Article

Driven: How Human Nature Shapes Our Choices

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Begraenset tilførsel af psykologisk ilt kan medføre rystelser på vores rettethedsdimensioner, der, hvis ikke adgangen genoprettes, på sigt kan resultere i oplevet tab af autonomi, mening, tilhør og mestring, som er skadeligt for den psykiske sundhed. introduktion af drive to defend (Lawrence & Nohria, 2002). ...
... Inspireret af Lawrence og Nohria kan man i tillaeg til de fire behov tale om et need (eller drive, som det hedder i deres terminologi) for defend, som er en interessant størrelse at taenke ind i vitaliseringspsykologien, fordi det karakteristisk kan blive aktiveret som en reaktion på frustration i forhold til hvert af de øvrige fire behov. Drive to defend er en medfødt drivkraft til at forsvare sig selv og sine besiddelser, når disse opleves som vaerende truede, og forfatterne fremsaetter hypotesen om, at det evolutionaert har vaeret det først udviklede responssystem, repraesenteret ved en simpel forsvarsrefleks aktiveret af kemiske og/eller elektriske impluser (Lawrence & Nohria, 2002). Dog indeholder drivkraften mere end primitiv aggressivitet eller forsvar, som respons på en ydre trussel, idet drive to defend i takt med øget mental kapacitet hos primater har udviklet sig til ligeledes at omhandle et behov for at beskytte sine vaerdier, sine bedrifter og sine relationer, ligesom det taenkes at vaere knyttet til menneskets søgen efter mening, retfaerdighed og opnåelse af mål (Nohria, Groysberg & Lee, 2008). ...
... Hermed argumenteres for, at aktiveringen af drive to defend ikke blot afstedkommer en ubevidst refleks hos en person, men ydermere rummer muligheden for et udviklingspotentiale for mennesket. Denne udvikling er isaer knyttet til emotioner og evner, der sekundaert bliver afledt af en mere bevidst reaktion på omgivelsernes pres, der således afføder et ønske om at bevaege sig fra uønskede til ønskede tilstande (Lawrence & Nohria, 2002). Drive to defend er her placeret i midten af Vitaliseringsmodellen for at indikere, at det på samme tid både er adskilt fra og knyttet til grundbehovene, fordi det kan påvirke, hvordan vi som mennesker reagerer på de indre og ydre elementer, som vi retter os mod/af. ...
Article
The article shows how a vitalising psychological approach can contribute to the area of neurorehabilitation for the purpose of understanding the psychological deficit position of the brain injured person. It is argued that a vitalising psychological understanding of the basic psychological needs in humans and their vitalising environments can contribute to the development of the holistic approach towards neurorehabilitation. Based on the premises in vitalising psychology, the discussion of the practical implications for this approach towards neurorehabilitationis contextualised within an integral framework that facilitates respect for complexity.
... Qualitative research was undertaken entailing interviews with 35 individuals who self-identified as living sustainably. Personal and Social Identity Theory, operationalized through the Dynamic Model of Identity Development (DMID) (Hillenbrand and Money, 2015), and the Four Drive Theory (4DT) of human motivation (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002), comprise the study's guiding framework. ...
... There is, A typology of sustainable living therefore, a need for more theoretically informed, but still practically relevant, sustainable behavior research of the kind presented in this paper. One theory that holds much promise for studying motivations in sustainable behavior is the 4DT (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). 4DT has been applied across the social sciences to examine motivations in various situations, but has yet to be used to study sustainable living. ...
... The drive to defend is the human desire to defend things we hold dear, such as material goods, beliefs, principles or values. The drive to learn is the human need to satisfy curiosity, to know and understand what is around us. Lawrence and Nohria (2002) suggest that it also includes a drive to educate and inform others, and is therefore sometimes referred to as the drive to comprehend. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the role of individual action in addressing challenges of sustainability, and to help marketing scholars and practitioners better understand what motivates sustainable living. Design/methodology/approach Semistructured interviews with 35 individuals self-identifying as sustainable shed light on motivations and identity expression in sustainable living. Four Drive Theory, and Personal and Social Identity Theory (operationalized through the Dynamic Model of Identity Development), provide this study’s guiding theoretical framework. Data analysis was informed by the Gioia methodology. Findings Individuals differently express their personal and social identities through sustainable living, and are differently motivated to live sustainably. Those expressing personal identity salience through sustainable living draw on a broader set of motivations than those expressing social identity salience. This results in varying levels of commitment to sustainable living, with differences also found in individuals’ personal satisfaction derived from their sustainable living efforts. Based on these findings, a novel typology of sustainable individuals is developed. Research limitations/implications This study is limited by its focus on one geographic area and relatively small sample size. A key implication is the need to consider both personal and social identity when studying behavior in other marketing contexts. Practical implications The research provides important insights for marketing practitioners, policymakers and others seeking to better categorize sustainable individuals and target marketing messages to encourage sustainable behaviors. Originality/value This paper contributes to marketing scholarship by providing new insights on the role of identity and motivations in sustainable living. It introduces a novel typology of sustainable individuals, founded on differences in identity expression and motivational drives, which are also associated with the range of sustainable behaviors people engage with and how individuals make sense of these behaviors.
... As such, it uses Hofstede's cultural dimensions (Hofstede, 2001) such as masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and power distance to explain employee reactions to motives such as achievement, challenging job, relationship and supervision. These motives were selected based on the four drives (4-D) theory (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). The 4-D theory states that human behavior is guided by four basic emotional drives such as the drive to acquire, drive to comprehend, drive to bond and drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). ...
... These motives were selected based on the four drives (4-D) theory (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). The 4-D theory states that human behavior is guided by four basic emotional drives such as the drive to acquire, drive to comprehend, drive to bond and drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). These drives are epitomized by levers such as achievement, challenging work, relationship and supervision respectively. ...
... The 4-D theory (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002) outlines four basic emotional drives such as the drive to acquire, to bond, to comprehend and to defend, as drivers of motivation and human behavior. The drive to acquire leads to the acquisition of intangible assets such as scarce commodities and social status where people seek, control and grasp objects and personal experiences (Nohria et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study explicitly examines how Hofstede's cultural dimensions moderate the relationship between nonmonetary motivation factors and performance. Design/methodology/approach Through the simple random sampling technique, the hypotheses were tested with a sample of 604 employees from a mobile telecommunication company operating in both China and Ghana, two countries that represent two same and opposite cultural poles on Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Findings The results point that employee motives such as relationship, supervision, challenging work and achievement are moderated by cultural values. Whilst employees with high power distance cultural values are highly motivated by high supervision, those with low individualistic cultural values are highly motivated by high relationship. The results also depict that whilst the interaction effects between supervision and power distance and relationship and individualism on performance were marginal for both China and Ghana samples, the interaction effect of achievement and masculinity as well as challenging work and uncertainty avoidance on performance had great differences due to the different cultural values for the two countries. Practical implications This study implies that, as organizations are devising strategies to lower personnel costs in a recessionary period, there is the need to redesign motivation factors that go beyond monetary means and based on the cultural background of an employee in order to improve performance. Originality/value This is one of the few studies that focused on nonmonetary motives from a cultural management perspective with samples from emerging economies.
