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Abstract

Apples are known as a major source of polyphenols, dietary fiber, carotenoids, and other nutrients. There are many documents and studies that show fruit polyphenols likely promote anti-obesity effects and exert their beneficial effects via scavenging free radicals, regulating gene expression, and altering signal transduction in target cells and tissues, especially fat tissues.The goal of this review is to presenti the major components of apple and the evidence that indicates its potential to diminution weight gain risk from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological and clinical studies. This review summarizes data about the apple and apple products that been have reported to reduce weight gain by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling pathways. An extensive search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify human, animal, and cell culture studies on the association between weight loss and apple consumption, published from inception up to journey 15, 2017. The feeding of apples rats (7–10 mg/kg/d) in different forms in 8 experiments have shown that this caused weight loss during 3 to 28 weeks. In agreement with this, the obtained results from 5 experiments on humans have revealed that consumption of the whole apple or apple juice (240–720 mg/d) in 4–12 weeks by fat people can cause weight loss. Experiments on animals and humans have shown that the consumption of apples in different forms can cause weight loss in overweight ones. However, the main questions are which kind of apple, which part of it, how much, and how long overweight persons should consume them to reduce their body fat and body mass index (BMI). Then, it is necessary to do a meta-analysis to show how these factors affect the body fat percentage and whether this weight-lowering effect is statistically significant or not.

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... The natural polyphenol compounds found in fruits and vegetables are known to exhibit antiobesity effects by altering signal transduction in target cells, such as adipocytes, regulating gene expression, and enhancing free radical scavenging activity [12]. The polyphenol or flavonoid compounds abundant in apples include procyanidin, hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and epicatechin [9][10][11], while those that are abundant in cabbages include phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanidines [19]. ...
... The natural polyphenol compounds found in fruits and vegetables are known to exhibit anti-obesity effects by altering signal transduction in target cells, such as adipocytes, regulating gene expression, and enhancing free radical scavenging activity [12]. The polyphenol or flavonoid compounds abundant in apples include procyanidin, hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and epicatechin [9][10][11], while those that are abundant in cabbages include phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanidines [19]. ...
... Such components are known to exert anti-cholesterol and anti-obesity activities [9][10][11]19]. In a previous study, when obese individuals were administered a 240-720 mg/kg of apple (fruits or juice) daily, body weight loss was observed; in experimental animals, a daily intake of 1-10 mg/kg of apples was shown to lead to body weight loss [12]. Consequently, we prepared a mixed juice containing equal amounts of apples and cabbages with known preventive effects on metabolic diseases that are attributed to obesity; next, by administering the juice to rats on a high-fat diet, we investigated the changes in body weight, liver and white fat pad weights, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, gene expression related to hepatic lipid metabolism, and adipocyte size. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the potential of cabbage-apple juice, fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum EM isolated from kimchi, to protect against obesity and dyslipidemia that are induced by a high-fat diet in a rat model. Male rats were fed a modified AIN-93M high-fat diet (HFD), the same diet supplemented with non-fermented cabbage-apple juice, or the same diet supplemented with fermented cabbage-apple juice for eight weeks. In the HFD-fermented cabbage- apple juice administered groups the following parameters decreased: body weight, liver and white fat pad weights, serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose and leptin levels, TG levels, while HDL-C and adiponectin levels in serum increased as compared with the HFD group. The HFD-fed rats that were supplemented with fermented cabbage-apple juice exhibited significantly lower fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and malic enzyme gene expression levels when compared to the exclusively HFD-fed rats. The anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects were marginally greater in the fermented juice administered group than in the non-fermented juice administered group. These results suggest that cabbage-apple juice—especially fermented cabbage-apple juice—might have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism dysfunction and obesity-related abnormalities. However, further studies are necessary for analyzing the biochemical regulatory mechanisms of fermented juice for obesity amelioration and lipid metabolic homeostasis.
... Estrogen "secretions" from males can mediate the interruptions of the pregnancy of females in which fertilized eggs were implanted. [107][108][109][110] Homeostasis of the uterus and embryo is related to hormones, cytokines and apoptosis all interplaying with nutritional feedback. The quality of food intake can cause abnormalities and maintain inflammation. ...
... Food components such as phenolics in olive oil, fruits and vegetables, yoghurt, legumes, fish, peanuts etc. have therapeutic results. [107,126,129] Studies are exploring the mechanisms by which food related microorganisms act, including metabolic pathways, physiology and fermentation that ultimately change the microbial communities. Their characteristics are discovered in order to prevent diseases. ...
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The implantation procedure involves a “biofilmic” mechanism of organism protection against threat. Immune-inflammatory procedures expressed by nutritional, molecular and biochemical factors related to homeostasis ensure successful incorporation of blastocyst in the uterine ecology. The feeding chain of the host mother, the embryo and their microbiota modifies the human intrinsic environment, hormone levels, fetal characteristics and growth. This study was conducted to provide information about the effects of diet on implantation quality in an attempt to therapeutically synchronize the development of blastocyst within the nourishing mothers. The issue is generalized to all “windows of alien implantations”. The formation of life (: fertilization) and its development is a consequence of biochemical reactions (: mitochondrial cycle, replication, regeneration, oxidation, apoptosis, etc.). Homeostasis is called the body’s ability to keep its internal ecosystem stable despite exo orendogenous changes. The whole process involves energy consumption, operative coordination of various organs, especially between the nervous and endocrine systems. Instability of homeostasispredisposesto“miscarriages”. Key elements that enhance acid-base equilibrium, oxygen demands and indirectly implantation success are proteins, trace minerals, vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, enzymes, fruit and vegetable phytonutrients, probiotics. Restriction of processed or foods polluted with endocrine disrupting chemicals and microbes, sugar, saturated and trans fatty acids prevents genetic deterioration, ageing and troublesome implantations. Balanced diet, digestion and hormone-dependent metabolism identifies the efficiency of our reproductive system and homeostatic implantation procedure. Key words: Implantation; Nutrition; Diet; Microbiota; Oxidative Stress; Inflammation; Immunity
... In the analysis of three prospective longitudinal studies involving almost 200,000 total participants, higher consumption of whole apple, grape, or blueberry fruits was linked to a reduced risk of developing T2D (Muraki et al., 2013). With obesity, a major predisposing factor to the development of T2D, the ability of apples-a low glycemic index fruit, to decrease weight gain through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as actions on important signal transduction pathways has been highlighted (Asgary et al., 2018). ...
