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Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States

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... Accordingly, the following study relies on the view that well-functioning markets depend on three parties playing their roles in satisfactory ways. On the demand side, the consumers' role is to make active choices in the marketplace, voting with their wallets for the products they want to remain on store shelves and complaining when they have legitimate reasons to do so (Berg & Gornitzka, 2012;Hirschman, 1970), so that retailers and providers, who compete for consumers' attention and money, will produce and bring to the markets the things that consumers need and want (Smith, 1776). In Western democratic welfare states, public authorities, acting within their institutions, monitor the markets, setting rules and ensuring that retailers and suppliers follow competition and consumer laws, thereby helping retailers and suppliers and consumers to play their roles in ways that benefits everyone in the society (European Commission, 2022b, c). ...
... Consumers play an important role in the market game. Active and reflective consumers who give "voice" and complain, instead of offering "silent loyalty," provide important information and correctives to the supply side (Hirschman, 1970), while unreflective consumer choices, and too many consumers failing to complain when they have reasons to do so, may stimulate undesirable market practices among suppliers (Berg & Gornitzka, 2012). ...
... Or are consumers already overloaded by information (Berg & Gornitzka, 2012)? How can consumers be encouraged to make reflective choices, to compare products, and, perhaps most important, to give voice and complain (Hirschman, 1970) when they have reasons for that? These are complex consumer policy questions. ...
Article
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Trust is a valuable resource that varies between countries. This paper suggests that consumers’ trust in retailers and service providers, facilitating interactions and transactions between sellers and buyers in impersonal markets, is best understood as generalized trust. The paper is based on 28 037 respondents’ evaluations of consumer conditions in 30 European countries. The material reveals large country-to-country variations in the percentages of residents who trust public authorities to protect their consumer rights. Moreover, there are large differences in the percentages who trust retailers and service providers to respect their rights as consumers. A multilevel path analysis supports the paper’s main hypothesis that fair and effective consumer authorities enhance generalized trust in the markets. The analyses also demonstrate that fair and effective consumer institutions contribute to more equality in the markets. It is argued that consumer markets are important arenas for the maintenance and production of trust and social capital. And that generalized trust produced in markets will probably extend to, and be valuable for, the wider society.
... Whereas this may also be a matter of shift driven by newcomers, those career bureaucrats who stay are also responsible for the changes in the ideological leanings of public agencies. In line with the "Exit, Voice, and Loyalty" framework (Hirschman 1970), Aberbach & Rockman (1995, p. 844) state that, "Career bureaucrats themselves have incentives to retire or stay depending on the compatibility or incompatibility of their own perspectives and those of the presidential administration in power. Opportunists among the senior executives may adjust their views to make themselves acceptable to the administration." ...
... It is possible to argue that, from the perspective of the principal, the exit of non-compliers may be a positive outcome (Hirschman 1970). Yet, this may not be ideal for the public bureaucracy. ...
... The natural similarities between this and the previous chapter exist because both follow the "Exit, Voice, and Loyalty" framework proposed in Hirschman (1970) and applied to this discussion as possible outcomes of bureaucratic polarization. Exit and voice, as opposed to loyalty, should function as correction mechanisms whenever members of an organization (or their consumers) are dissatisfied with the ongoing situation. ...
Thesis
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Bureaucrats must cooperate to implement public policies. This means working with colleagues from different public organizations, lawyers and accountants from oversight agencies, political appointees, elected officials, etc. Each of these actors holds different, oftentimes conflicting, organizational identities. These attachments go beyond their rational interests and, as I demonstrate in this dissertation, become comparable to other social identities, like race, partisanship, and gender. This means that while bureaucrats see their colleagues as in-groups who share similar values, those working at different organizations are their out-groups who will most likely see the world through different lenses. Relying on a measurement that is well-established in social psychology, I demonstrate that the social distance between different public sector actors helps to understand conflict and cooperation in implementation processes. I refer to this phenomenon as bureaucratic polarization and show that it can change public policies and organizations. The empirical evidence combines face-to-face interviews conducted in two Brazilian states and multiple surveys and experiments fielded in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Brazil. These multiple pieces of research validate the generalizability of bureaucratic polarization as a theoretical framework and an estimation strategy to better understand coordination in public administration and the politics of policy implementation.
... Specifically, when project participants are in weak safety-specific settings, their role perceptions and self-validation processes are likely to be accentuated, driving them to adopt behaviours that are deemed appropriate in response to the situation. In Hirschman's [39] seminal work on voice, he developed the exit-voice-loyal (EVL) framework to describe voice as a constructive response of employees in the face of unsatisfactory work situations. Exit is seen as another negative and extreme response, which refers to changing jobs or leaving the organization. ...
... Exit is seen as another negative and extreme response, which refers to changing jobs or leaving the organization. According to Hirschman [39], 'loyal' explains why some people choose to voice rather than exit, i.e., loyal people are more likely to choose to voice rather than exit in the face of decline. Following this logic, project participants who have internalized the insider role expectation are more likely to step up in the face of adverse safety environments and tend to speak up for project safety out of a sense of identification as a reflection of their loyalty. ...
... This study also confirmed in a unique way what Hirschman [39] proposed about SV, i.e., decline is a catalyst for voice. We used the EVL framework to describe the different responses of project participants in the face of this specific safety-related decline. ...
Article
Safety voice (SV) is a form of voice in which employees express opinions or concerns about organizational safety. It plays an important role in preventing accidents and promoting safety performance. The purpose of this study is to reveal the emotional factors and boundary conditions behind employee engagement in SV, especially in the construction context. This study, therefore, investigated how organizational identification (OID) drove construction project participants' SV using a three-way interaction model of perceived insider status (PIS) as an individual difference and safety climate (SC) as an organizational contextual difference. The proposed model was tested using a sample of 357 participants in different construction projects. The results showed that OID was positively correlated with SV. The interaction effect of OID and PIS on SV depended on the SC, with PIS enhancing the identification-voice relationship at a low level of SC and weakening it at a high level of SC.
... Mainstream literature of employee voice describes it as the extra-role behavior of communicating information aiming to change the status quo and improve current procedures (Chou & Barron, 2016;Kwon & Farndale, 2020;LePine & Van Dyne, 2001;Maynes & Podsakoff, 2014;Morrison, 2011;Van Dyne et al., 2003). Such definitions are in line with Hirschman's (1970) seminal conceptualization of voice, which he captured by the framework of exit-voice-loyalty (Chamberlin, Newton, & Lepine, 2017;Mowbray, Wilkinson, & Tse, 2015). Hirschman defines voice as "any attempt at all to change, rather than to escape from, an objectionable state of affairs, whether through individual or collective petition to the management directly in charge, through appeal to a higher authority with the intention of forcing a change in management, or through various types of actions or protests, including those that are meant to mobilize public (1970, p. 30). ...
