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The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception

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The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception

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... In fact, the practitioner with his/her skills, experience, and making is at the very centre of the research. This is the (Gibson 1979). The environment is full of meaning on its own and does not have to be ascribed with significance from an observer; its significance can instead be discovered by perception (Gibson 1979). ...
... This is the (Gibson 1979). The environment is full of meaning on its own and does not have to be ascribed with significance from an observer; its significance can instead be discovered by perception (Gibson 1979). The surroundings provide affordances to humans and animals but the affordance is also dependent on the specific human being or animal. ...
... In my craft research, no other approach is possible. It is closely linked to the environmental psychology of Gibson and also, to some extent, phenomenology (Gibson 1979). ...
Book
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The field of ‘Craft Sciences’ refers to research conducted across and within different craft subjects and academic contexts. This anthology aims to expose the breadth of topics, source material, methods, perspectives, and results that reside in this field, and to explore what unites the research in such diverse contexts as, for example, the arts, conservation, or vocational craft education. The common thread between each of the chapters in the present book is the augmented attention given to methods—the craft research methods—and to the relationship between the field of inquiry and the field of practice. A common feature is that practice plays an instrumental role in the research found within the chapters, and that the researchers in this publication are also practitioners. The authors are researchers but they are also potters, waiters, carpenters, gardeners, textile artists, boat builders, smiths, building conservators, painting restorers, furniture designers, illustrators, and media designers. The researchers contribute from different research fields, like craft education, meal sciences, and conservation crafts, and from particular craft subjects, like boat-building and weaving. The main contribution of this book is that it collects together a number of related case studies and presents a reflection on concepts, perspectives, and methods in the general fields of craft research from the point of view of craft practitioners. It adds to the existing academic discussion of crafts through its wider acknowledgement of craftsmanship and extends its borders and its discourse outside the arts and crafts context. This book provides a platform from which to develop context-appropriate research strategies and to associate with the Craft Sciences beyond the borders of faculties and disciplines.
... Le visiteur a le choix d'apprendre et doit s'en saisir. Nous retrouvons la notion d'affordance, telle que l'a définie Gibson (1979). Legendre (1983), décrit plus précisément les situations de médiation qui seront étudiées. ...
... Ces gestes relèvent de la capacité à gérer les imprévus, qui surviennent pendant son animation, tout en veillant à ce qu'ils restent inaperçus. Jorro (2004) (Gibson, 1979) semble être un outil intéressant pour comprendre l'agir des médiateurs. En effet, une activité de médiation suppose des ajustements, afin de répondre à la diversité des sollicitations auxquelles est soumis le médiateur : les imprévus, les attentes personnelles du visiteur arrivant avec son histoire, sa culture, son rapport à l'institution et au savoir présenté (Falk & Dierking, 2002) Le formateur construit un micro-monde, dans lequel sont favorisées des relations personnelles, pour préserver l'apprenant et ne pas le mettre en danger. ...
... Il faudrait revoir la séquence, la repenser, la narrer pour mieux comprendre son activité et l'objectiver par la mobilisation d'outils intellectuels adéquats (Barbier, 1996) Pour mettre en place une situation d'apprentissage, le médiateur pense l'activité de médiation, en amont, de façon à placer le visiteur dans une position de découverte active des contenus (Guichard et Martinand, 2000) et à lui offrir la possibilité de se saisir du savoir présenté, selon le principe de l'affordance (Gibson, 1979). Cette posture est d'autant plus facilitée que l'animation se déroule dans une situation constructiviste (Hein, 1998), en lien avec d'autres acteurs (Allard, 1999) ...
Thesis
Dans une institution culturelle, le médiateur est un professionnel clef pour le visiteur. En effet, il contribue à faire découvrir et à appréhender l’œuvre exposée dans un contexte muséographique (Allard, 1999). Cette transmission de connaissance se fait par le discours, mais également et simultanément par un agir et une gestuelle spécifiques (McNeill, 1992).Les approches phénoménologique (Merleau-Ponty, 1945), sociologique (Goffman, 1973) et anthropologique (Mauss, 1934) tendent à montrer que le geste est un instrument de première importance dans la communication avec le monde ainsi que dans l’instauration de relations selon des codes établis par la société. Ainsi, le geste professionnel (Jorro, 2002, 2004, 2018) se caractérise par son adressage, son efficience. Pour être efficient, le geste professionnel est mobilisé à des moments adéquats en fonction des affordances perçues (Gibson, 1979). Il peut être défini selon une matrice d’agir élaborée par Jorro ( 2002, 2017) dans le cadre de ses travaux concernant l’agir enseignant ou celui d’un médiateur culturel.Dans cette recherche, des séquences de médiation ont été filmées au Louvre-Lens, à la Cité des Télécoms de Lannion, au Musée des arts et métiers (Paris). Leurs analyses complétées par celle des entretiens semi-directifs et d'auto-confrontation des médiateurs filmés a permis d’identifier trois catégories de gestes professionnels : le geste de mise en scène du savoir qui est centré sur la présentation d' un objet de connaissance ou d' un dispositif, qui explicite un concept scientifique ou culturel ; le geste de communication visant à impliquer le visiteur dans l’animation ou à instaurer une atmosphère de bienveillance ou encore à marquer une écoute attentive ; le geste d’ajustement de l’activité permettant de gérer l’espace scénique, de modifier la présentation initiale d’un objet. Comment ces gestes spécifiques au métier de médiateur culturel sont-ils transmis aux médiateurs durant la formation organisée à leur arrivée dans une institution culturelle ? Une analyse d’entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès de médiateurs-formateurs a apporté quelques éléments de réponse. Les formateurs reconnaissent l’importance de mobiliser ces gestes professionnels spécifiques durant une séquence de médiation pour transmettre des connaissances bien que la formation reste impensée sur cette dimension professionnelle.
... An affordance points both ways, to the environment and to the observer." [37] (p. 121) By ignoring the subjective-objective dichotomy, those that have been co-joined, predefined, and pre-categorized as a normal grouping, new opportunities and utilities can be realized as this breaks down the preconceived defining features of traditional pairings. ...
... 121) By ignoring the subjective-objective dichotomy, those that have been co-joined, predefined, and pre-categorized as a normal grouping, new opportunities and utilities can be realized as this breaks down the preconceived defining features of traditional pairings. This is the point that Gibson [37] spoke of when he stated: "The theory of affordances rescues us from the philosophical muddle of assuming fixed classes of objects, each defined by its common features and then given a name" (p. 125). ...
... Affordances "The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill" [37] (p. 119). ...
Article
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The current research study presented assemblages theory and the theory of affordances to identify the elements that make up the processes of creativity, innovative, and creativity and innovation. Assemblages involve heterogeneous elements that are associated with and interact with external components. Assemblages include elements that can be either independent or as part of an assemblage. The assemblage comprises elements that contribute to the assemblage, but not all elements are active simultaneously. Each element’s activation and intensity level varies based on context, environment, and constraints. This activation level is represented by lines of flight that aid in showing movement across the elements. Affordances identify agent-to-environment relationships that promote action (abilities and effectivities). The current article identified that creativity affords innovation and innovation affords creativity, interconnecting these two processes as a holistic and composite process from the perspective of affordances theory. The current article provides assemblage maps showing the elements related to creativity, innovation, and creativity and innovation. These assemblage maps highlight virtual and dynamic flight lines that represent potentially active components with varying intensity and direction. Mapping these lines of flight along with the elements for a particular construct (e.g., creativity and innovation) provides a tool for managers and practitioners to identify potentialities for future predictions better.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
Chapter
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What is the best way for democratic societies to experiment with digital surveillance technologies? This chapter contributes to answering this question through the analysis of the relational ideal of democracy. I contend that the relational conception of democracy offers a viable approach to experimentations with new technologies. The relational conception of democracy, which views democracy as a way of life (or culture), supports a deliberative and context-sensitive approach to new digital technologies. To clarify what this approach entails in practice, the chapter discusses the case of South Korea’s introduction of new digital surveillance technologies during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. These reflections shed new light on what democracy means and provide us with valuable insights on how to design post-pandemic democracies.
