 5
1. Intention 0.896 0.829 0.743 0.862 - - - -
2. Risk Perception 0.928 0.907 0.681 0.476 0.825 - - -
3. Anticipated Regret 0.910 0.853 0.771 0.328 0.478 0.878 - -
4. General Optimism 0.748 0.719 0.539 0.281 0.362 0.212 0.734 -
5. Drive skill Optimism 0.851 0.820 0.666 0.146 0.189
0.226 0.816
The values on the diagonal represent the square root of the average variance extracted (AVE).
3.2. Testing the Moderator Effects Optimism Bias
Path coefficient analysis was conducted using a PLS algorithm, and t-values were calculated using
the PLS bootstrapping method, which showed the interaction terms to have a negative relationship
to the intention to use TPMS and not reaching a statistically significant level. This meant that the
interaction terms did not have a moderator effect. Furthermore, a slight change in R
between the
two models (model A
model 0, model B
model 0) also showed that there was no significant
interaction. As the output in Table 4shows, the
values, associated with the interaction terms
in model A (RP
GO), which considered general optimism (GO) as an interaction term
in the mode, were 0.001 and 0.002, which were not statistically significant levels (F= 0.365, p> 0.05;
F= 0.731, p> 0.05). This meant that there was no significant interaction between general optimism and
risk perception/anticipated regret. The
values associated with the interaction terms in model B
DO), which considered drive skill optimism (DO) as an interaction term in the mode,
were 0.007 and 0.006, also not reaching a statistically significant level (F= 2.568, p> 0.05; F= 2.198,
p> 0.05). This meant that there was no significant interaction between driver skill optimism and risk
perception/anticipated regret.
Table 4. The results of moderator effect.
Variables Direct Effect Moderation Effect
Model 0 Model A1 Model A2 Model A3 Model B1 Model B2 Model B3
Independent variables
Risk perception(RP) 0.419 *** 0.381 *** 0.38 *** 0.371 *** 0.377 *** 0.372 *** 0.357 ***
Anticipated regret(AR) 0.136 * 0.129 * 0.125 * 0.134 * 0.177 * 0.18 * 0.213 *
General optimism (GO) 0.119 * 0.112 * 0.113 *
Drive skill optimism(DO) 0.116 0.128 0.119
Interaction terms
RP ×GO 0.026
AR ×GO 0.044
RP ×DO 0.078
AR ×DO 0.08
R20.243 0.262 0.263 0.264 0.26 0.267 0.266
R2difference 0.019 ** 0.001 0.002 0.017 ** 0.007 0.006
F-test 6.95 0.365 0.731 6.2 2.568 2.198
p-value 0.009 0.546 0.393 0.006 0.11 0.14
*p< 0.05; ** p< 0.01; *** p< 0.001.
Safety 2018,4, 16 7 of 14
3.3. Statistical Cluster and Path Coefficient Analysis
The analysis was performed using a personal optimism bias scale [
]. The hierarchical cluster
analysis was formed into two clusters. SPSS was used for the calculations and resulted in 106 (38.68%)
in group 1 and 168 (61.32%) in group 2. As Table 5shows, the mean results of each cluster as to
personal optimism bias clearly identified group 1 as high personal optimism and group 2 as low
personal optimism.
Table 5. Table highlighting responses to personal optimism bias scale.
Items Description Group 1 (n= 106) Group 2 (n= 168)
Mean S.D. Mean S.D.
