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Sexual Behavior in the Human Female

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... Comme second jalon de nos repères historiques, prenons le couple marié comme le cadre quasi exclusif pour penser et acter la sexualité, toujours ici entendue dans sa dimension reproductive. En prélude de la section suivante dédiée aux recherches conduites sur la sexualité au cours du 20 e siècle, citons par exemple les travaux de Kinsey aux États-Unis, dans lesquels l'activité sexuelle se retrouve sous l'appellation de « marital sex » (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948;Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953). De manière similaire en France au cours du 19 e , Giami (1999) décrit la manière dont les travaux en sociologie, notamment ceux de Durkheim, ont approché la sexualité selon l'angle de l'institution du mariage et de la famille. ...
... le terme même de sexualité n'est apparu qu'au début du 19 e siècle (Foucault, 1984). Les premiers efforts pour dessiner les contours de la sexualité de manière scientifique -principalement dans une visée taxonomique - (Kinsey et al., 1948;Kinsey et al., 1953) et Masters et Johnson (1966, 1970 (Gagnon, 2008;Tiefer, 2004). Elle y est une qualité fondamentale et essentielle de l'être humain qui précède toute interférence sociale ou culturelle (Tiefer, 2004). ...
... 63-70). 60 Kinsey et son équipe ont publié les résultats en deux volumes, l'un consacré à la sexualité des hommes (Kinsey et al., 1948), l'autre à celle des femmes (Kinsey et al., 1953 seconde vague de l'activisme féministe 63 se mobilisant à partir des années 60 (Mottier, 2008). À partir des années 70, l'on observe une politisation de la sexualité des femmes, mais aussi plus particulièrement de l'orgasme (féminin), avec la remise en question de la norme sexuelle du plaisir et de l'orgasme vaginal, tributaire de la pénétration (hétérosexuelle) (Mottier, 1995). ...
Thesis
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In recent literature, the existence of sexuality among older adults in nursing homes (NH) is generally recognized. However, empirical research shows that professionals have heterogeneous, ambivalent, or contradictory reactions and management practices when confronted with these situations. The families’ involvement in management is frequently recommended as a response, and yet, the motives for this involvement and its consequences have been overlooked. WIth semi-structured interviews and focus groups conducted with professionnals and residents' children, we aimed to enhance the understanding of the issues at stake when involving the families, and to shed light on the different representations and management practices regarding the intimacy, affectivity, and sexuality of residents. Our results highlight the existence of three main axes: a desire to protect residents and the institutional setting; a process of de-sexualization, understood as a defensive mode; and a co-construction of the meaning of sexuality in NH between our two research populations. The families’ involvement is transversal to these three axes and constitutes a preferred management practice for professionals, mainly to avoid shocking families, and to protect and reassure themselves. This research brings to light the importance of representations and positioning specific to each person when facing -residents’- sexuality, within institutions, characterized by a unique organization of sexuality.
... Indeed, the adoption of a social class perspective in sex research is not new: it can be traced back at least to the Kinsey reports (Kinsey et al., 1948(Kinsey et al., , 1953, in which Kinsey and his associates revealed substantial disparities in sexual expression across educational and occupational levels. A handful of subsequent studies based on more recent but less representative data, however, failed to replicate the class patterns revealed in the Kinsey reports (Edwards and Booth, 1976;Hunt, 1974;Weinberg and Williams, 1980). ...
... The Kinsey reports provide an important starting point for understanding the relationship between social class and sexual behavior in general and marital sex in particular (Kinsey et al., 1948(Kinsey et al., , 1953. Based on a long-term, large-scale survey in the United States, Alfred Kinsey and his associates carefully compared a wide array of sexual activities across different social classes, including (but not limited to) the frequency of sexual intercourse, pre-coital petting, mouth stimulation, breast stimulation, genital stimulation, positions in intercourse, and anal stimulation. ...
... The social class differentials in marital sex have been studied for over a half-century, but empirical evidence is far from conclusive. In the United States, the Kinsey reports revealed substantial differences in a wide range of sexual aspects across different social classes based on large-scale yet unrepresentative data (Kinsey et al., 1948;Kinsey et al., 1953). Subsequent studies, however, had yielded inconsistent findings (Call et al., 1995;Laumann et al., 1994;Weinberg and Williams, 1980), partly due to the time when the data were collected, the representativeness of the data, and the specific sexual domain that was concerned. ...
Article
This study examines whether and how social class matters for marital sex in China since the beginning of the 21st century. We utilize data from a national sexuality survey that has been administered at four time points: 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015. We use a composite socioeconomic status score deriving from education, occupation, and income to distinguish between the lower class (the bottom 25%), the middle class (the middle 50%), and the upper class (the top 25%). Marital sex aspects include sexual frequency, orgasm frequency, engagement in the woman-on-top and rear-entrance coital positions, and experience with oral and anal sex. Regression results with year-fixed effects reveal significant class differentials in all aspects but anal sex. Whereas the reported sexual frequency is highest in the middle class, the engagement in various coital positions and oral sex is characterized by a positive class gradient. Temporally, we observe an upward trend in all aspects but orgasm frequency. Results from the class–year interaction effects further show that most class differentials have remained stable over the period 2000–2015. The temporal increase in sexual frequency, however, has been the greatest in the lower class but relatively negligible in the upper class.
... The Kinsey et al. (1948Kinsey et al. ( , 1953 reports are seen as pioneers in studying sexuality from a non-medical approach. Gathering interviews from the general population, the findings of the reports highlighted a much higher rate of homosexuality and homosexual experiences than had previously been thought, with 37% of males and 13% of females having experienced at least one orgasm from a homosexual experience. ...
... One important implication in the present study is the significant relationship between sexual fantasies and sexual behaviors. Although, it is now recognized that people have more sexual fantasies than initially thought, and also more atypical sexual fantasies than first thought (Joyal et al., 2015;Kinsey et al., 1948Kinsey et al., , 1953Ogas & Gaddam, 2011), not much research has been conducted investigating possible effects of these fantasies. The relationship between sexual fantasies and sexual behaviors suggests that one may have an effect on the other and it may be the case that having atypical sexual fantasies is a risk factor for the development of atypical sexual behaviors. ...
... Thus, the impact of social desirability was controlled as much as possible for this kind of project. Furthermore, results obtained were similar to previous research (e.g., Joyal et al., 2015;Kinsey et al., 1948Kinsey et al., , 1953Ogas & Gaddam, 2011), indicating stability across samples, which indicates a good reliability in our findings. ...
... The Kinsey et al. (1948Kinsey et al. ( , 1953 reports are seen as pioneers in studying sexuality from a non-medical approach. Gathering interviews from the general population, the findings of the reports highlighted a much higher rate of homosexuality and homosexual experiences than had previously been thought, with 37% of males and 13% of females having experienced at least one orgasm from a homosexual experience. ...
... One important implication in the present study is the significant relationship between sexual fantasies and sexual behaviors. Although, it is now recognized that people have more sexual fantasies than initially thought, and also more atypical sexual fantasies than first thought (Joyal et al., 2015;Kinsey et al., 1948Kinsey et al., , 1953Ogas & Gaddam, 2011), not much research has been conducted investigating possible effects of these fantasies. The relationship between sexual fantasies and sexual behaviors suggests that one may have an effect on the other and it may be the case that having atypical sexual fantasies is a risk factor for the development of atypical sexual behaviors. ...