... In contrast to information processing theories, the role of environment is central when one considers human behavior from an ecological dynamics theoretical perspective. How the environment is perceived in terms of opportunities to move, i.e., affordances, is a key idea from the ecological psychologist James Gibson. Gibson (1979) proposed that humans perceive objects, surfaces, or events by what they offer, invite, or demand in terms of action opportunities. Aquatic environment features such as waves and currents afford different actions for different people, due to, among other constraints, their distinct physical properties, such as their buoyancy (see Fajen e ...
... Aquatic environment features such as waves and currents afford different actions for different people, due to, among other constraints, their distinct physical properties, such as their buoyancy (see Fajen et al., 2008; for key features of affordances discussed in the context of sport). According to Gibson (1979) perceiving the environment in terms of affordances renders dispensable those cognitive processes described above (Section 3.1) that transform action-independent perceptions into action-oriented perceptions. That is, in the process of direct perception, there is no integration and combination of cues involved. ...
Article
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Drowning has been the cause of over 2.5 million preventable deaths in the past decade. Despite the fact that the majority of drownings occur in open water, assessment of water safety competency typically occurs in swimming pools. The assessment of water safety competency in open water environments brings with it a few difficulties, but also promises tremendous benefits. The aim of this position paper is to discuss the benefits and caveats of conducting assessments in open water environments as opposed to closed and controlled environments, and to provide recommendations for evidence-based practice. The first theoretical section discusses the effects of the environment and key variables (such as temperature and water movement) on various factors of assessment. These discussions are linked to the two perspectives of representative learning design (based on ecological dynamics) and information processing theory. The second section presents two pilot studies of relevance and provides practical implications for assessment of water safety competency. It seems that a combination of pool-based practice and open water education may be ideal in assessing aquatic skills competency. Assessment in open water presents clear benefits regarding validity, but often poses seemingly unsurmountable barriers, which providers may have reservations about in the absence of clear evidence. Hence this article provides a robust discussion about competency assessment and signals the practical importance of faithfully reproducing the environment in which skilled behavior is most relevant.
... Assuming that those hypothetical forms also lacked an FAE, it is reasonable to imagine that, like the biobots, they could exist and flourish as autonomous organisms. If this were the case, any embellishments brought about by later morphogenetic propensities or function-generating capabilities could only enhance the ability of successors to explore and create new affordances (Gibson, 1979; see below). In the next section, I describe how animals produce functionally specialized cell types. ...
... all) organisms, phenotypic novelties can serve as enablements for constructing new niches or detecting new 'affordances'. The latter concept, first introduced by the perceptual psychologist James J. Gibson (Gibson, 1979), has been characterized by Denis Walsh, who has made agency central to his evolutionary philosophy, as 'a joint property of a purposive system and the conditions with which it interacts … opportunities for, or impediments to, pursuit of a system's goals' (Walsh, 2015: 163). ...
... Perception-action coupling, which involves perceiving and actualizing affordances, underlies the ability of individuals to successfully and efficiently maneuver through the environment (Davids et al. 2006;Smith and Pepping 2010). Affordance refers to the opportunity for action available to an individual based on their potential to interact with the surrounding environment (Gibson 1979). As such, affordances depend on both the characteristics and capabilities of the individual and on spatiotemporal features of the environment. ...
... In particular, individuals must be attuned to action boundaries, the points at which specific affordances change (Smith and Pepping 2010). Further, individuals must actualize affordances, (i.e., execute actions) in accordance with their perceptions of affordances, and they must do so in an efficient manner (Franchak et al. 2010;Gibson 1979). ...
Article
Perception-action coupling, the ability to ‘read and react’ to the environment, is essential for military personnel to operate within complex and unpredictable environments. Exposure to military operational stressors (e.g., caloric restriction, sleep loss, physical exertion), including around-the-clock operations, may compromise perception-action coupling, thereby impacting performance and safety. We examined the combined effects of simulated military operational stress (SMOS) and time-of-day on perception-action coupling. Fifty-seven active duty and reservist military personnel (45 M; 26.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 5-day SMOS protocol that included two consecutive days of caloric restriction, and sleep restriction, and disruption. Participants completed a tablet-based perception-action coupling task (PACT) that involves perceiving whether virtual balls fit through virtual apertures. Familiarization occurred on day 0. Eight trials across day 1 (18:00, 22:00), 2 (04:00, 18:00, 22:00) and 3 (04:00, 18:00, 22:00) were analyzed. Mixed models were run to examine the interactive and main effects of day, and time-of-day on PACT response speed and accuracy outcomes. PACT response speed and accuracy outcomes improved at 18:00 and 22:00, whereas performance at 04:00 deteriorated across days. Perception-action coupling performance was resilient to SMOS, except in the early morning when the circadian drive for sleep is high, and the effects of sleep loss are more prominent.
... Behavioral research has proved that even if there is no actual intention to act, the observation and indication of objects can even trigger an individual's movement behavior. The possibilities of actions triggered by (actual or even virtual) object features are called "affordances" (Gibson, 1979;Bub and Masson, 2010). In other words, affordances are possibilities for action. ...
... It should be noted that one's perception of the postbox as affording letter-mailing is also determined by this person's previous sociocultural practice (imagine there is a country without a postal system) (cf. Gibson, 1979;de Carvalho, 2020;Borghi, 2021). In the first usage, social affordances can be seen as inherent properties of social surroundings that could constrain the possibilities of the actions executed by an agent. ...
Article
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The American psychoanalyst and developmental psychologist Daniel Stern’s idea of vitality forms might suggest a new solution to explain how other minds are intensely expressed in their actions. Vitality forms characterize the expressive style of actions. The effective perception of vitality forms allows people to recognize the affective states and intentions of others in their actions, and could even open the possibility of properties of objects that are indicated by the given actions. Currently, neurophysiological studies present that there might be a neural mirror mechanism in the dorso-central insula (DCI), middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and other related cerebral areas, which serve to preferably perceive and deliver vitality forms of actions. In this article, possible types of vitality forms related to other minds, which have been brought to particular attention in recent years, have been collected and discussed in the following four areas: (1) Vitality forms on understanding non-verbal intention, (2) on understanding verbal intention, (3) vitality forms as grounding social cognition, and (4) as grounding social emotion. These four areas, however, might refer to an entirety of a binary actor-observer communicative landscape. In this review, we try to simplify the analysis by relying on two fundamental dimensions of criteria: first, the idea of vitality forms is conceived as the most basic way of observing subsequent higher-order dimensions of action, that is, understanding intention in the style of action. Thus, in the first two subsections, the relationships between vitality forms and their roles in understanding non-verbal and verbal intention have been discussed. Second, vitality forms could also be conceived as background conditions of all the other mental categories, that is, vitality forms can ground cognition and emotion in a social context. In the second dimension, the existence of social cognition or emotion depends on the existence of the stylistic kinematics of action. A grounding relation is used to distinguish a ground, that is, vitality forms, and its grounded mental categories. As relating with the domain of social perception, in this review, it has been discussed vitality forms possibly could ground social cognition and social emotion, respectively.
