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The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, Religious Experience, and the Self in Early America

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... En este contexto, los protestantes comprenden que la cultura se funda y sobrevive gracias a un grupo de elegidos que fundamentan un círculo de excepción pues reciben directamente de Dios su gracia divina. Es por demás interesante observar la relación de esta cultura de la ejemplaridad en Estados Unidos y su forma de hacer política en lo interno y externo (Greven 1988;Lipset 1997;Tyrrell, 1991;Koh 2003;Korstanje 2015). ...
... Por su parte, Greven (1988) explica que puede hablarse de un "temperamento protestante", formado por tres tipos ideales adaptativos, a) los evangélicos, b) los moderados, y c) los gentiles. ...
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Korstanje M 2016 Inglaterra y el Turismo Oscuro: los orígenes de la Tanaptosis. RITUR. Revista Iberoamericana de Turismo. Volume 2, issue 2 Diciembre 2016. Available at http://www.seer.ufal.br/index.php/ritur/issue/view/193. Universidade Federal de Algoras (Brasil) & Universitat de Girona (España). Penedo, Algoas, Brasil. ISSN 2236-6040. Resumen La presente pieza de revisión interroga sobre los orígenes y evolución del turismo oscuro dentro del Reino Unido. A primera vista, esta nación ofrece un fértil terreno de exploración para las prácticas de turismo oscuro, que por varios motivos no se han replicado en América Latina. Los objetivos del presente ensayo son dobles. Por un lado, hacemos una revisión profunda de la historia cultural de Inglaterra a la vez, que por el otro, situamos el concepto de Thanaptosis que discute la literatura vigente, dentro del contexto cultural del protestantismo, y del capitalismo mortuorio. Palabras-claves: Muerte, Turismo Oscuro, Inglaterra, Logro, Protestantismo. 1 INTRODUCCIÓN En las últimas décadas, diversos estudios se han enfocado en el turismo oscuro como un nuevo segmento de visitantes que tiene por principal motivación la búsqueda de destinos donde predomina " la muerte " como principal factor de atracción (Seaton 1996; Wight 2006). Aun cuando los estudios de este tipo de casos se remontan a la década de los 90, no menos cierto parece ser que luego del advenimiento del nuevo milenio trajo consigo eventos que de alguna u otra manera pusieron a occidente en vilo. Desde los ataques al Word Trade Centre, hasta huracanes de grado 5 y terremotos devastadores, todo a la orden del día con el fin de formular una cultural " apocalíptica " que fue reconducida hacia una economía global de consumo (Klein, 2007). En términos del filósofo Jean Baudrillard, el sistema capitalista hacía de los riesgos no solo un entretenimiento, el cual podía ser consumido en forma de espectáculo, sino un mecanismo para producir " pseudo
... The Puritans recognized the value of churches and schools in producing motivated and skilled workers (Adair, 1982;Morone, 2003); however, church and school played secondary roles to the family in molding the character and skills of Puritan children (Greven, 1977). The Puritans inculcated their children with religious norms and obligations (Morgan, 1944). ...
... For example, many parents devised rigorous educational and apprenticeship programs for their young children (Morgan, 1944); even seven-or eight-year-olds endured difficult apprenticeships that taught them a skilled trade and proper values. From such apprenticeships, children acquired an ethic that emphasized success regardless of personal cost (Greven, 1977). Success was more a community norm and a religious obligation than a mere personal value. ...
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Applying historical research method, we analyze the ways Puritanism contributed to economic prosperity in American history: liberated workers, enhanced human capital, and increased competitive advantage. We then propose how U.S. firms can extend their comparative marketing advantages by adapting these legacies. Our analysis shows historical examples can provide valuable insights for modern marketing practitioners and scholars.
... 8 On the other hand, "nurturant" visions of political morality seem to have found expression throughout American history (e.g., abolitionism, the policies of the Progressive Movement and the New Deal, among others. See Greven 1988 for an extended discussion). However, these expressions could have manifested from the habitual application of other heuristics, such as group attachment, religious worldview, or even self-interest, which may have limited the degree to which citizens considered issues in concert, thus restricting the potential for ideological constraint. ...
... For other applications of how family life may affect political reasoning, seeGreven 1988, Habermas 1991, and Milburn and Conrad 1996 To simplify terms and facilitate the presentation, we hereafter refer to the strict father model as the "disciplinarian" model, and the nurturant-parent model as the "nurturance" model. ...
