Article

Shadowing for Pronunciation Development : Haptic-Shadowing and IPA-Shadowing

Article

Shadowing for Pronunciation Development : Haptic-Shadowing and IPA-Shadowing

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Shadowing was introduced to foreign language teaching in the 1990s and since then it has been researched in EFL teaching contexts. Shadowing has been used as a listening task, and its effectiveness on listening comprehension has been acknowledged. However, its effect on pronunciation development remains unclear. With this unresolved issue in mind, I have attempted to develop shadowing-based pronunciation teaching methods by combining shadowing with activities for pronunciation skill development, namely haptic-shadowing and IPA-shadowing. A total of 58 Japanese second-year university students participated in the experiment (29 for haptic-shadowing and 29 for IPA-shadowing). A total of 15 lessons were given to each group. The results show that the haptic-shadowing group statistically improved on all the three features of comprehensibility, segmental features, and suprasegmental features, while the IPA-shadowing group improved on comprehensibility and segmental features. Additionally, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine learners‟ perceptions toward the two types of shadowing. Learners have a more positive and fresh image of haptic-shadowing and IPA-shadowing.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The sole feedback was generated from the system. Hamada (2018a) analysed the impact of the IPA shadowing and haptic shadowing in two-step quasi-experimental studies. In the first part of the experiment, Hamada divided the participants of the quasiexperimental study into two groups after the pre-test consisting of reading four sentences -the haptic-shadowing group individually studied the rules of suprasegmental phonology and could discuss them with the instructor during the summarising session. ...
... This is in line with suggestions of the teachers in Chapter 3 of this publication that the goal of instruction should concentrate only on the crucial elements. The only study that did not directly benefit from the computer-assisted pronunciation training was the study by Hamada (2018a) who found that both approaches, IPA shadowing and Haptic shadowing, improved comprehensibility, segments and suprasegmentals of the participants; however, the haptic shadowing group experienced a more significant improvement. ...
... Q2: Concerning the methods and approaches, two main approaches were compared-FonF and FonFS (Saito, 2012). In the studies, FonFS is the dominant of the two concepts (Ding et al., 2019;Rezaei et al., 2015;Wang & Zhou, 2019;Hamada, 2018a;Rahimi & Ruzrokh, 2016;Liu et al., 2018;Hermans et al., 2017;Wang & Young, 2014;Sadat & Tehrani, 2017). Several studies benefited from the use of CAPTT in the classroom (Ding et al., 2019;Gooch et al., 2016;Yenkimaleki & van Heuven, 2019;Hermans et al., 2017;etc.). ...
Book
The aim of this publication is to provide an insight into the current pronunciation teaching practices in a global context. On the basis of the findings, it provides the views and practices of university teachers of phonetics and phonology, as well as the opinion of Slovak learners of English on the importance of pronunciation, preference of native accents and accent goals, as well as the most preferred techniques to improve their pronunciation in formal school settings and informal situations.
... While various teaching approaches have been applied to L2 pronunciation, growing attention has been given to the pedagogical potential of tracking and shadowing activities (for a comprehensive overview, Hamada, 2018). According to Celce-Murcia, Brinton, & Goodwin (2010), tracking is where learners listen to native speakers either face-to-face or remotely on television, radio, or audiotape while following a transcript or subtitles, and simultaneously reproduce what they hear. ...
... Considerable attention has been given to examining how and whether shadowing and tracking can be used to improve various dimensions of L2 pronunciation proficiency, such as segmental accuracy (Hamada, 2018), word and sentence stress (Martinsen, Montgomery, & Willardson, 2017), intonation (Hsieh, Dong, & Wang, 2013), intelligibility (Martinsen et al., 2017), and comprehensibility (Hamada, 2018). However, very few of these studies have examined L2 pronunciation development using spontaneous speaking tasks (Martinsen et al., 2017). ...