... Although scientists do not fully agree on what motivates the individual, primary and secondary motivations are generally mentioned (Luthans, Luthans, & Luthans, 2015). For example; hunger, thirst, need for sleep, avoidance of pain and maternal anxiety are the primary motivators (Lawrence & Nohria, 2002). In addition, factors such as power, success, security, status and loyalty are among the secondary motivators (Luthans, Luthans, & Luthans, 2015). ...
... Lawrence, P. R. & Nohria, N. (2002).Driven: how human nature shapes our choices. Jossey-Bass. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bu araştırmada yurtiçi ve yurtdışında devlet okullarında görev yapmakta olan öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılıklarında motivasyonun etkisi meta analiz yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Araştırmada öğretmenlerin motivasyonları ve örgütsel bağlılıkları arasındaki ilişkinin incelendiği birbirinden bağımsız 11 araştırma ile birlikte 3456 kişilik bir örneklem grubu elde edilmiştir. Çalışmaların genel etki büyüklüğünü hesaplamak için heterojenlik testine göre rastgele etkiler modeli tercih edilmiştir. Bunun sonucunda örgütsel bağlılığın motivasyon üzerinde güçlü düzeyde etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda okul yöneticilerinin öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılıklarının motivasyonlarının artırılması ile mümkün olacağının farkında olmaları yönünde çalışmaların yapılması önerisinde bulunulmuştur.
... This study provides a theoretical basis for clarifying the complex incentive mechanism involved, further extending the study of the relationship between drivers and the incentive effect, and providing a new theoretical explanatory framework for the incentive mechanism for the public's active involvement in grass-roots social governance. Therefore, this study uses Stimulus-Organism-Response theory (S-O-R Theory) [20] and Four-Drive theory [21] to conduct an empirical study on the incentive mechanism for the public's active involvement in grass-roots social governance, using members of the public who have had experience in grass-roots social governance as the target population. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the incentive effect of the institutional factors of the government and grass-roots self-government organizations, as well as the public's own incentives for active involvement in grass-roots social governance, from the perspective of both the subject and the object of the incentive, and to make a new contribution to the study of public involvement incentives. ...
... Four-Drive Theory suggests that human behavior is determined by four basic emotional needs or drives: Acquire, Bond, Comprehend, and Defend [21]. Acquisition is the attainment of something that is scarce. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the period of the normalization of COVID-19 prevention and control, Chinese grass-roots social governance, under the guidance of the dynamic zero-COVID policy, was unique, and the experience of actively mobilizing the public to be actively involved in grass-roots social governance, represented by epidemic prevention and control, has a profound internal logic. The Chinese government has long been committed to building a social governance community, and further empirical studies are needed to motivate the public to participate in grass-roots social governance in a sustainable manner. This study uses 428 members of the public who have experience in grass-roots social governance in 20 street offices in 11 cities, including Nanjing, Wuhan and Chengdu, as a valid sample to empirically test the incentive mechanism for the public’s active involvement in grass-roots social governance, from the perspective of Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory. The empirical results show that exogenously driven organizational institutional factors will eventually positively influence the incentive effect on the public’s active involvement in grass-roots social governance through the mediating effect of the individual’s endogenous drive. By adjusting organizational institutional factors to meet the public’s inner drive for acquisition, bond, comprehension, and defense, public motivation can be mobilized and the public can be motivated to be involved in grass-roots social governance in a sustainable manner. The results of the study reveal the incentive mechanism for the public’s active involvement in grass-roots social governance, analyze the internal logic of Chinese characteristics in motivating the public’s active involvement in grass-roots governance, and expand the scope of the application of Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory in studying the incentives for the public’s active involvement in grass-roots social governance, which is important for revealing the characteristic laws in a Chinese context with empirical research.
... Research suggests that certain values, such as control and creativity, or collaboration and competition, capture tensions that exist in organizations and relationships (Bakan 1966;Grant and Gino 2010;McAdams and de St. Aubin 1992). Scholars from a variety of disciplines have repeatedly and independently discovered two-dimensional models of valued human behavior that maps into four categories (e.g., Fiske 1993; P. R. Lawrence & Nohria 2002;R. E. Quinn and Rohrbaugh 1983). ...
... These purposes can represent competing values in an organization (Bakan 1966;Grant and Gino 2010;McAdams & de St. Aubin 1992;Wiggins 1981). Scholars have identified four fundamental values in organizations that can often be competing (e.g., Fiske 1993; P. R. Lawrence & Nohria 2002;R. E. Quinn & Rohrbaugh 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
In a fast-paced and interconnected global economy, a crisis is an eventuality for most organizations. Leading during a crisis can be particularly challenging because a crisis can disrupt a firm’s purpose, undermine the motivation of employees, and can encourage unethical behavior. In this article, I focus on managing a crisis of purpose. I articulate a framework that elaborates ways in which leaders find and pursue ethical purposes during times of crisis and why these specific purposes motivate employees and encourage organizational resilience. Drawing on modern scholars’ theory of eudaimonia, I propose that leaders can find ethical purposes by framing crisis as opportunities for growth, authenticity, meaning and excellence. When leaders establish and pursue ethical purposes, they can motivate individuals and promote organizational resilience.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although the theory of evolution might seem to imply that all animals must be selfish by nature, this is not the case because social animals can propagate their selfish genes in psychologically unselfish ways. To understand the moral aspect of human nature, we must understand the adaptive functions that moral traits served in early human environments. I argue that the central function of morality is to uphold adaptive systems of cooperation. Even though some cooperative strategies are susceptible to exploitation by selfish strategies, there are several ways in which the kind of cooperative behavioral strategies that people consider moral can evolve. Primitive psychological sources of moral behavior, such as moral emotions, and advanced sources, such as perspective-taking and moral reasoning, evolve and develop throughout the life span in a Russian Doll manner. Although the original function of perspective-taking and moral reasoning may have been to help early humans advance their interests in strategic social interactions, these processes may now motivate people to behave in moral ways. We are evolved to be as good as our early ancestors had to be to reap the benefits of sociality and cooperation.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Amidst the many problem that our societies are facing today, there is acknowledgment of the fact that the current economic system is unable to create and foster a just and stable society. This becomes increasingly true the more we continue to rely on the paradigm of the Homo economicus , which reveals itself as a fragile basis for a just and functioning society. The paradigm of the Homo economicus does not allow us to build a workable society; but then, the first question remains, what is the fundamental feature of the Homo , what does it mean to be human? And how can we build a just and functioning society? The theme of this work focuses on finding an answer through the paradigm of the Homo amans, that is, a paradigm in which we take into account not only human self-interest but also of those other features that are strongly linked with human life: the need for a meaning in our life, our relationship with our future and our relationship with other human beings. However, to change an anthropological paradigm, there is a necessary step that has to be addressed. To say that the paradigm of Homo economicus has been the dominant one so far, means that we have had a society that was imbued within a specific framework of customs, values, and traditions. Our society has been developed on a set of assumptions about human behavior, and on these assumptions have been developed institutions and procedures in which we trust . The attitude of trust is the main topic of this essay. To develop a society on the paradigm of Homo amans and to further develop the debate, one should ask what kind of expectation we should encourage in people, and what should the foundations for such expectations be. What, then, is the foundation of this sensible assurance? Why do we trust people and institutions? This chapter aims to analyze this fundamental requirement for the development of any kind of society: the need for trust between persons and communities.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