... potential behavioral outcomes within a particular context (Evans et al., 2017;Faraj & Azad, 2012;Hutchby, 2001). First coined by psychologist James Gibson (1979) to refer to all potential action possibilities available to an animal within an environment, it was later extended into HCI research by cognitive scientist Donald Norman (1988) who defined affordances as 'the perceived and actual properties of the thing, primarily those fundamental properties that determine just how the thing could possibly be used ' (1988: 9). While there have been calls in recent years to either clarify the definition of affordances within the literature (Bucher & Helmond, 2017;Evans et al., 2017) or to conceptually expand on it (Costa, 2018;Nagy & Neff, 2015), current definitions of affordances emphasize a relational framework of technology use that accounts for the dynamic interplay between the characteristics of users, features of the technology itself, and the situated nature of its use (Evans et al., 2017). ...
... While there have been calls in recent years to either clarify the definition of affordances within the literature (Bucher & Helmond, 2017;Evans et al., 2017) or to conceptually expand on it (Costa, 2018;Nagy & Neff, 2015), current definitions of affordances emphasize a relational framework of technology use that accounts for the dynamic interplay between the characteristics of users, features of the technology itself, and the situated nature of its use (Evans et al., 2017). Adopting an affordance lens allows researchers to recognize the mutual influence between users and environments (Gibson, 1979) and emphasizes the process or reasons for the relationship between a technology and outcome (Evans et al., 2017). Even though affordances were initially used for conceptualizing interactions with features in physical environments, research in recent years have applied an affordance lens to shed light on the relationship between users and the features of communication platforms such as Social Networking Sites (SNS). ...
Article
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Social media has been documented as widely used for initiating online sales of illicit drugs such as opioids. However, not much is known about how affordances of social networking sites (SNS) influence how dealers advertise their supplies. To explore this topic, social media posts across 5 online platforms (Google Groups, Instagram, Twitter, Reddit, and Tumblr) were collected during 2020–2021. Biterm topic modeling (BTM) was used to identify signal posts specifically associated with the illegal online sale of opioids from drug selling social media accounts. Posts were analyzed by conducting a word count for drug names or slang terms associated with 5 categories: Opioids, Non-Opioid Prescription Controlled Drugs (e.g., Xanax, Valium), Other Illicit Drugs (e.g., Meth, Cocaine), Synthetic Opioids (Fentanyl), and Synthetic Marijuana. Number of mentions per post were calculated for each drug category and compared across platforms. Identifiers (e.g., publicly available email address) associated with posts were used to track dealers across different user accounts. Platforms with affordances for longer messages (e.g., Tumblr) had higher concentrations of drug mentions per post and higher variety of drug type mentions compared to SNS platforms Instagram and Twitter. Google Groups had the most drug mentions per post across all 5 categories. Additionally, each identifier was associated with multiple user accounts on a given platform. These results indicate that affordances of anonymity and message length may influence how drug dealers advertise their services on different platforms. Public health implications and strategies to counteract drug dealers and illicit drug diversion via SNS are also discussed.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
Chapter
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a pervasive digitalization of our social and practical lives. For many, this has signified a substantial loss, with the pandemic underscoring that in-person interactions play a key if not constitutive role in well-being. At the same time, many disabled people and disability rights activists have celebrated the increased accessibility to practical and social spaces enabled by the pandemic-induced embracing of online communication platforms and other digital technologies. With that, the pandemic offers the opportunity to rethink post-pandemic values; prompting us to ask what the pandemic may have taught us about the significance of accessibility and what it means for accessibility to be promoted through technological interventions. Our paper starts from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative. On this basis, we outline two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology. The first conception of accessibility builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology. Using the pandemic as a powerful illustrative case, we show that an affordance-based notion of access underscores the link between a person’s sense of well-being and their habitual sensorimotor embeddedness in a world that they experience as a space of familiarity. In Sect. 10.4, we will present Warm Technology as a paradigmatic example of a design-approach aimed at designing for world-familiarity – thus supporting accessibility in one sense of the word. The second conception of accessibility comes from the field of Crip Technoscience and underscores technology’s potential to create access not by promoting world-familiarity but precisely by creating friction and disruption within habitual familiar practices and ways of perceiving the world – particularly when those practices and perceptions reflect an ableist value-system. Though these two perspectives may appear to be in conflict with one another, our goal is to defend the importance of both. Promoting accessibility, we suggest, involves a readiness to oscillate between two normative imperatives: (1) recognizing how human well-being depends on world-familiarity, which, in turn, can be promoted or thwarted through design and (2) recognizing how world-familiarity can harbor pernicious biases that can be called into question through material gestures of defamiliarization. By presenting these two perspectives as mutually required in efforts to design for accessibility, and, furthermore, by framing the pandemic as an event that has placed us, en masse, in a defamiliarized position capable of attuning us to the normative significance of world-familiarity, we hope to better enable technologists and laypersons alike to reflectively evaluate if and how a technological innovation may (or may not) be access-promoting, such that it can contribute to a more just post-COVID world.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is widely accepted that a liberal state has a general duty to protect its people from undue health risks. However, the unprecedented emergent measures against the COVID-19 pandemic taken by governments worldwide give rise to questions regarding the extent to which this duty may be used to justify suspending a vaccine rollout on marginal safety grounds. In this chapter, I use the case of vaccination to argue that while a liberal state has a general duty to protect its people’s health, there is a limit to the measures this duty can be used to justify. First, I argue that since every available option involves different risks and benefits, the incommensurability of the involved risks and benefits forbids the prioritisation of a particular vaccine. Second, I argue that given epistemic limitations and uncertainty, policies that favour certain vaccines are not only epistemically ill-founded but also morally unacceptable. I conclude that in a highly uncertain situation such as the unfolding pandemic, the duty a liberal state ought to uphold is to properly communicate the knowns and unknowns to the general public and help people decide which option to choose for themselves. I call this duty the duty to facilitate risk-taking.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
Chapter
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The inclusion of stakeholders in science is one of the core ideas in the field of responsible innovation. Conspiracists, however, are not your garden-variety stakeholders. As the COVID-19 pandemic has shown, the conflict between conspiracists and science is deep and intractable. In this paper, we ask how the game of responsible innovation can be played with those who believe that the game is rigged. Understanding the relationship between conspiracism and responsible innovation is necessary in order to understand the unvisited corners of the science-society interface in the post-pandemic future. We claim that pluralism, already part of the philosophical background that spurred responsible innovation, can offer insights into how conspiracism can be approached. As a case in point, we develop these insights starting from the policy on conspiracism developed in 2021 by the European Commission. We show that the ideal of inclusion can only be extended to conspiracists by accepting a pluralist framework, and we explain this pluralist response.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In most countries, including the Netherlands, decision-making about the COVID-19 policy measures was initially based on medical information, and only later did it also include insights from social sciences. However, ethical implications of COVID-19 policy measures have not frequently been explicitly considered. As a result, critical ethical issues have been overlooked, and values, concerns, and emotions have not been considered appropriately. In this chapter, I will argue that emotions can help to make important moral dilemmas around decision-making about COVID-19 explicit and to make ethically justified decisions. I will do so by zooming in specifically on how the Netherlands has handled the pandemic so far. My discussion aims to contribute to morally better and more socially acceptable decision-making about the challenges that COVID-19 poses, as well as to hopefully learn lessons for possible future pandemics.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
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This chapter explores the shift in the balance of individual versus collective values instigated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The incredible viral spread rate among the population and its relatively high fatality rate has initially resulted in an assertion of the primacy of collective values (such as collective safety, collective responsibility, conformism). In contrast, individual rights and values (such as the individual counterparts of autonomy, freedom, responsibility, and privacy) took a ‘back seat’ for the good of the collective. However, as the pandemic extended over the months, there emerged a pressure to reject the primacy of collective values and restore the importance of individual values. If we are to return to a healthy and prosperous living within a well-functioning society, this balance shift between collective and individual values will have to be re-negotiated and resolved to reach a societally acceptable balance position. We conduct this ethical exploration, first, by following the ethico-philosophical discussion on the balance between individual and collective values generally, as well as in times of crisis, with special focus on the COVID-19 crisis. Second, we explore this topic through the lens of recent changes to how particular technologies were and are used before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. More precisely, we identify and explore broad trends we see relevant to ethics – with a particular focus on crowd management and nudging and on the balance shift between individual and collective values. Finally, by exploring findings from a sociophysics case study dealing with crowd management of people before and during the pandemic, we argue that some sociophysical phenomena can be used as proxies for ethical principles. Here, distance is used as a conceptual proxy for individual and collective responsibility, having in mind COVID-19 distancing rules and recommendation. With all the above, we identify several broad trends that have been instigated by the pandemic that are relevant to ethics. These changes relate to future crowd management, nudging, and control; individual (per-person) tracking; insistence on the importance of collective values in times of crisis, and the rejection of this infringement upon individual rights. In this regard, we assert that such value changes are an opportunity to rethink and (re)set balance points between individual and collective rights for each particular society.