... Thus, the impact of social desirability was controlled as much as possible for this kind of project. Furthermore, results obtained were similar to previous research (e.g., Joyal et al., 2015;Kinsey et al., 1948Kinsey et al., , 1953Ogas & Gaddam, 2011), indicating stability across samples, which indicates a good reliability in our findings. ...
Article
Paraphilia is a condition in which the sexual excitement rely on fantasizing and/or participating in unusual sexual behaviours although the line between “normal” and “abnormal” has been disputed. The project aimed to explore which sexual fantasies and behaviours are common and uncommon in the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between sexual fantasies, sexual behaviours and problematic pornography consumption was examined. Finally, the impact of gender was assessed. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 139 participants. Correlations were found between fantasies, behaviours and problematic pornography consumption. Furthermore, gender differences were found for both sexual fantasies and problematic pornography consumption. Finally, multiple regression revealed that age, gender [Men], fantasies and behaviours were significant predictor of problematic pornography consumption. Those findings are in-line with previous studies which highlighted that the threshold to consider a sexual practice as being abnormal needs to be reconsidered on the basis of self-reported fantasies and behaviours in the general population.
... Human sexual behavior is entirely different, in the way that the motor patterns involved are extremely variable. Genital stimulation may be achieved in many different ways, and various body openings may be used to that end (Kinsey et al., 1948(Kinsey et al., , 1953. Whereas sexual interactions usually are limited to penile-vaginal intercourse in non-human animals, this activity is only one of many possibilities in humans. ...
... In both rodents and humans, all sexual encounters will eventually end. In humans, sexual activity usually ends after male orgasm and after a variable number of orgasms in women (Kinsey et al., 1948(Kinsey et al., , 1953Masters and Johnson, 1966). The exact cause of cessation of sexual activity is not known, but postejaculatory detumescence in men makes continuation of penile-vaginal intercourse difficult. ...
... It appears that orgasm in men and women is followed by a period of reduced general arousal. Kinsey et al. (1953) reported that relaxation, quiescence of the body and sleepiness follow orgasm. This notion appears to have support in popular belief. ...
Article
Sexual incentive stimuli activate sexual motivation and heighten the level of general arousal. The sexual motive may induce the individual to approach the incentive, and eventually to initiate sexual acts. Both approach and the ensuing copulatory interaction further enhance general arousal. We present data from rodents and humans in support of these assertions. We then suggest that orgasm is experienced when the combined level of excitation surpasses a threshold. In order to analyze the neurobiological bases of sexual motivation, we employ the concept of a central motive state. We then discuss the mechanisms involved in the long- and short-term control of that state as well as those mediating the momentaneous actions of sexual incentive stimuli. This leads to an analysis of the neurobiology behind the interindividual differences in responsivity of the sexual central motive state. Knowledge is still fragmentary, and many contradictory observations have been made. Nevertheless, we conclude that the basic mechanisms of sexual motivation and the role of general arousal are similar in rodents and humans.
... Among these behaviors, masturbation is viewed as a symbolic event for sexuality development and is the most commonly studied by researchers, although other solitary sexual activities among children have been frequently reported in both retrospective and observational studies (Davies et al., 2000;Friedrich et al., 1998;Larsson et al., 2000;Larsson & Svedin, 2002a;Schoentjes et al., 1999;Thigpen, 2009). Previous research has found that repetitive self-fondling of genitalia appears early in life, even in utero (Giorgi & Siccardi, 1996;Meizner, 1987), but rhythmic stimulation, the defining characteristic of adultlike masturbation, first emerges at around 2-3 years old (Kinsey et al., 1953;Martinson, 1994). Other adult-like physiological responses of masturbation have also been observed in children, including a blushed face, thickened breaths, heavy sweating, and blurry eyes (Leung & Robson, 1993). ...
... This finding suggests children may engage in solitary sexual behavior more frequently at home than at school, perhaps because they have less free time alone at school or because their parents have more opportunity to observe them in the home. Furthermore, the frequency of children's solitary sexual behavior decreases from early to late childhood in parental reports (Friedrich et al., 1991(Friedrich et al., , 1998Gagnon, 1985;Schoentjes et al., 1999), whereas this frequency grows over time in adults' self-recall (Kinsey et al., 1948;Kinsey et al., 1953;Larsson & Svedin, 2002a). The declining solitary sexual behavior among older children found in parental reports may reflect children's increasing desire and capacity to hide their sexual behavior from parents. ...
... To describe the process, researchers should also examine children's motivation, emotion, bodily awareness, sensation and perception, as well as the contexts in which nonpartnered sexual activity takes place. For example, the increase in masturbation from toddlerhood to late childhood (Kinsey et al., 1948(Kinsey et al., , 1953Larsson & Svedin, 2002a) may result from the increasing awareness of the distinct sensations in different body parts over time (e.g., growing recognition of masturbation as pleasant, exciting, and stimulating; Larsson & Svedin, 2002a), which may in turn reinforce the differentiation of bodily sensations. This bidirectional process may be fueled by hormonal changes during puberty (Fortenberry, 2013) but also thwarted by parental and peer disapproval (Gagnon, 1985;Papadopoulos et al., 2000). ...
... One may choose to identity as lesbian, gay, heterosexual, bisexual, queer, pansexual, asexual as well as other sexual orientations (American Psychological Association, 2015). It is important to note that sexual orientation does not have to exist in the form of strictly defined categories but exists on a spectrum (Kinsey et al., 1953). ...
... They also experience more sex related shame (Oliver experience of sex related shame such as other forms of shame. In Kinsey et al. (1953) work on sexual habits they found that U.S American women felt more shame when they were asked about how much they weigh compared to when asked about how frequently they masturbate. Roberts and Goldenberg (2007) stated that body weight followed by physical attractiveness are shame related to menstruation as other forms of shame based on the body. ...
Thesis
This master's thesis aims to investigate the relationship between sex, gender, sexual orientation and sexual guilt and shame with religiosity level as a covariate, in a sample of Egyptian adults. Shame and guilt are both self-conscious emotions, they serve as indicators that give instant and important feedback on our moral and social acceptance by others. Sexual guilt and sexual shame are subcategories of guilt and shame. In this mixed methods study, the qualitative part of the study consisted of self-report questionnaires where 452 individuals participated. Of which eleven participated in semi-structured interviews which were conducted to get a better understanding of the topic as well as individual's subjective experiences of sexual guilt and sexual shame and how both are affected by an individual's identities. Data analysis showed that females had the highest levels of sexual shame. Religiosity was inversely related to sex guilt and sexual shame furthermore; LGBTQ participants had the highest levels of sexual shame compared to heterosexuals with bisexuals having the highest sexual shame among participants. Reflexive Thematic Analysis of the interviews showed six overarching themes: 1) Dealing with Sexual Guilt 2) Dealing with Sexual Shame 3) Dealing with Sexual Shame as a result of Sexual Assault 4) Causes of Sexual Guilt 5) Causes of Sexual Shame 6) External Influences. The discussion section discusses the limitations and suggestions for future research. Keywords: Culture, Egyptian, Sexual Guilt, Sexual Shame, Religiosity.
... [50][51][52][53][54] As genital stimulation continues and orgasm approaches, there is a widespread buildup of muscle tension that reaches a peak at orgasm. The observations that muscle trembling often occurs, and that extensor activity may predominate, as in toe extension or curling and arching of the back, 49 is evidence that both flexors and extensors become activated concurrently or alternate rapidly. This may represent a reduced level of function of the spinal cord Figure 2. The proposed role of neuronal excitation and inhibition in orgasm and pain. ...