I propose, in brief, an intimate, perhaps desirable, but anyway necessary, connection between free will in Abrahamic theology and free action in liberal ideology. The economy, its work, its consumption, even its banking, are not inconsistent with a Christian life if achieved by free will. That is to say, contrary to a century-long supposition among theologians and their enemies, belief in a just and loving God does not entail socialism. The Christian gospels and many a Christian theologian attack wealth, surprisingly harshly by the standards of the rest of the world’s religious canon. It is not surprising, therefore, that in the nineteenth century, a bourgeois but Christian Europe invented the idea of socialism. But statism is by no means necessary for a Christian community. I gesture here towards a much longer case made earlier and recently by me and other Christian admirers of commercially tested betterment. The great liberal era was brief, from 1776 to 1848. It established freedom of religion. But freedom is freedom is freedom. A free-willed person should be, in God’s eyes, free from human interference in religion and behavior and business.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Basic capabilities and human interests that are directed towards the ideal of human flourishing now seem at odds with the concept of Homo economicus as once defined by John Stuart Mill – a rational being pursuing wealth only for his own self-interest. This popular paradigm still dominates economic theory and practice, but a growing group of academics consider its underlying model of human behavior to be inaccurate. As a result, scholars across various disciplines have expressed the need for a more refined anthropology in relation to contemporary economics. In response, the holistic concept of Homo amans as phenomenologically constituted by the virtues of faith, hope, and love is introduced, since multidisciplinary yet complementary study suggests that human persons are questing, expecting, and relational beings. Whether or not Homo amans could serve in the future as a complementary model to Homo economicus remains to be seen, because several aspects of human relationality that are relevant to contemporary economics are in need of future study.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Homo amans oriented transition economy is not a utopia. In essence, the transitional economy we so urgently need today concretely involves assigning an inter-cultural and inter-religious interpretation to responsibility within the economy. This means providing a response (transition) to social-economic questions based on a form of trust (transcendence). Effectively, this means responding to a form of trust or admiration that has been received. It involves concrete attitudes emerging from reasonable rationality within the economy. An economy in which the Homo amans takes the Homo economicus by the hand, becomes, step by step, a responsible economy. In its turn, a responsible economy corresponds to the ethics of virtue, which connects the rational to the reasonable. As a virtue, responsibility is that positive characteristic of trust that focuses on providing the proper response to the social-economic questions that we encounter. In this chapter we therefore call for concrete, here-and-now economic changes throughout the world. Instead of a u-topia or a dys-topia we can witness today the emergence of what we refer to as a ‘ u-globia’ . It therefore does not involve a polarization between Homo economicus and Homo amans , or between the economy and ethics.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This final chapter reflects on all contributions in the volume, replying to critical questions brought up in the overall discussion, including the possible restriction an anthropological model may have on human freedom, the relationship between Homo economicus and Homo amans, the nature of love, the danger of committing a naturalistic fallacy, and the need for a theory of change. Revisiting the discussion paper, it refines the Homo amans model and points to new directions of study.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The attempt to explore human beings transdisciplinarily as beings of love can contribute to a more realistic anthropology, with an increased practical relevance for science and research. On the other hand, with its holistic orientation towards the whole person, it leads to an improper standardization of scientific research results. In order to avoid the problems associated with the holistic study of man as Homo amans , this article therefore reverses the perspective. Fundamentally, the nature of love is not discussed anthropologically on the basis of an examination of human nature and its altruism or egoism, but on the basis of the phenomenon of love in its ambivalence. Following Kierkegaard’s phenomenology of love, the article shows that love cannot be clearly distinguished from selfish acts without the reference of interpersonal relationships with a “third party.” In the Christian perspective, God is such a “third party,” who makes our fellow human beings recognizable to us as neighbors of God and enables us to behave in the spirit of love. Christian love of neighbor is therefore an example of the revolutionary, socially transformative dynamics of love.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is a comment on the contribution of Rebecca Klein in this volume, preceded by a conceptual analysis of the argument that is developed in the Homo Amans discussion paper. The main question that is raised is twofold and concerns the relation between science and worldview on the one hand, and between science and economic life on the other. With respect to the science – worldview relationship, it is doubted that science can play the role the authors of the Homo amans project expect it can have. What they have in mind is that science helps in validating and legitimizing a biblically informed concept of love. This author disagrees, to a large extent. Science can indeed orient itself on ideas and intuitions that are based on one’s worldview. But it cannot prove the truth of these intuitions and ideas. To think so, is to commit a naturalistic fallacy. With respect to the relationship between science and economic life, the author is also not convinced that science and philosophy as academic disciplines will by themselves be able (and should be expected to be able) to transform deeply ingrained, institutionally anchored economic practices. New theories, concepts, and paradigms are a precondition for change, but they do not bring about change by themselves. What is needed is a change in the practices themselves, a change that is both personal and comprehensive. What is needed is a clear, succinct, and encompassing view on the intrinsic normativity of economic interactions between relevant stakeholders in what we call ‘the’ economy. This is a huge undertaking, that requires painstaking ‘phenomenological’ analyses of a wide variety of economic practices. The chapter agrees with most of Klein’s observations and concerns with respect to the discussion paper. These observations and concerns gain even more depth and relief given the conceptual distinctions that are made in the chapter.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In agreement with Wildman’s statement about the structural failures in human functioning caused by individualism and cognitive errors, a new concept is introduced. This is needed because of the risk of generalizing with easy solutions, in so doing neglecting the basic human drives of self-enhancement, connectedness, and mastery. It is better that we acknowledge our individualism and failing cognitions, because this acknowledgment creates room for change. Here, the concept of personal leadership is introduced. Change can start with ourselves as the real game changers. The opportunities for personal leadership are based upon spirituality and spiritual concepts: self-knowledge, self-confidence, norms and values, openness, learning, and imagination.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Homo amans project has called for a re-examination of the notion of persons as Homo economicus , an outdated notion that does not fully account for the whole human person. The authors have proposed the concept of Homo amans as a model for considering the nature of persons and their role in the economic sphere. This essay responds to the authors’ initial challenge from the perspective of the philosophy of personalism, specifically in the areas of philosophical anthropology, the virtues, some aspects of contemporary neuroscience, and how these might be brought into dialogue with economic theory.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Philosophers have solid analyses of defective understandings of the human condition and regularly propose inspirational alternatives that would seem to have the promise of changing the fortunes and fate of our species. But philosophers sometimes over-generalize in their criticisms, attributing to a vast cultural complex a specific anthropological understanding when in fact any large culture plays host to a large variety of mutually inconsistent anthropological visions. Moreover, philosophers rarely demonstrate that a culture-level change in anthropological understandings would have the effects they claim and they virtually never spell out a theory of change by which such a culture-level transformation could ever be realized. This paper begins in philosophical anthropology, spelling out two specific problematic aspects of contemporary western human self-understanding: individualism and cognitive error; two corresponding correctives: relationality and self-awareness; and two spiritual translations of these corrective measures: love as agape and karuna and wisdom as knowledge and humility. The argument then transitions to practical questions about what differences the envisaged transformation in ideas about human nature might be expected to make on socioeconomic conditions and how such changes might be implemented to realize the envisaged changes. The conclusion is that the anthropological insights of philosophers would be best served by a partnership with education and policy experts that would add realism about the conditions for social change to the generative creativity of philosophical analysis.