... Starting from the premise that promoting accessibility and resisting ableism in technology development are morally imperative, our paper discusses two distinct conceptions of accessibility, paired with two conceptions of how access thus understood can be promoted through technology development. The first conception builds off the notion of affordances, taken from the field of ecological psychology (Gibson, 1979). Using the pandemic as an illustrative case, we show (Sect. ...
... The idea that worlds, in virtue of how they are designed and built, can be more (or less) accessible to some people than to others can be further deepened via the notion of affordances. Affordances, a term coined by ecological psychologist J.J. Gibson, captures the idea that living beings perceive their environment in terms of the practical possibilities for action it affords them as embodied embedded beings (Gibson, 1979; see also Van Grunsven, 2015;Rietveld & Kiverstein, 2014;Dreyfus, 2007). For instance, a chair is built for sitting and a living being whose needs, embodied sensorimotor skills, and socio-cultural practices make sitting desirable, possible, and meaningful will typically directly perceive a chair as affording-to-be-sat-on. ...
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Our world is changing in rapid and unanticipated ways. Given technology’s central role in those changes, engineers face difficult design decisions. In dominant consequentialist and deontological engineering ethics paradigms, making design choices implies having sufficient information on those choices and their trade-offs, which is often lacking. Some scholars have pointed to virtue ethics as an alternative approach to engineering ethics, but how can virtue ethics support engineers in situations of uncertainty? In this chapter, we explore how virtue ethics is conducive to sound engineering in different conditions of uncertainty.
... Although varied in their philosophical frameworks (Newen et al., 2018), these approaches reject "traditional cognitivist" accounts (Menary, 2010) or "sandwich models" (Hurley, 2001) of the perception-cognition-action triad; instead, they aim to understand cognition in terms of its embodied, extended, enactive, or embedded character (hence the "4E" 12 ), i.e., its causal or constitutive dependence from a) the body, taken as a whole, and not just the brain; b) resources external to the individual (such as computing devices, notebooks, etc.); c) the organism's ongoing actions and active sense-making; and d) the natural and social environment with which an organism interacts and in which it lives. Sometimes a fifth "E" is added to emphasize the historical importance of Gibson's (1979Gibson's ( /2015 ecological psychology, which predated by more than 20 years the apparition of contemporary 4E approaches (see Heras-Escribano, 2019). ...
... Although varied in their philosophical frameworks (Newen et al., 2018), these approaches reject "traditional cognitivist" accounts (Menary, 2010) or "sandwich models" (Hurley, 2001) of the perception-cognition-action triad; instead, they aim to understand cognition in terms of its embodied, extended, enactive, or embedded character (hence the "4E" 12 ), i.e., its causal or constitutive dependence from a) the body, taken as a whole, and not just the brain; b) resources external to the individual (such as computing devices, notebooks, etc.); c) the organism's ongoing actions and active sense-making; and d) the natural and social environment with which an organism interacts and in which it lives. Sometimes a fifth "E" is added to emphasize the historical importance of Gibson's (1979Gibson's ( /2015 ecological psychology, which predated by more than 20 years the apparition of contemporary 4E approaches (see Heras-Escribano, 2019). ...
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Conceptual debates in the field of mental health have typically revolved around two core issues: the problem of mind and the problem of normativity. Against the reductivist and eliminativist tendencies that characterize most therapeutic models, in this dissertation we advance a pragmatist and non-descriptivist approach to mental health -a “philosophy of mental health without mirrors”. This approach rejects the idea that folk-psychological interpretation subserves a primarily descriptive and causal-explanatory function. Rather, it highlights its evaluative and regulative dimensions, while at the same time retaining their truth-aptness. In doing so, it offers a non-reductivist, yet compatibilist approach to the mind and normativity, which affords a better conceptual framework for mental health. We then explore its consequences for the debate around the doxastic status of delusional experiences and its implications for the intervention with people with delusions. Drawing from this non-descriptivist approach, we claim that doxasticism about delusions can and must be defended not on the grounds of its scientific value, but on the grounds of its ethical and political virtues. We conclude that non-cognitivist, functional-analytic approaches to the intervention with people with delusions offer a better model than their cognitivist counterparts, and we point out several ways in which our non-descriptivist approach could help to enhance their efficacy and clinical significance.
... The notion that task conflict is triggered in Stroop congruent and word neutral trials is based on the classic psychological idea that stimuli have the ability to trigger a task that is strongly associated with them (Gibson, 2014;Koch & Allport, 2006;Monsell, 2003;Waszak et al., 2003) and that, accordingly, words trigger the automatic reading task (Rogers & Monsell, 1995). Thus, the irrelevant reading task is a stimulus-driven task that needs to be suppressed to perform efficiently. ...
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The Stroop task is characterized by two types of conflicts—information conflict (between the incongruent word and ink color) and task conflict (between the relevant color-naming task and the competing, irrelevant, stimulus-driven, word reading task). It is not yet clear what stimuli trigger the task of reading, and thus task conflict, and to what extent. In the current study, we applied a novel low-control (high neutral proportion) between-subject design to test the effect of different neutral conditions (symbols, same-letter strings, illegal-letter strings, pseudo-words, and real-words) on task conflict, in both manual and vocal response-types. Results indicated that in the manual task, a reverse facilitation effect, a signature of task conflict, appeared in all non-word conditions in a similar magnitude, but did not appear in the real-words condition. In the vocal task, reverse facilitation was found only in the symbols condition, regular facilitation was exhibited in all other neutral conditions, and larger facilitation appeared in the real-words condition. Our results indicate that the reading process and the activation of task conflict, depend on response-types (manual vs. vocal). In both response-types we found support for a word superiority effect, such that words trigger task conflict to a greater extent, however, we only observed an orthographic effect in the vocal response-type where stimuli consisting of letters triggered the reading task. We concluded that in the manual response-type, conflict arises only in the lexical route, whilst in the vocal response-type, conflict arises in the lexical and orthographic routes.
... A physical customer journey might involve a customer traversing past a shop front, through the store entry, past product displays, and on to a checkout counter. These procedures are similar to Gibson's (1950Gibson's ( , 1966Gibson's ( , 1979 framing of individuals' environmental perception. A virtual customer journey could begin with a location-based coupon sent to a customer through a store's Online portal, leading them to a virtual journey past product availability displays on an appbased map of the high street, through a virtual purchase procedure, and on to a physical pick-up location in a tangible store. ...