... Considerable attention has been given to examining how and whether shadowing and tracking can be used to improve various dimensions of L2 pronunciation proficiency, such as segmental accuracy (Hamada, 2018), word and sentence stress (Martinsen, Montgomery, & Willardson, 2017), intonation (Hsieh, Dong, & Wang, 2013), intelligibility (Martinsen et al., 2017), and comprehensibility (Hamada, 2018). However, very few of these studies have examined L2 pronunciation development using spontaneous speaking tasks (Martinsen et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence suggests that auditory processing ability may a crucial determinant of language learning, including adult second language (L2) speech learning. The current study tested 47 Chinese English-as-a-Foreign-Language students to examine the extent to which two types of auditory processing-perceptual acuity and audio-motor integration-related to improvements in the comprehensibility and nativelikeness of L2 speech following two weeks of choral repetition training (i.e., shadowing). All participants' pronunciation proficiency became significantly more comprehensible over time, and the degree of improvement in the nativelikeness of pronunciation was tied to the ability to remember and reproduce sounds (i.e., audio-motor integration). The findings suggest that robust auditory-motor integration may play a key role in the acquisition of advanced-level L2 pronunciation proficiency (i.e., comprehensible and nativelike speech).
... This tendency can be interpreted to be indicative of L1 transfer or orthography effects. In addition, studies have shown that L2 learners' awareness of RV as well as production training is not conducive to mastery of English RV (Gutierrez & Monroy, 2003;Hamada, 2018;Hua & Li, 2016;Kondo, 1994). ...
... From the pedagogical perspective, to advance the perception or production of English words that have RV along with variants, the EFL or L2 speakers might need further formal training concerning the existence or actual pronunciations of English words, in particular, containing the reduced vowels (e.g., 'support') or not embedding them (e.g., 'sport'). Many studies have shown that the training of the production of English vowel reduction facilitates the perception of the reduced vowels for the Spanish EFL learners and that the instructions of English vowels have a positive effect on English vowel learning (Hamada, 2018;Hua & Li, 2016;Lacabex, Lecumberri, & Cooke, 2007;Leather, 1990;Tabandeh, Moinzadeh, & Barati, 2019). ...
... Along this line, Studies 2 and 3 show that producing gestures and percussive movements had a positive effect on production (pronunciation) skills, in line with previous studies testing gesture production (e.g., Morett & Chang, 2015;Kushch, 2018, Llanes-Corominas et al., 2018F. Zhang, 2006) or kinesthetic training (e.g., Hamada, 2018, Iizuka et al., 2020Yang, 2016). Further research would be needed to test the effects of embodied productive training on perceptive outcomes, in order to further assess the value of gesture production and perception patterns for phonological training. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis proposes an overview of the theoretical background on embodied cognition. gesture studies, and L2 phonological acquisition to motivate the use of embodied prosodic training with hand gestures and kinesthetic movements as an efficient method to improve L2 learners' perception and pronunciation. It is composed of three independent empirical studies looking at three different techniques in different learning contexts.
... Numerous studies have recently focused on different teaching techniques to teach pronunciation to L2 learners (e.g., Gooch, Saito, & Lyster, 2016;Hamada, 2018). Among these studies, explicit instruction has either been the main focus (e.g., Kissling, 2013;Saito, 2011a;Sugiura, 2016;Underwood & Wallace, phonological features (i.e., declarative knowledge) and notice the difference in their current and targetlike pronunciation features. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the differential effects of focus-on-form (FonF: explicit instruction followed by focused tasks) and focus-on-forms (FonFS: explicit instruction followed by controlled exercises) on learning English lax vowels (i.e., //, //, //) by Persian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. To this end, 48 learners took a voluntary 6-hour course: the experimental group (n = 17) received FonF, the comparison group (n = 16) received FonFS, and the control group (n = 15) engaged in theme-based discussions with no focus on the target vowels. Learners' pronunciations were elicited in controlled read-aloud and spontaneous picture description tasks and acoustically measured for phonetic accuracy based on tongue positions (i.e., formant 1 [F1] for the height and formant 2 [F2] for the backness of the tongue). Results revealed that whereas both instructional types significantly improved learners' phonetic accuracy (i.e., adjusting F1/F2 values) in the controlled task, only the FonF methodology proved effective in the spontaneous task with large effects in the delayed posttest. The control group revealed no improvement in any tasks. Overall, the results show that FonF instruction may offer substantial benefits to EFL learners to have more accurate pronunciations in EFL speech. The paper concludes with the pedagogical implications of the findings.