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
... Admittedly, this is not sufficiently stressed in the discussion paper. In his recent book, Michael Pirson (2017) -on the basis of studies by Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria -argues that there are four core human drives that account for the complexity of human thinking and behavior: (1) the drive to acquire (Lawrence 2010), (2) the drive to defend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002), (3) the drive to bond, and (4) the drive to comprehend (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). The former two refer to things that people need, and need to protect, in order to survive. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Humility is often defined by what it is not; as the antithesis to various vices such as pride, arrogance, conceit, or vanity. This negative definition leaves open the possibility of some underlying characteristic or trait that influences the formation of this virtue. Homo amans lays out the classic theological triad of faith, hope, and love as a natural inclination in humanity. This chapter explores one aspect of this triad, love, as a possible underlying characteristic or trait that uniquely informs the formation of the virtue of humility: specifically, love as altruistic concern for the other that puts them ahead or before the self. Contemporary psychological studies of humility demonstrate a connection between this virtue and altruistic concern for the other. Altruistic concern becomes a part of moral schemas that greatly influence moral behavior and are the basis for the development of moral identity. Holocaust rescuers demonstrate that moral schemas, which contain altruistic concern as a primary component of their view of the world, cultivate a moral identity that makes rescuing a consequence of their self-identity and naturally leads to humility about their actions.
... This values also arise as instrumental/extrinsic/egoistic/profit maximization values which have not its ends in themselves. Typical example of such values are the scientific management values (Lukšić, 1995, p. 8); pagan values (Lukšić, 1995) or neoliberalistic Darwin values (Lawrence and Nohria 2002). 3 Although Fromm (1984) tried to resolve the dilemma of contrary value systems, his solution is speculative (deviding human egoism in two categories, i.e. amoral/antimoral called patological/cynical egoism and moral one called rational egoism, so "functional, low profile egoism" is considered as moral virtue). ...
... 3 Values of scientific management such as: a) survival, b) success, c) happiness and d) health (cf. Lukšić, 1995, p. 8) , or similar pagan values: a) domination, b) superior killing skills, c) replacement of law with the power (Lukšić, 1995) also in renewed Darwin neoclassic value theory such as: a) achieving resources for the live sustain, b) defending from the factors which threaten the life, c) connecting with other people in longterm carefull two-way relationships, d) understanding the world around us (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). Values "Be successful/ profitable/powerful/dominant, eliminate the competition, keep monopoly, be better, do what is necessary to achieve" i.e. maximize profit are the values of instrumental approach. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with three ethical paradoxes in the contemporary business ethics, pointed out in form of questions: 1) Can people serve to two different/opposite value systems (instrumental/extrinsic/egoistic/practical vs. humanistic/intrinsic/prosocial/altruistic/universal/true one)? Accordingly: How to resolve paradox between „what should be“ and „what it is“ in business ethics, i.e. how to resolve ethical paradox between „profit (egoism) maximization“ vs.“ moral (altruism) maximization“? 2) Is contemporary dominant capitalism ideology/idolatry most appropriate for business ethics? Accordingly: How to resolve paradox of captalism ideology/idolatry vs. humanism ideology/idolatry? 3) How to overcome contemporary hypocrisy as a result of opposite values in different value systems? Accordingly: How to balance practical need and mercenary (utilitarian i.e. egoistic values) which are functional (i.e. benefitial) but not moral, with humanistic/prosocial values which are moral but not functional (benefitial) in order to deminish widespread hypocrisy? It is used methodology of literature review, reflection and conceptualization. Major findings showed: 1) If business ethics should not be ethical (with humanistic values) we haven't ethical problem. Paradox of profit vs. moral (ethics) maximization have several quite different possible solutions: a) opt for moral maximization; b) opt for profit maximization; c) opt for philosophical solution where reality is exactly as it should be, so as result of such solution we have problem of hypocrisy (specultive solution is to equal „what it is in reality in ethical sense“ with „what ethically should be“). 2) Contemporary dominant capitalistic ideology and appropriate idolatry (profit maximization with combined idolatry of profit/competition/power/egoism has serious ethical deficits in theoretical and practical sense. There is to propose change/improvement with humanistic values and humanistic ideology/idolatry. 3) As in contemporary business/economic life dominate hypocrisy as unadequatelly solved paradox between instrumental/egoistic/practical and humanistic/prosocial/altruistic values. Solution is seen in cultural change from socialization to oppression to unhuman instrumenal values (e.g. violence). Implications of this paper arise from the insight in present systemic metaethical paradoxes and possible solutions so for business ethics theorists offer framework which can produce deeper discussions and new heuristics; for researchers give guidelines for future empirical research; for practicioners/managers offer insight in relevant business ethics paradoxes and possible solutions which can be practically implemented and for decisions makers and general public also implies value system humanization by mentioned solutions.
... Unconditional income without expectations of any kind of compensation -that is, labour in some form -could certainly encourage some to exploit the possibility of freeing themselves from work. However, studies on what drives people suggest that most human beings have a need to acquire more than what is needed for mere existence, beyond providing for their families and learning new skills (Lawrence and Nohria, 2001). Thus, free money that covers only the minimum standard of living would not satisfy those needs. ...
... Det, som i naervaerende begrebsramme konceptualiseres som en faellesskabshenførende rettethed, er af andre blevet fremlagt nogenlunde tilsvarende som et evolutionaert udviklet og dermed konstitutivt menneskeligt behov for at vaere del af et faellesskab og danne følelsesmaessige bånd til en gruppe (Lawrence & Nohria, 2002). Et sådant grundbehov gør sig naturligvis også gaeldende i arbejdsliv, hvor man som medarbejder ikke blot skal navigere i og mestre sine opgavefunktioner, men også skal begå og finde sig til rette i de kollegiale faellesskaber og deres formelle og uformelle organiseringer. ...