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Background In this paper, we consider the applicability of the customer journey framework from retailing as a driver for urban informatics at individual scales within urban science. The customer journey considers shopper experiences in the context of shopping paths, retail service spaces, and touch-points that draw them into contact. Around this framework, retailers have developed sophisticated data science for observation, identification, and measurement of customers in the context of their shopping behavior. This knowledge supports broad data-driven understanding of customer experiences in physical spaces, economic spaces of decision and choice, persuasive spaces of advertising and branding, and inter-personal spaces of customer-staff interaction. Method We review the literature on pedestrian and high street retailing, and on urban informatics. We investigate whether the customer journey could be usefully repurposed for urban applications. Specifically, we explore the potential use of the customer journey framework for producing new insight into pedestrian behavior, where a sort of empirical hyperopia has long abounded because data are always in short supply. Results Our review addresses how the customer journey might be used as a structure for examining how urban walkers come into contact with the built environment, how people actively and passively sense and perceive ambient city life as they move, how pedestrians make sense of urban context, and how they use this knowledge to build cognition of city streetscapes. Each of these topics has relevance to walking studies specifically, but also to urban science more generally. We consider how retailing might reciprocally benefit from urban science perspectives, especially in extending the reach of retailers' insight beyond store walls, into the retail high streets from which they draw custom. Conclusion We conclude that a broad set of theoretical frameworks, data collection schemes, and analytical methodologies that have advanced retail data science closer and closer to individual-level acumen might be usefully applied to accomplish the same in urban informatics. However, we caution that differences between retailers’ and urban scientists’ viewpoints on privacy presents potential controversy.
... To understand the meaning-making process in a place, the affordance theory is an appropriate approach. The affordance theory (Gibson, 1979), originating from cognitive psychology, addresses the properties of an object that allows for specific actions by an individual. Since then, the affordance theory has been widely adopted by scholars from different disciplines. ...
Article
Livehouse is a small venue for live music performance, a term commonly used in the Asian context. This article adopts an insider’s perspective to look at the connections between livehouse and its audiences. Instead of treating spaces and objects as silent textures of live music experiences, we regard livehouse as an active site filled with ideas and feelings. The meaning of livehouse is made by audiences through both human and non-human agents and extends to the broader social and cultural context of Shanghai. By highlighting the power of things and networking in between, this article combines the affordance theory to illustrate the experiential dimensions and interpretive processes of livehouse audiences in Shanghai. Drawing on ethnographic data from 26 in-depth interviews and participant observation, we conclude the social, cultural, and emotional affordances of livehouses perceived through tangible and intangible objects and settings.
... Importantly, VR allows the user to interact with a first-person and adaptive viewpoint of the simulated environment in real-time (Harris et al., 2019). This preservation of the normal perception-action coupling means VR allows each individual to develop a particular interaction with the world and to experience it according to their skills, knowledge, and morphology (Gibson, 1979;Fajen and Warren, 2007). In addition, advances in technology have made it possible to record eye gaze location in the VR environment, and thus introduce and determine the impact of a gaze-contingent blur manipulation. ...
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It has been reported that behavior of experts and novices in various sporting tasks is impervious to the introduction of blur. However, studies have used diverse methods of blurring the visual stimulus (i.e., dioptric blur and Gaussian blur), and tasks that did not always preserve the normal perception-action coupling. In the current study, we developed a novel experimental protocol to examine the e􀀀ect of di􀀀erent levels of Gaussian blur on interception performance and eye gaze data using an immersive VR task. Importantly, this provided a realistic simulation of a real-world boxing scenario (e.g., the presence of a feint prior to the onset of di􀀀erent combinations of punches) in which expert combat athletes (n = 18) experienced a first-person, adaptive viewpoint of the visual environment, which could be blurred according to their gaze location (central blur, peripheral blur, no blur). We found that participants exhibited similar interception performance in the presence of central blur or peripheral blur compared to a control condition with no blur. However, interception performance was significantly better with a central blur compared to peripheral blur. Eye gaze data indicated that although participants fixated at similar areas of interest irrespective of the presence of blur, fixation duration was significantly longer with a strong level of blur in the peripheral viewing condition than all levels of central blur and the control condition. These findings can be explained by relocating attention to di􀀀erent areas of the environment, which thereby influenced the perception of salient information. Participants also performed better on the first punch of a sequence preceded by a foot feint compared to arm feint or no feint. Still, irrespective of feint type, performance was significantly better on the second and third punch compared to the first punch. These findings are consistent with participants using additional information from the opponent’s body movements and situational probabilities to increase performance as the sequence of punches developed. Overall, these are the first evidence for the use of VR as a means to examine gaze-contingent manipulations of the environment, and hence highlight the potential for facilitating learning and transfer to a real sporting situations.
... Введение термина «аффорданс» в философское поле позволит избежать «…путаницы, связанной с философским принципом, согласно которому объекты объединяются в фиксированные классы по определенным общим признакам, а затем этим классам даются названия. Но при наличии класса объектов, которому присвоено имя, нельзя определить необходимые и достаточные признаки, задающие этот класс» [10]. Принцип фиксированных классов определяет строгие границы использования объектов классификации, в то время как аффорданс не требует знания признаков и названия классов, а дает возможность найти применение этим объектам для достижения поставленных целей, но уже в других областях и сферах применения. ...
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Aim to determine the typology of weapons and to substantiate the need to assess the degree of destructive impact of the affordances of artifacts used as weapons on the surrounding objects and society as a whole. The Michael Cole's theory was used as the methodological basis of the study, which has a great applicative potential and allows you to give an object a comprehensive description. An "artifact" is a material man-made object produced in the process of creative transformation and intended for a specific purpose. The term "affordance", introduced by James Gibson, is interpreted as a "potential opportunity" for a detailed analysis of all possible options for the use of an artefact, depending on the person's current intentions. The author considers the process of active cognitive activity of the subject resulting in the invention of new functions of material objects from the standpoint of epistemological realism. The existing classification of weapons, from the point of view of the process of meaning formation, does not fully reveal all the features of its creation and functions laid down at the stages of design and production. The article presents the original typology of weapons based on the analysis of the stages of the evolution of mankind, the change in scientific representation of the world and the types of scientific rationality. The strict legislative regulation of the trade, production, acquisition, carrying and use of certain types of weapons pushes people, in cases of a threat to their life and health, to use ordinary household items as means of protection. Under these conditions, there is a need to revise existing approaches and methods for examination and evaluation of artefacts created by people that allow their use as a weapon.
... To explore the changes of judgement devices in digitalised art and cultural markets, we have to pay close attention to the transformations of their 'action possibilities', also known as affordances (Chemero, 2003;Gibson, 1979). Borrowed from ecological psychology, the concept of affordances has been introduced into the social sciences with applications in sociology and anthropology (Bloomfield et al., 2010;Ingold, 2018), into management (Autio et al., 2018;Jarzabkowski & Pinch, 2013), and more recently into marketing and consumer research (Borghini et al., 2021;Kozinets et al., 2021;Marion, 2017). ...
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This study explores the evolution of the music industry in the digital age by focusing on market intermediation. Drawing on Karpik’s (2010) economics of singularities, it aims to understand how digital technologies have transformed cultural intermediaries in the context of the independent music market. More-than-human (n)ethnography supported by depth interviews and secondary data analysis is used to provide new insights into the persistent function of judgement devices in digitalised markets. The findings highlight the material and axiological affordances of judgement devices and show how they provide opportunities for consumers whose intentions affect the actions of judgement devices. Although digitalisation has enhanced consumer empowerment, our study also reveals how actors of the indie music market experience the persistence of power relations in the music industry and the paradoxes of digitalisation. By focusing on the complex nature of technocultural changes, this paper offers a nuanced understanding of the (un)changing role of cultural intermediaries in digitalised markets.