Risk Perception
Feeling unsafe that you yourself could be injured in a tire-related
traffic accident. 5.56 1.48 5.37 1.43
RP2 Worried for yourself being in a tire-related traffic accident. 5.44 1.46 4.97 1.52
RP3 How probable do you think it is in general for a person to be
injured in a tire-related traffic accident? 4.81 1.53 4.52 1.48
RP4 How probable do you think it is for yourself to be injured in a
tire-related traffic accident? 4.51 1.62 4.29 1.54
RP5 How concerned are you about traffic and are thinking on the
tire-related risks for a person in general? 5.17 1.45 4.8 1.51
RP6 How concerned are you about tire-related traffic risks and are
thinking that you yourself could be victimized? 5.1 1.65 4.68 1.35
Anticipated Regret
AR1 How much regret would you feel if you have tire-related
problems when driving? 5.47 1.23 5.57 1.09
AR2 How likely is it that you would feel regret if you did not check
tires pressure when driving at high speed? 5.46 1.14 5.54 1.16
AR3 If I did not adapt an action to prevent tire-related accident, I
would feel regret. 5.43 1.28 5.59 0.99
Optimism Bias
OB1 Most accidents are caused by people who are less experienced
than myself. 4.93 1.39 3.42 1.59
OB2 I am a safer driver than of my age and gender. 5.61 1.11 5.05 1.39
OB3 Those speed limit rules make no sense for me, as I am a very
precise driver who responses and brakes quickly. 4.26 1.54 2.49 1.21
I have a Low Risk car that is safe to drive considerably above the
speed limit. 4.71 1.31 2.12 1.02
OB5 There is no danger in following close, as I am a very precise
driver. 4.86 1.19 2.20 1.08
My emotions influence my driving less than other of my age and
gender. 5.20 1.09 4.08 1.47
INT1 I intend to use the TPMS. 5.07 1.52 4.47 1.19
INT2 I predict I will use the TPMS in the near future. 4.44 1.48 4.30 1.32
INT3 I plan to use the TPMS in the near future. 4.61 1.58 4.50 1.39
The purpose of the structural model analysis was to explain the research hypotheses and estimate
the path coefficient of constructs in order to examine the relationship between the independent
variables and dependent variables. In the structural model, the quality of the model was determined
by the dependent variables’ overall explanatory power (R
) and standardized path coefficient (
Its values of 0.19, 0.33, and 0.67 represent low, medium, and high explanatory power [
], respectively.
This study used bootstrap resampling to estimate the values of the dimensions of PLS and t-tests to
Safety 2018,4, 16 8 of 14
estimate the standard error and significance of the path coefficient. In this study, the R
for group 1
and group 2 was 31.1% and 40.7% total variance explanatory power, respectively, in terms of TPMS
adoption intention, and group 2 had more moderate model explanatory power in the model, as shown
in Table 6.
Table 6. Results structural model analysis.
Group 1 Group 2 Significance
n= 106 (R2= 0.311) n= 168 (R2= 0.407) t-Statistic p-Value
β1t-Value β2t-Value
Independent variables
Risk Perception Intention 0.297 2.020 * 0.552 7.563 *** 1.751 0.081
Anticipated Regret Intention 0.005 0.005 0.189 1.148 1.228 0.221
Control Variables
Age Intention 0.038 0.382 0.295 2.938 ** 1.737 0.084
Gender Intention 0.057 0.615 0.036 0.685 0.215 0.830
Education Intention 0.164 1.912 0.067 0.943 2.061 * 0.040
Income Intention 0.268 2.128 * 0.064 0.577 1.191 0.235
Time held license Intention 0.046 0.410 0.133 1.128 1.035 0.302
Car age Intention 0.254 2.179 * 0.003 0.045 2.145 * 0.033
Experienced Intention 0.091 1.057 0.083 1.262 0.075 0.941
Check times Intention 0.220 2.381 * 0.075 1.153 1.327 0.186
*p< 0.05; ** p< 0.01; *** p< 0.001.
Figure 1shows this study’s conceptual framework.
Figure 1. Conceptual model.
According to the path analysis results, all hypotheses relating to the model variables were
confirmed. The risk perception variable in the two groups had a positive relationship; however,
the relationship was more significant in group 2 (
2 = 0.552, p< 0.001) than in group 1 (
1 = 0.297,
p< 0.05). t-Tests were run to show where the significant differences (t= 1.751, p> 0.05) in the
risk perception between group 1 and group 2 were missing. This meant that individuals with high
personal optimism as well as those with low personal optimism who have a higher risk perception
had more intention to use TPMS. In contrast, the impact of the variable of anticipated regret in
group 1 (
1 =
0.005) had a slightly negative relationship and in group 2 (
2 = 0.189) had a positive
relationship. However, the relationship in neither group was significant. t-Tests were also run to show
Safety 2018,4, 16 9 of 14
where the significant differences (t= 1.228, p> 0.05) in the anticipated regret between group 1 and
group 2 were missing.