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Apples are rich sources of selected micronutrients (e.g., iron, zinc, vitamins C and E) and polyphenols (e.g., procyanidins, phloridzin, 5'-caffeoylquinic acid) that can help in mitigating micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) and chronic diseases. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the significant bioactive compounds in apples together with their reported pharmacological actions against chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. For consumers to fully gain these health benefits, it is important to ensure an all-year-round supply of highly nutritious and good-quality apples. Therefore, after harvest, the physicochemical and nutritional quality attributes of apples are maintained by applying various postharvest treatments and hurdle techniques. The impact of these postharvest practices on the safety of apples during storage is also highlighted. This review emphasizes that advancements in postharvest management strategies that extend the storage life of apples should be optimized to better preserve the bioactive components crucial to daily dietary needs and this can help improve the overall health of consumers.
... Approximately 26.9 million small fresh apples are consumed daily in the United States (2) and approximately 22 kg of apples is consumed per capita annually in the total European diet (3). The functional properties of apples on metabolic syndromes have steadily gained attention, particularly because they are a rich source of functional phytochemicals such as flavonols, phloretin, and procyanidin oligomers (4)(5)(6)(7). More specifically, apples and apple-derived products (ADPs) exert anti-obesity activities and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (6)(7)(8). ...
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Background Quantitative evidence of the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of apples ( Malus domestica ) is lacking in interventional studies. This study aimed to summarize the available evidence of the beneficial effects of apples and apple-derived products (ADPs) on metabolic and cardiovascular markers. Methods Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from four databases on May 3, 2021 and regularly updated until the end of May 2021. Demographic characteristics, intervention types, and evaluation parameters were extracted. A meta-analysis on the mean difference of change scores was conducted on commonly presented outcomes in the RCTs. Results The metabolic and cardiovascular effects of diverse regimens, including whole apple, apple extract, and apple juice, were examined in 18 eligible RCTs. Nine common evaluation outcomes were eventually introduced to the meta-analysis, including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, and systolic/diastolic blood pressures. The levels of TC (−2.69 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.43, 0.04 mg/dL) and LDL (−2.80 mg/dL; 95% CI: −5.78, 0.17 mg/dL) showed a non-significant decreasing tendency after at least a week of apple consumption. Further subgroup analysis, particularly, a comparison with placebo as a control, showed a significant reduction in TC and LDL levels. When stratified by the baseline level, subjects with high TC and LDL level were shown to have more benefits from the apple intake. Intriguingly, apple and ADPs significantly reduced HDL levels to a small extent (−1.04 mg/dL; 95% CI: −1.79, −0.29 mg/dL). The other markers were mostly unaffected by the intervention. Conclusion Our investigation revealed that apples could improve blood cholesterol levels. Systematic Review Registration [ https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ ], identifier [CRD42020215977].
... This result suggests that the apple waste, or pomace (mostly peel and cell wall) reduces triglyceride levels, resulting in an anti-obesity effect. Anti-obesity effect of apples has also been proven through another previous research [19,20]. Although the anti-obesity effects of ordinary "Fuji" apples have already been explored, the health contributions of apple peel from actual pre-washed apples have not been intensively investigated. ...
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There is limited information on the health effects of apple peel taken from ‘Fuji’ (Malus pumila Mill) apples washed with ozonated water. To clarify the health-promoting effects of peel, the triterpenoids (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) were quantified with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. Anti-obesity effects of apple peel extract on the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell were compared with apple flesh, whole apple, and ursolic acid. The peel extract treatment with 3.30 ± 1.05 μM of ursolic acid significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) the lipid accumulation compared with the content in flesh, and a similar level was reached in the 5 μM ursolic acid positive control group. In the peel extract and ursolic acid treatment groups, the C16:0 concentration was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05), implying the anti-obesity effect of ursolic acid on the 3T3-L1 cell. Moreover, apple peel contributed 41% of the total flavonoids content and 31% of the phenolic contents of the whole apple, but only accounted for less than 10% of the whole apple (weight basis). This study’s results offer basic data on pre-washed apple as a health functional food, offering information about the health benefits of apple peel, calculated based on the partial ratio in the whole apple.
... In humans, to our knowledge, there are no such studies. Although there are numerous trials in which it has been observed that consumption of apples or juices enriched in apple polyphenols, among which phloretin stands out, is associated with a loss of body mass and visceral fat tissue [66]. Therefore, our results support these observations and suggest that inhibition of adipogenesis by phloretin may be part of the mechanism of adipose tissue loss in vivo. ...
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Phloretin (a flavonoid abundant in apple), has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and glucose-transporter inhibitory properties. Thus, it has interesting pharmacological and nutraceutical potential. Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have high differentiation capacity, being essential for maintaining homeostasis and regenerative capacity in the organism. Yet, they preferentially differentiate into adipocytes instead of osteoblasts with aging. This has a negative impact on bone turnover, remodeling, and formation. We have evaluated the effects of phloretin on human adipogenesis, analyzing MSC induced to differentiate into adipocytes. Expression of adipogenic genes, as well as genes encoding OPG and RANKL (involved in osteoclastogenesis), protein synthesis, lipid-droplets formation, and apoptosis, were studied. Results showed that 10 and 20 µM phloretin inhibited adipogenesis. This effect was mediated by increasing beta-catenin, as well as increasing apoptosis in adipocytes, at late stages of differentiation. In addition, this chemical increased OPG gene expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in adipocytes. These results suggest that this flavonoid (including phloretin-rich foods) has interesting potential for clinical and regenerative-medicine applications. Thus, such chemicals could be used to counteract obesity and prevent bone-marrow adiposity. That is particularly useful to protect bone mass and treat diseases like osteoporosis, which is an epidemic worldwide.
... Apples are widely beneficial for metabolic health [9]; however, they contain fructose and 6 glucose, which can be points of concern. In an earlier study, intake of an unpeeled apple by healthy subjects elevated their plasma glucose by approximately 30 mg/dL [10]. ...
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Background : Apple peels contain phlorizin, which can reduce plasma glucose levels in a manner similar to that of inhibitors for sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT). Objectives : In this study, we examined the impact of a peeled apple, an SGLT2 inhibitor (Ipragliflozin) in combination with a peeled apple, and an unpeeled apple on interstitial glucose in a healthy individual across three experiments. Methods : For Experiments 1, 2, and 3, the subject consumed 327 g of a peeled Sun Fuji apple, took 50 mg of Ipragliflozin and then consumed 327 g of a peeled Sun Fuji apple, or consumed 370 g of an unpeeled Sun Fuji apple (peel weight was 43 g), respectively. In each condition, the apple was eaten within a 15-minute period and interstitial glucose levels were measured every 15 minutes for 11.5 hours using FreeStyle Libre. Results : Results showed that neither consumption of the unpeeled apple or Ipragliflozin were able to suppress the rapid or transient increases in postprandial glucose; however, the two were found to comparably suppress interstitial glucose during the late phase. Conclusions : On the whole, these findings demonstrate that eating unpeeled apples may be beneficial for plasma glucose management, but Ipragliflozin is a superior option because the apple peel's function did not last as long as Ipragliflozin.