Article
p>The role of connected speech as part of pronunciation is seen as important for second language acquisition, yet there are intractable difficulties in acquiring it, especially consonant-vowel linking. As a result, the purpose of the study is to explore the effects of shadowing with the enhanced script on consonant-vowel linking by reporting some cases which were further observed by the researcher throughout the research time. The main instrument administered to collect qualitative data was a semi-structured interview in order to gain more insights into the participants’ attitudes about shadowing with the enhanced script. The observation was used to supplement the data. All of the research procedures were conducted online due to the complexities of Covid. The results highlight the importance of shadowing with the enhanced script, which is useful for the learning of pronunciation skills, especially consonant-vowel learning; besides, it points out some problems and solutions to deal with shadowing. Article visualizations: </p
Article
Full-text available
Bien qu’il ne soit aujourd’hui plus question de « supprimer » l’accent étranger d’un apprenant (Derwing & Munro, 2009), des recherches ont montré que tant les erreurs segmentales (Isaacs & Trofimovich, 2012) que les erreurs suprasegmentales (Derwin et al., 1998) influencent les évaluations de compréhensibilité et de fluence des apprenants. Par conséquent, l’acquisition de bons schémas prosodiques et la prononciation correcte de segments difficiles permettent d’améliorer la compréhensibilité et la fluence du discours oral (Kang et al., 2010 ; Suzukida & Saito, 2019). Quel rôle peuvent jouer les gestes dans l’acquisition de la prononciation de la langue cible ? Nous passerons en revue les études qui décrivent l’utilisation des gestes pédagogiques, spécialement ceux en relation avec la prononciation, autrement appelés gestes phonétiques et phonologiques (Tellier, 2008a). Dans un deuxième temps, nous présenterons une série d’études expérimentales récentes analysant l'efficacité de ces gestes. Enfin, nous proposerons quelques pistes pour de futures recherches sur les gestes phonétiques et phonologiques.
Article
Full-text available
The current study presents two meta-analyses to explore what underlies the assessment and teaching of comprehensible and nativelike pronunciation among English-as-a-Second-Language speakers. In Study 1, listener studies (n = 37) were retrieved examining the influence of segmental, prosodic, and temporal features on listeners’ intuitive judgements of comprehensibility and nativelikeness/accentedness as per different listener backgrounds (expert, mixed, L2). In Study 2, training studies (n = 17) were retrieved examining the effects of segmental, prosodic, and temporal-based instruction on ESL learners’ pronunciation. The results showed that (a) comprehensibility judgements were related to a range of segmental, prosodic, and temporal features; (b) accentedness judgements were strongly tied to participants’ correct pronunciation of consonants and vowels; and (c) instruction led to larger gains in comprehensibility than in nativelikeness. Moderator analyses demonstrated that expert listeners were more reliant on phonological information. Greater effects of instruction on comprehensibility than nativelikeness became clearer, especially when the treatment targeted prosodic accuracy. The findings suggest that ESL practitioners should prioritize suprasegemental practice to help students achieve comprehensible L2 pronunciation. The attainment of nativelike pronunciation, by contrast, may require an exclusive focus on the refinement of segmental accuracy, which is resistant to the influence of instruction.