Regarding the control variables, there were two variables which had a significant difference
between group 1 and group 2. Education had a negative (
1 =
0.164) and a positive (
2 = 0.067)
relationship in group 1 and group 2, respectively, on the intention to use TPMS; however,
the relationships were not significant. There was, however, a significant difference (t= 2.061, p< 0.05)
between group 1 and group 2, in that clustered high optimism individuals with more education had a
lower intention to use TPMS. Car Age had a negative correlation on intention to use TPMS (
1 =
2 =
0.045), while the relationship was significant in group 1. There was, however, a significant
difference (t= 2.145, p< 0.05) between group 1 and group 2, in that high optimism individuals with
older cars had a lower intention to use TPMS than low optimism individuals. The results showed that
personal optimism bias had an influence on these two control variables. Age, Experienced, and Check
times in each group had a positive relationship on intention to use TPMS. However, the t-tests showed
there to be no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. The Experienced variable indicated
that both high- and low-optimism individuals with more experience of tire-related accidents had a
stronger intention to use TPMS. The length of time individuals, whether of high or low optimism, held
a driver’s license did not influence their intention to use TPMS.
4. Discussion
The aim of this study was to explore whether risk aversion or anticipated aversion could intensify
the intention to use TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias had a
moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret to the intention to use TPMS. The sample
group comprised 274 participants in the Greater Taipei Area in Taiwan. Based on the questionnaire
statistics and PLS analysis, this study offers the following findings: Regarding risk perception, this
variable in the two groups had a positive relationship; however, the relationship was more significant
in group 2 (
2 = 0.552, p< 0.001) than in group 1 (
1 = 0.297, p< 0.05). The t-tests showed there was
no significant difference (t= 1.751, p> 0.05) in the risk perception between group 1 and group 2, which
confirmed the hypothesis (H1). This indicated that participants with low personal optimism had
more intention to use TPMS when perceiving the associated risks of not using it than those with high
personal optimism. In contrast, the impact of anticipated regret in group 1 (
1 =
0.005) had a slightly
negative relationship, but in group 2 (
2 = 0.189) a positive correlation. However, the relationship
in neither group was significant. The t-tests indicated a significant difference (t= 1.228, p> 0.05) in
the anticipated regret between group 1 and group 2. Thus, the hypothesis (H2) was not confirmed.
The results could be due to the short driving distance to the workplace. Narrow roads, speed limits,
and traffic jams could make people in Taiwan prefer public transportation, such as MRT (mass rapid
transit), bus, train, etc., instead of driving to work. Thus, the less people drive, the less likelihood that
they would be involved in a tire-related accident. Therefore, people who are driving less would not
feel regret if they do not use TPMS.
Regarding personal optimism bias, the PCA method was used to calculate the results for factor 1
(general optimism) and factor 2 (driver skill optimism), the interaction terms in this study. According to
the results, the F-tests of
showed that there was no significant interaction between general/driver
skill optimism and risk perception/anticipated regret. Following the results from the cluster groups’
path coefficient analysis, the t-tests showed that there was no significant difference in the risk
perception/anticipated regret between the two groups. We, consequently, confirmed that optimism
bias did not have a moderator effect on perception/anticipated regret and the intention to use TPMS.
Therefore, the hypotheses (H3, H4) were not confirmed. These results meant that the relationships
between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention would not change significantly, whether the
participants had high or low optimism in general or in their driving skill.
The Age, Experienced, and Check time control variables were shown to have positive relationships
in both groups, with older people tending to use TPMS, probably due to risk aversion and the desire to
Safety 2018,4, 16 10 of 14
feel safer. People who had more experience of tire-related accidents and regularly checked their tires
had a higher intention to use TPMS. Car Age and Income level had negative relationships, so that the
older the car being driven, the lower the intention to use TPMS. This could be because people do want
not to pay for TPMS for an old car. On the other hand, people who have higher incomes usually have a
higher class car with more IVTs to protect them than lower income earners, are less likely to use TPMS.
5. Conclusions
Compared to previous relevant studies on IVTs, such as seat-belt use, backing aid systems,
rear-view video cameras, and event-triggered videos, this study has explored the correlation
of intention, risk perception, anticipated regret, and optimism bias variables, while TPMS
acceptance-related areas have not been explored. Our findings showed that risk perception could
consistently explain an individual’s risk aversion and desire to take preventive action. This confirmed
previous studies conducted by Becker [
] and Rogers [
], which showed that people are inclined
to take preventive action if they believe that inaction significantly increases their risk. This finding
generally can be observed in IVT acceptance. Interestingly, anticipated regret did not support the
hypothesis and did not consistently show that anticipated regret influences participants towards the
safe option or risk aversion on road safety with previous studies [
]. However, whether the
intention to use TPMS can be best served by enhancing anticipated regret or increasing awareness
of the risk of tire-related accidents, optimism bias did not play a significant interaction role between
risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. Additionally, our findings might prove useful for
public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for understanding the roles that cognitive
and emotional factors play in accident prevention and road safety in Taiwan, and thereby increase the
motivation for drivers to protect themselves by using TPMS.