... Polyphenols are important natural substances with pronounced antioxidative properties [5] that enable them to regulate oxidative stress in living organisms [6]. These phytochemicals possess a strong lipid-reducing activity [7], which promotes weight maintenance and provides a tool for an effective therapy for obesity and oxidative stress [8,9]. Considering that lipid peroxidation is a direct consequence of oxidative stress, adequate supplementation with antioxidants is desirable. ...
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There is ample evidence that polyphenols are important natural substances with pronounced antioxidative properties. This study aimed to develop a fast and reliable method to determine total polyphenol content (TPC) in foodstuffs and human samples. The microtitration format offers the advantage of low sample volumes in the microlitre range, facilitating high-throughput screening with 40 samples simultaneously. We accordingly adjusted the so-called Folin–Ciocalteu method to a microtitre format (polyphenols microtitre—PPm) with 90% reduction of reagents. The assay was standardized with gallic acid in the range between 0.1 and 3 mM, using a 20 µL sample volume. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 5%, and inter-assay CV was in the range of 10%. Wavelength was measured at 766 nm after two hours of incubation. This micromethod correlates significantly with both the classical Folin–Ciocalteu method and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) (r2 = 0.9829). We further observed a significant correlation between PPm and total antioxidants (r2 = 0.918). The highest polyphenol concentrations were obtained for red, blue, and black fruits, vegetables, and juices. Extracts of red grapes could be harvested almost sugar free and might serve as a basis for polyphenol supplementation. Beer, flour, and bread contained polyphenol concentrations sufficient to meet the minimal daily requirement. We conclude that PPm is a sensitive and reliable method that detects polyphenols even in samples diluted 10-fold. The literature strongly recommends further investigations on the effects of polyphenol uptake on human and animal health.
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Obesity is considered a serious global health issue. Patients have been predisposed to comorbidities such as dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers, and osteoarthritis. Certain fats in the diet have been linked with an increase in obesity, such as saturated and trans-fats. Meanwhile, some dietary fats such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could potentially reduce energy intake. Various mechanisms for reducing weight by CLAs and MCTs, such as increased lipolysis, improved intestinal microbiota, up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), increased the expression of uncoupling protein of respiratory chain-1 (UCP-1), and affected satiety hormones are included. These bioactive compounds, CLAs and MCTs, should be used in moderate concentrations to prevent harmful effects such as insulin resistance for CLAs and hypercholesterolemia for MCTs. However, several studies have proposed CLAs or MCTs as adjuvants to the protocol used to minimize bodyweight. Our objective is to summarize the different causes of obesity and to discuss the effects of CLAs or MCTs on body weight and fat deposition in obese animals or humans.
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Background: The obesity epidemic has been growing steadily across the whole world, and so far not a single country has been able to reverse it. The cause of obesity is stated by the World Health Organization as an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. However, growing evidence suggests that the calorie imbalance concept may not be sufficient to manage and reverse the obesity epidemic. Objective: To discuss the use of the calorie imbalance concept and its elements as a tool for weight management as well as its possible negative consequences and implications for public health, with the aim to point toward the need of an updated concept for causes of obesity. This update should guide public health interventions more efficiently to limit obesity by preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss. Methods: This is a literature reviews based on a semi-structured approach to determine the material to be examined. Results: After revisiting general facts about fat generation and accumulation, we propose an updated concept for the causes of obesity including diet composition and hormonal regulation of fat metabolism. Conclusions: We discuss how this updated concept could benefit the overall efficiency of strategies against obesity, and hypothesize how potential resistance to adopting this new view could be lowered.
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This study was aimed at determining potential effects of apple-derived pectin on weight gain, gut microbiota, gut barrier and metabolic endotoxemia in rat models of diet-induced obesity. The rats received a standard diet (control; Chow group; n = 8) or a high-fat diet (HFD; n = 32) for eight weeks to induce obesity. The top 50th percentile of weight-gainers were selected as diet induced obese rats. Thereafter, the Chow group continued on chow, and the diet induced obese rats were randomly divided into two groups and received HFD (HF group; n = 8) or pectin-supplemented HFD (HF-P group; n = 8) for six weeks. Compared to the HF group, the HF-P group showed attenuated weight gain (207.38 ± 7.96 g vs. 283.63 ± 10.17 g, p < 0.01) and serum total cholesterol level (1.46 ± 0.13 mmol/L vs. 2.06 ± 0.26 mmol/L, p < 0.01). Compared to the Chow group, the HF group showed a decrease in Bacteroidetes phylum and an increase in Firmicutes phylum, as well as subordinate categories (p < 0.01). These changes were restored to the normal levels in the HF-P group. Furthermore, compared to the HF group, the HF-P group displayed improved intestinal alkaline phosphatase (0.57 ± 0.20 vs. 0.30 ± 0.19, p < 0.05) and claudin 1 (0.76 ± 0.14 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) expression, and decreased Toll-like receptor 4 expression in ileal tissue (0.76 ± 0.58 vs. 2.04 ± 0.89, p < 0.01). The HF-P group also showed decreased inflammation (TNF α: 316.13 ± 7.62 EU/mL vs. 355.59 ± 8.10 EU/mL, p < 0.01; IL-6: 51.78 ± 2.35 EU/mL vs. 58.98 ± 2.59 EU/mL, p < 0.01) and metabolic endotoxemia (2.83 ± 0.42 EU/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.14 EU/mL, p < 0.01). These results suggest that apple-derived pectin could modulate gut microbiota, attenuate metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, and consequently suppress weight gain and fat accumulation in diet induced obese rats.
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Vinegar has long been used as a condiment and a traditional medicine worldwide. The current study investigates the antioxidant effect of three types of fruit vinegars (FV) namely pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)] vinegars in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups; HFD (80 cal/d) fed rats were orally dosed with fruit vinegars (7 ml/kg) once daily for 28 weeks. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements were assessed in serum. In addition, a liver histopathological study was performed. HFD showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in lipid profile and TBARS levels when compared with normal control. Daily oral administration of FV normalized various biochemical, metabolic, and histopathological changes. However, pomegranate vinegar exhibited a very significant (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in lipid profile levels (total cholesterol: 165%, triglycerides: 68%, LDL-c: 76%, and atherogenic index: 80%), whereas an increase in antioxidant status (SOD: 7-fold, GPx: 4.81-fold, GRx: 1.66-fold, and TAS: 3.45-fold) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective effects of pomegranate vinegar against lipid accumulation and the improvement of hepatic lesions. The fruit vinegars regulate lipid metabolism and decrease liver damage in high-fat fed rats as shown in this study.