... 66 And both orgasm and pain can produce a pattern of intense facial grimace and vocalization that is similar between the 2 conditions. 49 While the orgasm and the pain mechanisms share the above morphological and functional similarities, obviously one is pleasurable and the other is aversive. An explanation of this seeming paradox is the possible existence of local inhibitory interneuron links between the orgasm activation and the pain activation, in at least some of these common brain regions, for example, insula, amygdala, and/or anterior cingulate cortex, where the orgasm activation could actively inhibit the neurons otherwise activated by pain. ...
Article
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Introduction Prevalent models of sexual desire, arousal and orgasm postulate that they result from an excitatory process, whereas disorders of sexual desire, arousal and orgasm result from an inhibitory process based on psychosocial, pharmacological, medical, and other factors. But neuronal excitation and active neuronal inhibition normally interact at variable intensities, concurrently and continuously. We propose herein that in conjunction with neuronal excitation, neuronal inhibition enables the generation of the intense, non-aversive pleasure of orgasm. When this interaction breaks down, pathology can result, as in disorders of sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm, and in anhedonia and pain. For perspective, we review some fundamental behavioral and (neuro-) physiological functions of neuronal excitation and inhibition in normal and pathological processes. Objectives To review evidence that the variable balance between neuronal excitation and active neuronal inhibition at different intensities can account for orgasm and its disorders. Methods We selected studies from searches on PubMed, Google Scholar, Dialnet, and SciELO for terms including orgasm, neuronal development, Wallerian degeneration, prenatal stress, parental behavior, sensorimotor, neuronal excitation, neuronal inhibition, sensory deprivation, anhedonia, orgasmic disorder, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, persistent genital arousal disorder, sexual pain. Results We provide evidence that the intensity of neuronal inhibition dynamically covaries concurrently with the intensity of neuronal excitation. Differences in these relative intensities can facilitate the understanding of orgasm and disorders of orgasm. Conclusion Neuronal excitation and neuronal inhibition are normal, continuously active processes of the nervous system that are necessary for survival of neurons and the organism. The ability of genital sensory stimulation to induce concurrent neuronal inhibition enables the stimulation to attain the pleasurable, non-aversive, high intensity of excitation characteristic of orgasm. Excessive or deficient levels of neuronal inhibition relative to neuronal excitation may account for disorders of sexual desire, arousal and orgasm. Komisaruk BR, Rodriguez del Cerro MC. Orgasm and Related Disorders Depend on Neural Inhibition Combined With Neural Excitation. Sex Med Rev 2022;10:481–492.
... 3 23 24 Since the 1990s, survey measurements of sexual orientation have become increasingly common 25 in population surveys of sexual behavior in the USA, Europe, and elsewhere [1][2][3][4]. Assessments of the 26 accuracy of such measurements are infrequent, however, and can be problematic. ...
... But, the overall 448 discrepancy between the NHIS and GSS survey estimates still remained highly significant (p < 449 0.001) when these control variables are introduced into our multinomial model. In particular, the 450 GSS population estimates report 1. 25 ...
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Survey measurements of sexual orientation have become increasingly common in national population surveys although validation of these measurements is rare and inherently problematic. We instead assess the reproducibility of parallel measurements from two independent samples of the USA population made in the 2008-2018 General Social Surveys and the adult probability subsets of the 2013-2018 National Health Interview Survey (Ns = 12,098 and 190,113). Restricting analysis to the categories gay/lesbian, bisexual, and straight, we obtain similar estimates of the proportion of the U.S. population who consider themselves gay/lesbian (NHIS: 1.59% vs. GSS: 1.93%, p = 0.059) but not bisexual (NHIS: 1.03% vs. GSS: 2.90%, p < 0.001). Fitting multinomial logistic regression models controlling for year, gender, birth cohort, education, and race, we find that compared to the NHIS, the GSS had 1.248 (p=0.022) times higher relative odds of eliciting a response of Gay-Lesbian (vs. Straight) and 2.980 (p<0.001) times higher relative odds of eliciting a response of Bisexual (vs. Straight). Expanding the model by adding 3-way interaction terms for orientation-by-predictor-by-survey, we find that we cannot reject the null hypothesis that trends over time and across subpopulations in reporting of sexual orientation were statistically equivalent for the two survey programs.
... Como se ha mencionado anteriormente, diversos medios han informado que la mayoría de las agresiones sexuales, suelen ocurrir con algún miembro de la familia. Por ejemplo, en su estudio histórico sobre el comportamiento sexual femenino, Kinsey, et al. (1953) publicaron que una cuarta parte de todas las niñas menores de 14 años habían experimentado alguna forma de abuso sexual, incluido el exhibicionismo, las caricias o el incesto (a tasas aproximadamente similares a los reportados actualmente). Por lo que a continuación se discutirán diferentes constructos teóricos que explican el incesto. ...
... En la sociedad actual, Kinsey et al. (1953) describieron en su estudio de conducta sexual, que cerca del 2 % de la población admitió haber tenido relaciones sexuales con alguien de su familia. Sin embargo, parece ser que las sociedades actuales, también discrepan en el estatuto legal que debería tener las relaciones sexuales con personas enlazadas consanguíneamente. ...
... The average age of the patients studied (geriatric) suggested multimorbidity and often the use of multiple medications. The possible relationship between ED and age was already suggested in 1948 by Kinsey [12], and was later confirmed by Feldman et al. [13] in their research, which was a continuation of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS). Maintenance or restoration of adequate blood supply in the ...
... The average age of the patients studied (geriatric) suggested multi-morbidity and often the use of multiple medications. The possible relationship between ED and age was already suggested in 1948 by Kinsey [12], and was later confirmed by Feldman et al. [13] in their research, which was a continuation of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS). Maintenance or restoration of adequate blood supply in the internal iliac arteries was the basis for attempts at internal iliac artery revascularization using extra-anatomic bypass grafts by De Palme, Marchant, Cronenwett, and Schuler [14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
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Background: Recovery of normal arterial inflow in the lower limbs after Leriche’s syndrome surgery does not always improve erection. This study assesses the effects of Leriche syndrome on erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in patients awaiting surgical treatment and the impact of treatment used on sexual dysfunctions. Methods: 35 men with Leriche syndrome aged 61.3 years (SD = 7.74) were assessed for erectile dysfunction. The patients were classified into three groups: aortofemoral bypass (group 1); stenting of the iliac artery (group 2) and aortobifemoral bypass (group 3). The patients were qualified for surgery based on the TASC II guidelines. Follow-up was done 3 months after treatment. Results: The mean preoperative IIEF-5 score was 14. 69 (+/− 5.30), with better preoperative scores obtained by 54.3% of patients. A total of 51.4% and 48.6% of patients, respectively, reported normal erection enabling satisfactory penetration and normal ejaculation before treatment. After surgical treatment, satisfactory erection was reported by 60% of all surgically treated patients, whereas the presence of ejaculation was reported by only 14.2% of patients. Conclusions: The IIEF-5 score is a tool for careful assessment of vascular erectile dysfunctions, it allows for the evaluation of erectile dysfunctions in relation to atherosclerosis risk factors. The treatment strategy used allowed for slight improvement as evidenced to erection but decreasing normal ejaculation.