6. Limitations and Future Research
One of the most important limitations of this work is related with the use of self-report as primary
source of information, such as social desirability, acquiescence, or an inefficient understanding of
the questions [
], explaining potential several biasing sources, However, self-reports have inherent
problems and limitations, most notably the problem of common method variance. In this regard,
it is important to remark the use of observational methods, external data sources, or both, for the
supplementary assessment of self-rated perceptions and behaviors, or use of multiple types of
respondents, longitudinal designs, and confirmatory factor analysis that explicitly models method
effects to minimize of the “common method biases” often affecting cross-sectional designs in further
research [
]. It is also important to note, however, that risk perception and anticipated regret are not
the only factors involved in intention to use TPMS. Others factors from TAM (technology acceptance
mode), TPB (theory of planned behavior), and PMT (protection motivation theory) continue to be
discussed. Future researchers may focus on other human factors (i.e., intentions, attitudes, beliefs,
optimism, road safety education, etc.) or on investigating the relationships to different types of vehicles
or occupational fleets and integrate the current findings with other streams of research to extend the
existing theory.
Author Contributions:
All authors conceptualized the work. Chih-Feng Yeh conducted the questionnaire design
of the paper and analyzed the results. All authors were involved in the writing of the paper.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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... The tire is one of the major components that affect the safety of vehicles [11]. Apart from human factors, numerous reports in the literature have identified tire imperfection, especially tire blowout, as the major contributor to road accidents across the globe [12], [13]. According to Michelin tire, tire blowout is responsible for about 23,000 road crashes every year, resulting in more than 500 fatalities [14]. ...
... Most vehicle drivers and owners in Nigeria don't check the tire pressure unless it has significantly affect vehicle performance or when deflation is visually obvious. This behavior was also observed among Taiwanese drivers, although it is not reliable for identifying underinflated tires [12]. Accidents due to tire blowouts or failure are common and underreported in the country [16]. ...
... Underinflation of the tire causes an increase in tire adhesion and surface area contact between the tire and the road. Hence, It can damage the tire and causes unexpected blowout [12], [18]. It also affects the tires' lifespan as a result of the wearing out of thread pattern [11], [17]. ...
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Aside from human factors, tire blowouts and other tire imperfections are major contributors to the persistently high road accident rate. While tire imperfections are categorized as part of the mechanical factors affecting road accident, the tire maintenance personnel and the vehicle owners' human behavior plays a significant role in ensuring that accidents due to tire imperfections are minimized. Therefore, this study aims to determine the accuracy of the pressure gauges used by tire maintenance personnel, popularly called vulcanizers in Nigeria, and to determine the level of awareness of vehicle owners about the basic information that affects the safe use of tires on the road. The study consists of two stages. The first stage investigates the accuracy of the pressure gauges used by twenty vulcanizers in four different districts in Birnin Kebbi, the northwestern part of Nigeria. The second stage was an online survey regarding the tire maintenance behavior of 87 participants, who were formally educated from Diploma to Ph.D. level. The study's findings showed that about 25% of the vulcanizers do not use pressure gauges to measure air pressure during tire inflation, and less than 17% of the readings taken were accurate. Yet about 60% of the respondents believe that vulcanizers' pressure gauges are reliable and less than 30% of the respondents know that the expiring date of tires is four years in Nigeria. Therefore, there is an urgent need for proper awareness about tire usage and maintenance among the general population. It would also be appropriate to include such basic road safety information in the school curriculum at all levels.
... From Fig 1, 06/22 on the sidewall indicates the manufacturing date; meaning that the tyre was manufactured in the 6 th week of the year 2022. According to Chen (2018), car tyres have a life span of 6 years and therefore expiry date can be determined 6 years from the date of manufacturing. Symptoms like tread mark limit less than 1.6mm indicates that those tyres are not safe and should not be used. ...