... Acoustic features play roles in the building design process, street layouts, and other physical elements in the urban environment and constitute aural architecture pertinent to shaping the SoP. Even though individuals have different perceptions about the place, sound contributes to it [89]. Architectural components of sound affect the SoP in various ways, from the building form and the construction materials used in their interiors and exteriors to situating the structure within its broader surrounding context. ...
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This study revisits the sense of place and sound nexus in the literature. Along with that, it seeks to explore the approaches that influential urban theorists, landscape architects, and planners have recommended. How these concepts converge within the allied disciplines of urban planning, urban design, geography, and landscape architecture remains at the forefront of this investigation. This research proposes a conceptual framework by identifying sounds in three key categories—auditory experience, sound, and silence—to address the gap between sound and urban studies. The study reveals decisive patterns in urban studies’ interface between the sense of place and the sound context.
... Affordance, an ecological, psychological viewpoint, is what the environment offers to individuals. Affordance does not depend on the ability of the individual to recognize or use it 19,33 . Affordance is also defined by Turvey as the environmental relational characteristics 34 , integrated by the effectivity of www.nature.com/scientificreports/ the actor. ...
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Dynamic locomotion is realized through a simultaneous integration of adaptability and optimality. This article proposes a neuro-cognitive model for a multi-legged locomotion robot that can seamlessly integrate multi-modal sensing, ecological perception, and cognition through the coordination of interoceptive and exteroceptive sensory information. Importantly, cognitive models can be discussed as micro-, meso-, and macro-scopic; these concepts correspond to sensing, perception, and cognition; and short-, medium-, and long-term adaptation (in terms of ecological psychology). The proposed neuro-cognitive model integrates these intelligent functions from a multi-scopic point of view. Macroscopic-level presents an attention mechanism with short-term adaptive locomotion control conducted by a lower-level sensorimotor coordination-based model. Macrosopic-level serves environmental cognitive map featuring higher-level behavior planning. Mesoscopic level shows integration between the microscopic and macroscopic approaches, enabling the model to reconstruct a map and conduct localization using bottom-up facial environmental information and top-down map information, generating intention towards the ultimate goal at the macroscopic level. The experiments demonstrated that adaptability and optimality of multi-legged locomotion could be achieved using the proposed multi-scale neuro-cognitive model, from short to long-term adaptation, with efficient computational usage. Future research directions can be implemented not only in robotics contexts but also in the context of interdisciplinary studies incorporating cognitive science and ecological psychology.
... Moreover, children spent less time alone in a higher-quality play yard with defined and different play areas. Different materials, toys, and floor surfaces divided into different play areas may broaden possibilities for social proximity, as previously argued [13,18,52]. Interestingly, in another study involving the outdoors and preschool children, an increased number of nearby play settings and moveable loose parts led children to be more active and mobile between settings to join peers in other play and social activities [50]. ...
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The ability to initiate and engage in relationships is a critical landmark and predictor of children’s development and well-being. In kindergarten, children exhibit greater social participation outdoors rather than indoors. Indeed, the physical environment influences preschoolers’ social proximity. In this study, we examine the relationship between the quality of kindergartens’ outdoor physical environment and preschoolers’ social functioning. Two kindergartens in Gondomar, Portugal, were selected to participate according to different levels of their physical environment outdoors (poor and fair quality) and measured by a specific physical environment rating scale. Twenty-six children (aged 3–6, 10 boys) participated in this study. Children’s social proximity at the playground was measured through Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID). Mann–Whitney statistical tests were used to compare social proximity between groups. Our results showed that in the higher quality outdoor area, children spent less time alone and more time in social proximity with their peers in smaller groups (one or two children). More time was also spent in social proximity with different genders. Our study emphasizes the critical importance of reviewing kindergartens’ outdoor physical environments to support preschoolers’ social needs in a more challenging and diverse setting.
... That is why visual ergonomics is significant in spatial design. As Gibson [19] suggested, visual perception acts as a guide to move from one place to another to reach its destination, which involves identification visibility discussions. Filippidis et al. [15] noted the need to ensure clear visibility of the signage system, which improves wayfinding and access to destination information in public spaces. ...
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This study argues that medical data should be better utilized and attention should be paid to the patient’s visual experience during their journey to the emergency department (ED). Wayfinding in medical settings remains a challenge for patients. One reason is that decision makers do not adequately understand what the patients have seen and been through during their journey in the ED built environment, which leads to inaccurate selection and misplacement of signage. This study claims that there is still room to optimize existing wayfinding design methods. This study selected a representative large-scale general hospital in China, collected the annual healthcare information system (HIS) data of ED patients in 2021, and reproduced the clinical process of ED patients in the form of a probability treemap through categorical analysis. Furthermore, Massmotion was used to simulate the patient’s journey and obtain their vision focus area (VFA). With the VFA and field observation record, the research targeted 17 wall surfaces in the ED built environment. On the basis of the comparative analysis, we found the misplacement of the current signage system and the direction of future optimization. This method can provide a reference for designers during their decision-making process to aim for an efficient wayfinding system.
... The Proteus effect involves induced body-related changes, e.g., the embodiment of increased cognitive abilities (Banakou et al., 2018). Gibson's Theory of Affordances (Gibson, 1977;Gibson, 1979) postulates that our body serves as a reference frame for perception as objects in our environment are perceived with regard to their affordances or options for action. Accordingly, recent embodied cognition theories emphasize that body representations and body-related information interact with cognitive processes (Dijkerman & Lenggenhager, 2018;Hommel, 2015;Wilson, 2002). ...
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Virtual reality allows users to experience a sense of ownership of a virtual body-a phenomenon commonly known as the body ownership illusion. Researchers and designers aim at inducing a body ownership illusion and creating embodied experiences using avatars-virtual characters that represent the user in the digital world. In accordance with the real world where humans own a body and interact via the body with the environment, avatars thereby enable users to interact with virtual worlds in a natural and intuitive fashion. Interestingly, previous work revealed that the appearance of an avatar can change the behavior, attitude, and perception of the embodying user. For example, research found that users who embodied attractive or tall avatars behaved more confidently in a virtual environment than those who embodied less attractive or smaller avatars. Alluding to the versatility of the Greek God Proteus who was said to be able to change his shape at will, this phenomenon was termed the Proteus effect. For designers and researchers of virtual reality applications, the Proteus effect is therefore an interesting and promising phenomenon to positively affect users during interaction in virtual environments. They can benefit from the limitless design space provided by virtual reality and create avatars with certain features that improve the users' interaction and performance in virtual environments. To utilize this phenomenon, it is crucial to understand how to design such avatars and their characteristics to create more effective virtual reality applications and enhanced experiences. Hence, this work explores the Proteus effect and the underlying mechanisms with the aim to learn about avatar embodiment and the design of effective avatars. This dissertation presents the results of five user studies focusing on the body ownership of avatars, and how certain characteristics can be harnessed to make users perform better in virtual environments than they would in casual embodiments. Hence, we explore methods for inducing a sensation of body ownership of avatars and learn about perceptual and physiological consequences for the real body. Furthermore, we investigate whether and how an avatar's realism and altered body structures affect the experience. This knowledge is then used to induce body ownership of avatars with features connected with high performance in physical and cognitive tasks. Hence, we aim at enhancing the users' performance in physically and cognitively demanding tasks in virtual reality. We found that muscular and athletic avatars can increase physical performance during exertion in virtual reality. We also found that an Einstein avatar can increase the cognitive performance of another user sharing the same virtual environment. This thesis concludes with design guidelines and implications for the utilization of the Proteus effect in the context of human-computer interaction and virtual reality.
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Research has repeatedly suggested that an external focus of attention is far superior to an internal focus of attention in motor learning and performance. Such findings have been explained through the lens of automaticity, as focusing externally on something outside your body should promote efficient and subconscious execution of any given motor action. In this paper, I critically review evidence and propose an alternative mechanism to explain why various foci are effective. Information, and its relevance to the task at hand, are at the center of this alternative view. The strong conclusions recently put forth in favor of an external focus, and the dismissal of all internal foci, appear unfounded. Researchers and practitioners should keep exploring attentional strategies that promote task-relevant information attunement.