... This reasoning is logical; however, the premise is not supported by existing data. Women have no refractory period for orgasming, are able to orgasm more frequently than men, and can orgasm just as quickly as men when masturbating (Hite, 1976;Kinsey et al., 1953;Masters & Johnson, 1966). Moreover, descriptions of the physical and psychological experience of orgasms provided by women and men are indistinguishable (Vance & Wagner, 1976), and ample evidence indicates that women have the same capacity for experiencing orgasm as men do (Hite, 1976;Kinsey et al., 1953;Laumann et al., 1994;Salisbury & Fisher, 2014;Wade et al., 2005). ...
... Women have no refractory period for orgasming, are able to orgasm more frequently than men, and can orgasm just as quickly as men when masturbating (Hite, 1976;Kinsey et al., 1953;Masters & Johnson, 1966). Moreover, descriptions of the physical and psychological experience of orgasms provided by women and men are indistinguishable (Vance & Wagner, 1976), and ample evidence indicates that women have the same capacity for experiencing orgasm as men do (Hite, 1976;Kinsey et al., 1953;Laumann et al., 1994;Salisbury & Fisher, 2014;Wade et al., 2005). Conversely, no evidence suggests that women are less skilled at bringing themselves to orgasm, less biologically inclined to orgasm, or that they experience orgasm more mildly than men do. ...
Article
Gender differences in sexuality have gained considerable attention both within and outside of the scientific community. We argue that one of the main unacknowledged reasons for these differences is simply that women experience substantially worse sex than men do. Thus, in examinations of the etiology of gender differences in sexuality, a confound has largely been unacknowledged: Women and men are treated to different experiences of what is called “sexuality” and “having sex.” We discuss four arenas in which women’s experience of sexuality may often be worse than men’s: (a) anatomical differences, (b) sexual violence, (c) stigma, and (d) masculine cultures of sexuality. Then we consider how each disparity might explain well-known gender differences in sexuality.
... Martin, & Gebhard, 1953), por considerarse una visión temprana de la fluidez de la orientación sexual como expresión comportamental. También se plantea como parte del modelo, la posibilidad de hacer identificaciones sobre el género y sus expresiones, mismas que se realicen de forma mutable. ...
Article
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El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una reflexión en torno a los resultados de un estudio exploratorio llevado a cabo en una población muestra de hombres y mujeres, heterosexuales y homosexuales, de dos ciudades de México. La intención de esta investigación es analizar el nivel de sensibilización y aceptación ante expresiones sexuales y de género fluidas como un proceso previo a la construcción de identidades y categorías abiertas. Como herramienta de reflexión, se adopta el Modelo de Cuadrantes de Género y del Comportamiento Sexual. Los hallazgos dan muestra de que la edad y el sexo de los participantes sí influyen en el nivel de sensibilidad y aceptación que pueden tener sobre la presencia de comportamientos fluidos.
... The only possible conclusion is that any potential influence on sexual behavior of the ovarian hormones must be weak, at most. This conclusion is further supported by the observation that menopause has a negligible effect on women's sexual behavior [18]. ...
Article
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One of the consequences of sexual behavior is reproduction. Thus, this behavior is essential for the survival of the species. However, the individual engaged in sexual behavior is rarely aware of its reproductive consequences. In fact, the human is probably the only species in which sexual acts may be performed with the explicit purpose of reproduction. Most human sexual activities as well as sex in other animals is performed with the aim of obtaining a state of positive affect. This makes sexual behavior important for wellbeing as well as for reproduction. It is not surprising, then, that sexual health has become an increasingly important issue, and that knowledge of the basic mechanisms controlling that behavior are urgently needed. The endocrine control of sexual behavior has been extensively studied, and although it is established that gonadal hormones are necessary, some controversy still exists concerning which hormone does what in which species. The brain areas necessary for sexual behavior have been determined in almost all vertebrates except the human. The medial preoptic area is crucial in males of all non-human vertebrates, whereas the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is important in females. Modulatory functions have been ascribed to several other brain areas.
... Participants provided responses to questions about demographic information, including their age (range = 18 to 28 years), cultural background, education level, relationship status, and hormonal contraceptive use. Self-reported sexual attractions to men and women were assessed using a single item adapted from the Kinsey scale (Kinsey et al., 1953). ...
Article
Laser Doppler imaging is a valid method of assessing genital response, detecting increases in genital blood flow to sexual, but not nonsexual stimuli. Although laser Doppler imaging provides a direct measure of genital blood flow, its discrete perfusion images provide a discontinuous assessment of genital response, limiting some study designs. The aims of this study were to investigate the measurement properties of laser Doppler flowmetry, a direct and continuous measure of blood flow, as well as examine the time course of genital response using flowmetry. A sample of 45 cisgender women attended two experimental sessions wherein they viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli (e.g., neutral, anxiety, humor) while their genital responses were assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry. As expected, laser Doppler flowmetry was a valid measure of genital response-detecting increases in genital blood flow elicited by the sexual stimuli only-and was sensitive to varying degrees of genital response elicited by low, moderate, and high-intensity sexual stimuli. The measure also exhibited convergent validity with genital response assessed via laser Doppler imaging, test-retest reliability across testing sessions, and internal consistency as well as high sexual concordance with self-reported sexual arousal. Descriptive analyses showed that genital blood flow assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry was highly responsive, with initial, peak, and return to baseline responses occurring within timeframes appropriate for repeated measurement within a single session. Laser Doppler flowmetry is a valid, reliable, and sensitive measure of women's genital response that can be usefully applied in sexual psychophysiology research.
... Sexuality can be regarded in terms of sexual orientation, behaviour, attractions, or self-identity, and previous research has often assumed that scales measuring sexual behaviour could be used to categorize participants into universally-acknowledged and understood sexual identities (Bohan, 1996 ). Much research into sexuality and body image has asked participants to indicate the nature of their current attractions and behaviours on Kinsey-type 7-point Likert scales (Kinsey, 1953 ) which tend to range from 'exclusively heterosexual' through to 'exclusively homosexual'. Researchers then label participants as 'heterosexual', 'gay', or 'lesbian' based on their responses (e.g. Brand et al., 1992 ;Beren et al., 1996 ). ...
Article
We live in a society in which messages associating physical attractiveness with success and happiness are pervasive. There is an epidemic of appearance concerns amongst teenagers and adults in westernised countries and body image dissatisfaction is now considered normative. Large numbers of people experience negative impacts on wellbeing and, for many adolescents, adults, and even children, appearance concerns are influential in choices about a range of health behaviours. The challenges facing them include difficulties with social encounters and the problem of having to cope with negative self-perceptions. This publication is a comprehensive reference text written by experts in the field. It examines how people feel about the way they look, and why it is that some people are happy with their appearance whilst increasing numbers are troubled by the way they look — reporting that these appearance-related concerns affect many aspects of their lives including relationships, health, and wellbeing. It considers the influence of other people and how the media affects thoughts and behaviours related to appearance. It explores the experiences of people living with a disfigurement in a society that seems to be increasingly focussed on appearance and the pursuit of an idealised image of beauty, size, and weight.
... Cronbach's alpha were.86 &0.87 for T0 and T1, respectively. Sexual Orientation: The Kinsey Scale (Kinsey et al., 1948;Kinsey et al., 1953) is a horizontal scale with 0 as the indicator for exclusively heterosexual (identity, fantasies/desires, and behaviour) and 6 as the indicator for exclusively homosexual (identity, fantasies/desires, and behaviour) with 1-5 standing for degrees in between (Kinsey et al., 1948). Cronbach's alpha were.96 ...