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Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder and is associated with significant comorbidities such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. This pathology is changing worldwide and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study, carried out on adult male Wistar rats, evaluates the inhibitory effects of supplementation with apple pectin molecule on obesity. Under our experimental conditions, administration of pectin molecule decreased 1) the total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-ch) and triglycerides (TG) levels as well as ASAT, ALAT, LDH, ALP, UREA and uric acid (UC) levels in blood serum; and 2) increased the creatinine levels (CREA), compared to HFD group. TBARS concentrations decreased in liver, kidney, and serum by 20%, 29% and 19%, respectively, in a group treated with high-fat diet and pectin (HFD+Pec) compared to a HFD-treated group. The same treatment with pectin molecule increased superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase and catalase activities by 39%, 14% and 16% in liver; 5%, 7% and 31% in kidney; and 9%, 32% and 22% in blood serum in the HFD Pec-treated group. The anti-obesity effects of the pectin molecule in several organs are mainly due to the interaction of this molecule with both the polysaccharide and the enzyme system which can be determined by phytochemical analysis.
Conference Paper
Aim of the study: The search of new anti-obesogenic treatments based on medicinal plants without or with minimal side effects is a challenge. In this context, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) in Wistar rats subjected to a high fat diet. Materials and methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (140±5g) were divided into 3 three equal groups. A witness group submitted to standard laboratory diet and two groups subjected to a high fat diet (cafeteria diet); one receives a daily gavage of apple cider vinegar (7mL/kg/d) for 30 days. Throughout the experiment monitoring the nutritional assessment, anthropometric and biochemical parameters is achieved. Results: In the RCV vs RC group, we observed a highly significant decrease (P<0.001) in body weight and food intake. On the other hand, the VCP decreases very significantly different anthropometric parameters: BMI (P<0.01), chest circumference and abdominal circumference (P<0.001), decreases serum glucose levels (26.83%) and improves the serum lipid profile by reducing plasma levels of total cholesterol (34.29%), TG (51.06%), LDL-c (59.15%), VLDL (50%) and the total lipid (45.15%), and increasing HDL-c (39.39%), thus offering protection against oatherogenic risk (61.62%). Conclusion: This preliminary study indicates that the metabolic disorders caused by high fat diet (cafeteria) are thwarted by taking apple cider vinegar which proves to have a satiating effect, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects, and seems prevent the atherogenic risk.
Conference Paper
Objectifs: Au cours des dernières décennies, l'incidence de l'obésité a dramatiquement augmenté au point de devenir une préoccupation majeure de santé publique. Selon les recommandations de l'OMS, la recherche de nouveaux traitements anti-obésogènes à base de plantes médicinales dépourvues, ou ayant des effets secondaires minimes est un défi. Dans cette optique, la présente étude a été menée pour évaluer l'effet anti-obésogène du vinaigre de cidre de pomme (VCP) chez le rat Wistar soumis à un régime hyperlipidique. MéTHODES: L'expérimentation qui a duré 4 semaines a porté sur 18 rats mâles Wistar (150 ± 20g) divisés en 3 trois groupes égaux. Un lot témoins soumis au régime standard du laboratoire (normolipidique), et deux lots soumis à un régime hyperlipidique (régime cafétéria), dont un reçoit quotidiennement par gavage du vinaigre de cidre de pomme à raison de 7ml/kg de poids corporel pendant 4 semaines. Durant toute la durée de l'expérimentation, la prise alimentaire a été quotidiennement mesurée, et les animaux ont été pesés une fois par semaine. Les paramètres anthropométriques (Indice de Masse Corporelle (IMC), circonférence thoracique, circonférence abdominale) ont été mesurés en début et en fin d'expérimentation. Au terme de l'expérimentation, les rats sont sacrifiés, le sang et le foie sont rapidement prélevés afin de réaliser les dosages des lipides totaux. RéSULTATS: Les rats soumis au régime hyperlipidique et traités au VCP sont comparés aux non traités. Le VCP entraîne une diminution du poids corporel et de la prise alimentaire. D'autre part, le VCP diminue de manière très significative les différents paramètres anthropométriques : IMC (p < 0,01), circonférence thoracique (p < 0,001), circonférence abdominale (p < 0,001). De plus, le VCP diminue fortement la teneur sérique en lipides totaux. Conclusion: Ces résultats préliminaires indiquent des effets bénéfique du VCP sur le poids corporel et sur le profil lipidique, et constitue une piste intéressante qui mérite d'être poursuivie et approfondie.
Article
Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is emerging. Bioavailability differs greatly from one polyphenol to another, so that the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Mean values for the maximal plasma concentration, the time to reach the maximal plasma concentration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve, the elimination half-life, and the relative urinary excretion were calculated for 18 major polyphenols. We used data from 97 studies that investigated the kinetics and extent of polyphenol absorption among adults, after ingestion of a single dose of polyphenol provided as pure compound, plant extract, or whole food/beverage. The metabolites present in blood, resulting from digestive and hepatic activity, usually differ from the native compounds. The nature of the known metabolites is described when data are available. The plasma concentrations of total metabolites ranged from 0 to 4 mumol/L with an intake of 50 mg aglycone equivalents, and the relative urinary excretion ranged from 0.3% to 43% of the ingested dose, depending on the polyphenol. Gallic acid and isoflavones are the most well-absorbed polyphenols, followed by catechins, flavanones, and quercetin glucosides, but with different kinetics. The least well-absorbed polyphenols are the proanthocyanidins, the galloylated tea catechins, and the anthocyanins. Data are still too limited for assessment of hydroxycinnamic acids and other polyphenols. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of polyphenols.
Article
Vinegar is a traditional remedy for aliments including diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different types of vinegar (sugarcane, apple, grape, coconut, artificial and palm vinegar) on serum Biochemical and Histopathological of pancreas and stomach of diabetic rats for 6 weeks at 15% concentration. The results indicated that, all of vinegar caused significant decrease P< 0.05 in glucose, TC, LDL-c and significant increase in HDL cholesterol. Apple vinegar was the most effective to decrease glucose, TC and LDL-c followed by grape, sugarcane, coconut, artificial and palm vinegar. Apple vinegar contained the higher concentration of organic acid and phenolic compound compared to other vinegar. Apple vinegar and grape vinegar were the most effective to decrease liver and kidney function. Administrating 15% vinegar with diet for 6 weeks decrease the food intake and feed efficiency ratio compared to control group. Moreover, administration different types of vinegar showed that no histopathological change in stomach and has protected effect of pancreas from undesirable change in B cells. In conclusion, using the different types of vinegar with diet for 6 weeks have beneficial effects on diabetic rats and have hypocholesterolemic effect. The vinegar did not effect on stomach histopathological structure and have protective effect of pancreas from damage.