... Hirschman defines voice as "any attempt at all to change, rather than to escape from, an objectionable state of affairs, whether through individual or collective petition to the management directly in charge, through appeal to a higher authority with the intention of forcing a change in management, or through various types of actions or protests, including those that are meant to mobilize public (1970, p. 30). Hirschman (1970) initially presented his conceptualization of voice from an economic perspective attempting to explain the motives of customers who would either criticize a business after an unsatisfactory experience, or refrain from doing so, and whether they continue dealing with that business (Mowbray et al., 2015). The findings presented by Hirschman have been later adopted by organizational behavior (OB) scientists and human resource management (HRM) scientists and developed to explain the motives behind employee voice (Kwon & Farndale, 2020;Mowbray et al., 2015). ...
... In either case, the conceptualization of employee voice in this study does not include any form of whistle blowing; rather it focuses mainly on the discretionary, prosocial and positive change-oriented form of communication. Hirschman (1970) remarked that the attempt to define voice is a tricky and difficult task because "it can be graduated, all the way from faint grumbling to violent protest" (1970, p. 16). Although voice has been studied for more than four decades, and scholars have provided useful insights and informative findings about (1970) remark seems to endure. ...
Book
The influence of different employee behaviors on leader identity is understudied, and most empirical studies focus mainly on leadership development interventions. This dissertation widens the scope and explores the relationship between leader identity and employee voice in culturally-diverse work environments. The research adopts a weekly diary study design and uses multilevel modeling to examine this relationship. A stratified random sample from three Saudi companies participated in this four-week study. The analysis is performed on a univariate (long) format dataset suitable for multi-level modeling containing N = 196 complete level 1 (within-person) observations nested within 49 level 2 dyads. Leader identity fluctuates over time when experiencing employee voice. The direct effect of prohibitive voice on leader identity is negative and significant, while the relationship between promotive voice and leader identity is insignificant. The results also indicate that leaders’ cultural intelligence moderates these relationships. The findings indicate that leader identity is a malleable construct which fluctuates on shorter intervals, confirming that the identity verification process is constantly active to verify the identity as long as it exists in the self-concept as depicted by the identity theory. This study also contributes to the literature on leader identity by investigating the influence of employee voice on leader identity over four weeks within a cross-cultural context. From a practical perspective, the findings suggest that training leaders to deal with employee voice and to utilize cross-cultural skills effectively can enable them to perceive employee voice as a resource instead of a threat.
... The ideas of voice and silence brought its beginning with the work of Hirschman (1970), as he accepts both these as reaction to employee disappointment. Further explaining the idea of voice he asserts that its any endeavor at all to change an awful situation, while silence was considered as the detached conduct that was equated with conviction. ...
... Later on, numerous researchers reproach the Hirschman's work for its shortsighted methodology toward silence. In such manner, Pinder & Harlos (2001) look at the relationship amongst voice and silence proposed by Hirschman (1970) to decide how employees show a feeling of disappointment. They contend that Hirschman's idea depends on straightforward twofold [either/or] approach, that perceives the disappointment of employees either when they raise their voice or exit. ...
... The principal, which contradicts voice and devotion (as helpful practices) to exit and disregard (as dangerous practices), may appear to be oversimplified. The way out alternative was at first resisted by Hirschman (1970) as a client's reaction when disappointed with the execution of an organization offering him an item. It includes disjoining ties with the organization. ...
... 3 We describe the intense feelings surrounding religious exercise, especially among conservative and evangelical Christians. We frame the response to a perceived deterioration in the quality of local public services through Hirschman's (1970) Exit, Voice, and Loyalty framework. Evangelical Christians engaged the political process and developed credible exit options. ...
... The foregoing historical account maps well into Albert O. Hirschman's (1970) framework. The premise of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (EVL) is that consumers choose a response to organizational decline or product quality deterioration from among three options: exit (leave the organization), voice (influence the organization), or loyalty (remain silent). ...
Article
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Schools are one of the ways parents transmit their cultural values. US public education historically promoted Protestantism. We examine two conflicts over classroom religious exercises during the 1960s: school prayer and Bible reading. Supreme Court rulings on those matters created controversy by changing the cultural values transmitted in public schools. More conservative and evangelical religious traditions felt that their children were deprived of vital religious instruction; some moderate and liberal Protestants, as well as Jews, praised the removal of religious exercise from the public schools. We document changes in private school enrollments between 1960 and 1970 for US counties with differing religious adherence. In counties with more evangelicals and fewer Catholics, private school enrollment increased by 13–17%. States that previously had required Bible reading also saw larger increases in private school enrollments. The results are robust to a variety of checks, including controls for race-related enrollment decisions. Our results imply that evangelical families relied on public schools to transmit religious values; when the nature of public schools changed, some of them shifted to private schools. The analysis of that historical event can inform contemporary discussions about school curriculums and vouchers.
... Voice can be sound by individuals or groups. A single person can complain directly to the provider of a service or organization, in one case, or collective actions such as petitions, pressure group activities, or other forms of social mobilization can emerge, in the other case (Dowding, 2015). ...
... Citizens and business firms can also exit the public sector by leaving the territory (Dowding, 2015). The costs of this option, however, are usually high or even prohibitive. ...
Article
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The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 promoted social participation in public policies by means of municipal councils, among other participatory mechanisms. Thus, this work aims to analyze the institutionalization of voice in the legal norms and in the development of the activities of municipal tourism councils of Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Hirschman's (1973) exit-voice-loyalty framework guides our approach on the issue. Interaction in municipal tourism councils was found to be dominated by the presence and voice of business associations and the public sector. With regard to policy formulation, the councils show passivity before the public sector's proeminent actions. There is little debate about policy evaluation and ways to improve implemented actions. The councils' debates revolve, above all, around infrastructure and event promotion actions to improve the destination's economic competitiveness. Representatives of the Legislative Branch and other bodies of the Executive Branch had a low average turn out in the meetings, despite the legal imperatives. It seems that voice by civil society representatives stands closer to conformity, as exit seems prohibitive and loyalty too risky.
... This is particularly the case when government intervention is led and capturedor simply strongly influencedby pressures from particular interests and rent seekers. In this case, the most influential groups are either unable or deliberately unwilling to reconcile their own interests, privileges, and prerogatives with normative development goals and sustainable trajectories of structural transformation that would benefit society as a whole (Hirschman, 1970;Di Tommaso et al., 2020). ...