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Objectives Human beings have an intrinsic need to belong, a desire to be loved by the people close to them, and to be accepted by society at large. The outcome and purpose of these fundamental human needs are the desire to form long-lasting, if not lifelong, and meaningful personal attachments and create long-term relationships with others. However, minority stress via discrimination, stigmatization, and exposure to violence can lead to development of mood and anxiety disorders and underlying neurobiochemical changes. To date, the neural and neurochemical correlates of emotion processing in transgender people are unknown. Methods This study combinedfunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to uncover the effects of anxiety and perceived stress on the neural and neurochemical substrates, specifically choline, on emotion processing in transgender men (hormone naïve). Thirty transgender men, 30 cisgender men, and 35 cisgender women passively viewed angry, neutral, happy, and surprise faces in the fMRI scanner, underwent an MRS scan and filled out mood and anxiety related questionnaires. Results Brain metabolite choline appeared to play a critical role in modulating anxiety and perceived stress rates in people with experience of minority stress and their neural response to negative and emotionally ambiguous stimuli in the amygdala. Interestingly, this effect was not visible for positive emotions or in people without minority stress (cisgender comparisons). At activation level, neural responses in the left amygdala, left middle frontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus to emotional faces in transgender men resembled that of cisgender women. Conclusions These results provide first evidence of a critical interaction between levels of analysis and that choline may influence neural processing of emotion in individuals prone to minority stress. We strongly believe our data provide exciting new leads in how choline might be implicated in both anxiety and in modulating neural responses during emotion processing. Conflicts of Interest The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
... Auch zum Anteil von LSBT*Q+ Personen an der Gesamtbevölkerung in Deutschland existieren unterschiedliche Zahlen sowie eine große Streuung in den jeweiligen Schätzungen, die von 1,0% bis 20,0% schwanken (vgl. Brunner & Schweizer, 2016;Diamond, 1993;Fiedler, 2004;Kinsey et al., 1953;Küpper et al., 2017; für trans* Personen siehe Franzen & Sauer, 2010). Aktuelle Zahlen gehen von einem Anteil von 5,9% für Europa (ILGA-Europe, 2017) und 7,4% für Deutschland (Dalia Research, 2016) aus, der sich aus Personen zusammensetzt, die sich als LSBT*Q+ identifizieren. ...
... Male respondents were coded as 0, and female respondents were coded as 1. Using a Kinsey-like scale for sexual orientation (Kinsey et al., 1948(Kinsey et al., , 1953, homosexuals were coded as -1, bisexuals as 0, and heterosexuals as 1. Consistent with respondent sex, male targets were coded as 0 and female targets were coded as 1. ...
Article
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One of the most contentious topics in the sexual arena is that of pornography. While some researchers focus on the costs and benefits of consumption, others focus on questions surrounding the objectification or degradation of women, with relatively little focus on the men involved, and the appeal of visual sexual stimuli more generally, including what that may tell us about the sexual interests of the consumers. In this study, we focus on what factors influence men’s and women’s perceptions of sexually explicit images, in particular the ubiquitous external ejaculation. Sex differences in perceptions of the images are examined as well as the influence of the emotional affect of the recipient of the ejaculation, the sexual orientation of the participant (are they looking at an image of their preferred sex or not), and a number of individual difference factors, including religiosity, Dark Triad personality traits, mate value, short-term mating strategy, and disgust sensitivity. Overall, the largest influences on perceptions were the direct effects of target emotional affect and sex, sex of viewer, sexual orientation of viewer, short-term mating orientation, and level of sexual disgust. In addition, substantial variation in perceptions was explained by the interaction between sex, sexual orientation, and target sex. The importance of positive affect in the images as well as the lack of association with psychopathy again suggests that the appeal (or at least the ubiquity of the images in pornographic material) is not rooted in degradation, but in some other aspect of short-term sexual psychology.
... Sexual Orientation. The Kinsey Scale (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin 1948;Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard 1953) is a horizontal scale with 0 as the indicator for exclusively heterosexual (identity, fantasies/desires, and behaviour) and 6 as the indicator for exclusively homosexual (identity, fantasies/desires, and behaviour) with 1 to 5 standing for degrees in between (Kinsey et al., 1948). Cronbach's alpha were .96 ...
Article
Background Some transgender people desire a transition through gender-affirming hormone treatment (GAHT). To date, it is unknown how GAHT changes emotion perception in transgender people. Methods Thirty transgender men (TM), 30 cisgender men (CM), and 35 cisgender women (CW) underwent 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while passively viewing emotional faces (happy, angry, surprised faces) at two timepoints (T0 and T1). At T0 all participants were hormone-naïve, while TM immediately commenced testosterone supplementation at T0. The second scanning session (T1) occurred after 6-10 months of GAHT in TM. All 3 groups completed both T0 and T1 Results GAHT in TM shifted the neural profile whilst processing emotions from a sex-assigned at birth pattern at T0 (similar to CW) to a consistent with gender identity pattern at T1 (similar to CM). Overall, the brain patterns stayed the same for the cis people at T0 and T1. Conclusions These findings document the impact of hormone treatment, and testosterone supplementation specifically, on emotion perception in TM.
... Reports in the 1920s showed that 28% of American men and 24% of women were unfaithful at some point during their marriage [8][9][10]. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, nearly 33% of men and 26% of women in American sample were adulterous [11,12]. Data in the 1970s revealed that some 41% of men and 25% of women reported engaging in infidelity behaviors [13], and data gathered in the 1980s revealed that 72% of men and 54% of women were adulterous at some point during marital relationships. ...
... BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Dominance, Submission and Sadomasochism) is a non-clinical grouping of paraphilia, often referred to as "kink", which encapsulates a wide range of sexual behaviours among diverse sexualities (10). Kinsey et al. (11) have long argued that the practice of BDSM is relatively common among all genders and sexualities. Indeed, out of a sample of 94 men, 11.7% and 5.3% reported fantasies of humiliation and (consensual) abuse respectively (12). ...
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The authors postulate that the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) offers a hypothetically valuable framework for investigating Bondage, Discipline, Dominance, Submission and Sadomasochism (BDSM) and non-BDSM sexual behaviours, i.e. “vanilla” sex. This is because it examines attitudes, beliefs, subjective norms, intention, and perceived behavioural control over exhibited behaviours. Online cross-sectional data were gathered from participants classified as “BDSM” (n = 61) and “vanilla” (n = 41). Measures included the Theory of Planned Behaviour Questionnaire (TPB Constructs), as well as Anxiety (GAD–7), Depression (PHQ–9), and Self-Efficacy questionnaires. Findings revealed that the constructs of attitude towards vanilla sex predicts the person’s intention to engage in this behaviour (β = .42, p = .005). Similarly, perceived behavioural control predicts intention to engage in paraphilic or BDSM sex (β = .47, p < .001). This study concludes that the TPB is a useful model for predicting BDSM and vanilla sexual behavioural intention. Future research could uncover additional underlying determining or correlating factors associated with BDSM and vanilla sex, such as mental illness and childhood experiences. Having this understanding of the role that social cognition plays in the development and behaviour of different sexual practices, would benefit the development of sexual wellbeing programmes.