... Arguably most of the respondents disagreed that car tyres have expiry dates regardless of manufacturing dates and life span of 6years as asserted in studies including (Chen 2018;Virkar et al 2013;Abdul Khalid et al 2018). Respondents were aware of tyre treads and do replace deformed tyres with symptoms like cracks and wear outs. ...
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Ageing car tyres are a hidden hazard and recipe for road accidents. Many vehicle users and their cohorts seem unconcerned and ignorant about tyre profile and its implications on human lives and livelihood. This study reviewed car users' and vulcanizers' comprehension of basic arithmetic of vehicle tyre profile to instigate best practices as well as instil proper maintenance culture. Out of 307 participants, purposive and convenient sampling were employed to select 292 vehicle users and a snowball to contact 15 vulcanizers. Results after a short interview analysis revealed that car users are aware of tyre inflation pressure and could identify the rim diameter of car tyres. Meanwhile, a significant number of users couldn't tell where to locate their vehicle tyre specification details on their cars and were also unable to interpret tyre profiles including; tyre life cycle, tyre blend, tyre speed rating and load index. Although the majority of the vehicle users carried spare tyres, most of them do not check the conditions of their spare tyres until they are in need. Responses from vulcanizers revealed that most vehicle users do not bother about tyre expiry dates but rather prefer tyre fixing to tyre replacements. It is recommended that the Leaders of Transport Unions of commercial vehicles need to ensure proper load weight of vehicles before setting off from their terminals. Drivers and Vehicle License Authority (DVLA) needs to ensure healthy tyre condition before issuing roadworthy certificates. National Road Safety Authority (NRSA) must maximize sensitization campaigns towards proper tyre maintenance practices to reduce tyre failure accidents.
... This situation increases the braking distance, causes instability in the vehicle, and even runs the risk that the tire will burst. A poorly calibrated tire wears faster than the others, decreasing its lifespan and affecting the brakes and suspension of the vehicle in the long term [1], [2]. According to a study conducted by Michelin in Brazil, it was found that 45% of the drivers use tire pressure out of the ranges recommended by manufacturers. ...
... Therefore, majority of tyres are air inflated structures, which provide an elastic cushion that reduces the effect of shock as the tyre rolls over rough features on the ground. Studies show that it is important to maintain the correct inflation pressures in tyres in order to keep vehicle dynamics, handling performance and braking at their best [1]- [4]. The basic functions of the tyres on a vehicle are supporting the weight of the vehicle, guiding the vehicle along trajectories decided by the driver, transmitting braking or acceleration forces and absorbing irregularities on the road. ...
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In this paper, an efficient, affordable, and portable manual automobile tyre changing tool was designed. The tool operates on the principle of second-class levers, where the load to be overcome is situated between the fulcrum and the effort point. The mechanical advantage (MA) of the bead breaker arm and pry bar assembly of the tool was determined to be 11.5. The standard tube size of the bead breaker arm that can withstand stress due to bending moment was determined to be a 2” (50mm) diameter Schedule 80 steel tube. Also, the dimensions of the standard hexagonal bolts to be used at the fulcrum and load point of the bead breaker arm are M12 × 1.5 × 75 mm, while the standard size of hexagonal nuts to be used with the bolts is M12 × 1.5 mm with a height of 10mm. Moreover, the mechanical advantage (MA) of the mount/demount arm and pry bar assembly of the tool was determined to be 5.22. Also, by comparing the angles of twist of two sizes of the mount/demount arm when the tool is used in mounting or demounting a tyre on a 16” × 7” wheel rim, the standard size of the mount/demount arm that can withstand stresses due to bending moment and torsional moment was determined to be a 60mm × 60mm × 5mm square tube. The cost of materials needed to fabricate the tyre changer summed up to ₦21,000. Ergo, the design provides an alternative portable and relatively affordable tyre changing tool that can be afforded by tyre technicians across Nigeria, and other developing or underdeveloped countries.
... The studies which are focused on the vehicle factor also has been conducted. A preventing blow out accident from tires on the RTA is done with risk perception analysis [13]. Our previous research conducted a prototype of odometer reading as an early warning system for the user in order to replace the lubricants [14]. ...