This paper explores electoral consensus regarding local public spending as a way for policymakers, particularly in western democracies, to secure long-term electoral support to govern the sustainability of structural change. Public spending is perceived by local electoral constituencies as immediately affecting people's lives and thus strongly influences individual voting behaviour. Focusing on the case of Italy, this paper explores the electoral consensus–public spending nexus on the municipal level. The results show that, on average, an increase in local public spending is associated with a reduction in electoral consensus towards anti-system parties, whereas an increase in local public spending does not yield a significant raise in electoral consensus for pro-system parties. We find nevertheless heterogeneous effects across different geographical areas and spending categories for both anti-system and pro-system party consensus. The results yield insights for scholarly debate and implications for policymaking to garner the electoral consensus needed for sustainable structural change.
... 9. The use of the ideas of 'exiting' and having a 'voice' that is (or is not) effectively listened to -and the ideas of 'entering' and 'restarting' -has been inspired by Hirschman (1970). 10. ...
Article
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During the last two centuries, property understood as an exclusive and unlimited dominion became common sense. Before, the idea of property as a fiduciary relationship, which is still present in contemporary social constitutionalism, was closely linked to the view that the exercise of freedom entails the capacity to shape those property rights that channel socioeconomic life. Today, new ways to operation-alise such an approach must be found. This article explores the scope of 'direct strategies' (the state as proprietor, democratically limited forms of private property, and common property) and 'indirect strategies' (the distribution of 'social power' through the introduction of unconditional public policy schemes such as basic income) in the recovery of the idea and the practice of collective fiduciary control over the economic realm.
... Second, the organizational forms here are more participatory than in conventional organisations, which raises the question of whether this also implies more promising organizational conditions for the expression of e-voice. Hirschman (1970) distinguishes between customers' voice and exit, by referring to voicing concerns or exiting by not buying or consuming the product. Interestingly, this mirrors what happened to the founder of Premium in 1999: ...
Article
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Digitalisation permeates all aspects of organizational life, especially the ways we communicate with each other. Drawing on a case study of an alternative organisation—the German collective Premium, which is almost entirely digitally organised—we seek to explore contextual factors that facilitate or hinder the expression of electronic voice (e‐voice). Based on 20 semi‐structured interviews with different members of the collective, we identified various contextual facilitators and barriers to e‐voice expression: Collective belief in the value of diverse voices, cautious online and complementary face‐to‐face communication facilitate e‐voice, while less formalised structures, power and knowledge asymmetries, and information overload hinder it. These findings demonstrate that despite an alternative organisation's firm intention and self‐reflective efforts to create an inclusive and participatory digital space, tensions arise. Further, our study contributes to employee voice theorising by outlining contextual factors that are specifically relevant to e‐voice practices.
... Employee voice has been defined as an informal and discretionary behavior that seeks to bring about change through the expression of concerns, suggestions, ideas, or opinions about work-related issues to persons who might be able to take appropriate action (Detert & Burris, 2007;Morrison, 2014). As noted by Hirschman (1970), voice refers to "any attempt at all to change rather than escape from an objectionable state of affairs" (p. 30). ...
Article
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The extent to which employees convey or withhold useful information has important implications for organizational effectiveness. Nevertheless, employee voice is under-researched in the public relations literature. Grounded in social exchange theory and internal communication literature, the current study addressed this research gap by arguing that leaders’ communication style plays a pivotal role in employee voice behavior. Drawing data from the U.S. (N = 441) and India (N = 354), this study tests a normative model linking leaders’ motivating language, team culture, employee-team relationships, and employees’ voice behavior. Notably, in both samples, motivating language was positively related to a healthy team culture, which in turn, is positively associated with employees’ relationship quality with their working unit, and ultimately, employees’ voice. The Indian sample showed similar patterns as the U.S. sample, except that there was no direct relationship between leader motivating language and employee voice for the Indian sample.
... Non tanto fisico quanto piuttosto di agibilità: luoghi in cui il progetto non può agire, o perché si confronta con l'estremizzazione anche economica di quel paradosso, o perché non è neppure possibile pensare un'alternativa (Fisher, 2009). Un'intrattabilità che si distanzia tuttavia dal moderno principio hirschmaniano (Hirschman, 1970) in cui è ancora possibile scegliere tra 'voce' e 'fuga': contrazione e cambiamento climatico definiscono invece il silenzio del progetto e l'impraticabilità dell'azione. Che da un lato è determinato da un radicale 'terrorismo' (Barthes, 1971) esercitato dall'egemonia culturale del pensiero intorno all'urbanizzazione capitalista come fenomeno binario di funzionamento o non funzionamento, di attività o attesa, di pieno o vuoto. ...
Book
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In concomitanza con la XXIII Conferenza Nazionale SIU “DOWNSCALING, RIGHTSIZING. Contrazione demografica e riorganizzazione spaziale”, svoltasi a Torino dal 16 al 18 giugno 2021, la Società Italiana degli Urbanisti ha organizzato il workshop YOUNGERSIU 2021, rivolto a dottorandi e giovani assegnisti di ricerca attivi nell’ambito dell’associazione. Il workshop è stato l’occasione per rinnovare l’attenzione verso i più giovani, cercando di creare una migliore sinergia con i contenuti e le riflessioni della nostra società scientifica, al fine di costruire una comunità più inclusiva, motivata e capace di dialogare a diversi livelli e con soggetti differenti.
... Examples of explicit incentives are bonuses in schools recognized as excellent, or threats of restructuring or closing low-performing schools. In contrast, implicit incentives are indirect, as when performance information spurs community pressure on schools to improve, either via exit, or voice (Hirschman, 1970). Studies of the impact of NCLB on student achievement have contrasted the performance of states with standards-based accountability systems in place prior to NCLB with states whose systems were first implemented as a result of NCLB. ...
Preprint
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Providing a comprehensive introduction to the topic of accountability and datafication in the governance of education, the World Yearbook of Education 2021 considers global policy dynamics and policy enactment processes. Chapters pay particular attention to the role of international organizations and the private sector in the promotion of performance-based accountability (PBA) in different educational settings and at multiple policy scales. Organized into three sections, chapters cover: the global/local construction of accountability and datafication; global discourse and national translations of performance-based accountability policies; and enactments and effects of accountability and datafication, including controversies and critical issues. With carefully chosen international contributions from around the globe, the World Yearbook of Education 2021 is ideal reading for anyone interested in the future of accountability and datafication in the governance of education.
... Van Gramberg et al.'s (2020) project examined the EV and employee's intention to leave the organization after conflict situations in Australia. In other words, this study took EV from Hirschman's (1970) perspective, where EV was regarded as a behavior to voice or abandon the organization's products. This work was a quantitative study, and data were collected from 773 respondents who were employees of 6 service sector organizations in Australia. ...