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The processes by which the Musical Dance Accompaniment (AMD) carries out its task are, in most cases, of an intuitive nature, and it lacks specific and grounded training. In fact, it is worth noting the lack of systematic research that objectively and clearly identifies the perceptual, cognitive and expressive strategies underlying its practice. This situation has repercussions on the minor, and even subordinate, status that this professional has in the context of dance training. It is in the context of this gap that this investigation is inscribed, seeking through the analysis of movement (body rhythmic reading), the analysis of the relationship between phrase of movement and adequate musical creation, as well as through the identification of adaptability strategies, to arrive at a characterization and foundation of this musical practice.
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Significant disagreement remains in ethics about the duties we have towards wild animals. This paper aims to mediate those disagreements by exploring how they are supported by, or diverge from, the common-sense ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice popular in medical ethics. We argue that these principles do not clearly justify traditional conservation or a ‘hands-off ’ approach to wild-animal welfare; instead, they support natural negative duties to reduce the harms that we cause as well as natural positive duties to promote the welfare of wild animals.
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Artikeln visar resultat från tre svenska undersökningar av friluftslivet under covid-19, med speciellt fokus på nya trender och utmaningar i förvaltningen av natur för friluftsliv under och efter pandemin. Undersökningarna gjordes alla under våren och sommaren 2020 i tre olika skalor; nationellt, regionalt och lokalt med hjälp av enkäter, intervjuer och Public Participation GIS (PPGIS). Studierna ingår i olika forskningsinsatser på Mittuniversitetet, Göteborgs universitet och Kristianstad Högskola, och två av dem är finansierade genom forsknings-och samverkansprogrammet Mistra Sport & Outdoors. Resultaten visar bland annat att: 1. Naturen i närområdet har fått en viktig roll för utövandet av friluftsliv. 2. Det har skett en kraftig ökning, och ökad koncentration, av "nya" besökare i populära naturområden, exempelvis nationalparker och naturreservat. Samtidigt har ökningen lett till förskjutning av besökare i naturen. 3. Många svarar att deras friluftslivsvanor har ändrats på grund av pandemin och flera påpekar att de kommer fortsätta med de nya vanorna också efter pandemin. 4. Folk söker sig till naturen framförallt för att återhämta sig och få energi, för att naturen är en säker plats fri från oro samt för att umgås socialt. 5. Friluftsliv i kombination med fysisk aktivitet har fått stor betydelse under pandemin, vilket kan kopplas till upplevd hälsa. Promenader, vandring, löpning och cykling är särskilt populära aktiviteter i det hänseendet. 6. Naturen har fått större betydelse som socialt rum, en 'fristad', under pandemin. Folk umgås mer och oftare med varandra ute i naturen. 7. Det aktiva friluftslivet och vistelser i naturen har blivit en livsstil för allt fler som inte vistades så ofta i naturen innan pandemin. Köp av utrustning för friluftsliv har också ökad. 8. Observerade konflikter kopplat till ändrade friluftsvanor under pandemin är ökad trängsel på stigar, spår och leder samt parkeringsplatser, brist på hänsyn samt mer skräp i naturen.
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This article argues in favor of representing the spatial distribution of information within and between documents, by surveying a broad variety of potential applications, including the entire document lifecycle, multiple sensory modalities, and a large spectrum of tasks and users. The theoretical explanations of this richness are a further facet of the article, and can be summarized as follows: (1) insights emerge from focusing on information structure, rather than information meaning; (2) spatializing information creates new information; (3) simplification increases the polyvalence of representation models; (4) introducing mystery in communication channels motivates discovery and diversifies insights; (5) approaching information design as a Gesamtkunstwerk multiplies the applications; (6) information is a manifestation of a link between structures and the actions these enable, while information design is the art and science of creating such links. The argument is developed around the concrete example of a document structure visualization, the Document Towers, which uses the metaphor of architectural models to represent documents.
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The chapter presents semiotics, the “science of signs,” as a “meta-” disciplinary device, with the aim to reconcile it with psychology and enable a mutual translation: the post-cognitivist paradigm of enactivism is employed to give conducted improvisation (a type of structured, collective, musical improvisation) a theoretical framework, and, conversely, conducted improvisation is employed as a metaphor of enactivism, as something capable to make this paradigm better understandable. The works of philosopher Alva Noë provide a solid reference point in highlighting the specificities of enactivism. Butch Morris’ Conduction and John Zorn’s game pieces, and Cobra in particular, serve as cases in point.
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Offering an intimate history of how small things were used, handled, and worn, this collection shows how objects such as mugs and handkerchiefs were entangled with quotidian practices and rituals of bodily care. Small things, from tiny books to ceramic trinkets and toothpick cases, could delight and entertain, generating tactile pleasures for users while at the same time signalling the limits of the body's adeptness or the hand's dexterity. Simultaneously, the volume explores the striking mobility of small things: how fans, coins, rings, and pottery could, for instance, carry political, philosophical, and cultural concepts into circumscribed spaces. From the decorative and playful to the useful and performative, such small things as tea caddies, wampum beads, and drawings of ants negotiated larger political, cultural, and scientific shifts as they transported aesthetic and cultural practices across borders, via nationalist imagery, gift exchange, and the movement of global goods.
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Are the distinctions between past, present and future, and the apparent ‘passage’ of time, features of the world in itself, or manifestations of the human perspective? Questions of this kind have been at the heart of metaphysics of time since antiquity. The latter view has much in common with pragmatism, though few in these debates are aware of that connection, and few of the view’s proponents think of themselves as pragmatists. For their part, pragmatists are often unaware of this congenial application of their methodology; some associate pragmatism with the other side of the old debate in the metaphysics of time. In my view, this link between time and pragmatism only scratches the surface of the deep two-way dependencies between these two topics. The human temporal perspective turns out to be deeply implicated not merely in our temporal notions themselves, but in many other conceptual categories – arguably, in fact, in all of them, and in the nature of language and thought. In this way, reflection on our own temporal character vindicates James’ famous slogan for global pragmatism: ‘The trail of the human serpent is thus over everything.’
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Prokopchuk Y. (2022). Intuition: The Experience of Formal Research. Dnipro, Ukraine: PSACEA Press ISBN 978-966-323-188-4 (1st edition). References
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This chapter provides an account of how the index, in its means to exploit dialogic exchange, enhances inference-making.
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Datafication increasingly transforms all layers of societal functions with specific ramifications. With digital technologies becoming increasingly central to how activists organize for collective action, there is a need to better understand data-related practices. To interrogate the role of technologies in the dynamics of a movement's 'backstage' organizational practices, we analyzed a communicative episode by pro-democracy activists of 2019 Hong Kong. With 'data-as-repertoire,' activists mobilized data-based tactics to escalate protest activities in order to oppose a proposed extradition bill. The bill was perceived by activists as China's exertion of control on the semi-autonomous region-a unique status stipulated under 'one country two systems' for 50 years since the handover from British colonial rule in 1997. One such tactic was the use of the chat app Telegram's polling feature to make collective decisions. Applying a communication as constitutive of organization (CCO) approach, the concept of technology affordances-the possibilities of action generated from actors' engagement with a specific technology-is appropriated to focus on authorship affordances for authority practices. We further apply the concept of organizationality-a proposed set of criteria for the degree to which a social collective displays organizational characteristics to instantiate the organizationally constitutive elements in the authorship/authority dynamics of the polling texts. For our analysis of Telegram polls, we apply the matters of concern to matters of authority framework. It points to how matters of concern voiced by someone can become legitimized through the collective negotiation of its meaning through communication. Our findings reveal three authorship affordances of Telegram that shaped how concerns were communicated and gained authority status: anonymity, temporal boundary, and affect in dialogue. We make three contributions to the literature. First, we provide a refined use of the affordances concept, which can be widely applied to different forms of ICTs to interrogate their influences on data-related practices in contentious politics. Second, we demonstrate the utility of the organizationality concept with its three criteria to shed light on backstage movement Achieving Organizationality through the Communicative Affordances Authorship 2 organizing dynamics. Third, we show the applicability of the matters of concern and matters of authority framework to bracketing the processual dynamics of ICTs interactions in our analysis.