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This paper explores the etiology of ideological constraint in the United States. In an effort to gain understanding of the ideational elements of political socialization, we concentrate on a provocative new theory put forward by cognitive linguist George Lakoff. Lakoff argues that many people reflexively envision proper power relations between citizens and government based on their understanding of proper power relations between children and parents: “nurturant” visions of parental roles engender egalitarian and humanitarian political values, whereas “disciplinarian” visions of proper parenting predict political individualism and traditionalism. Using data obtained from the 2000 National Election Study, we consider the empirical mettle of this account.
... At best, the existing scholarship on childhood lived religion is extremely limited and at worst highly problematic: the overwhelming majority of scholarship focuses upon the Western context, and the religious views of children are commonly gathered by relying upon the highly problematic medium of adult memory. Although an interesting line of inquiry in its own right, it ultimately remains an adult's view of what they think childhood religion was as opposed to what a present day child thinks religion is (Cram 2001;Greven 1978;Wuthnow 1999). ...
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This article provides an overview of the major existing scholarship pertaining to childhood religion in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). More specifically, it examines lived childhood religion in a rural village in Gānsù province. This article challenges the commonly preconceived notion that children in the PRC do not regard religious belief as important and simply mirror the religious practices of their guardians. By utilising ethnographic data, I argue that children in the PRC are capable of constructing their own unique form of lived religion that is informed by, but crucially distinct from, the religious beliefs and practices of adults. The practices and beliefs of this lived religion can be extremely important to children and the evidence from fieldwork suggests that they tend to take both their practice and belief very seriously.
... The war for the redemption of souls became in one of the concerns of evangelicals once arrived to the US. This sentiment, which combined fear and love, formed the American character and a particular way of producing politics (Greven 1988). Recently, suggested that Weber did not take the wrong way in diagnosing capitalism derived from Reform, but he opted to an easy explanation in lieu of delving into the Norse Mythology. ...
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The direct intervention or full-scare led wars are ideologically legitimized by the needs of bringing the ideals of American democracy, liberty, freedom and mobility. However, at the bottom, this globalized culture of fear hidden dark interests associated to exploitation. Paradoxically, these types of interventions suggest that terrorism needs the use of force, but in so doing, impotence and deprivation surface. Undoubtedly, Anglo and Latin worlds have created, according to their cultural matrices, diverse tactics to adapt to environment, as the form of understanding the future. While Anglo-countries developed a fascinating attraction to risk and future, the sense of predestination alludes to what today has not occurred yet. Technology only helps to mitigate the temporal effects of uncertainty triggered by the orientation to future.
... Those with strong evangelical beliefs agreed it was the will of God that ruled and that evil had to be driven from children while those with more moderate beliefs held that children had free will that would yield to nurturing, guidance and parental understanding. These counter beliefs produced different views of curriculum, instruction and how education should be organized (Greven, 1977). ...
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Educational aspiration in the Age of Enlightenment
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A kötet a gyermekről alkotott társadalmi, mentális kép történeti változásairól és a nevelési eszményekről szól. A feldolgozás alapvetően eszmetörténeti és mentalitástörténeti jellegű. A könyv első fejezetében a gyermekkortörténet eddigi fejlődésének historiográfiai áttekintését végzi el a szerző. A második fejezetben a legjelentősebb pedagógiatörténeti egyéniségek gyermekképét mutatja be. A harmadik fejezet tárgya a tizenkilencedik század társadalomtörténeti-gyermekkortörténeti elemzése. Végül a negyedik fejezetben bemutat néhány huszadik századi gyermekkép változatot, amelyek a mai pedagógia elméletét és gyakorlatát is befolyásolják. The topic of the book is about the historical changes in the social, mental image of the child and the main educational ideals of the history of the European pedagogy. The processing is essentially historical and comparative. In the first chapter of the book, the author reviews the historiography of the childhood history so far. In the second chapter, the children's picture of the most important individuals of the history of pedagogy and philosophy between the 15-19th century is presented. The third chapter deals with the social history and childhood history of the nineteenth century. Finally, in the fourth chapter, some twentieth-century children's pictures are reviewed, which influence the theory and practice of today's pedagogy too.
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The Age of Enlightenment is characterized by a growing belief in the human capacity to change the world. This volume shows how the educational endeavors of the period contributed in their diversity to a thoroughly educationalized culture around 1800, the very foundation of the modern nation state, which then developed into the long 19th century. An essential resource for researchers, scholars, and students in history, literature, culture, and education, A Cultural History of Education in the Age of Enlightenment presents essays that examine the following key themes of the period: church, religion and morality; knowledge, media and communications; children and childhood; family, community and sociability; learners and learning; teachers and teaching; literacies; and life histories.