Article
In the present study, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety of excessive intake and the efficacy of long term intake of polyphenols derived from apples on normal weight or moderate obesity subjects (138 subjects for long term intake, 53 subjects for excessive intake). In the long term intake trial, the subjects were divided into three groups; drinking beverage with apple polyphenols (600 mg/340 g) group or drinking beverage with apple polyphenols (300 mg/340 g) group or drinking beverage without apple polyphenols group. Subjects were given regular amount of beverage (340 g) a day for 12 weeks. On the other hand, in the excessive intake trial, the subjects were divided into two groups; drinking beverage with apple polyphenols (600 mg/340 g) group or drinking beverage without apple polyphenols group. Subjects were given three times as much as regular amount of beverage a day for 4 weeks. As a result, significant decreases of body weight and body fat, especially visceral fat, were observed in the long term intake in the group drinking beverage with apple polyphenols (600 mg/340 g). There were no clinical problems in the blood examinations and physical examinations. No adverse reactions were observed. These results suggested the efficacy and the safety of beverage with apple polyphenols.
Article
Overweight preadolescents and parents from 76 families were assigned to 1 of 3 behavioral treatment groups: parent/child target, child target, or nonspecific target. Percent overweight changes at the end of the 8-mo treatment and 13-mo follow-up were equivalent for children in the 3 treatment groups, but parents in the parent/child group lost more weight during treatment. Weight changes for parents and children increased through the 8-mo treatment. Patterns of maintenance showed that 40% of the children were within 20% of their ideal weight by the end of treatment, achieving nonobese status. 100% of the newly nonobese children in the parent/child group maintained nonobesity during follow-up, whereas only 30% in the child-alone group and 33% in the nonspecific group maintained nonobesity. In addition, weight losses for parents and children in the same family correlated positively at the end of treatment but not at follow-up. Results suggest that parental modeling may be important during treatment, but long-term results probably are due to parental reinforcement of child self-regulation. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
We previously reported that ingestion of apple polyphenols reduced the weight of visceral adipose tissue and the triglyceride content of blood and liver in rats fed a high-fat diet (1). To further elucidate the mechanism of the improvement of lipid metabolism by dietary polyphenols, the effects of feeding apple- and tea-derived catechins on hepatic gene expression profile was investigated using the GeneChip DNA microarray system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet supplemented with 1.0% apple polyphenols or a high-fat diet supplemented with 1.0% tea catechins for 9 weeks. Both polyphenols reduced the weight of visceral adipose tissue and the triglyceride content in blood and liver. Tea catechins increased the transcription of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis whereas apple polyphenols decreased the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Thus, each polyphenol exerts a different effect on hepatic gene expression. The reduction of the weight of visceral adipose tissue was also observed when apple polyphenols were fed with a normal-fat diet. The genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were down-regulated in both high fat and normal diets. These results suggest that apple polyphenols and tea catechines improve lipid metabolism through different manner of action. Apple polyphenols widely inhibit the expressions of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis.
Article
Examination was made of the effects of tea catechins (TC) on diet-induced obesity. Exposure to high-fat-diet (30% fat) in C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks induced significant increase in body weight, visceral fat (epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, perinephric) weight and plasma concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerol and leptin, compared to low-fat diet (5% fat). Treatment with 0.1%TC (high-fat diet +0.1%TC group) had little effect on diet-induced obesity. Relative to high-fat diet and 0.1%TC treatment, 0.5%TC treatment (high-fat diet +0.5%TC group) was noted to bring about significant decrease in body weight, visceral, fat weights and plasma leptin. Lipid absorption rate was the same with the high fat diet and 0.5%TC treatment. An oral soluble starch and sucrose (SS-S) tolerance test was conducted on C57BL/6J mice to evaluate the effects of TC to sugar absorption. When the ratio of TC to sum of SS-S was the same as that in the diet composition for the 0.5%TC treatment, the plasma glucose level showed no response. These results demonstrate for the first time TC to have antiobesity effects on diet-induced obesity in mice, and suggest these effects to be exerted through a mechanism that would not involve inhibition of intestinal absorption of sugar and lipid.
Article
Examination was made of the effects of tea catechins on energy metabolism in 8-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats subsequent to 4 or 18 hr food depletion. Energy expenditure within 4 hr after a single dose of tea catechins at 100 mg/kg weight both increased significantly compared with saline administration. At 18-hr food depletion, energy expenditure by fat oxidation significantly exceeded that in the tea catechins group. A single dose of tea catechins is thus clearly shown to induce thermic response in the rats.
Article
Large amounts of procyanidins, made up of catechin oligomers, are consumed on a daily basis via various plant-based diets. Recent studies show that tea polyphenol (TP) exerts anti-obesity effect; however, the biological functions of procyanidins have not yet been established. In this study, we examined the high dose effects of procyanidins from apple polyphenol (AP), hop polyphenol (HP), and tea polyphenol (TP) on obesity using normal Sprague-Dawley rats on a high fat (HF) diet. We measured adipose tissue mass and tissue lipid parameters in rats on polyphenol-free low fat (LF) (7%) or HF (27.8%) diets with or without 1% of each polyphenol for 9 weeks. Dietary AP, HP, and TP suppressed the increase in white adipose tissue. Dietary TP increased the level of fatty acids excreted into feces; however, this was not observed in the AP- or HP-fed group. Each dietary polyphenol tended to reduce fatty acid synthesis and promote fatty acid β-oxidation as compared with a HF diet alone. Moreover, each dietary polyphenol tended to increase the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) in the liver and decreased the levels of PPARγ in brown and white adipose tissues. Therefore, we speculate that procyanidins from AP or HP may reduce the increase in white adipose tissue induced by an HF diet through a combination of the agonist-like action of PPARα and antagonist-like action of PPARγ. On the other hand, TP may exert an anti-obesity effect via the combined effect of PPARα and PPARγ described above as well as the promotion of fatty acid excretion into feces.
Article
The recent epidemic of childhood obesity1 has raised concern because of the possible clinical and public health consequences.2,3 However, there remains a widespread perception among health professionals that childhood obesity is a largely cosmetic problem, with minor clinical effects. No systematic review has yet focused on the diverse array of possible consequences of childhood obesity, though older non-systematic reviews are available.4,5 In addition, no review to date has considered the vast body of evidence on the health impact of childhood obesity which has been published recently. The aim of the present review was therefore to provide a critically appraised, evidence based, summary of the consequences of childhood obesity in the short term (for the child) and longer term (in adulthood).