Article
Artiklen søger at vise, hvilke praktiske implikationer for forståelsen af lederskabsrelationer der kan afledes af en selv-selvobjektteoretisk anskuelse af selvet og dets omverdensforbundethed. Artiklen indledes med en teoretisk del I, hvor der gøres rede for centrale dele af den selv-selvobjektteoretiske grundforståelse, som så i artiklens anden (og største) del II lægges til grund for forståelsen af, hvorledes en leder med sin personlige stil og sine visioner for den virksomhed, institution eller organisation, han er leder for, hans interesse i sine medarbejderes intentioner og i klimaet i medarbejdergruppen samt hans sans for talentforskelle og opgavekreation, bidrager til at skabe en ‘psykologisk ilt’, der kan understøtte, opløfte og vitalisere medarbejdernes engagement og produktivitet. I forbindelse med udredningen af de praktiske implikationer (i del II) gøres der endvidere overvejelser over, hvorledes det at varetage selvobjektfunktion for andre udfordrer ens egen selvindsigt, selvomsorg og selvbesindelse, og hvorledes en leders evne til at tilvejebringe ‘psykologisk ilt’ er influeret af hans selvorganisering – om denne er fortrinsvist underskuds- eller overskudspositioneret. Selvom vi ikke eksplicit anvender termen social ansvarlighed som omdrejningspunkt for vores betragtninger, så er det vores opfattelse, at disse har implikationer for forståelsen af den form for personlig og social ansvarlighed, der ligger i, at man som leder arbejder på at udvikle og understøtte et arbejdsklima, der vitaliserer medarbejderes selvværdsættelse, engagement, produktivitet, organisationsbevidsthed og fællesskabsfølelse.
... На окрему увагу заслуговує новітня теорія «людських спонукань», створена шляхом синтезу результатів міждисциплінарних досліджень у таких галузях як нейронауки, біологія та еволюційна психологія [9, с. 165]. На думку авторів, працівники керуються чотирма основними емоційними прагненнями [8,14], які є продуктом загальнолюдської еволюційної спадщини: ...
... Leaders in the industry require specific methods for staff retention. Lawrence and Nohria (2002) provided four essential social motivations: desire to achieve, incentive to commit, motivation to learn, and motivation to preserve Employee retention factors such as social inspiration and affiliation were linked to the framework. In the current study, the researcher suggests genuine employee empowerment, motivation, effective management, and upgradation from within as retention methods. ...
Article
Full-text available
Employee retention is essential to enhance organisational performance and to boost the economy of a nation. Employee sales contribute to massive unemployment and poor worldwide socioeconomic growth. The purpose of this research was to understand the reasons and driving factors that why the employee are still committed in travel and tourism industry despite the high turnover in the industry. The data for this study have been obtained through semi-structured interviews with host community working travel and tourism industry of Meghalaya. The study applied a qualitative phenomenological way of acquiring participants' life experiences. The results were consistent with the retention of employee's strategy. The findings showed a healthy working environment that would ensure the retention of employees in the travel & tourism business, including homesickness, managerial assistance, awards, encouragement programmes.
... Different goals may be generated by different motivations, naturally leading to the const.. r1 .lction of motivational to..xonomies. Within the field of psychology, several researchers have developed such taxonomies (for example, [74,85]), with perhaps the best known being Maslow's hierarchy of needs [85]. ...
Thesis
p>The issues and challenges that surround the concept of interaction are a key focus in agent research. Of all forms of interaction, negotiation is perhaps the most challenging and important for designers of agent-based systems. This is because agents are localised entities that try to obtain satisfaction for their own activities with only limited understanding of the activities of other agents and the goals of the system as a whole. As a result, agents often have conflicting objectives, requiring methods and techniques, such as negotiation, for the resolution of such conflicts. Bargaining, in particular, provides a way for agents to attempt to find agreements in situations of conflict where no external authority can intervene. The work in this thesis describes models and mechanisms that enable agents to use bargaining as a tool to further their aims while ensuring that any agreements reached are consistent with existing goals. We focus on pre-negotiation, that point in time before negotiation begins where decisions that affect the way negotiation proceeds are taken. In the thesis, we bring together deliberative architectures, models of motivation and negotiation to address the issues involved in pre-negotiation. Specifically, this thesis makes three main contributions. First, it provides a model of negotiation goals that incorporates an analysis of negotiation issues, a deliberative preference determination mechanism and a novel use of motivational mechanisms within negotiation. Second, it provides an analysis and taxonomy of bilateral negotiation issues. Finally, it provides a suite of mechanisms to enable an agent to modify its approach to negotiation based upon information it obtains about the negotiation context. Combined, these contributions enable agents to be more effective negotiators in dynamic domains where user guidance is problematic.</p
... The four-drive model of human motivation argues that the psychological mechanisms underlying human motivations are linked to our efforts to fulfill one of the four fundamental human needs of acquisition, bonding, comprehending, and defending [53,66]. Prior work suggests that fulfilling each of these needs is associated with distinct regions of the brain such that they represent unique sources of motivation that can operate both independently and in parallel [1,66]. ...
Article
Abandonment of software applications can result in significant loses of organizational resources while also undermining the continued success of application developers, vendors, and software support ecosystems. Relatively little attention, however, has been directed toward understanding application abandonment that occurs after applications have been successfully adopted, despite the potentially far-reaching implications of such abandonment and the growing economic and social importance of software applications. We therefore developed a framework based on the four-drives model of motivation to better understand postadoption abandonment decisions and conducted an archival study to test our proposed framework in a hedonically oriented personal-use context. Results of this study suggest that individual motivations to acquire status and experience, bond with others, comprehend and grow, and defend their efforts all have significant implications for the likelihood of application abandonment. Specifically, application-related use activity, in-application user interaction, application complexity, and application commitments were all found to significantly diminish the likelihood of application abandonment.
... In addition to overturning RCT and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, EP has established there are both highly specialized EPMs and more generalized motivational drives. These EPMs have been shown to influence our behavior and decision-making in a diversity of arenas (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002;Kenrick et al, 2010;Schaller, 2017). Specialized EPM traits detect and respond to specific patterns of stimuli. ...
Article
Full-text available
Public Abstract: https://mw21.museweb.net/proposal/more-than-numbers-how-visitor-engagement-data-can-be-captu red-and-used-to-amplify-your-creativity/ Published Paper: https://mw21.museweb.net/paper/more-than-numbers-how-visitor-engagement-data-can-be-captured-and-used-to-amplify-your-creativity/ Cite as: Stroh, Tim. "More than numbers: how visitor engagement data can be captured and used to amplify your creativity. " MW21: Abstract Many museums today know that effective and actionable data is essential to achieving visitation goals-better audience engagement, reaching different and diverse audiences, and increasing attendance. Further, museums and other cultural centers are also facing increasing barriers to audience attraction and retention. The solution to these challenges, and the key to achieving goals for audience engagement, has several parts including a revised understanding of consumer psychology, data and insights, and your creativity. The starting point being accurate answers to key questions including: What actually is visitor engagement? How can you pragmatically measure it? How can you use data and insights to amplify your creative impact? These and other questions will be addressed in this essential conversation for curators, creators of experiences, and museums. The paper, accompanying presentation, and discussion will cover a three-phase research program designed to generate a better understanding of the consumer market, museum visitors, and their engagement with objects and spaces: 1. A review of current literature on consumer, tourism, and evolutionary psychology, as well as entertainment and neuroaesthetics. 2. Direct research on visitors conducted in late 2019/early 2020 at a major U.S. museum, two Australian museums (one major and one minor), and two additional "leisure entertainment" sites. 3. Current analysis of the single largest data set in existence of museum-visitor movement, dwell time and interactions. Research results and useful takeaways will be shared including: 1. A new model for segmenting the consumer marketplace and visitors that enables practical application and greater predictive accuracy; 2. A description of pragmatic cost-effective tools and methods for capturing engagement data and undertaking analysis; and 3. Methods for using insights to amplify creativity and impact.