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In 1931, liberal and conservative Christians debated the possibility of replacing Bible Study with a comparative religions course for elementary-school students, in order to comply with regulations of the Republic of China. Made possible by the ecumenical and indigenization movements within Christianity, this debate intersected with multiple issues: Western accommodation to the rise of Chinese nationalism; Christian resistance to growing secularization in the West, including elements of the social gospel; and clerical responses to child-centered pedagogies. Furthermore, liberals also promoted religious studies as a method for increasing cross-cultural understanding and world peace after World War II. While previous scholars have situated government registration of parochial schools within the rise of Chinese nationalism, this article asserts that missionaries in the 1930s viewed children’s religious education within the framework of both Chinese indigenization and global secularization.
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The consolidation of Thana-Capitalism doubtless affected the tourism industry, but also changed the ways in which the Other is conceived. Needless to say, anthropology should play a leading role in providing new theories to understand ‘cosmopolitanism’, and the position of this global dangerous Other in Europe. Discussing and engaging directly with Derrida as well as other scholars, this chapter focuses on how hospitality is dying. The end of hospitality represents a serious challenge of Europe simply because it was ‘the alma matter’ of its rationality and social trust. At times, terrorism targets ‘the exemplary centre of consumption’ to extortionate the developed nation-states, the surveillance at borderlands is strengthened. In years to come, the philosophical discourse will not be given by the dichotomy between conditioned or unconditioned hospitality, but rather, the pungent question, what to do with strangers?
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Gazing at Death: dark tourism as an emergent horizon of Research. (Korstanje M. & Handayani, B). New York, Nova Science Publishers. This is a must-read book which starts a new discussion not only on dark tourism issues but on the role of death in modern society. A much deep-seated issue that merits to be investigated in the years to come (Abraham Abe Pizam, University of Central Florida, US) Dr. Maximiliano Korstanje is one of the great minds of our young century. You may agree or disagree with his conclusions but this book, like much of his work makes the careful reader ponder his points and consider his positions. Korstankje is more than a thinker, he is the best type of academic, one who makes us question even the simplest of assumptions. Encountering his ideas is more than a mere journey into another academic work, but a chance to come face to face with multiple questions and academic challenges. (Peter Tarlow - Texas A&M University, US) Gazing Death draws together the latest research in the field by presenting new and important insights in a well-crafted meticulously researched book. The chapters in this volume employ a multidisciplinary perspective to address the social, political, ethical, philosophical and cultural perspectives of dark tourism. It is an indispensable guide that will satisfy the novice and more experienced dark tourism scholar seeking to understand the tourism of macabre spectacles, places of disaster and sites on the darker side of life. (Demond S. Miller, Rowan University, US) “The topic of dark tourism is growing in attention globally. Dr. Korstanje has dedicated this book to understanding the phenomena of travel surrounding death, disasters and terror. This book provides a one-stop shop for understanding a number of key areas of research within dark tourism: the motivations and behaviors surrounding dark travel, smart tourism for dark sites, as well as the economic impact of dark tourism. This book fills a gap in the literature which can be used by students, academics and practitioners alike.” - Professor Dr. Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida, USA Gazing at Death is a must-read book, which allows a restructuration in the ways global tourism should be thought. This represents a fertile invitation to build a new theoretical framework of tourism in this new millenium. - Associate Professor Celeste Nava - University of Guanajuato, Mexico
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An ever-increasing number of tourists annually visit places which have been hit by disasters, or remembering onslaughts, genocides or places of mass death. The Apollonian sense of beauty, which characterized the classic forms of tourism some time ago, sets the pace to new forms of gazing where death plays a vital role. Though under the name of dark, thana or morbid tourism, this new phenomenon is captivating the attention of scholars worldwide, and little research has advanced to explain the roots of this much deep-seated issue. The fact is that dark tourism oscillates from the visit to former concentration camps to abandoned prisons, which shows that what visitors want is to be closer to another individual’s suffering. This point has spurred a heated debate over recent years, since while some groups of researchers see in dark tourism a sign of new sadism, another wave situates this as an anthropological attempt to understand the proper life through the lens of others’ tragedy. Whatever the case may be, this book intends to discuss not only the causes and effects of dark tourism in a secularized society, but also gives an all-encompassing model to policy makers, researchers, students and scholars to expand their current understanding. While orchestrated through different chapters, the main argument holds the thesis that dark tourism represents a mechanism in order for society to discipline death, in a moment where the process of secularization has advanced to all spheres of public life. (Imprint: Nova)
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This investigation evinces how in recent years British Scholars were captivated by exploring dark tourism issues. At a closer look, this country offered a fertile ground for the rise of dark tourism practices while in other regions as Latin America, it failed to be adopted as a main activity. Basically, the goals of this essay review are twofold. On one hand, we review the historic background for England to serve as a platform to thanatology. On another, it situates as an interesting discussion to expand the current understanding on Thanaptosis as finely-ingrained into Protestant World.