... And this was despite the fact that the book revealed some eye-popping statistics about masturbation, homosexuality, extramarital affairs, and fetish behavior. In 1953, Kinsey and colleagues published the report on female sexuality [54]. Despite more consistent and sophisticated research methodology than in the first report, the revelations about similar sexual expressions in women were met with disbelief, scorn, and threats. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review The history of pharmacotherapy to treat sexual desire disorders is fraught with political debate that pits clinical psychologists, sexologists, and sociologists against the sexual medicine and uro-gyn communities. This review highlights events that led to this rift and how it played out politically to influence decisions made by regulatory bodies like the US Food and Drug Administration during and after hearings to consider approving testosterone, flibanserin, and bremelanotide, for the treatment of sexual desire disorders in women. Recent Findings The current climate for further development of pharmacotherapies is questionable due to a lack of proper marketing and a campaign of misinformation about currently approved drugs as weak, dangerous, and/or unnecessary. Summary Pharmacotherapies work, and their promise as adjuncts to sex therapy for HSDD will give women far more choice in the kind of treatments that fit their needs. Such treatments may well have efficacy in men and trans persons with HSDD.
... Participants completed a questionnaire including demographic items and items that may relate to neural responses (i.e., handedness, history of head trauma). They also completed a modified Kinsey Sexual Orientation Scale (Kinsey et al., 1953) to assess sexual attractions, romantic attractions, and sexual fantasies. In this modified version, participants indicated their attractions or fantasies to men and women on separate 0-100% scales (numbers did not need to add to 100%) and could indicate if gender was irrelevant to their attractions or fantasies. ...
Article
Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies reported larger N170, P3, and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes to sexual than nonsexual stimuli. These ERPs may not be specifically sensitive to processing sexual cues, however, because the sexual stimuli included information beyond sexual cues (e.g., faces, bodies, social interaction) to a greater extent than comparison stimuli. We investigated ERPs to stimuli that focused on sexual and nonsexual body regions, in different states of readiness for activity, to elucidate neural responses involved in processing sexual cues. Forty cisgender, primarily white, undergraduate women who were attracted to men (Mage = 18.6, SD = 0.9) viewed images that varied by male body part (penis, arm) and activity state (rest, poised for activity). Participants viewed 40 images per category (flaccid penises, erect penises, outstretched arms, bent arms). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded using a 128-channel net, time-locked to the onset of each image. Using a whole-head cluster-mass approach, we found that the P3 was sensitive to sexual readiness-P3 amplitudes were larger to erect than flaccid penises, but not to bent than outstretched arms. The N170 and LPP components did not show evidence of similarly specific responses to sexual readiness, revealing potential dissociation of different neural processes commonly elicited in response to more complex sexual stimuli. An additional novel finding was that an anterior N270-400 was sensitive to sexual readiness. Findings clarify the brain's rapid responses to sexual stimuli, setting the stage for future research aimed at better understanding the neurocognitive processes that contribute to the coordination of sexual arousal.
... Similar findings were also reported in which approximately one in four adults women is a survivor of childhood sexual abuse and the rates go up when adult victimization is included. [11][12][13][14][15] Moreover the higher population was seen in the low betrayal trauma (e.g. assault by someone not close to the boy or man), the majority was reported from male population as compare to female population. ...
Article
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Introduction: With an emphasis on betrayal trauma, because the traumatic events involve some degree of social betrayal. The aim was to assess the socio-demographic profile of population with betrayal trauma. Material and methods: A Sample of 200 young adults trauma experienced for the current study was taken on purposive basis with the age ranged from 20-30 years from different areas of Delhi. The Socio-demographic Data Sheet and Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS) were applied to identify socio-demographic profile and betrayal trauma (high and low) respectively. Results:Among the majority of the sample 55 (27.5%) belong to the age group of 18-25 years having more female participants 55(27.5%) having the exposure of high betrayal trauma. Findings shows that among the trauma cases majority were having under graduation 47 (23.5%) with 53 (26.5%) as females exposed the high betrayal trauma. Majority of the sample were reported from females with high betrayal trauma and male with low betrayal trauma. Conclusions:Among the majority of the sample belong youths having more female participants with exposure of high betrayal trauma, youths have experienced at least one trauma, with the majority of trauma survivors experiencing multiple traumatic events. Being less educated and the women gender may perceived in a situation in which women may often find themselves, in a role without as much power as those around them in society.
... Sexual orientation was evaluated using a modified version of the Kinsey's Scale (Kinsey et al., 1998(Kinsey et al., , 1948. Compared to the original version, the terms ''heterosexual'' and ''homosexual'' were replaced by ''attracted by a person with the opposite gender identity'' and ''attracted by a person with the same gender identity''. ...
Article
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Objectives The purpose of the present linguistic validation is to provide a culturally and semantically appropriate Italian version of the Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ), as well as some preliminary results about its construct validity and internal consistency. Material and methods A linguistic validation based on a standardized procedure was performed. Then, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the fit of the proposed model and the internal consistency of each factor was provided. Overall, 498 cisgender heterosexual participants took part in the preliminary psychometric testing of the SFQ: 322 men (M age = 32.67; S.D. = 8.93) and 166 women. (M age = 26.85; S.D. age = 8.87). Results Results from the CFA on the updated version of the SFQ revealed an acceptable but not ideal goodness of fit. Conclusion The Italian version of the SFQ should be used carefully. Indeed, given the short time needed for its administration, is its utilization could be helpful to develop and assess new and more valid questionnaires.
... He identified some men who had sex with animals multiple times a week over many years. When assessing women, Kinsey and colleagues found that 1.5% reported a history of bestiality in preadolescence and 3.6% after adolescence [50]. One study of sexual behavior in the general population in the 1970 s identified similar rates of bestiality [51]; however, there have not been recent follow-up studies to assess the current epidemiology of bestiality. ...
Article
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Societies have proscribed bestiality, or sex between humans and nonhuman animals, since the earliest recorded legal codes. In the early American colonies, religious prohibitions against bestiality provided the grounds for punishing those who engaged in such acts. In the 1800′s, Henry Bergh imported the animal welfare approach to the United States, which modernized the legislative treatment of animals in the country. Until recently, however, many laws in the U.S. have been outdated and vague and have utilized moralistic terminology. Since the 1960′s, a growing body of literature has developed suggesting that individuals who harm animals may also interpersonally offend. This concept, known as the Link, has served as a major motivation for advocates to promote new legislation criminalizing bestiality, to modernize old state statutes, and to expand penalties for individuals convicted of having sex with animals. Unfortunately, data supporting the Link between bestiality and interpersonal violence are limited and of questionable generalizability to the broad public. The Link’s weaknesses can assist in guiding further research. This article summarizes the history of bestiality law, the current state of bestiality legislation in the United States, the body of Link-related literature on bestiality and interpersonal violence and other problematic sexual behaviors, and the empirical weaknesses and needs revealed by this legislation.
... In addition to clinical understanding of LGBTQ+ identities, psychological and biological research on LGBTQ+ people became a focal point for a small pool of researchers in the 1950s. Studies from this time showed that same-sex sex behavior was more widespread that previously believed in humans [112,113] and non-human animals [114]. The "gay gene", first proposed in 1993, hypothesized a genetic cause for same-sex behavior. ...