Chapter
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Employee voice (EV) and employee commitment (EC) are critical concepts in people management in organizations across the world. There are various definitions of EV and many types of EC in literature. Even though there is no agreed one definition of EV and there are many different forms of EC, both concepts are extremely important to the success of any business. This chapter aimed at exploring the challenges associated with EV and EC across nations; therefore, a systematic review of recent primary studies was adopted to meet the objectives of the chapter. A total of 14 most relevant studies published in 2020 in English, 7 EV and 7 EC studies, were vigorously selected for review across the world through Business Source Complete, Science Direct, Emerald Insight, Oxford Brookes University Library Search, and Google Scholar databases. The search terms that were used to gather relevant studies are “employee voice” and “employee commitment.” The studies were picked from America, Australia, China, Germany, Indonesia, Malay�sia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, South Korea, and Thailand because many scholars have presented their interests in EV and EC and considered these countries more. Nevertheless, the first debate that emerged from literature was about the definitions of EV and EC in recent studies, given these concepts are considered across different cultures. After content analysis, the results indicated that there are many factors in recent studies, and these were discussed in this book chapter. Nevertheless, despite the limitations associated with the study selection process including bias in selecting the material to consider, the recent studies that were involved in this work exposed EV and EC as a global emergency across industries.
... Literatürde genel tanımlamanın dışında örgütsel sessizlik, örgüt içerisindeki bireylerin problemler ya da katılım gerektiren durumlarda tepki koymak niyetiyle kolektif biçimde sessiz kalmaları gibi tanımlarla da karşımıza çıkmaktadır (Henriksen ve Dayton, 2006: 1540Morrison ve Milliken, 2000: 707). Yine bir başka tanımda örgütsel sessizlik, çalışanların örgütte hakim olan düşünceye katılmadıkları durumlarda sessiz kalma özgürlüklerini kullanmaları şeklinde açıklanmıştır (Bowen ve Blackmon, 2003 (Hirschman, 1970). Güncel çalışmalarda örgüt devamlılığının ve örgütsel başarının önündeki tehlike olarak değinilen sessizlik konusu özellikle önceki dönem çalışmalarında çalışanların örgütlerine olan bağlılığının bir göstergesi olarak değerlendirilmiştir (Bryant ve Cox, 2004:588). ...
... Specifically, she relies on macro-economic shifts and economic determinism arguments to contextualize her case studies, underscores the importance of utility maximization as the central goal of party-union alliances, and draws on critical historical institutionalism and ideological affinities to demonstrate how partyunion relationships are heavily mediated and coloured by a range of factors including historical legacies. Her concept of loyalty dilemmas, which reinterprets Albert Hirschman's (1970) model in Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, posits that unions are faced with having to choose between norm-based voice, norm-breaking voice, or exit strategies when their loyalty is tested through hostile policy decisions by nominally pro-labour governments. For the purposes of this article, we adapt Katrina Burgess' framework for understanding partyunion relations in Venezuela, Mexico, and Spain and apply it vertically (cross-level) and horizontally (cross-context) to party-teacher union relationships in Ontario. ...
Article
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This article seeks to explain both convergence and divergence in Ontario teacher union electoral strategy. After coalescing around a strategy of anti-Progressive Conservative (PC) strategic voting beginning with the 1999 provincial election, Ontario's major teachers' unions developed an electoral alliance with the McGuinty Liberals designed to advance teacher union priorities and mitigate the possibility of a return to power for the PCs. The authors use campaign finance and interview data to demonstrate that this ad hoc partnership was strengthened over the course of several election campaigns before the Liberal government's decision to legislate restrictions on teacher union collective bargaining rights in 2012 led to unprecedented tension in the union-party partnership. The authors adapt the concept of union-party loyalty dilemmas to explain why individual teachers' unions responded differently to the Liberal government's efforts to impose austerity measures in the education sector.
... Equity markets can exert influence on the fossil fuel industry through one of three mechanismsexit, voice, and loyalty (Hirschman, 1970). Shareholders show loyalty by holding shares and express discontent by voicing their positions or divesting their holdings. ...
Article
Investors have a central role to play in sustainability transitions, due to their inordinate influence on the governance of the fossil fuel extraction industry. Using network analysis, this paper links fossil fuel firms to equity owners, by distinguishing ownership characteristics of top shareholders and establishing a ranked list of the most prevalent shareholders based on emissions potential and network centrality. Our study reveals that among the most prevalent owners, are government signatories of the Paris accord and prominent American investment managers. We conclude that a concentrated number of investors have the potential to influence the strategic direction and governance of these firms and should consequently be held accountable for financing the economic activities that contribute to climate instability. This paper directly contributes to the fragmented body of academic research on financial systems and sustainability transitions.
... Civil society type of governance involves commitment to certain values and an identity that sets these apart from alternative providers (Billis 2010, 55). A strong position of stakeholders, such as members and users, may enable these to interact with the institution's staff and leadership by voicing opinions that help steer developments at the institution (Hirschman 1970). This effect can be stronger in free schools that are not attached to the hierarchical governance structures that dominate public sector (Hill and Lynn 2005). ...
Article
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Countries increasingly out-contract public education to private providers to inspire competition and development, but there is limited research on the consequences. This article compares the parents’ room for active citizenship in public and nonprofit compulsory schools in Norway. It analyses a large-scale parental survey by multi-level regressions (OLS) of school-choice, internal empowerment, external participation in governance, and satisfaction with dialogue and collaboration, while controlling for school- and municipality-level factors. Parents’ reasons for choosing free schools are mainly perceived quality, profile, or previous dissatisfaction — not location as in public schools. Although parents are in general satisfied, there is a small but significantly higher level in free schools related to internal empowerment. Thus, stakeholder influence makes a difference, even in a society promoting active citizenship more broadly. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training conducted the survey in 2018–2019, targeting more than 20,000 parents in 160 public and 25 free schools.
... Sa nature coopérative et commerciale doit permettre le développement de nouveaux services, et l'acquisition collective des technologies nécessaires à leur mise en oeuvre 8 , à des prix abordables pour les paysans. Il vise un renversement progressif des configurations de l'agriculture numérique qui réduisent les paysans au statut de consommateurs (plus ou moins libres de sortir -« exit or loyalty », Hirschman, 1970), où les grands acteurs détiennent le pouvoir de la façonner à leur profit (Carolan, 2020) 9 . ...