Article
Objective The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is widely used in research studies across clinical and nonclinical groups. Relatively little is known about psychometric properties of this measure and the available literature has not supported the proposed scale structure. This study evaluated the factor structure and construct validity of the EDE-Q in a nonclinical study group of young adults.Method Participants were 801 young adults (573 females and 228 males) enrolled at a large public university in the Midwestern United States who completed the EDE-Q and a battery of behavioral and psychological measures.ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed an inadequate fit for the original EDE-Q structure but revealed a good fit for an alternative structure suggested by recent research with predominately overweight/obese samples. CFA supported a modified seven-item, three-factor structure; the three factors were interpreted as dietary restraint, shape/weight overvaluation, and body dissatisfaction. Factor loadings and item intercepts were invariant across sex and overweight status. The three factors had less redundancy than the original EDE-Q scales and demonstrated improved convergent and discriminant validity in relation to relevant other measures.DiscussionThese factor-analytic findings, which replicate findings from studies with diverse predominately overweight/obese samples, supported a modified seven-item, three-factor structure for the EDE-Q with improved psychometric characteristics. The findings provide further empirical support for the distinction between body dissatisfaction and overvaluation and have implications for assessment and research. These findings need to be replicated in samples of persons with eating-disorder psychopathology including those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and allied states. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014)
Article
Background: A common dietary recommendation for weight loss, especially in lay public outlets, is to eat more fruit and vegetables (F/Vs). Without a compensatory reduction in total energy intake, significant weight loss would be unlikely. Objective: We aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of the general recommendation to eat more F/Vs for weight loss or the prevention of weight gain. Design: We searched multiple databases for human randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of increased F/V intake on body weight. Inclusion criteria were as follows: ≥15 subjects/ treatment arm, ≥8-wk intervention, a stated primary or secondary outcome of body weight, the stated goal of the intervention was weight or fat loss or the prevention of weight or fat gain, and food intake provided or prescribed was of a variety of F/Vs that remained minimally processed. Results: Two studies met all criteria; 5 other studies met all criteria but one. The primary analysis indicated an effect size of weight change (outcome of interest) from baseline [standardized mean difference (SMD) for studies that met all criteria] of -0.16 (95% CI: -0.78, 0.46) (P = 0.60). The SMD for 7 studies that met all or most criteria was 0.04 (95% CI: -0.10, 0.17) (P = 0.62). Conclusions: Studies to date do not support the proposition that recommendations to increase F/V intake or the home delivery or provision of F/Vs will cause weight loss. On the basis of the current evidence, recommending increased F/V consumption to treat or prevent obesity without explicitly combining this approach with efforts to reduce intake of other energy sources is unwarranted. This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ as CRD42013004688.
Article
The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are non-commercial, old varieties not present in market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg2+/Mn2+ and PO43-/K+, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-inhibition and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity as well as inhibition of EGFR-activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.
Article
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (wt/wt) AP, and HFD containing 10% (wt/wt) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.
Article
The influence of tea catechins on the absorption of starch or sucrose was investigated in vivo. Tea catechins were administered orally to rats before soluble starch or sucrose administration. Saccharide-dosed rats were killed and the blood and the contents of the intestine were collected at intervals over two hours. Catechins of certain concentrations suppressed the increase of plasma glucose levels, thus concurrently suppressing insulin activity. Increased activity of intestinal α-amylase by starch dosing was inhibited markedly in the catechin-administered rats. Sucrase on the brush border membrane was also inhibited by prior catechin administration. From these results it was assumed that orally administered catechins will inhibit intestinal α-amylase or sucrase, thereby deterring the digestion of certain amounts of starch or sucrose and eventually reducing the plasma glucose levels.
Article
Vitamin C is used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant activity, although a high dose (500 mg) may act as a pro-oxidant in the body1, 2. Here we show that 100 g of fresh apples has an antioxidant activity equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C, and that whole-apple extracts inhibit the growth of colon- and liver- cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that natural antioxidants from fresh fruit could be more effective than a dietary supplement.
Article
This study was conducted to determine the mechanisms implicated in the beneficial effects of apple polyphenols (APs) against diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats, described in a previous study from our group. Supplementation of high-fat sucrose diet with AP prevented adiposity increase by inhibition of adipocyte hypertrophy. Rats supplemented with AP exhibited improved glucose tolerance while adipocytes isolated from these rats showed an enhanced lipolytic response to isoproterenol. AP intake led to reduced Lep, Plin, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) mRNA levels and increased aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (Aebp1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a) mRNA levels in epididymal adipocytes. In addition, we found different methylation patterns of Aqp7, Lep, Ppargc1a, and Srebf1 promoters in adipocytes from apple-supplemented rats compared to high-fat sucrose fed rats. The administration of AP protects against body weight gain and fat deposition and improves glucose tolerance in rats. We propose that AP exerts the antiobesity effects through the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation, in a process that could be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms.
Article
Purpose: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Methods: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. Results: The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Conclusions: Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.
Article
Fat talk refers to negative body-related conversations between girls or young women. This research aimed to use qualitative data from young women to guide development of a quantitative fat talk measure. In Study 1, a preliminary 62-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 200 female participants. Item analysis resulted in the elimination of items, yielding a final questionnaire with 14 items. Principal component analysis of this questionnaire indicated a single factor. In Study 2, 95 female participants completed the newly developed Fat Talk Questionnaire and theoretically related (e.g., body image) and unrelated (e.g., social desirability) constructs. Additionally, 49 male participants completed the questionnaire to examine known groups validity. In Study 3, 54 participants completed the Fat Talk Questionnaire on two occasions to assess temporal stability. The results showed that the Fat Talk Questionnaire is reliable and valid. The Fat Talk Questionnaire may have important utility in future research.
Article
Polyphenols derived from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) bract region (HBP) can be used as food materials, thereby preventing dental caries. Chemical details of the active substances need to be elucidated. The polyphenols from hop bract (HBP) region were purified by countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The fractions were analyzed by high‐performance size‐exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and reversed phase high‐performance liquid chromatography (RP‐HPLC). From HBP fractions by HPSEC, some low‐molecular‐ weight polyphenols (glycosides of flavonoids, catechins, and proanthocyanidins) were identified by RP‐HPLC. However, a very hydrophilic fraction was found to have the most potent cavity‐preventive activity, but it showed no peak in its RP‐HPLC chromatogram (absence of small polyphenols). HPSEC analysis showed that the major components of this fraction were high‐molecular weight substances, which were supposed to be proanthocyanidins, consisting of approximately 22 catechin units in its structure.
Article
Background: Polyphenols have been reported to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the study was to conduct a screening for potential anti-obesity polyphenolic plant extracts using a diet-induced animal model. Rats were fed a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without supplementation of different polyphenolic plant extracts (almond, apple, cinnamon, orange blossom, hamamelis, lime blossom, grape vine, and birch) for 56-64 days. Results: Body weight gain was lower in rats supplemented with apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts as compared to HFS non-supplemented group. Moreover, apple and cinnamon extracts prevented the increase in fat mass promoted by the HFS diet. Insulin resistance, estimated by the homostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, was reduced in rats fed apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts. Apple extract also prevented the HFS-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Conclusion: Only apple and cinnamon extracts were finally considered as potentially important anti-obesogenic extracts, due to their body fat-lowering effects, while the improvement of obesity-related metabolic complications by apple polyphenols highlights this extract as a promising functional food ingredient for the management of obesity and its metabolic complications.