Preprint
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and other marginalized gender and sexual identities (LGBTQ+) face unique barriers to participation in the sciences rooted in cis-heteronormativity and heterosexism. We need to expand conversations on LGBTQ+ advocacy in science beyond personal beliefs and actions, and toward the recognition of structural and societal barriers to participation. In this paper, we review how structural deficits and heteronormativity serve as barriers to LGBTQ+ inclusion, well-being, and participation in science. To ground this conversation in a shared understanding of LGBTQ+ oppression and liberation movements, we highlight important historic events that aid in understanding current issues, including the historic and ongoing role of science in the lives and rights of LGBTQ+ people.
... Research shows that a great majority of older adults, especially those who are healthy and have partners, practice sex until late in life (Harvard Health Publishing, 2017;Kinsey et al., 1948Kinsey et al., , 1953Masters & Johnson, 1966;Starr & Weiner, 1981). Many sexologists emphasize that sexuality is actually among the last of our faculties to decline with maturity (Bouman & Kleinplatz, 2015;Kaplan, 1990;Schwartz, 2016). ...
Article
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In our work at the Intimacies Project at The Ackerman Institute for the Family we became aware of a gap in attention about sexuality and aging in the couple and family therapy field. In this article, we provide an integrative framework to guide therapists on how to address problems of sexuality and aging in the therapy room. Starting from considerations about the social context of aging and the self of the therapist, we contend that when normative sexual challenges become entangled with stigma, misconceptions about sexuality, limiting gender narratives, vulnerabilities, and defensive postures, they often result in emotional and sexual shutdowns. Through a combination of the vulnerability cycle with an expansive definition of sexuality, we demonstrate how we deconstruct impasses, disentangle normative quandaries from reactive dynamics, and help couples transform their sexual narratives. We outline how we conduct individual sessions to obtain relational sexual histories, utilize Sensate Focus as a mindful touch exercise, and help partners expand their sexual menus beyond penetration and orgasms. We also describe relational skills that may need to be strengthened to help aging couples deal with the ebb and flow of intimacy, sustaining resilience over time. 在阿克曼家庭研究所的“性亲密项目”中, 我们意识到在伴侣和家庭治疗领域对性和衰老的关注存在空白。在这篇文章中, 我们提供了一个综合的框架来指导治疗师如何在治疗室中解决性和衰老的问题。从老龄化的社会背景和治疗师的自我考虑出发, 我们认为, 当正常的的性生活方面的问题与耻辱、对性的误解、限制性的性别叙述、脆弱、和防御性姿势纠缠在一起时, 它们往往会导致情感和性的关闭。通过结合脆弱循环与性行为的扩展定义, 我们展示了我们如何解构僵局, 从反应动力学中解开规范的困境, 并帮助夫妇改变他们性方面的陈述。本文概述了我们如何进行一对一的会话来获取性生活方面的关系历史, 利用“焦点感官”法作为一种有意识的触摸练习, 并帮助伴侣扩大他们的性生活具体活动的系列安排, 不仅限于阴茎插入子宫和到达高潮而已。我们还描述了可能需要加强的亲密关系的可操作技巧, 以帮助上了年纪的夫妇处理亲密关系的起起伏伏, 随着时间的推移保持关系的复原力。
... Es decir, estos hallazgos inducen a pensar que la inteligencia de cortejo podría relacionarse con la orientación sociosexual. Dicha orientación, según Kinsey et al. (1949) y Kinsey et al. (1953), corresponde a las diferencias individuales en la permisividad sexual (aceptar con facilidad tener sexo) y promiscuidad (disposición para tener relaciones sexuales con varias personas). A su vez, dicho constructo incluye tres aspectos o actitudes. ...
Article
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Las características del cortejo humano han sido analizadas por diversas ciencias, pero con limitados estudios en Sudamérica. Este trabajo es un estudio de las asociaciones entre inteligencia de cortejo y personalidad, satisfacción vital, orientación sociosexual y estrategias de historia de vida en adultos paraguayos. Fueron seleccionados 219 adultos mediante muestreo por conveniencia. Se aplicaron los instrumentos: Mating Intelligence Scale, Test IPIP, Inventario de Orientación Sociosexual Revisado, K-SF-42, Escala SWLS y Protocolo de Conductas y Preferencias de Cortejo. Los principales resultados muestran, por un lado, asociaciones entre inteligencia de cortejo con rasgos de personalidad, orientación sociosexual, satisfacción vital y estrategias de historias de vida K. Por otro lado, se identificaron varias particularidades culturales de las conductas de cortejo. Se concluye que existen asociaciones entre inteligencia de cortejo con los constructos referidos y ciertas diferencias culturales. Diverse sciences have analyzed aspects involved in human courtship. There are few studies in South America. The present study examines the associations between mating intelligence with personality, life satisfaction, sociosexual orientation and life history strategies in Paraguayan adults. The sample included 219 adults selected by convenience sampling. Mating Intelligence Scale, IPIP Test, Sociosexual Orientation Scale, K-SF-42, SWLS and Protocolo de Conductas y Preferencias de Cortejo were used. In the first place, the results show associations between mating intelligence with sociosexual orientation, life satisfaction, slow life history strategy and personality traits. Second, some cultural particularities of courtship behaviours were identified. In conclusion, we find associations between mating intelligence with the mentioned constructs and some cultural differences of courtship.
... The majority of studies investigating heterosexual orgasms have focused on women due to the problematic imbalance in that it is more difficult for women to achieve orgasm when compared to men (see, for example, Bell and McClelland, 2018;Fisher, 1973;Masters and Johnson, 1966;Muehlenhard and Shippee, 2010). Especially in the US context, some of the earliest studies focusing on women's orgasms explored how frequently women achieved an orgasm during intercourse (Fisher, 1973;Terman, 1951) and reasons behind women not experiencing an orgasm during intercourse (Kinsey et al., 1953). Conversely, in their study on trans men, Scheim et al. (2019: 581) elucidate how notions of pleasure seem to be more complex in sexual minorities: "relationships may involve the balancing of potential pleasure against perceived risk." ...
Article
Drawing on a study consisting of 29 multimodal accounts of orgasms, we make visible processes, emotions, and notions of playfulness that highlight the critical role of orgasms in transcending the fleeting distinction between reality and play. As sexual pleasure does not necessarily result from experiencing an orgasm, our data also reveals how playful strategies are enacted in order to mitigate ambiguity and societal norms. Instead of seeing the orgasm as a physiological or psychological change in an individual or as an epitome of “good” sex, the multimodal accounts employed in the study reveal attitudes, assumptions, and expectations related to playful pleasure.
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Bu bölümde öncelikle ikili cinsiyet sisteminin ne olduğu, bu sistemin tarihçesi ve cinsiyet kalıpyargıları ele alınmıştır. Ardından biyolojik cinsiyet ve bununla bağlantılı olarak toplumsal cinsiyet kimliği ve cinsiyet ifadesine değinilmiştir. Son olarak da biyolojik cinsiyet, toplumsal cinsiyet kimliği ve cinsel yönelim çeşitlilik açıklanmıştır.