... A path breaking research regarding important human characteristics was conducted by Lawrence and Nohria (2002) of Harvard Business School. They concluded that the way we act is the result of a deliberate internal battle constantly raging among our four innate, subconscious brain-based drives. ...
... Unconditional income without expectations of any kind of compensation -that is, labour in some form -could certainly encourage some to exploit the possibility of freeing themselves from work. However, studies on what drives people suggest that most human beings have a need to acquire more than what is needed for mere existence, beyond providing for their families and learning new skills (Lawrence and Nohria, 2001). Thus, free money that covers only the minimum standard of living would not satisfy those needs. ...
... That is, an individuals motivation towards the execution of particular behavior is dependent on the extent of bodily requirements multiplied by the intensity of appropriate patterns of behavior backed up by certain rewards (Weiner, 2010). Additionally, Lawrence and Nohria (2002) claimed that nature of an individual plays a significant role in shaping the choices they make in their everyday life. The researcher argued that the human drives to comprehend, bond, defend, and acquire. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of conducting this exploratory qualitative research was to determine the nature of drive theory among business students, where drive is a motivation for some behavior based on a biological need. The target population of our study was the university-level business students. We used the existing literature on drive theory for the development of interview protocol. After the finalization of the interview protocol, six semi-structured interviews were conducted with the business students enrolled in different programs with different fields of specialization. The data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 8. We found that business-related motivation was created by six drivers including aggressiveness, acquisition, achievement, social recognition, personal goals and desire for power.
... The top two items refer to the immediate rewards of owning "stuff, " whilst the lower loading items are more distal or abstract (e.g., saving up for the future). Recent motives schemas tend not refer to "hoard" as a motive, though Nohria et al. suggested possession of resources to be a drive (Nohria et al., 2001). Starch and McDougall suggested similar constructs (McDougall, 1908;Starch, 1923). ...
Article
Full-text available
Many different general systems of human motives have been postulated in the psychological literature. However, as yet, no consensus on which motives should be nominated, nor how many there are, has emerged. Recently, we deduced the existence of a number of motives using a logical argument derived from evolutionary theory; that humans have evolved an independent psychological “engine” to respond to each kind of evolutionary problem set by a dimension of the human niche, or life-way. Here, we confirm the existence of 14 out of 15 of these postulated motives using factor analysis on a web-based sample of 500 respondents from the UK: Lust, Hunger, Fear, Disgust, Attract, Love, Nurture, Hoard, Create, Affiliate, Status, Justice, Curiosity, and Play. The items which loaded most strongly for each factor confirmed the expected core value of each motive. Comfort did not emerge, perhaps because it is more about satisfying specific physiological requirements than a cluster of activities linked semantically by the concept of attaining “comfort.” We believe this analysis can form the foundation of a scale for use in applied psychological work ranging from personality testing to personnel selection to public health program design.
... Marital relationships are one of the most significant human relationships. A marital relationship is to be needed to bond a long-term relationship of mutual care and commitment (Lawrence and Nohria, 2001). A smooth marital relationship depends how well an individual selects a mate, so mate selection is one of the most important decisions individuals make in their lives (Abdullah et al., 2011;Buss et al., 2001;Maliki, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender differences in mate selection criteria across cultures are common. In various cross-cultural research, these gender differences are explained by different socio-cultural theories. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate gender differences in mate selection criteria in Bangladeshi culture and to explain these differences by the social homogamy theory. An unstructured interview method was followed to obtain the aim of the study. A total of 120 unmarried Bangladeshi university students were chosen to participate the study whose age were ranging from 21 to 24 years (M=22.45, SD=1.75). The participants were selected by a convenient sampling method from four universities in Bangladesh. They were equally divided in terms of gender and university. A total of twelve mate selection criteria were found in the study, in which each student averagely responded 7.23 criteria. The highest and lowest number of responses were observed in education (n=108) and residential status (n=33) criterion, respectively. The top-ranked criterion considered by male and female students was physical attractiveness and education respectively. Gender difference in mate selection preferences was found to be significant in the study. Though, gender difference was significant in age, education, financial status, physical appearance, physical attractiveness, and profession criterion; however, the gender difference was not significant in character, in-law family’s education, in-law family’s social approval, religion, region, and residential status. Mate selection criteria considered by Bangladeshi students are explained by the social homogamy theory. The study would help Bangladeshi people to be aware of their mate selection in their own Bangladeshi culture.
... Aside from these 'traditional' employee theories, there are also contemporary ones drawn from cross-disciplinary research in fields like neuroscience, biology, and evolutionary psychology (Lee & Raschke, 2016). A typical one being the human drives theory, which states that employees are guided by four basic emotional drives that are a product of common human evolutionary heritage: the drives to acquire, bond, comprehend and defend (Lawrence & Nohria, 2001). While these other employee theories are essential for the OD intervention determinant goal of our study, they take their antecedents or are closely related to the ones we have discussed, and believe the core objectives are covered for the purposes our paper set to achieve. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews theories of motivation in the workplace, what these theories look like in the modern workplace, and interventions designed to increase individual and system-wide organizational motivation. We explored a wide range of theories, including the expectancy theory, Maslow’s hierarchy, the motivation-hygiene theory, the equity theory, reward structures, cognitive evaluation theory, and feedback, to formulate conclusions about common organization development (OD) interventions that are meant to address the theories. Reviewed interventions include; organization structure design, achievement orientation, goal setting, job design, quality feedback, and empowerment programs. We followed a multidisciplinary integrated literature review approach to move beyond merely summarizing the literature but substantially contributing new and valuable knowledge to the fields of leadership and organization development. The research cements the need for understanding individuals’ needs and goals, the value of quality feedback, rewarding positive behavior, leading with fairness, and allowing space for autonomy.