Conference Paper
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L'article examine la relation entre la conception des plateformes numériques et les relations de pouvoir entre les acteurs d'un secteur économique. Quand une « plateforme » induit des dépendances asymétriques au bénéfice d'un acteur privilégié, la littérature se focalise en général sur le système central qu'il contrôle et où se concentrent les flux de données. En introduisant la perspective de la multiplicité des systèmes et de leurs opérateurs, l'article déroule la conception de trois projets qui ont émergé en réaction à des tentatives de concentration dans le secteur agricole suisse entre 2015 et 2019. Ces études de cas permettent d'identifier des relations de dépendance différentes de la seule centralisation : celles de structure et de temporalité. Un examen détaillé de ces dépendances entre systèmes, et de leur relation avec les dépendances qui sont induites entre les acteurs, révèle que la concentration liée aux plateformes résulte moins de l'une ou l'autre contrainte per se, que de la portée qui lui est donnée dans l'architecture. Notre contribution est de montrer comment une conception pondérée relativement aux besoins des usagers n'introduit, par elle-même, aucune asymétrie, et demeure neutre relativement aux rapports de force qui existent dans un secteur.
... The pitfall in Friedman's hypothesis was pointed out by Hirschman (1970), who argued that the market mechanism and competition would actually weaken the quality of public schools. Hirschman's argument does not overtly hinge on equity, but focuses on the functioning of the institution. ...
... The EVL framework provides some insight in this regard. Hirschman (1970) proposes that when facing a decline in the quality of a firm's production-or any organization, including the state-consumers or citizens might respond in two ways: a) exit, which refers to escaping from organizational decline, or b) voice, which entails expressing discontent about the deterioration of service quality with the hope of recovery. The two responses can be mediated or affected by the third psychological variable, loyalty, a special attachment to an organization that encourages voice for recovery rather than escape from decline. ...
Article
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International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) are increasingly important players in global politics and development. However, they are undergoing significant adaptations as governments worldwide have instituted restrictions to regulate their activities. What explains the various ways in which they respond to these institutional pressures? In our study of INGO responses to a new restrictive law in China, we identify four strategic responses with varying levels of compliance: legal registration, provisional strategy, localization, and exit. The institutional pressures—strategic responses link is influenced by INGOs’ adaptive capacity, which is in turn shaped by an organization’s issue sensitivity, value-add, government ties, and reputational authority. The integrated framework we develop for INGO strategic responses can shed light on state-INGO relations in other countries, many of which are subject to increasingly stringent regulations and a closing political environment.
... Por ejemplo, desde una ciudadanía que identificaría plenamente su relación con el mundo social desde el conflicto laboral. A su vez, que en términos ideales se encontraría organizada y politizada en sindicatos, con disposición a actuar colectivamente frente a la injusticia (Hirschman 2004;Lozovsky 1935;Rogers y Streeck 1995). ...
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(SPA) La tesis tiene como objetivo analizar la composición híbrida de un movimiento social, a partir del estudio de las culturas activistas que lo conforman en la producción de una gran movilización. El estudio de caso se centra en el movimiento chileno contra el sistema de pensiones (No más Afp), cuya explosión pública en las calles fue el resultado de una combinación de dos modalidades particulares de activismo. El movimiento aspira a terminar con un sistema basado en la capitalización individual, y sustituirlo por uno solidario de reparto. El argumento es que la irrupción pública del movimiento No más Afp es resultado del encuentro entre dos culturas activistas: (1) la cultura activista sindical–movimentista, y (2) la cultura activista indignada. Ambas operan como maneras específicas de ser y hacer activismo, en términos de lógicas de organización, la construcción de razones y críticas para rebelarse, y su relación con la política y compromiso activista. Ambas terminan encontrándose, con distintos niveles de manejo de sus tensiones, reconociendo mutuamente sus contribuciones al movimiento. (ENG) The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the hybrid composition of a social movement from the study of its activist cultures in the making of a great mobilization. As a study case, I take the Chilean social movement against the retirement pension fund system (No más Afp) whose public exposure took to the streets as the result of two forms of activism. The movement aspires to end with a system based on individual capitalisation and replace it with a solidary form of pension profit sharing. I argue that the public uprise of the No más Afp movement is the result of the encounter of two activist cultures: (1) the union-movementist activist culture, and (2) the indignant activist culture. Both function as specific forms of being and doing activism under the logic of organisation, the construction of reasons and criteria to rebel, and their relation with politics and activist's commitment. Both will end up facing each other, with different levels of management of their tensions, acknowledging their contribution to the movement. (FR) L’objectif de la thèse est d’analyser la composition hybride d’un mouvement social à partir de l’étude des cultures activistes qui le composent durant une grande mobilisation. L'étude de cas se centre sur le mouvement chilien contre le système de retraite (No más Afp), dont l’explosion dans les rues a été le résultat de la combinaison de deux modalités particulières d’activisme. Le mouvement aspire à en finir avec un système de retraite basé sur la capitalisation individuelle, pour lui substituer un régime par répartition solidaire. L'argument est que l’irruption dans l’espace public du mouvement No más Afp est le résultat de la rencontre entre deux cultures activistes : (1) la culture activiste syndical–mouvementiste, et (2) la culture activiste indignée. Elles fonctionnent toutes deux comme des manières spécifiques d'être et de faire de l’activisme ; que ce soit en termes de logiques organisationnelles, de construction de motivations et de critiques pour entrer en conflit, ou encore de leurs relations avec la politique et l’engagement activiste. Les deux cultures activistes finissent par se rejoindre, ce qui entraine divers degrés de gestion des tensions mais aussi une reconnaissance mutuelle de leurs contributions au mouvement.
... La théorie Exit, Voice and Loyalty, établie par Alfred Hirschmann pour catégoriser les réactions des consommateurs, employés ou citoyens face à la dégradation dans les organisations, entreprises ou États(Hirschmann, 1970), pourrait aussi s'appliquer à ce dilemme. J'en étais déjà consciente au moment de cette prise de note qui me rappelait alors un cours en sociologie que j'avais eu en master à Dauphine. ...
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En réponse à la demande d’investisseurs, l’analyse de la performance ESG (environnementale, sociale, de gouvernance) des entreprises est pratiquée par de plus en plus d’analystes. Cette performance ne connaît pas de définition juridique ou institutionnelle standardisée et est donc produite par les méthodologies développées pour la mesurer. Ma thèse explore, à partir d’une auto-ethnographie suivie d’une enquête de terrain qualitative, comment les analystes produisent cette performance, mais aussi leur propre identitéprofessionnelle, en interaction avec les normes épistémiques et discursives financières. L’interprétation des données à travers un cadre théorique inspiré d’Axel Honneth et de Judith Butler dévoile comment les analystes s’assujettissent à ces normes qui déterminent leur reconnaissance professionnelle et la reconnaissabilité de leurs analyses, mais qui produisent également une représentation réifiée du monde quine permettra pas de mettre la finance au service de la transition écologique et sociale.