... All these values are defined as negative-big, negative-middle, negative-small, zero, positive-small, positive-middle, and positive-big. Referring to the parameter calibration results, the fuzzy domains of the error (e) and error rate (ec) are assumed to be [0,30] and [0,5], respectively, and the increments DK p , DK i , and DK d are assumed to be [-5, 5]. The input and output membership functions are triangle membership functions. ...
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To avoid casualties and economic loss caused by vehicle yawing motion during the tire blowout, first, by changing several key parameters of the characteristics, this article uses CarSim software and MATLAB/Simulink to establish a vehicle model of tire blowout based on the UniTire model. This model is implemented to simulate tire blowout caused by the change of the vehicle motion state. Second, considering the driver error and radical-operated steering wheel after tire blowout leads to runaway car problems. This article takes the target trajectory and actual trajectory of error and error rate as the system input; an adaptive fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative controller is designed to determine the vehicle steering wheel angle during the tire blowout and replace the driver to control the direction of the vehicle. The results indicate that the designed controller is capable of ensuring the vehicle constancy and keeping the vehicle on the original track.
The work presents theoretical research on the pneumatic and airless tires based on the numerical modelling using the Finite Element Method (FEM) like alternative to experimental testing, since its time and economical values are more effective for a research connecting with a tire behaviour. The approach presented in this research of the numerical simulation sequence enables the engineer to determine efficiently dynamic properties and behaviour of vehicle airless tire at design stage. In the research numerical FEM modelling and comparing analysis between pneumatic (with different inflation pressure) and airless tire behaviour characteristics (tire deformation, tire components material stiffness and stress results etc.) under investigation. According to numerical simulation results and comparing analysis between pneumatic and airless tires behaviour characteristics was established that airless tire provide more safety using of a vehicle in order to avoid road traffic accidents by a tire puncture and blowout, flat tire problem and avoid complicate sensors installation.
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The catastrophic wave in the fall of 2021 drove Romania to the top of the list of dangerous COVID-19 infections, with the highest mortality rate in Europe. At the same time, Romania had one of the lowest vaccination rates. In this context, the present research aimed to explore the link between vaccination intention/status, optimistic bias, COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs, the time spent online, and vaccination (anticipated) regret. Our convenience sample was formed by 408 adults aged 18-63 years (M = 22.11, SD = 6.18, 69.9 % females), who were distributed into four groups: (1) non-vaccinated who definitely refused COVID-19 vaccination, (2) non-vaccinated who considered COVID-19 vaccination, (3) non-vaccinated who reported their absolute willingness to COVID-19 vaccination, and (4) people who were COVID-19 vaccinated. We conducted our analyses separately, depending on these groups (i.e., vaccination intentions/status). Data were collected using an online questionnaire between November 10, 2021, and January 03, 2022. In our cross-sectional approach, following correlation and ANOVA analyses, among the observed patterns were (1) the significant negative relation between optimism bias and the perceived COVID-19 threat; (2) the positive link between anticipated regret, post-vaccination regret, age, and conspiracy beliefs. We discuss our findings considering their contribution to health policies and practices.
Along with the rapid development of the high-grade highway, the average vehicle speed tends to be higher and higher, which potentially threatens the vehicle driving safety. Tire, as the only contact component between road and vehicle, has great impact on the maneuverability and safety of the vehicle. There exists the obvious off-tracking and yaw motions for the vehicle after a tire blowout, and drift out and spin may occur in the critical cases, which has negative effects on the road traffic and passengers’ safety. Under such situations, it is difficult for human driver to make the effective decision-making and corrective action because of nervousness and inexperience, and the existed studies imply that driver’s excessive and/or incorrect operation is the principal contributor that causes serious traffic injury. Besides, the redistribution of vertical loads caused by decrease of effective radius of wheel after a tire blowout, together with system inherent uncertainties and safety constraints, and these make it hard for the traditional active safety control system to achieve the expected control effect for the vehicle. In addition, the rapid development of drive distributed electric vehicle and its superiorities in architecture and performance bring new opportunities for the active safety control of the vehicle after a tire blowout. Meanwhile, the unsprung mass of the whole vehicle has significantly increased due to the introduced distributed motors, which will aggravate the vertical dynamic response of the system. To this end, this dissertation devotes to propose an automated