Article
Full-text available
The field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) has recently witnessed a renewed interest in pronunciation; nevertheless, this interest has been mostly directed toward pronunciation instruction even though learners' instructional gains are heavily dependent on their attitudes and motivations. Thus, this study aimed to examine the construct validity of learners' attitudes and motivations for pronunciation (LAMP) inventory in Iranian EFL academic context and investigate Iranian EFL learners' attitudes and motivations regarding teaching and learning English pronunciation. Accordingly, the LAMP inventory was administered to 364 Iranian English-major undergraduates. The result of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the eight-factor LAMP model fit the Iranian EFL context. In terms of English-major learners' attitudes, findings revealed that although they had highly positive cognitive and conative attitudes toward pronunciation instruction, they were heavily influenced by negative affective filters acting as a hindrance to their progress. Regarding motivations, English-major learners were mostly influenced by intrinsic and curiosity drives. Nevertheless, contrary to some previous findings, the majority of the respondents showed integrativeness and strove for native-like pronunciation. Therefore, the results imply that syllabus designers and instructors for English-major learners need to place stronger emphasis on pronunciation instruction via challenging, meaning-oriented tasks and computerized methodologies.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with the improvement of English prosody of Japanese EFL learners. A new type of speaking training that combines shadowing with oral reading was introduced into English classes in order to raise learners' reproduction rates in shadowing practice and to efficiently improve their English pronunciation. Twenty Japanese university students participated in ten weekly training sessions utilizing this combination of practice techniques. For the purpose of gauging improvement over the ten-week period, a pre-test and a post-test were given before and after the ten weeks, respectively, in which they recorded their readings of the same short English passage. Their recordings were acoustically analyzed to examine any improvement in their English prosody. The results revealed that in the post-test they tended to enhance the contrast between neighboring stressed and unstressed syllables by using the duration, FO (pitch), and/or intensity of each syllable. In addition, significant increase in duration and pitch range was observed in sentence-final words/segments with nuclear pitch accents, suggesting a better realization of English intonation and final lengthening. All of these findings show that the combined training method of shadowing with oral reading improved rhythm, intonation, and final lengthening in English produced by the Japanese EFL learners.
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined in depth the effects of suprasegmental-based instruction on the global (comprehensibility) and suprasegmental (word stress, rhythm, and intonation) development of 10 Japanese English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) learners. Students in the experimental group (n = 10) received a total of three hours of instruction over six weeks, while those in the control group (n = 10) were provided with meaning-oriented instruction without any focus on suprasegmentals. Speech samples elicited from read-aloud tasks were assessed via native-speaking listeners’ intuitive judgments and acoustic analyses. Overall, the pre-/post-test data showed significant gains in the overall comprehensibility, word stress, rhythm, and intonation of the experimental group in both trained and untrained lexical contexts. In particular, by virtue of explicitly addressing L1-L2 linguistic differences, the instruction was able to help learners mark stressed syllables with longer and clearer vowels; reduce vowels in unstressed syllables; and use appropriate intonation patterns for yes/no and wh-questions. The findings provide empirical support for the value of suprasegmental-based instruction in phonological development, even with beginner-level EFL learners with a limited amount of L2 conversational experience.