... There are many significant reasons why policymakers should be particularly worried about the underlying causes that are going to be an increase in the shadow economy. Among the most significant of these are (i) an ever-increasing shadow economy can be interpreted as the response of people who feel burdened by the country and who decide on the "exit option" instead of the "voice option" [4]. If the rise in the shadow economy has been caused by an increase in the total tax and social security burden in conjunction with the "institutional sclerosis" [5], the "consecutive flight" to the shadow economy can erode the tax burden and social security bases. ...
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The purpose of this paper was to identify the leading causes determining the shadow economy at the global level. The empirical analysis used was the Sala-i-Martin version of extreme bounds analysis (EBA) applied to a cross-sectional sample of 132 countries. The results suggested that the quality of institutions is the primary determinant of the shadow economy. The results showed that only four out of six factors of the quality of institutions proved to be robust determining factors of the shadow economy; they are bureaucracy quality, law and order, corruption, and internal conflict. Moreover, monetary freedom and secured property rights are also robust and negatively related to the shadow economy. An interesting result is that information and communication technology (ICT) development is vital to the shadow economy. Mainly, internet usage is robust and negatively associated with the shadow economy. Furthermore, inflation and poverty emerge as key determining factors of the shadow economy. Our findings will aid in the development of recommendations for potential strategies to minimize the international extent of the shadow economy.
... Cependant, ils mettent l'accent sur la variété des caractéristiques structurelles et démographiques des membres des coopératives et de leurs exploitations ; cela explique probablement pourquoi ils utilisent le terme d'hétérogénéité des membres au lieu d'hétérogénéité des préférences des membres. Höhler (2019) soutient que l'hétérogénéité des membres n'est peut-être pas un problème aussi grave pour les coopératives que le suggèrent les recherches précédentes, et associe l'hétérogénéité des membres aux options alternatives d'Hirschman que sont la sortie, la voix et la loyauté (Hirschman, 1970). Elle soutient que les coopératives peuvent conserver leurs membres même en présence d'hétérogénéité. ...
Article
L’hétérogénéité des préférences des membres est devenue un sujet essentiel dans la recherche sur les coopératives, axée sur les coûts organisationnels encourus par les coopératives agricoles. Le présent article passe en revue la littérature existante sur le sujet et expose une nouvelle vision de la gouvernance par les membres associés et contrôlée par eux. Selon cette perspective, le rôle principal de la gouvernance est d’établir clairement et efficacement la frontière entre les activités principales et périphériques de la coopérative. Les implications de cette approche pour la recherche et la pratique sont identifiées et discutées. L’article jette également un nouvel éclairage sur le concept d’hétérogénéité des préférences des membres en identifiant différents types d’hétérogénéité et en les reliant à la mission principale des organes de gouvernance des coopératives. English: Member preference heterogeneity has become a hot topic in cooperative research focusing on organizational costs incurred by agricultural cooperatives. The current paper reviews extant literature on the topic and outlines an emerging view on the governance of patron-owned and controlled organizations. According to this perspective, the main role of governance is to set clearly and efficiently the boundary between the cooperative’s core and peripheral activities. The implications of this approach for research and practice are identified and discussed. The paper also sheds new light on the concept of member preference heterogeneity by discussing different types of heterogeneity and linking them to the main mandate of cooperative governance bodies.
Chapter
In the current study, the author implemented cohort analysis methodology of machine learning (ML) to assess the rate of consumers' complaint retention behavior toward firms. The author obtained a three-year range of data on customer complaints from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's website. After removing the missing data from the customer complaints dataset, the current study also uses the cohort analysis approach of ML to assess the rate of consumer complaints retained by businesses. According to the findings, organizations retain a significant portion of complaints. This study adds to the body of knowledge on consumer complaining behavior (CCB), especially by creating and deploying unsupervised machine learning-based technique to conceptualize consumers' complaint behavior in the financial service providers industry. Moreover, professionals will benefit greatly from this research.
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Dönüştürücü liderlik son yıllarda gelişen teknoloji ve değişim gösteren örgütler için önem arz eden kavramlar arasındadır. Dönüştürücü liderlerin takipçilerine ilham kaynağı olması, değişime ve gelişime açık olması çalışanların kendini yetiştirmesine ve örgüte fayda sağlaması yönünden önem arz etmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, dönüştürücü liderlik ve çalışan sesliliği arasındaki ilişki ve bu ilişkide işte kendini yetiştirmenin aracılık, işe yabancılaşmanın ise düzenleyici rolünü incelemektir. Bu kapsamda, Erzincan ilinde faaliyet gösteren çağrı merkezinde görevli 402 çalışandan anket yöntemiyle veri elde edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda, dönüştürücü liderlik ve çalışan sesliliği arasında anlamlı ve pozitif ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, dönüştürücü liderlik ve çalışan sesliliği arasındaki ilişkide işte kendini yetiştirmenin kısmı aracı, işe yabancılaşmanın ise düzenleyici rolünün bulunduğu saptanmıştır. ABSTRACT Transformational leadership is among the concepts that are important for the developing technology and changing organizations in recent years. It is important for transformational leaders to inspire their followers, to be open to change and development, in terms of self-education of employees and benefiting the organization. The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between transformative leadership and employee voice, and the mediating role of self-education at work and the moderator role of work alienation in this relationship. In this context, data were obtained from 402 employees working in the call center operating in the province of Erzincan, by survey method. As a result of the analysis, a significant and positive relationship was determined between transformative leadership and employee voice. In addition, it has been determined that self-education has a partial mediator role and work alienation has a regulatory role in the relationship between transformative leadership and employee voice.
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This research aims to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and employee voice, and the mediating role of thriving at work, and the moderating role of work alienation in this relationship. Data were obtained from 402 employees working at the AssisTT Call Center in Erzincan province by survey method. As a result of the analyses, a significant and positive relationship was found between transformational leadership and employee voice. In addition, it was determined that thriving at work has a partial mediating role, and work alienation has a moderating role in this relationship. In the literature, there is no previous study examining the mediating and moderating roles in question. In this context, it is considered that this study will constitute a significant resource for future studies in the field. Also, the research has some limitations. Firstly, pre-prepared questionnaires were used in the research, and the correlations between the variables were assessed in this setting. In addition, the data were obtained with the cross-sectional method. Finally, the study was limited to a single location and employees from a particular industry (communication). Future studies may conduct more thorough research with participants from various provinces and sectors through the longitudinal method.
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In this paper, we focus on an exit regime for an important and fast rising, but still under‐researched form of migration: student migration. More and more countries in the Global South—which suffered large emigration numbers of students to the Global North in the past—have started to establish their own exit regimes to regulate student emigration in their own interests. How do these exit regimes for students studying abroad operate? And are they actually successful in regulating student migration in the interest of the emigration state? Here, we take a closer look at the exit regime of the Caucasian state of Georgia. Drawing on Krasner's regime theory and on a larger empirical study, we identified a sophisticated exit regime of the Georgian state that operates on the basis of various scholarship programmes for Georgian students who study abroad and who have to return to Georgia after graduation.