hazard escaping control scheme for the distributed drive electric vehicle after a tire blowout on highway considering the reconfiguration of the vertical loads, and the details are as follows: Firstly, an eight degree of freedom (DOF) vehicle dynamics model that includes four wheels’ rotation dynamics and longitudinal, lateral, yaw and roll dynamics of the vehicle body is developed. Combining the standard commercial vehicle simulation platform CarSim, a CarSim-Simulink co-simulation model is constructed with consideration of wheels’ rotation dynamics, and the effectiveness of eight DOF and co-simulation models is confirmed under lane change and double lane change test maneuvers based on the standard vehicle model in CarSim. Based upon the reported mechanical property variations after a tire blowout on highway and the verified co-simulation model, a CarSim-Simulink co-simulation model for the tire blow-out vehicle is presented. Vehicle kinematic and dynamic characteristics are analyzed via the co-simulation model, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. Based on the verified vehicle body and flat tire models, together with the induced vertical load transfer after a tire blowout, the blow-out vehicle dynamic simulation model is established including vertical load reconfigurations, which offers the foundation for the hazard escaping control system design of the tire blow-out vehicle. Secondly, facing the requirements of both driving state parameter acquisition and quick stopping, a coordinated primary and auxiliary braking wheels emergency braking control scheme is proposed for the tire blow-out vehicle integrating with a nonsingular terminal sliding mode state observer. To acquire the state parameters used for controller design, a nonlinear tire model based nonsingular terminal sliding mode observer is developed for achieving the fast and robust observation of the state parameters. Based on the observed state signals, a yaw-moment controller used to correct the driving directionality of the vehicle with a tire blowout is designed, by which the required primary braking wheel moment can be obtained. In addition, to exert potential braking capacity of two remaining effective wheels apart from the primary and tire blow-out wheels, the maximum allowable braking force between the two wheels is deduced taking the vertical load reconfigurations into account, which can be used to realize quick stopping. Aiming at the distributed drive feature of the system, a constrained weighted least square based reconfigurable tire force distributor is developed for allocating the target yaw moment and the braking force, and driving directionality and quick stopping objectives of the tire blow-out vehicle can be coordinately achieved. Thirdly, aiming at the problem that emergency braking is extremely easy to trigger the rear-end accident in the complex traffic surroundings, a car-following control scheme for the vehicle after a tire blowout on highway is proposed. To implement the active intervention for the longitudinal motion of the vehicle after a tire blowout on highway, a sliding mode control based longitudinal velocity controller is designed considering the sharply increased rolling resistance and its uncertainty. Meanwhile, a model predictive control (MPC) based lateral stability controller is developed to enhance the lateral stability because of its multi-step prediction, rolling optimization and feedback compensation features. Longitudinal velocity and lateral stability controllers as well as the developed torque distributor constitute the integrated control-distribution car-following scheme. Furthermore, aiming at the exogenous disturbances of highway surroundings and the real-time responses requirements of distributed drive system, a robust tube MPC (RMPC) based lateral stability controller and a pseudo-inverse (PI) based reconfigurable tire force allocator are separately developed under car-following scheme to enhance the robustness and real-time property of the control system, and comparison results validate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed car-following control methods. Finally, a polynomial theory based lane change trajectory planner is presented for the blow-out vehicle taking the vehicle dynamics features into account, and the hazard escaping scheme of the system is given. Considering the dynamics features and safety space constraints, a quintic polynomial based lane change trajectory planning method is investigated. Integrating with car-following and emergency braking control study, system hazard escaping trajectory planning method is discussed. Assimilating the three stages of car-following, lane change and emergency braking maneuvers, a hazard escaping control strategy of coordinating trajectory planning, trajectory tracking and torque distribution modules is proposed. Simulation results of lane change trajectory planning demonstrate that the planned trajectory with the proposed method has the considerable continuation and smoothness, which can satisfy the requirements of system dynamic constraints and actuator characteristics, and system hazard escaping simulation results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy and approaches. Outcomes of this dissertation provide a feasible method to solve driving safety problem of the vehicle after a tire blowout considering the vertical load transfer and system safety constraints, which can offer theoretical reference and technical support for method design of the similar fail-safe system, and it is helpful to promote the development of vehicle active safety collaborative control technique.