Article
Objectives. Obesity has become a global epidemic but our understanding of the problem in children is limited due to lack of comparable representative data from different countries, and varying criteria for defining obesity. This paper summarises the available information on recent trends in child overweight and obesity prevalence. Methods. PubMed was searched for data relating to trends over time, in papers published between January 1980 and October 2005. Additional studies identified by citations in retrieved papers and by consultation with experts were included. Data for trends over time were found for school-age populations in 25 countries and for pre-school populations in 42 countries. Using these reports, and data collected for the World Health Organization's Burden of Disease Program, we estimated the global prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-age children for 2006 and likely prevalence levels for 2010. Results. The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased in almost all countries for which data are available. Exceptions are found among school-age children in Russia and to some extent Poland during the 1990s. Exceptions are also found among infant and pre-school children in some lower-income countries. Obesity and overweight has increased more dramatically in economically developed countries and in urbanized populations. Conclusions. There is a growing global childhood obesity epidemic, with a large variation in secular trends across countries. Effective programs and policies are needed at global, regional and national levels to limit the problem among children.
Article
Given the recent surge in obesity, effective dietary strategies for weight management are required. Because fruits and vegetables are high in water and fiber, incorporating them in the diet can reduce energy density, promote satiety, and decrease energy intake. Although few interventions have specifically addressed fruit and vegetable consumption, evidence suggests that coupling advice to increase intake of these foods with advice to decrease energy intake is a particularly effective strategy for weight management. This approach may facilitate weight loss because it emphasizes positive messages rather than negative, restrictive messages
Article
Inflammation may increase cancer risk, therefore, we studied whether polyphenol-rich Marie Ménard (MM) apples with reported anti-inflammatory activity prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and, likewise whether high-fat (HF) diet promoting carcinogenesis, may affect inflammation. DMH-induced rats were fed for 15 weeks with: an HF diet (23% corn oil w/w); an HF diet containing 7.6% w/w lyophilized MM (apple diet (AD)); a low-fat (LF) diet and an HF diet containing piroxicam (PXC) (0.01% w/w) as control. Mucin depleted foci (MDF), precancerous lesions in the colon, were dramatically reduced in the AD, LF, and PXC groups compared with the HF. Peritoneal macrophage activation, an index of systemic inflammation, was significantly decreased in the AD, LF, and PXC groups. TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6 m-RNA expression in the colon, as well as CD68 cells and plasmatic PGE2 were lower in the AD, but not in the LF group. Apoptosis in the MDF of both the AD and LF-fed rats was significantly higher than in HF rats. In conclusion, AD has a strong chemopreventive effect, reducing inflammation, and increasing apoptosis, while the chemopreventive effect of the LF diet seems mediated mainly by increased apoptosis in MDF.
Article
There is a general consensus that obesity is an eminently inflammatory process. This is justified by alterations observed in obese patients, which affect the secretion of certain cytokines such as ceruloplasmin, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), among others. In a parallel way, other research has also pointed out alterations in the composition of fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane of overweight adults. The results obtained in our study confirm the existence of a significant correlation between the serum levels of some of the cytokines studied and the nutritional state of the sample studied. This means that for the population of children evaluated in our study, the serum concentrations of these biomolecules can be an important tool for the prediction of cardiovascular risk when they become adults. Furthermore significant differences were found regarding the composition of saturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane.
Article
A(−)-epicatechin (EC) and (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) mixture and a mixture of their gallates (ECG and EGCG, respectively) markedly lowered lymphatic cholesterol absorption in rats with a cannulated thoracic duct. A mixture of ECG and EGCG was more effective in reducing cholesterol absorption than the EC and EGC mixture. These catechins also tended to decrease lymphatic absorption of triacylglycerols, although not so pronounced as in cholesterol absorption. An in vitro study on micellar solubility of cholesterol showed that these catechin mixtures precipitated cholesterol solubilized in mixed bile salt micelles in a dose-dependent manner. A mixture of ECG and EGCG more effectively precipitated micellar cholesterol than a mixture of EC and EGC. When purified EC, EGC, ECG and EGCG were used, EGCG was more effective in precipitating micellar cholesterol than ECG. The effect of EC and EGC was comparable and weaker than their gallate esters. The bile acid concentration in the micelles was not affected by these catechins. A positive correlation was observed between the amount of coprecipitated EGCG and cholesterol. These results clearly show that tea catechins, in particular their gallate esters, effectively reduce cholesterol absorption from the intestine by reducing solubility of cholesterol in mixed micelles. The observation accounts for the hypocholesterolemic effect of tea catechins.
Article
This study demonstrates the extent of the in vivo inhibitory action of two levels of dietary sorghum tannins on rabbit digestive enzymes as well as mineral absorption. Addition of low-tannin (1.4% catechin equivalent) sorghum grains to the animals diet did not significantly change growth rate, food consumption, or feed conversion ratio. However, addition of high-tannin (3.5% catechin equivalent) sorghum grains significantly reduced their live body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and slightly increased food consumption with respect to the control. The activities of α-amylase, trypsin and lipase in digesta obtained from the upper part of the small intestine were inhibited in animals fed on sorghum grains. Inclusion of low- and high-tannin sorghum grains inhibited α-amylase by 37% and 77%, trypsin by 22% and 56% and lipase by 6% and 43%, respectively. Estimation of apparent calcium and magnesium absorption revealed a decrease in the calcium, but not magnesium, absorption only in animals fed high-tannin sorghum grains. Our in vivo results show a significant effect for ingested dietary sorghum tannins on their first target i.e. the digestive tract, as well as indicating though crudely (increased corrected liver weight) the possible toxic effect of sorghum tannin. The lack of toxicity in animals fed low-tannin sorghum grains may suggest the existence of a threshold-limit.
Article
Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4–30%; phloridzin, 22–36%; cinnamates, 25–36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8–27%; flavonols, 2–10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl Furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11–17%; cinnamates, 3–27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31–54%; flavonols, 1–10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 μM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study found that both fresh apple and commercial apple juices inhibited copper-catalyzed LDL oxidation. The in vitro antioxidant activity of apples support the inclusion of this fruit and its juice in a healthy human diet.
Article
The partial compositional characteristics were determined for apple juice from 175 non-commercial varieties of apples developed from scion wood collected from approximately 12 countries and several USA geographical areas. Juices from many of the varieties were high in malic acid and potassium. Mean values for many of the attributes did not match existing compositional database value means. However, some of the overall minimum and maximum values for the various attributes (i.e., Brix°, pH, ash, TA, sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol, malic, citric, fumaric, sodium, and calcium) in this study compared reasonably well with existing compositional database values. Distribution of phenolics between the various varieties was highly variable with some juices containing little if any phenolic compounds. Chlorogenic acid and phloridzin were detected in all varietal samples while arbutin and HMF were not measurable. The data developed should be useful with other databases in describing authentic apple juice and in the development of future apple commercial varieties to target specific consumer requirements.