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated linguistic influences on comprehensibility (ease of understanding) and accentedness (linguistic nativelikeness) in second language (L2) learners’ extemporaneous speech. Target materials included picture narratives from 40 native French speakers of English from different proficiency levels. The narratives were subsequently rated by 20 native speakers with or without linguistic and pedagogical experience for comprehensibility, accentedness, and 11 linguistic variables spanning the domains of phonology, lexis, grammar, and discourse structure. Results showed that comprehensibility was associated with several linguistic variables (vowel/consonant errors, word stress, fluency, lexis, grammar), whereas accentedness was chiefly linked to pronunciation (vowel/consonant errors, word stress). Native-speaking listeners thus appear to pay particular attention to pronunciation, rather than lexis and grammar, to evaluate nativelikeness but tend to consider various sources of linguistic information in L2 speech in judging comprehensibility. The use of listener ratings (perceptual measures) in evaluating linguistic aspects of learner speech and their implications for language assessment and pedagogy are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the extent to which native speakers of North American and Singapore English differentially perceive the comprehensibility (ease of understanding) of second language (L2) speech. Spontaneous speech samples elicited from 50 Japanese learners of English with various proficiency levels were first rated by 10 Canadian and 10 Singaporean raters for overall comprehensibility, and then submitted to pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary, and grammar analyses. Whereas the raters’ comprehensibility judgements were generally influenced by phonological and temporal qualities as primary cues, and, to a lesser degree, lexical and grammatical qualities of L2 speech as secondary cues, their linguistic backgrounds did make some impact on their L2 speech assessment patterns. The Singaporean raters, who not only used various models of English but also spoke a few L2s on a daily basis in a multilingual environment, tended to assign more lenient comprehensibility scores due to their relatively high sensitivity to, in particular, lexicogrammatical information. On the other hand, the comprehensibility judgements of the Canadian raters, who used only North American English in a monolingual environment, were mainly determined by the phonological accuracy and fluency of the L2 speech.
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 25 years second language (L2) acquisition researchhas paid considerable attention to the effectiveness of instruction onL2 morphosyntax development, and the findings of relevant empiricalstudies have been extensively summarized using narrative review meth-ods (e.g., Ellis, 2002) as well as meta-analytic review methods (e.g.,Spada & Tomita, 2010). These researchers have reached a consensusthat (a) integrating language focus into meaning-oriented classroomsis more effective than a purely naturalistic approach, and (b) contextu-alized grammar teaching methods (e.g., focus-on-form instruction,form-focused instruction) is more effective than decontexualized gram-mar teaching methods (e.g., focus-on-formS instruction, grammar-translation method). What is surprising in this vein of L2 acquisitionstudies, however, is the lack of research in the area of L2 pronuncia-tion development. Pronunciation teaching has been notorious for itsoverdependence on decontextualized practice such as mechanicaldrills and repetition, reminiscent of the audiolingual teaching meth-ods of several decades ago (for discussion, see Celce-Murcia, Brinton, 1Goodwin, & Griner, 2010). Furthermore, very few language teachersactually receive adequate training in the specific area of pronunciationteaching (Foote, Holtby, & Derwing, 2011).1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners’ perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors’ communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales—for example, the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS)—shortcomings of existing scales (e.g., vague descriptors) reflect limited empirical evidence as to which linguistic aspects influence listeners’ judgments of L2 comprehensibility at different ability levels. To address this gap, a mixed-methods approach was used in the present study to gain a deeper understanding of the linguistic aspects underlying listeners’ L2 comprehensibility ratings. First, speech samples of 40 native French learners of English were analyzed using 19 quantitative speech measures, including segmental, suprasegmental, fluency, lexical, grammatical, and discourse-level variables. These measures were then correlated with 60 native English listeners’ scalar judgments of the speakers’ comprehensibility. Next, three English as a second language (ESL) teachers provided introspective reports on the linguistic aspects of speech that they attended to when judging L2 comprehensibility. Following data triangulation, five speech measures were identified that clearly distinguished between L2 learners at different comprehensibility levels. Lexical richness and fluency measures differentiated between low-level learners; grammatical and discourse-level measures differentiated between high-level learners; and word stress errors discriminated between learners of all levels.