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Road safety is a complex process that not only depends on technical and environmental improvements, but in a major part from human factors. In this sense, recent empirical studies have remarked the need to study the interaction between subject and laws, at the glance of several elements preceding road behavior. This is the case of attitudes, opinions and perceptions in the field of road safety, factors that influence the interaction with issues such as traffic rules, police supervision, penalties and justice in traffic. The objective of this study was to describe the self-rated knowledge and perceptions regarding traffic norms and its interaction with road safety among drivers. For this study, a sample of 1100 Spanish drivers was obtained from a national sampling process. The results showed that the clear majority of drivers consider they know in a sufficient manner the traffic norms, and consider them as effective. Concerning police supervision, almost 70% of them consider that it is effective, but generally assumes that traffic agents prefer to be located in strategical places to catch offenders, rather than in really dangerous places. Regarding sanctions, drivers conceived the punishment to road offenders principally as educational and tax-collection measures. Finally, the general assessment of justice in traffic provided by Spanish drivers has shown a regular-low valuation degree. The obtained results invite to discuss about the interaction between traffic norms and road user, with the aim of promoting a positive law enforcement as a manner to build road safety culture.
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The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.
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The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction) incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon). Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80%) were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’), which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1) co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2) bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3) operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study) was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1) The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2) The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3) The specific cause was loss of visual contact between the operator and co-worker/bystander due to visual obstruction, the operator’s physical limitations, or the operator’s and/or bystander’s lack of alertness. To reduce the likelihood of future occurrences of agricultural machinery rearward travel-related incidents, preventive measures aimed at addressing the key causative factors for each scenario are offered.
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Provides a nontechnical introduction to the partial least squares (PLS) approach. As a logical base for comparison, the PLS approach for structural path estimation is contrasted to the covariance-based approach. In so doing, a set of considerations are then provided with the goal of helping the reader understand the conditions under which it might be reasonable or even more appropriate to employ this technique. This chapter builds up from various simple 2 latent variable models to a more complex one. The formal PLS model is provided along with a discussion of the properties of its estimates. An empirical example is provided as a basis for highlighting the various analytic considerations when using PLS and the set of tests that one can employ is assessing the validity of a PLS-based model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Safety, energy saving and environmental protection are the three mainstream directions of current automobile industry research. The super miniature electric vehicles (SMEVs) with their lightweight, miniaturisation, electrification, energy saving and environmental protection characteristics will be developed rapidly and popularly in the city road traffic in future. But the mass and size are reduced in the super miniature electric vehicles, to a certain extent, which may affect the cars' performance handling, such as stability, security and comfort. In this paper, the SMEVs market prospect is analysedfirstly, next the necessity of research on the vehicle man-machine dynamics behaviour coupling mechanism is discussed. Finally the paper puts forward that the driver-vehicle closed-loop system, driver's seat posture change dynamic system and virtual human body model research are important for the man-machine dynamics coupling research to improve the performances of the SMEVs.
Many IS researchers obtain data through the use of self-reports. However, self-reports have inherent problems and limitations, most notably the problem of common method variance. Common method variance can cause researchers to find a significant effect, when in fact, the true effect is due to the method employed. In this chapter, we examined published research in leading information systems (IS) journals to determine if common method variance is a potential problem in IS research and how IS researchers have attempted to overcome problems with method bias. We analyzed 116 research articles that used a survey approach as the predominant method in MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, and Journal of Management Information Systems. The results indicate that only a minority of IS researchers have reported on common method variance. We recommend that IS researchers undertake techniques to minimize the effects of common method variance, including using multiple types of respondents, longitudinal designs, and confirmatory factor analysis that explicitly models method effects.
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Globally, 49% of deaths from traffic crashes occur among vulnerable road users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists. Approximately, a quarter of those killed are motorcyclists. The authors carried out a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent motorcycle crashes and the associated morbidity and mortality. The studies included in this review provide evidence for the effectiveness of helmet use, protective clothing, training, and penalties for alcohol consumption and speeding in preventing injury and death to motorcyclists. The use of helmets is effective, especially if it is universally required by law for drivers and passengers. Training to obtain a license also has positive effects but not when it is totally voluntary. There is limited but consistent evidence that strengthening laws for penalties related to alcohol consumption or speeding has an impact on risk. Traffic calming interventions could help reduce crashes in urban areas. In jurisdictions where there is limited regulation or adherence to effective measures, such as the use of helmets, efforts should be directed primarily at expanding such practices. In other areas, efforts can focus on approaches based on alternative effective measures or on more innovative interventions adapted to local conditions.