Article
The definition of homology and its application to reproductive structures, external genitalia, and the physiology of sexual pleasure has a tortuous history. While nowadays there is a consensus on the developmental homology of genital and reproductive systems, there is no agreement on the physiological translation, or the evolutionary origination and roles, of these structural correspondences and their divergent histories. This paper analyzes the impact of evolutionary perspectives on the homology concept as applied to the female orgasm, and their consequences for the biological and social understanding of female sexuality and reproduction. After a survey of the history of pre-evolutionary biomedical views on sexual difference and sexual pleasure, we examine how the concept of sexual homology was shaped in the new phylogenetic framework of the late 19th century. We then analyse the debates on the anatomical locus of female pleasure at the crossroads of theories of sexual evolution and new scientific discourses in psychoanalysis and sex studies. Moving back to evolutionary biology, we explore the consequences of neglecting homology in adaptive explanations of the female orgasm. The last two sections investigate the role played by different articulations of the homology concept in evolutionary developmental explanations of the origin and evolution of the female orgasm. These include the role of sexual, developmental homology in the byproduct hypothesis, and a more recent hypothesis where a phylogenetic, physiological concept of homology is used to account for the origination of the female orgasm. We conclude with a brief discussion on the social implications for the understanding of female pleasure derived from these different homology frameworks.
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Sexual motivation (desire) requires the simultaneous presence of an active central motive state and a stimulus with sexual significance. Once activated, sexual motivation leads to visceral responses and approach behaviors directed toward the emitter of the sexual stimulus. In humans, such behaviors follow cognitive evaluation of the context, including predictions of the approached individual’s response. After successful approach and establishment of physical contact, manifest sexual activities may be initiated. Sexual interaction is associated with and followed by a state of positive affect in most animals, whereas aversive consequences may be experienced by humans. The affective reactions may become associated with stimuli present during sexual interaction, and these stimuli may thereby alter their incentive properties. Here we show how the incentive motivation model can be used to explain the origins and possible treatments of sexual dysfunctions, notably disorders of desire. We propose that associations formed between negative outcomes of sexual interaction and the salient stimuli, for example, the partner, underlies hypoactive desire disorder. Highly positive outcomes of sexual interaction enhance the incentive value of the stimuli present, and eventually lead to hyperactive sexual desire. Treatments aim to alter the impact of sexual incentives, mainly by modifying cognitive processes.
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The spread of “cancel culture” related to sex and gender controversies in North America is examined as part of a larger movement to politicize sex research findings and certain sex and gender narratives as “correct” and “incorrect” from a so-called social justice standpoint. This binary is then used by academic administrators and empowered individuals or self-interest groups to reward or punish scholars for their viewpoints. The cases described by Meyer-Bahlburg, Lowrey, and Hooven are concrete examples of a growing “sexual McCarthyism” where empirical results are challenged by offended social justice “warriors” and embellished on social media into ad hominem attacks, to the point that it can damage—or even cancel—the careers of productive sexual scientists. This occurs largely out of fear on the part of academic administrators and lawyers charged with protecting the university from “brand damage” that might occur if the offending scholar is not dealt with. Sexual scientists are being vilified for research on sex differences, sex/gender assignment and subsequent causes for transitioning and/or de-transitioning, research that shows few or no untoward social or psychological effects of viewing pornography, research that debunks the notion of porn or sex “addiction,” research showing the efficacy of medications to treat sexual desire disorders in women, research on “minor attracted persons” and even animal research that dares to show homologies to human sexual behavior. The silencing of empirical evidence and alternative viewpoints is contrary to the intellectual mission of universities and destructive to academic and political freedoms.
Article
Many vertebrate animals engage in masturbation and it is also prevalent in primates. Given the gregarious nature of this order, this is perhaps surprising, since, by definition, it occurs to the exclusion of others. Our research maps the masturbatory landscape of the primate order, highlighting the distribution and diverse forms self-stimulation of the genitalia takes: from an infant vervet monkey grasping his own penis in his mouth, to female chimpanzees using water spigots to stimulate their clitorises. We also examine the causation of this behavior. While autosexual behavior can be a substitute for allosexual interactions, many acts of masturbation seem to serve functions, which fall broadly under two categories: avoidance of pathogen transmission and reduction of mate competition. In terms of implications for human public health, the finding that masturbation is ubiquitous throughout the primate order, practiced by wild-living members of both sexes and all age-groups is a strong counter-argument to voices who condemn human masturbation as "unnatural."
Article
Objectives Utilizing Iridescent Life Course, we examine life events among three generations of lesbian and gay adults: Invisible (born 1920–1934), Silenced (born 1935–1949), and Pride (born 1950–1964) Generations. Methods: We utilized a subsample ( n = 2079) from the 2014 wave of Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS). Demographic characteristics, life events, and gender and generational interactions were compared. Results: Compared to other generations, the Invisible Generation disclosed their identity at older ages, were more likely to be retired, served in the military, and survived a partner’s death. Compared to the other generations, the Pride Generation was more likely to have disclosed their identities earlier and experienced higher levels of victimization/discrimination. Discussion: This paper is the first to examine the lived experiences of the oldest lesbians and gay men and compare them to other generations. The findings illustrate the heteronormative nature of most life course research.
Article
The study examines sexting among 3,171 Greek university students in the context of different relationship types (i.e. romantic partners, friends, strangers). Participants completed an anonymous online survey, assessing sexting during the last year along with demographic and relationship status information. Sexting was a common practice among participants, with the use of mobile phones and the Messenger application to exchange sexts. Sexting was more common among males and non-heterosexuals. Participants aged 25 and above were more likely to exchange sexts with strangers than those aged between 18 and 24. Romantic partners reported exchanging sexts more often than strangers. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that non-heterosexual males in a long-distance romantic relationship were more likely to participate in sexting, and that non-heterosexual older males who have been single for the last year were more likely to exchange sexual or provocative messages with strangers. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications.
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Objectives Sexual health includes the state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being related to sexuality. Masturbation is an important sexual activity with many potential benefits which has gained considerable interest in sexuality research in the past twenty years; however, this research is the first of its kind within the Aotearoa/New Zealand context. In this in-depth investigation, we examined frequencies of, reasons for, and activities during masturbation as well as the relationship between masturbation and other factors. Methods Participants were 698 New Zealand women at least 18 years of age participating in a 42-item anonymous online survey collecting comprehensive information about sexual practices and related factors. Results The results indicated that female masturbation has high prevalence in the New Zealand population. Conclusion The pattern of results enabled us to identify the positive effects of masturbation, masturbation practices commonly used by New Zealand women and the differences between New Zealand women who masturbate frequently and less frequently.
Thesis
p>Previous research into young men's sexual behaviour, use of contraception and sexual health services is sparse. With sexual health campaigns promoting use of the condom (a male method of contraception), the need for more understanding of these topics is vital. This thesis uses data from 43, semi-structured, long interviews with men aged 16-29 from southern England. The interview schedule encouraged discussion of current sexual and contraceptive behaviour, and family, social and learning influences in childhood and teenage years. For data on impression of, and best ways of promoting, sexual health services, 9 focus group discussions were held with men aged 13-21 around England. Even though the interview respondents have similar demographic and social backgrounds, they exhibit diverse sexual and contraceptive experiences. Stereotypes of irresponsible, prestige-driven sexual behaviour generally are not borne out. The emergence of the HIV virus dramatically changed the contraceptive environment, illustrated by the comparative experiences of the younger and older respondents. However, respondents of any age may not feel at risk of HIV infection. Good school education, non-sexual social interaction with young women and an emotionally 'warm' family environment are tentatively associated with positive contraceptive and communication outcomes. Problems with current sexual health promotion messages are highlighted. Nationally, men are in the minority of sexual health service clients, and their sexual health needs are neglected. However, the 1990s have seen increased service uptake from young men. Services have the potential to increase their number of male clients by offering appropriate, male-friendly services and using well designed, tested and located methods of promotion.</p
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