Article
Full-text available
The current training techniques on English pronunciation put emphasis on isolated words or sentences, resulting in the lack of opportunities for EFL learners to practice intonation. It has been noted that the importance and necessity of intonation training have been undervalued, and empirical studies on developing second language (L2) intonation pedagogy are urgently needed. This preliminary study aims to find out whether shadowing technique from interpretation practice can be used to promote English intonation acquisition. Fourteen non-English major students from National Taiwan University (NTU) were recruited and divided into control and experimental groups. The result from a SPSS Independent Sample T-test revealed significant differences between the two groups in intonation, fluency, word pronunciation, and overall pronunciation. The paper ends with a discussion on the implication of applying interpreting skills to intonation training and directions for future research.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines how to identify problematic pronunciation features for particular EFL learners, namely native Japanese speakers (NJs) learning English, to acquire comprehensible pronunciation, and tests the appropriateness of the selection. The study comprises two phases. In the identification phase, eight English-specific segmentals, /æ, f, v, θ, ð, w, l, ɹ/, were selected as the most problematic for NJs by drawing on various cross-linguistic analyses (i.e. a remedial approach) as well as a survey in which the advice of 48 experienced NJ English teachers was examined (i.e. an expert judgment approach). In the experimental phase, the relative influence of these sounds on comprehensibility and accentedness was analyzed. Twenty NJ participants read two types of sentences: sentences containing eight English-specific segmentals and sentences without them. Four native English speakers (NEs) subsequently rated all speech stimuli on a rubric of accentedness and comprehensibility. Significant differences were found between NEs’ ratings of the two types of sentences both in the domain of comprehensibility and accentedness. The results indicate that the eight segmentals determine NEs’ speech perception to a great degree, which in turn provides some support for the validity of the identification procedure (i.e. the combination of the remedial and expert judgment approaches).
Chapter
Pronunciation instruction has been around for as long as people have been learning languages other than their mother tongues. The fact that much of the research in this area has focused on English is partly due to its status as a global language.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
This study examines common claims associated with shadowing. Studies in Japan conclude that shadowing is effective for improving learners’ listening skills. Two common claims are that shadowing is effective for lower-proficiency learners and that it enhances learners’ phoneme perception, thus improving listening comprehension skills. The former notion lacks sufficient research and the latter empirical data. Therefore, this study explores these claims by examining whether shadowing training improves learners’ phoneme perception and listening comprehension skills, and whether its effectiveness is limited to lower-proficiency learners. Participants comprised 43 Japanese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) from a Japanese national university. Nine lessons were conducted using an EFL textbook, following the teaching procedures outlined by previous studies. The pre- and post-tests utilized part of Japanese standardized tests for English listening (22 questions) and a 20-item dictation cloze test. Students were divided into low- and intermediate-proficiency groups using the listening pre-test results. Statistical analyses indicated that phoneme perception was enhanced in both groups, but only low-proficiency learners improved their scores for high-school level listening questions. Accordingly, language instructors may wish to use shadowing to improve learners’ foreign language skills, especially for bottom-up processes in listening.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The goal of this study was to determine the overall effects of pronunciation instruction (PI) as well as the sources and extent of variance in observed effects. Toward this end, a comprehensive search for primary studies was conducted, yielding 86 unique reports testing the effects of PI. Each study was then coded on substantive and methodological features as well as study outcomes (Cohen’s d). Aggregated results showed a generally large effect for PI (d = 0.89 and 0.80 for N-weighted within- and between-group contrasts, respectively). In addition, moderator analyses revealed larger effects for (i) longer interventions, (ii) treatments providing feedback, and (iii) more controlled outcome measures. We interpret these and other results with respect to their practical and pedagogical relevance. We also discuss the findings in relation to instructed second language acquisition research generally and in comparison with other reviews of PI (e.g. Saito 2012). Our conclusion points out areas of PI research in need of further empirical attention and methodological refinement.
Article
Pour verifier l'hypothese de la profondeur de traitement, on a mesure la grandeur et la qualite de la retention de seize interpretes lors de quatre epreuves sur des passages en francais: ecoute, repetition mot a mot, traduction simultanee et traduction differee
Article
This Study examined native English speakers' reactions to nonnative primary stress in English discourse. I measured North American undergraduate Students' processing, comprehension, and evaluations of three versions of an international teaching assistant's speech: with primary stress correctly placed, incorrectly placed, or missing entirely Results indicated that when listening to speech with correct primary stress, the participants recalled significantly more content and evaluated the speaker significantly more favorably than when primary stress was aberrant or missing. Listeners also tended to process discourse more easily when primary stress was correct, but the result was not significant. These findings provide insights into how using primary stress affects international TAs' intelligibility. They also provide empirical support and suggest new ideas for current pedagogical practices that emphasize suprasegmentals ill teaching pronunciation.