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What changes affected the working time of employees required to work from home by the 2020 French health measures? Drawing on a qualitative survey of a municipal water company, based on interviews, direct observations, and questionnaires, the author shows how telework prompted by the COVID‐19 pandemic restructured working time and redistributed the power of regulation. During lockdown periods, working hours were extended and work rhythms changed, with considerable variation depending on the family configuration: confinement with family was not conducive to extended working hours, instead tending to fragment them, whereas isolated teleworkers experienced the opposite effect.
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The gradual transformation of the global economy into a more customer-centric and service-oriented one has led to the emergence of the National Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) as a potential customer-based performance evaluation metric for firms, industries, economic sectors, and national economies. This research reviews the popular national CSIs developed to date and presents it in an organized pattern that combines both summary and synthesis of related literature in order to trace the intellectual progress in the field of CSIs. This documentation will serve as a platform for developing new indigenous CSIs by way of identifying existing gaps, developing new conceptual frameworks, and formulating future research directions.
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Motivation is a key factor for success in education and modern working life. Cross-cultural environment is a challenge to it and, if not taken into account, it can impair learning outcome and lead to high turnover rates in companies. We performed an ethnographic study in two Chinese companies expanded to Europe and observed what problems the organizations faced. Our finding is that main problems originate from cultural differences between Chinese and Western organizations, and that they are mostly explained by the different power distance in the two cultures. The host company has a steep hierarchy of the organization, and it did not delegate the decision making to the locals. This led to frustration, loss of motivation, and high turnover rate.
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Numerous empirical studies reveal that innovative work behaviour (IWB) has several antecedents, including leadership style (LS) and climate for innovation (CfI). However, literature reporting on how different types of employee voice (EV) influence IWB is scant. This research aims to empirically determine how different dimensions of EV are linked to IWB, and also to determine the relative importance of EV, compared to other predictors of IWB, namely LS and CfI. In a cross-sectional survey, respondents were asked questions on EV and IWB, as well as on CfI and the leadership styles. Reliability and validity for all measures were calculated, as well as correlation and regression analyses were used to test the bivariate and relative prediction power of the EV as an antecedent of IWB. The demographics of the 620 respondents from 11 organisations resonated well with national workplace statistics. All measures showed acceptable psychometric properties. Supportive voice and, particularly, constructive voice, positively correlated with IWB, while defensive and destructive voice had no effect on IWB. The model in which EV was used to predict IWB was superior to models that included leadership style as well as CfI. This research provides empirical evidence that EV contributes positively to IWB, depending on the type of EV expressed, and that EV, more than other often-mentioned antecedents, predicts IWB, emphasising the relative importance of EV as a predictor of IWB. Managers should monitor the EV expressed in their environment, and promote the expression of supportive voice and, particularly, constructive voice, should they aspire to foster IWB in their workplaces.
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¿Cómo cambió el tiempo de trabajo de las personas asalariadas obligadas a teletrabajar por las medidas sanitarias francesas en 2020? A partir de un estudio cualitativo que combina entrevistas, observaciones directas y cuestionarios en una empresa municipal de aguas, se observa que el teletrabajo reestructura el tiempo de trabajo y redistribuye el poder regulador. Durante los confinamientos, la jornada laboral se prolonga y los ritmos de trabajo se modifican, con importantes variaciones según la configuración familiar: el confinamiento en familia frena la prolongación de la jornada pero favorece su fragmentación, efecto que se invierte en caso de confinamiento en solitario.
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Dit boek heeft als onderwerp: de studie van veranderingen in het openbaar bestuur, met name waar het de relatie met het ambtelijk apparaat betreft. Specifiek gaat het over de gevolgen van de voorwaardenscheppende staat voor de publieke dienst in een multilevel governancesys-teem. In het bijzonder behandelt het eerste deel hoe dat openbaar bestuur in brede zin functi-oneert en wordt bestuurd (gemanaged) om de samenleving blijvend van dienst te kunnen zijn. Dat wordt hier het management van de publieke sector genoemd. Het management van de publieke sector omvat meer dan alleen de activiteiten van (publiekrechtelijke) overheden. Het omvat ook de inzet van burgers, maatschappelijke organisaties en bedrijven bij de vormgeving van publieke belangen. Over wat dat laatste inhoudt, komen we nader te spreken. Het gaat niet om alleen een diepgravende kennisneming van het onderwerp. Ook worden (re-cente) empirische gegevens gepresenteerd. Daarnaast wordt kritisch gekeken hoe het met de kwaliteit van het management van de publieke sector is gesteld. Internationaal staat het Ne-derlandse openbaar bestuur hoog aangeschreven (zie hoofdstuk 14). In het politieke debat, klassieke en sociale media worden kritische noten gekraakt over die kwaliteit gegeven een aantal forse crises in de uitvoering van bijvoorbeeld het kindertoeslagenbeleid, het jeugdbe-leid, het functioneren van het Centraal Bureau Rijvaardigheidsbewijzen (CBR) en het Uitvoeringsinstituut Werknemersverzekeringen (UWV) en het toezichtsbeleid in het sociale domein (zie eveneens hoofdstuk 14). Hoe kan het overheidsfunctioneren in dat licht verbeterd worden? Dit is het hervormingsperspectief. Daarbij gaat het er niet alleen om de kwaliteit van die publieke dienstverlening op peil te houden, maar ook om deze te verbeteren gegeven de aard van de uitdagingen waarmee de samenleving en het openbaar bestuur worden geconfronteerd. Uitgangspunt is dat de samenleving en het openbaar bestuur elkaar nodig hebben voor een goede zorg voor gemeenschappelijke (collectieve) zaken. Die gemeenschappelijke zorg wordt uitgedrukt met het begrip ‘multilevel governancesysteem’. Multilevel governance omvat het bestuur van gemeenschappelijke belangen door publieke en private actoren op verschillende schaalniveaus. Daarnaast is er een voorwaardenscheppende rol weggelegd voor (overheids)organisaties in het openbaar bestuur. Aan de uitleg van beide begrippen wordt in het boek uitgebreid aandacht besteed. Wanneer we spreken over management van de publieke sector, gaat uitdrukkelijk de aandacht niet alleen uit naar interne beheersactiviteiten van over-heidsorganisaties. Die interne managementbenadering is zeker van belang, maar het betreft slechts een onderdeel van het management van de publieke sector. Er staat daarom niet voor niets management van de publieke sector en niet management in de publieke sector. Dat kan wellicht slechts een semantische slimmigheid lijken, maar is het zeker niet. Het gaat evenzeer over de wijze en kwaliteit van de besturing van een multilevel governancesysteem. Dat sys-teem is opgebouwd uit een veelheid aan (samenwerkende en elkaar bestrijdende) overheids- en private instellingen, organisaties, politiek-maatschappelijke actoren en burgers die actief zijn binnen sectoren van die publieke dienstverlening. Dat multilevel governancesysteem-niveau is dan ook een bepalende factor voor het karakter van het management en functioneren van de afzonderlijke organisaties binnen dat systeem. Dat laatste geldt in gelijke mate voor het functioneren van afzonderlijke actoren binnen de organisaties in dat multilevel governancesysteem. Deze drie nauw met elkaar verbonden ni-veaus werken door in de behandeling van de thema’s die verderop aan bod komen. Speciale aandacht gaat uit naar de rollen en het functioneren van respectievelijk politici en ambtenaren als cruciale actoren in het openbaar bestuur. Met name zal de sleutelrol van ambtenaren wat betreft hun bijdrage aan de kwaliteit van het openbaar bestuur en hun relatie met de samenle-ving worden belicht.. In aanvulling hierop zou ook gesteld moeten worden dat een goede zorg voor de publieke zaak ook een taak is voor, en afhankelijk is van, de inbreng van toegewijde politici en burgers.