... Aside from these 'traditional' employee theories, there are also contemporary ones drawn from cross-disciplinary research in fields like neuroscience, biology, and evolutionary psychology (Lee & Raschke, 2016). A typical one being the human drives theory, which states that employees are guided by four basic emotional drives that are a product of common human evolutionary heritage: the drives to acquire, bond, comprehend and defend (Lawrence & Nohria, 2001). While these other employee theories are essential for the OD intervention determinant goal of our study, they take their antecedents or are closely related to the ones we have discussed, and believe the core objectives are covered for the purposes our paper set to achieve. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article reviews theories of motivation in the workplace, what these theories look like in the modern workplace, and interventions designed to increase individual and system-wide organizational motivation. We explored a wide range of theories, including the expectancy theory, Maslow’s hierarchy, the motivation-hygiene theory, the equity theory, reward structures, cognitive evaluation theory, and feedback, to formulate conclusions about common organization development (OD) interventions that are meant to address the theories. Reviewed interventions include; organization structure design, achievement orientation, goal setting, job design, quality feedback, and empowerment programs. We followed a multidisciplinary integrated literature review approach to move beyond merely summarizing the literature but substantially contributing new and valuable knowledge to the fields of leadership and organization development. The research cements the need for understanding individuals’ needs and goals, the value of quality feedback, rewarding positive behavior, leading with fairness, and allowing space for autonomy.
... Animal Spirits (Akerlof and Shiller 2009), together with Nudge (Thaler and Sustein 2008), Driven (Lawrence and Nohria 2002) or even The Map and the Territory (Greenspan 2013), to name a few recent achievements, exemplify quite well the type of social-scientific streams that justifies the worries expressed by Sahlins in the above extract, as well as in earlier disquisitions (Sahlins 1976a;1976b). The paragraph following the preceding quote also applies: The breadth of what may be called the 'behavioural shibboleth' is indeed observable in numerous quarters of the social sciences, but also in the conduct of policy and, more widely, in the worldviews that control mundane talk about what is meant when 'the social' is uttered. ...
Book
Inventing the Social, edited by Noortje Marres, Michael Guggenheim and Alex Wilkie, showcases recent efforts to develop new ways of knowing society that combine social research with creative practice. With contributions from leading figures in sociology, architecture, geography, design, anthropology, and digital media, the book provides practical and conceptual pointers on how to move beyond the customary distinctions between knowledge and art, and on how to connect the doing, researching and making of social life in potentially new ways. Presenting concrete projects with a creative approach to researching social life as well as reflections on the wider contexts from which these projects emerge, this collection shows how collaboration across social science, digital media and the arts opens up timely alternatives to narrow, instrumentalist proposals that seek to engineer behaviour and to design community from scratch. To invent the social is to recognise that social life is always already creative in itself and to take this as a starting point for developing different ways of combining representation and intervention in social life.
Article
The growth of management theories, principles, and concepts in Nigeria is whether the application McClelland acquired need and Skinner’s reinforcement theories improve companies’ performance. In a qualitative study design, thematic and theoretical research approaches were employed. This study lends credence to the premise that management theories are influenced by the current business environment since theories have evolved over time to meet changing internal and external requirements of firms. These approaches may keep moving because the contingency theory emphasizes that there is not a single best method of management. According to the study, management philosophy is advancing rather than stagnating. Once upon a time, people thought that they were the only beings in the universe capable of having a true experience of themselves, but they were unable to understand themselves in modern society. In this work, the researcher reviews every aspect of the B. F. Skinner Reinforcement Theory of Motivation. This study reviews Skinner's reinforcement theory and McClelland's acquired need theories on companies’ performance. Giving a front-line employee the freedom to make decisions right away while considering the effects on the organization is empowerment. Attracting and keeping customers in service firms is a difficult undertaking. Employees who are given psychological support will be better able to take the initiative to provide for customers. The goal of the current paper is to investigate how psychological empowerment is impacted by motivational needs. The independent variable is the requirement for motivation while, the dependent variable of psychological empowerment. Different variables were measured using standard tools, and their effects on psychological empowerment were investigated. The relevance and association are determined and assessed using a variety of inferential statistics. The key finding is that psychological empowerment is significantly and positively correlated with all motivating demands, excluding connection. Certain organization was used because its staff members are expected to exhibit a high level of demand for affiliation.
Chapter
Full-text available
En el contexto de las reformas tributarias en Colombia, se observa que no se han implementado las herramientas necesarias para la contribución de la reducción de la inequidad y desigualdad de acuerdo con los estándares internacionales emitidos por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE), toda vez que el sistema fiscal implementado no reduce la alta desigualdad de ingresos y sumado a la combinación de impuestos es desequilibrado, con las altas tasas impositivas, lo que origina que no se fomente la inversión y la formalización; a esto se agrega que los ingresos fiscales de la nación han aumentado, pero siguen siendo bajos, lo que lleva al mismo tiempo a las necesidades del gasto social, originando que el gobierno tenga que recaudar mayores ingresos por vía impuestos o por actividades comerciales e industriales de las entidades públicas del país. Para abordar este tema se acude a los antecedentes sociales y normativos con un enfoque tributario; en la metodología aplicada se emplea el método cualitativo con la técnica de análisis del discurso jurisprudencial, legislativo y doctrinal, permitiendo identificar las transformaciones en el ámbito internacional, que originaron los ajustes a las políticas públicas del país; a partir de esto y del estudio, se podrá establecer qué mecanismos en Colombia se deben tener en cuenta para avanzar en la reducción de la concentración de riqueza, en comparación con el contexto de Americana Latina y del Caribe.
Book
Full-text available
Cape Town South Africa Printed and bound by Tandym Print www.tandym.co.za Design and Layout CDC Design Cover image by Riette Symmonds
Thesis
Full-text available
Zaposleni imaju važnu ulogu u hotelijerstvu, imajući u vidu da se hotelske usluge pružaju direktno i lično, kao i da između zaposlenih i gostiju postoji visok nivo interakcija koje se u značajnoj meri odražavaju na percepciju kvaliteta usluga. Da bi se osiguralo pružanje kvalitetnih usluga, hotelske organizacije moraju imati zadovolјne zaposlene. Zadovolјstvo zaposlenih i kvalitet usluga opsežno su istraživani u uslužnim delatnostima, ali je svega nekoliko studija razmatrano u kontekstu hotelijerstva, koje su uglavnom bazirane na konceptu zadovolјstva gostiju, dok su izostala istraživanja o konceptu kvaliteta usluga kao višedimenzionalnog konstrukta. Kao rezultat toga, cilј istraživanja doktorske disertacije je da se na osnovu teorijsko-metodološkog i empirijskog istraživanja identifikuje uticaj zadovolјstva zaposlenih na kvalitet usluga u hotelijerstvu i to, pre svega, na neopoplјive komponente kvaliteta usluga koje su najvažnije u oceni kvaliteta, imajući u vidu da se zaposleni nameću kao klјučna odrednica kvaliteta usluga. Empirijsko istraživanje je sprovedeno u periodu od januara 2020. godine do juna 2021. godine u 93 hotela u Republici Srbiji. Prikuplјanje primarnih podataka vršeno je anketiranjem, a zbog ispitivanja uticaja zadovolјstva zaposlenih na percipirani kvalitet usluga, istraživanje je sprovedeno na dva uzorka, zaposlene i goste hotela. U istraživanju je učestvovalo 481 zaposlenih i 478 gostiju. Rezultati deskriptivne statističke analize pokazuju ambivalentnost po pitanju zadovolјstva zaposlenih i visoku percepciju gostiju o kvalitetu usluga koje zaposleni pružaju. Sa druge strane, rezultati testiranja hipoteza potvrdili su značajan i pozitivan uticaj zadovolјstva zaposlenih na percipirani kvalitet usluga u hotelijerstvu i pojedinačne neopiplјive komponente kvaliteta usluga kao što su pouzdanost, odgovornost i sigurnost. Na osnovu rezultata potvrđene su statistički značajne razlike u zadovolјstvu zaposlenih u zavisnosti od nivoa njihovog obrazovanja. Predstavlјena su ograničenja istraživanja koja treba uzeti u obzir prilikom tumačenja rezultata doktorske disertacije. Teorijski doprinos doktorske disertacije ogleda se u empirijskoj verifikaciji efekata zadovolјstva zaposlenih na percipirani kvalitet usluga u hotelijerstvu i pojedinačne neopiplјive komponente kvaliteta usluga kao što su pouzdanost, odgovornost i sigurnost. Rezultati doktorske disetacije pružaju i brojne praktične implikacije za menadžere u hotelijerstvu.