Conference Paper
This paper reports on aspects of a haptic (movement plus touch) integrated system for classroom pronunciation instruction. It is based, in part, on established pedagogical practice in the use of somatic/kinesthetic techniques such as gesture in language instruction (Acton, 1984, 2012; Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin & Briner, 2010; McCafferty, 2004), and management of vocal resonance in singing and voice training (Lessac, 1997). The pedagogical method is designed for use by relatively untrained instructors and is generally best delivered through video with classroom follow up. Relatively recent research and development in haptics, especially in the areas of gaming, prosthetics and robotics, provides a rich source of potential principles and procedures from which to draw in exploring and rethinking the “clinical side” of pronunciation work. The use of haptic integration procedures in various teaching systems, in the form of designated movement patterns accompanied by various “textures of touch” has been shown to more systematically coordinate sensory modalities involved and greatly enhance both effectiveness and pace of instruction. In field testing the basic English pronunciation system to be described, this application of haptic procedures shows promise of also enhancing efficiency in anchoring sounds, words and phrases and in facilitating both recall and integration of targeted material in spontaneous speech.
Article
This study explored some of the intricate connections between the cognitions (beliefs, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes) and pedagogical practices of five English language teachers, specifically in relation to pronunciation-oriented techniques. Integral to the study was the use of semistructured interviews, classroom observations, and stimulated recall interviews with the teachers and questionnaires with students. Findings reveal that the teachers' knowledge base of pronunciation techniques consisted mainly of controlled techniques—techniques strongly manipulated by the teachers and typically considered less communicative than other techniques. Of all techniques, guided techniques (semistructured) were the least frequently used, suggesting in part that the teachers' knowledge of how to incorporate guided techniques on a consistent basis with oral communication curricula may be limited. This article also includes discussion of three sets of beliefs held by some of the teachers: (1) listening perception is essential for producing comprehensible speech, (2) kinesthetic/tactile practice is integral to phonological improvement, and (3) pronunciation instruction can be boring.
Article
Ss shadowed or listened to stories that had been recorded at 1 word/sec (wps), 2 wps, and 3 wps. They then took tests of word recognition, semantic retention, and syntax recognition. At the slowest rate, shadowers’ word recognition and semantic retention were somewhat higher than listeners’ scores, but this difference disappeared at faster rates. Significant positive correlations among all three retention scores were observed for listeners, but for shadowers word recognition was unrelated to either of the other two retention measures. The results are discussed in terms of monitoring during shadowing. Implications for experiments on selective attention are considered.
The utility of shadowing
  • N Bovee
  • J Stewart
Bovee, N., & Stewart, J. (2009). The utility of shadowing. In A. M. Stoke (Ed.), JALT 2008 conference proceedings (pp. 888-900). Tokyo: JALT.
Comparing native and non-native raters of US federal government speaking tests (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)
  • R Brooks
Brooks, R. (2013). Comparing native and non-native raters of US federal government speaking tests (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.
Choosing the right number of components or factors in PCA and EFA
  • D J Brown
Brown, D. J. (2009). Choosing the right number of components or factors in PCA and EFA. JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 13 (2), 19-23.
Anchoring academic vocabulary with a "hard-hitting" haptic pronunciation teaching technique
  • M Burri
  • A Baker
  • W Acton
Burri, M., Baker, A., & Acton, W. (2016). Anchoring academic vocabulary with a "hard-hitting" haptic pronunciation teaching technique. In J. Tamara (Ed), Pronunciation in the classroom: The overlooked essential (pp. 17-26). Alexandria, United States: TESOL Press.