Article
There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection.
Article
The effect of polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice (CloA) consumption on plasma parameters related to the obesity phenotype and potential effects of interactions between CloA and allelic variants in obesity candidate genes were assessed in obese men. In this controlled, randomized, and parallel study, n = 68, non-smoking, non-diabetic men with a BMI ≥27 kg/m(2) received 750 mL/day CloA (802.5 mg polyphenols) or 750 mL/day control beverage (CB, isocaloric equivalent to CloA) for 4 weeks. Further, study participants were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PPARγ (rs1801282), UCP3 (rs1800849), IL-6 (rs1800795), FABP2 (rs1799883), INSIG2 (rs7566605), and PGC1 (rs8192678) genes. At the beginning and at the end of intervention plasma lipids, distinct adipokines and cytokines as well as anthropometric parameters were determined. CloA compared to CB had no significant effect on plasma lipids, plasma adipokine and cytokine levels, BMI, and waist circumference. However, CloA consumption significantly reduced percent body fat compared to CB (∆ % body fat: CloA: -1.0 ± 1.3 vs. CB: -0.2 ± 0.9, p < 0.05). The IL-6-174 G/C polymorphism showed an interaction with body fat reduction induced by CloA. Solely in C/C, but not in G/C or G/G variants, a significant reduction in body fat after 4 weeks of CloA intervention was detectable. The observed diet-gene interaction might be a first indication for the impact of individual genetic background on CloA-mediated bioactivity on obesity-associated comorbidities.
Article
Flavonoids and nitrates in fruits and vegetables may protect against cardiovascular disease. Dietary flavonoids and nitrates can augment nitric oxide status via distinct pathways, which may improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that the combination of flavonoids and nitrates can enhance nitric oxide production in the stomach. Their combined effect in the circulation is unclear. Here, our objective was to investigate the independent and additive effects of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, and blood pressure. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial with healthy men and women (n=30) was conducted. The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach, and apple+spinach), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols+other nitrosylated species (RXNO) and nitrite, blood pressure, and endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. Results are means and 95% CI. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher RXNO (control, 33 nmol/L, 26, 42; apple, 51 nmol/L, 40, 65; spinach, 86 nmol/L, 68, 110; apple+spinach, 69 nmol/L, 54, 88; P<0.01) and higher nitrite (control, 35 nmol/L, 27, 46; apple, 69 nmol/L, 53, 90; spinach, 99 nmol/L, 76, 129; apple+spinach, 80 nmol/L, 61, 104; P<0.01). Compared to control, all treatments resulted in higher flow-mediated dilatation (P<0.05) and lower pulse pressure (P<0.05), and apple and spinach resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). No significant effect was observed on diastolic blood pressure. The combination of apple and spinach did not result in additive effects on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, or blood pressure. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach can independently augment nitric oxide status, enhance endothelial function, and lower blood pressure acutely, outcomes that may benefit cardiovascular health.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the amounts of polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid reaching the ileostomy bags of probands (and thus the colon in healthy humans) after ingestion of apple smoothie, a beverage containing 60% cloudy apple juice and 40% apple puree. Ten healthy ileostomy subjects each ingested 0.7 L of apple smoothie (a bottle). Their ileostomy bags were collected directly before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after smoothie consumption, and the polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acid contents of the ileostomy fluids were examined using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. The total polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acid content of the apple smoothie was determined to be 1955.6±124.6 mg/0.7 L, which is very high compared to cloudy apple juices. The most abundant substances found in the ileostomy bags were oligomeric procyanidins (705.6±197.9 mg), D-(-)-quinic acid (363.4±235.5 mg) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (76.7±26.8 mg). Overall recovery of ingested polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid in the ileostomy bags was 63.3±16.1%. The amounts of polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acids reaching the ileostomy bags are considerably higher after apple smoothie consumption than after the consumption of cloudy apple juice or cider. These results suggest that the food matrix might affect the colonic availability of polyphenols, and apple smoothies could be more effective in the prevention of chronic colon diseases than both cloudy apple juice and apple cider.
Article
Obesity plays a critical role in dyslipidemia and related disorders. Mulberry water extracts (MWEs) contain polyphenols, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and anthocyanins. In this study, using 6-week-old male hamsters, we investigated the anti-obese effect of MWEs. After 12 weeks of treatment, MWEs lowered high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight and visceral fat, accompanied with hypolipidemic effects by reducing serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, free fatty acid, and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (n=8 for each group). MWEs decreased hepatic lipids, thus protected livers from impairment. The hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were elevated, while fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase were reduced by MWEs, indicating that MWEs regulated lipogenesis and lipolysis, which exerted the anti-obese and hypolipidemic effects. Noticeably, MWEs showed both efficacy and safety in vivo. In concluson, MWEs can be used to reduce body weight, serum, and liver lipids.
Article
Glycerol constitutes an important metabolite for the control of lipid accumulation and glucose homeostasis. The impact of obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes as well as the potential regulatory role of insulin and leptin on aquaglyceroporins (AQP) 3, 7, and 9 were analyzed. The tissue distribution and expression of AQP in biopsies of omental and sc adipose tissue as well as liver were analyzed in lean and obese Caucasian volunteers (n = 63). The effect of insulin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/liter) and leptin (0.1, 1, and 10 nmol/liter) on the expression of the glycerol channels was determined in vitro in human omental adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes. The translocation of AQP in response to insulin and isoproterenol was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. In addition to the well-known expression of AQP7 in adipose tissue, AQP3 and AQP9 were also expressed in both omental and sc adipose tissue. Obese type 2 diabetes patients showed higher expression of AQP in visceral adipose tissue and lower expression of AQP7 in sc adipose tissue and hepatic AQP9. The staining of AQP9 in the plasma membrane of adipocytes was reinforced by insulin, whereas isoproterenol induced the translocation of AQP3 and AQP7 from the lipid droplets to the plasma membrane. Insulin up-regulated all AQP, whereas leptin up-regulated AQP3 and down-regulated AQP7 and AQP9 in adipocytes and hepatocytes. These effects were abrogated by both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin and the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin. Our findings show, for the first time, that insulin and leptin regulate the AQP through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in human visceral adipocytes and hepatocytes. AQP3 and AQP7 may facilitate glycerol efflux from adipose tissue while reducing the glycerol influx into hepatocytes via AQP9 to prevent the excessive lipid accumulation and the subsequent aggravation of hyperglycemia in human obesity.