Article
Purpose: This study focuses on employees’ joy and its mediating role in the relationship between empowerment and innovative work behavior, as well as work engagement and job satisfaction as two positive outcomes of it that affect the optimal performance of employees. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research is applied in terms of purpose and its method is survey-analytical. The staff of Mashhad Municipality are the statistical population of the research. Structural equation model and AMOS and SPSS software were used to analyze the collected data. Research Findings: The research findings indicate the mediating role of joy in the relationship between empowerment with job satisfaction and work engagement. Moreover, the effect of joy of employees, which is in its turn the result of their empowerment, on employees' innovative behavior with the mediating role of job satisfaction and work engagement has also been confirmed.
Article
A number of theoretical models have been suggested for how to mentor doctoral students. However, they tend to rely on hierarchical and authoritarian relationships between the faculty and students. Such models tend to create dependency and fear of the faculty, resulting in a reluctance in coming to the mentor for guidance. Such models do not tend to work well with online adult doctoral students with jobs and families. This paper proposes a model of positive leadership for online doctoral mentors, where mentors are accessible and create an environment where success is assumed and social support is provided by both the mentor and peers. In this model of mentorship, students are encouraged to problem solve their deficiencies and work out a plan to address them. Gratitude is expressed by the mentor and encouraged in students to recognize those who have helped them to progress. The paper includes suggestions, examples, and methods to aid the mentor in positive leadership of doctoral students.
Chapter
This chapter includes the participatory action research carried out to frame and test the Human Resource Design framework or parts of it. You will first find the scheme through which each project is showcased. Some of the categories reflect the variables emerged during the preliminary research phase and used for the observational studies (Sect. 2.2). Then, each paragraph contains the story of one project and the elements of the framework that have been formulated or tested for the project itself. At the end of the chapter, you can find all the lessons learnt from the projects that led to the final configuration of the framework, presented in the next chapter.
Article
Full-text available
The values medical students expect from education and their love of learning will lead to the enhancement of their knowledge and skills and assuming a dynamic attitude towards improving and enhancing the services offered in the health system. Utilizing higher order thinking skills contributes to facilitating and accelerating this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic values, love of learning, higher order thinking skills, and academic achievement of medical students of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. The present study was a descriptive correlational study the statistical population of which consisted of all medical students of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2019-2020 (n = 306). Using Cochran's formula and random sampling method, 160 students were selected as the participants (65 males and 95 females). Research tools included questionnaires of love for learning, academic values, higher order thinking skills, and students' academic achievement. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and simple regression. The results showed that academic values and love of learning were positive and significant predictors of academic achievement and students' higher order thinking skills. Also, higher order thinking skills were positive and significant predictors of students 'academic achievement and played a mediating role in the relationship of academic values and love of learning with students' academic achievement.
Chapter
Social capital is the set of relationships, shared values, culture, and context that support group cohesion, trust, and teamwork in a society or organization.
Chapter
Human capital is the general health, skills, knowledge, and abilities of the population, a workforce, or an individual. “A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise output per worker,” according to Nobel Prize–winning economist Paul Krugman. The characteristics of a nation’s organizations or a person’s human capital determines to a large extent the type of conversions each can undertake and how it can raise Cʹ. Thus we first examine the roles of mass education and public health in the creation and maintenance of human capital.
Article
Full-text available
A common cultural belief in technologically advanced societies is that emotion and reason are opposites, with reason superior to emotion. This belief is not supported by recent results in neuroscience and experimental psychology which show instead that emotion and cognition are strongly interconnected and depend on each other). Moreover, the belief is also harmful to society because it contributes indirectly to racism, sexism, homophobia, and the appeal of demagogues. Scientific understanding can help to heal the cultural split between emotion and reason in the service of building a partnership society.
Article
Full-text available
The study intends to determine the correlation between students’ attitudes toward corruption and their behavior plan to corrupt or not to corrupt in the future. To support the study, related literature and studies were reviewed and to carry out the study, the research methodology was proposed. The study used a descriptive correlational research design. To gather the data, questionnaires were used and the data were treated using Pearson r or Product Moment Correlation Coefficient to determine the correlation between two variables and Weighted mean was used to determine the level of cognitive, affective attitude and their behavioral intention. The study found that there is no significant correlation between cognitive and affective attitude and students’ behavioral intention to corrupt or not to corrupt in the future. However, there is a correlation between cognitive and affective attitudes. The next study is recommended to focus on other aspects such as social context and norms to predict the corrupt behavior of students in the future. (27) (PDF) Students’ Attitude toward Corruption and their Behavioural Intention to Corrupt or not to Corrupt in the Future: The Philippines’ Context. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350600716_Students%27_Attitude_toward_Corruption_and_their_Behavioural_Intention_to_Corrupt_or_not_to_Corrupt_in_the_Future_The_Philippines%27_Context [accessed Aug 24 2021].
Book
Humanistic management has been part of a growing conversation about a different approach to management that contributes to dignity in the workplace and better organisations overall. The theoretical concepts have mostly derived from developed countries. This book seeks to redress the balance and looks at the development and application of the concepts, approaches and models of inequality, corruption, poverty, and uncertainty in the context of Latin America. The book provides a comprehensive overview of what is happening in Latin America in terms of Humanistic Management and the promotion of the Sustainable Development Goals. The first section describes the development of Humanistic Management by reviewing two different schools that have strongly influenced the discipline: the Montreal School and the Saint Gallen School. Humanistic Management is then presented as a model that can be used by scholars and practitioners in Latin America. The third part aims to explore how Humanistic Management has been, and could be, implemented across different organizations and business sectors in Latin America. Part four examines the implications of Humanistic Management for external stakeholders such as customers and consumers, suppliers, community, government, and universities. Finally, the conclusion provides new approaches to Humanistic Management for Latin America. Humanistic Management in Latin America will serve as a key reference and resource for teachers, researchers, students, experts and policy makers, who want to acquire a broad understanding of social responsibility and business across the world.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.