Wait! Is it really shadowing? The Language Teacher
  • Y Hamada
Hamada, Y. (2016b). Wait! Is it really shadowing? The Language Teacher, 40(1), 14-17.
Understanding English across cultures
  • N Honna
  • Y Takeshita
  • J Angelo
Honna, N., Takeshita, Y., & D"Angelo, J. (2012). Understanding English across cultures. Tokyo: Kinseido.
Shadowing renshuga Eigo speaking ryoku to shadowing no ninshiki ni oyobosu koka [Effects of Shadowing Instruction on English Speaking Performance and Perception of Shadowing
  • A Iino
Iino, A. (2014). Shadowing renshuga Eigo speaking ryoku to shadowing no ninshiki ni oyobosu koka [Effects of Shadowing Instruction on English Speaking Performance and Perception of Shadowing].
Shadowing to ondoku no kaagaku [Science of shadowing, oral reading
  • S Kadota
Kadota, S. (2007). Shadowing to ondoku no kaagaku [Science of shadowing, oral reading, and English acquistion]. Tokyo: Cosmopier Publishing Company.
Suprasegmental measures of accentedness and judgments of language learner proficiency in oral English
  • O Kang
  • D Rubin
  • L Pickering
Kang, O., Rubin, D., & Pickering, L. (2010). Suprasegmental measures of accentedness and judgments of language learner proficiency in oral English. Modern Language Journal, 94(4), 554-556. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01091
A progress report on the development of the CEFR-J. Studies in Language Testing
  • M Negishi
  • Y Tono
  • Y Fujita
Negishi, M., Tono, Y., & Fujita, Y. (2012). A progress report on the development of the CEFR-J. Studies in Language Testing, 36, 137-157.
Longman dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics
  • J C Richards
  • R Schmidt
Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics (4th ed.). London: Longman (Pearson Education).
Pronunciation in EFL instruction. Bristol, UK: Multilingual matters
  • J Sypyra-Kzlowaska
Sypyra-Kzlowaska, J. (2015). Pronunciation in EFL instruction. Bristol, UK: Multilingual matters.
Exploring differences between shadowing and repeating practices: An analysis of reproduction rate and types of reproduced words
  • O Shiki
  • Y Mori
  • S Kadota
  • S Yoshida
Shiki, O., Mori, Y., Kadota, S., & Yoshida, S. (2010). Exploring differences between shadowing and repeating practices: An analysis of reproduction rate and types of reproduced words. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan, 21, 81-90.
Follow-up no chokairyoku kojo ni oyobosu koka oyobi "follow-up
  • K Tamai
Tamai, K. (1992). Follow-up no chokairyoku kojo ni oyobosu koka oyobi "follow-up" noryoku to chokairyoku no kankei. dai 4 kai "Eiken" kenkyu josei hokoku [The effect of follow-up on listening comprehension]. STEP Bulletin, 4, 48-62.
Shadowing no koka to chokai process ni okeru ichizuke [The effectiveness of shadowing and its position in the listening process
  • K Tamai
Tamai, K (1997). Shadowing no koka to chokai process ni okeru ichizuke [The effectiveness of shadowing and its position in the listening process]. Current English Studies, 36, 105-116.
Haptic (movement and touch for better) pronunciation
  • B D Teaman
  • W R Acton
Teaman, B. D., & Acton, W. R. (2013). Haptic (movement and touch for better) pronunciation. In N. Sonda & A. Krause (Eds.), JALT2012 Conference proceedings (pp. 402-409). Tokyo: JALT.
Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL iBT® Tests
  • Ets
ETS. (2015). Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL iBT® Tests. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/pdf/94227_unlweb.pdf
Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching
  • D Graddol
Graddol, D. (2003). The decline of native speaker. In G, Anderman & M, Rogers (Eds.), Translation today: Trends and perspectives (pp. 152-167). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters Grant, L. (2014). Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.