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Book Description: In this book, Maximiliano Korstanje explores the dichotomies of capitalism, continuing the legacy of Max Weber, Ulrich Beck, Richard Hofstadter and Giorgio Agamben. Undoubtedly, we are living in timing times, which merit reconsidering the current conception of sociological theories. From disasters to terrorism, Occident seems to be trapped in an illusory landscape where risk plays a crucial role in the configuration of a new tragic ethos. Although Weber did the correct thing in pointing out that predestination was a key factor in the capitalist genesis, he ignored the influence of Norse culture, which was already rooted in the thinking of Luther and Calvino. Whether in the battleground, Greeks and Romans were subject to an overt destiny which depended on individual actions (sacrifice) Norse mythology, on the other hand, offered the opposite context. The Walkyrias, Odin’s daughters, knew in advance who would be the fallen warriors (predestination). Complementary to what has been written, Korstanje established a new innovative thesis that explains why Anglo-Saxon culture was not only prone to develop a globalized capitalist system of production, but also prone to risk-perception. Combining a closed-conception of future (predestination) with a sentiment of excemptionalism given by the Reform, the US logically constructed a world of preemption that led to the dilemma of “preventive attack”. The role of government in posing threats to control the internal workforce, as well as how the principle of exception triggers fear, are fascinating themes discussed in this text. (Imprint: Nova)
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Book
Full-text available
In this book, Maximiliano Korstanje explores the dichotomies of capitalism, continuing the legacy of Max Weber, Ulrich Beck, Richard Hofstadter and Giorgio Agamben. Undoubtedly, we are living in timing times, which merit reconsidering the current conception of sociological theories. From disasters to terrorism, Occident seems to be trapped in an illusory landscape where risk plays a crucial role in the configuration of a new tragic ethos. Although Weber did the correct thing in pointing out that predestination was a key factor in the capitalist genesis, he ignored the influence of Norse culture, which was already rooted in the thinking of Luther and Calvino. Whether in the battleground, Greeks and Romans were subject to an overt destiny which depended on individual actions (sacrifice) Norse mythology, on the other hand, offered the opposite context. The Walkyrias, Odin’s daughters, knew in advance who would be the fallen warriors (predestination). Complementary to what has been written, Korstanje established a new innovative thesis that explains why Anglo-Saxon culture was not only prone to develop a globalized capitalist system of production, but also prone to risk-perception. Combining a closed-conception of future (predestination) with a sentiment of excemptionalism given by the Reform, the US logically constructed a world of preemption that led to the dilemma of “preventive attack”. The role of government in posing threats to control the internal workforce, as well as how the principle of exception triggers fear, are fascinating themes discussed in this text. (Imprint: Nova)
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This review is inspired by the dichotomy the authors observe in the ways Anglo and Mediterranean countries developed to control the risk. While countries as US, Germany and Holland are on the top of the risk-mitigation policies and bio-technology, others such as Spain, Italy and Argentina have left behind in the race. In this discussion the authors complement the contribution of Max Weber arguing that the sense of predestination, which was enrooted in Ancient Norse Mythology, was a criterion enough to develop the capitalism. However, this does not correspond with “the Reform”, but on the way ancient Germans celebrated the war. Unlike Greeks, Germans developed a sense of predestination to understand the future. At some extent, they were responsible for initiating the process of secularization, but once done, they appealed to technology for two peruses. On one hand, technology alluded to a control of the closed-future, but at the same time it allowed the implementation of steps to expand the life. On this context, terrorism (as a risk) is important for American society because it gives further value to capitalist mind, the control of future.
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Examining from a gender perspective religious education within a prominent branch of Dutch Protestantism, this article investigates the interplay between oppressive and emancipating educational forces. The so‐called Neo‐Calvinists‐‐progressively minded, yet orthodox‐‐sought successfully to update traditional Calvinism and keep it abreast with modern developments from circa 1870 onwards, notably by reforming school, family and youth culture. Notwithstanding Calvinism being traditionally sexist biased, the role of women and girls was becoming more important. Firstly, the article sketches both the influence of Calvinism in the history of the Netherlands and Dutch ‘pillarized’ culture and society between 1880 and 1970, Neo‐Calvinism being one of the main ‘pillars’ within this religiously compartmentalized society. Secondly, it focuses on Neo‐Calvinist gender education and its paradoxical effects.
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