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‘Strong programme’ buildings are defined in space syntax theory as those where diverse groups of people and activities come together in a well-defined manner. Airports are one such functional typology of complex buildings with strong programmes, where passenger movement is highly defined by spatio-temporal factors such as operational flight schedules and designated spaces for different user groups. In addition to their primary functions as transport hubs other uses can include retail units, leisure, and service spaces. To pre-empt issues with the circulation system, thereby improving passenger experience, agent-based models are required to assess flows in the preliminary stages of airport designs. This case study demonstrates the application of an extended simulation framework called Flow, to airside activities in an airport terminal extension project in North America. Given the lack of data, predicting, and simulating movement patterns in an unbuilt project usually requires a large set of assumptions as input for modelling. Due to its well-defined programme, modelling assumptions in this project were built up from various data sources including detailed passenger surveys and flight schedules from recent years (2015 and 2019). The proposed design option was assessed during the peak three-hour scenario, on a Friday evening (7pm-10pm). The journeys of 9,000 passengers with eight unique profiles and itineraries were simulated. Business and leisure passengers were further categorised as originating, arriving, or connecting passengers where each passenger was assigned a journey that included shopping, eating, using a restroom, and visiting terraces with a pre-assigned dwelling time. The originating and destination flights were paired using a routing dataset and distributed between gates. All destination units were weighted by their area, frontage visibility from the floor, proximity to decision-making points and the shortest detour to destinations. In summary, the case demonstrates how a sophisticated agent-based model along with spatial analysis provided critical insights, thus informing the design process. The extended framework Flow enabled the simulation of complex itineraries of different user groups in a strong programme building. Outputs helped inform designers to enhance passenger experience by improving legibility and wayfinding early in the design process. Also, ideal locations for concessions were identified to increase benefit from footfall as well as to minimise travel time between gates and facilities. Though dealing with a specific case here, this process of evidencebased-design demonstrates potential for applicability in the design of complex buildings in general.
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As discussed in the previous chapter the first few years of a child’s life are important for its mental and physical development. This is because it is in the early years of a child’s life that there is the most significant lifetime growth of the brain and the nervous system. This is specifically with regard to new neural connections and the strengthening of existing connections. Furthermore, the early years of a child’s life are also important with regard to overall motor development. This is due to the fact that in the early years of a child’s life the roots of the advanced motor responses, such as being able to jump up in the air and land on two feet, of later life are put down due to the physical interactions of the infant with its external environment. Imaging of the brain suggests that motor activity and the completion of cognitive tasks co-activate both the neo-cerebellum and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This causality is also supported by the experiences of psychologists and educationalists specialising in childhood development. Moreover, the theories associated with childhood development rely upon the causality between motor and cognitive development. Piaget’s theory on the childhood development of cognition is associated with the actualisation of the brain associated with thinking due to physical movements. Similarly, Systems Theory proposes that the movement of body parts such as the limbs and eyes is caused by the joint action of cognitive and motor processes. Moreover, the theory of the Ecological Perspective suggests that infants can draw upon and process visual information so as to produce physical movements. Those motor skills more closely associated with interaction with cognition were those associated with picking up and holding objects as well as the timing of the associated movements, these effects being stronger in the pre-teenage years of a child than in its teenage years. A bi-directionality has also been detected with regard to the cognition-academic nexus. In other words, consistent exposure to high-quality schooling will aid the development of a child’s cognitive and academic ability. Pre-school education is also important, as it is at this stage of development that a child acquires the beginnings of the Theory of Mind concepts, perpetual awareness and the start of inductive and deductive reasoning. The pre-school enrolment will help the child develop his/her language and mathematics skills. It has also been found that early pre-school enrolment will have a positive impact on a child’s cognitive development from an age of 6 to late adolescence, aged 18. The level of development accessible to a child in the first three years of its life will have a lifetime impact. However, it is at this stage that parents struggle with balancing work with childcare—more free time for the parents may allow them to give quality parenting to their child. Families would benefit from the public provision of in-kind quality child care, in this case. Although it is only in late childhood that children acquire or complete the development of inferential awareness, relational and deductive reasoning and the awareness of cognitive processes. The link between the development of cognitive abilities in children and specific parts of the brain has been established by such programmes as the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, which makes available baseline data on the brain development of over 11,000 US children. The data associated with brain development is acquired using magnetic resonance imaging. Other studies have shown that the causality between motor skills and cognitive activity is strongest in infants. In the study of cognition in infants, executive functions such the ability to concentrate, working memory and mental agility have been used as measures of cognition. The level of development of executive functions in infants is seen as an efficient indicator of a child’s school academic performance. This has been specifically associated with the level of working memory. The development of working memory will also allow young children to develop the ability to order events. The lateral prefrontal cortex of the brain is associated with the development of behaviour, language and cognition. Some studies have also shown a strong connection between the level of agility and working memory as well as between the level of agility and the depth of concentration. However, although the inter-relatedness of motor development and cognitive ability has been recognised through research, the emotional development of the child is also important in facilitating the development of learning in a child’s early years. Nevertheless, the motor development of a child up to the age of 4 will have a positive impact on the child’s cognitive capacity in terms of working memory capacity and the ability to solve problems from the age of 6 to the age of 11. But the facilitation of the development of the motor skills of very young children will also facilitate the lifelong development of cognitive ability. There is therefore the possibility that the development of cognition from a very young age to adulthood and beyond may follow in sequential stages.
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Space concepts are presented in the diversity of social space constructions and relationships and a synthesis is proposed. Social space encompasses and orders the social positions of people (Bourdieu). These people have certain ideas about space, which are socially largely determined, but must be newly established by individual actualization (Werlen). At the level of societies, different functional sub-systems also differ. Through the spatially related action of these subsystems, the appropriated physical space is inscribed in the physical space as the basis of the material world (Läpple). These relational inscriptions often reduce the influence of physical space on humans (Stichweh). In the course of functional differentiation, society (at least) has produced a social subsystem that deals with the scientific construction of space by conceiving space (at least) as a physical object, as a social idea of space and as an everyday world of action (Soja). These relations on the different levels of spatial imagination are based on specific power relations, which manifest themselves in the social definition of ideas of space, but also in the inscriptions in physical spaces. So “minorities” (Paris, 2005), such as mostly economically disadvantaged, immigrants, women, etc., have less chance to inscribe their needs in these physical spaces because they are usually underrepresented in decision-making bodies.
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This Chapter provides a new characterization of gestural performativesGestural Performative, providing a semiotic analysis of their dialogic meaning—that performatives function as action signs, specifically indexes.
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This chapter develops strategic management from a strong process point of view to postulate how strategy implementation can be understood. We will do that by basing ourselves on Theodore Schatzki’s Theory of Practice. This allows us to understand strategic management as a continuous implementation process that generates both persistence and change. Consequently, strategy formulation then becomes another implementation activity, instead of it being seen as something separate preceding strategy implementation. Strategic management then refers to all activities that direct and channel the process that is continuously going on anyway into a desired pattern.
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