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Questo libro si muove tra preoccupazioni teoriche e problemi empirici relativi alla democrazia reale in paesi come Argentina, Italia, Spagna e Messico. Paesi in cui, tra l’altro, ho vissuto in diversi periodi di tempo durante gli ultimi trent’anni. La prospettiva comparata è alla base delle analisi e dei concetti usati e proposti in ogni capitolo. A volte il confronto è esplicito, altre volte si realizza in modo più tacito. Nonostante si parli di democrazia, i concetti usati si muovono più comodamente quando riguardano il processo di democratizzazione. Le riflessioni vanno dalle tappe iniziali della democratizzazione fino a quelle che riguardano i fattori utili a rendere alcune democrazie più complete, ed altre più deludenti. Quanto contribuisce l’analisi del capitale sociale, e quanto l’analisi della qualità democratica rispetto alla teoria democratica? Quanto incide il background storico e quanto le leadership sul processo di democratizzazione? Che impatto hanno le democrazie, limitate in quanto ai diritti, sulla costruzione della cittadinanza? Che tipo di cittadinanza è presente nelle democrazie dell’America Latina? Le risposte sono sempre localizzate nel tempo, ogni volta in modo singolare. Quando le democrazie si insediarono in America latina durante gli anni ’80, il principale dilemma era relativo alla dittatura o democrazia, e qualsiasi tipo di democrazia era considerata preferibile, dai democratici, rispetto a qualsiasi tipo di autoritarismo. Come segnalava allora il politico argentino Raul Alfonsin, la differenza tra democrazia ed autoritarismo corrispondeva alla differenza tra vita e morte. A fine millennio, la teoria politica è penetrata nella qualità delle democrazie. Democratizzare non è solo costruire democrazie, bensì costruire buone democrazie.
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This thesis offers a study of power exercise in three different types of neighbourhoods in Beijing, China, where the author carried out fieldwork from 2007 until 2009. This approach « from below » aims at understanding daily life by crisscrossing urban microsociology and comparative politics. The urban neighbourhood, as a site of power, undergoes different forms of hetero-control, social control and self-control. The neighourhood space is produced by the interactions and theatrical dispositions of the inhabitants, but also by the local workers, among whom the people who work in residents' committees. This organization located at the root-level, though not officially part of the urban administration, is involved in the reform of local public action known as « neighbourhood communities » building (shequ jianshe). An essential link between the inhabitants and the upper-level administration, the committee can be seen as a new generation of street-level bureaucracy. The process of domination is initiated both by the state's strategies aiming at shaping modern civilized citizens living in an international metropolis, and by the inhabitants' yearning for comfort, order, stability. The converging of these different interests leads to the new residential model (xiaoqu), which creates mechanisms of submission (to the logic of the market) as well as subjection (the individuals being able to invent new frames with their daily practices). The eneighbourhood has thus become the core of the state's local formation, a place where each individual is more and more responsible of his own domination, a place more and more conform to the social image of the « good life ».
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The main aim of this research is to investigate the factors influencing the satisfaction of international students towards Malaysian Higher Education Providers. A review of literature led to conceptualization of five factors which are then tested in this study. These factors/determinants of students' satisfaction include the quality/reputation of the HEPs, the learning environment/facilities provided, costs of studying/living in Malaysia, non-academic activities within the HEP and the perceived value for money. The factors/determinants are parts of the components of service quality in business organizations. The data used in this study were collected from primary source using Google Form survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed and sectionalized based on the conceptual framework using a multivariate 5-point Likert-scale measurement. The initial defined sample size was 300 but there were 237 participants in all. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was utilized due to time and cost constraints. Data analysis was done with the aid of Google Form and SPSS software. Hypotheses were tested using bivariate multiple regression analysis. The findings found positive significant relationship between 4 independent variables and the dependent variable but found a negative significant relationship with one variable. Variables with positive significant relationships with dependent variable include: learning environment/farcicalities, costs of studying/living, non-academic activities within the HEP and the perceived value for money. The quality and reputation of the HEPs were found to have a negative significant relationship. To sum up, this study found that all the factors used as independent variables have significant relationship with dependent variable with four variables having positive and one having negative relationship. The findings corroborated with many other researchers'. It is strongly recommended that further studies should be conducted with more factors tested and larger sample size used.
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This quantitative research aims to investigate the perceptions of bank service quality among Malaysian customers, and to determine which dimensions of perceived service quality make the greatest contribution to overall customer satisfaction. Positivism paradigm was adopted in this study since it is the most suitable for studies where hypotheses are statistically tested. Explanatory research was utilised since the topic chosen is an entirely new area. Quantitative method was utilised via survey questionnaire. Numerical data were collected via the use of Likert scale. The scale is 1 to 5 where 1=strongly disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Neutral; 4=Agree; 5=strongly agree. Primary data collection method was used since the researcher had to personally distribute questionnaire to 300 bank customer across Malaysia. Questionnaire was divided into three sections-the demographics questions, the independent variables and the dependent variables. Data collected were analyzed and interpreted using SPSS software where several tests including the reliability, sample adequacy, normality, descriptive statistics, and correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Results and findings were compared with past and present studies. The findings using the bivariate multiple regression analysis showed that three dimensions of service quality namely reliability and security, empathy and assurance have positive significant relationship with customer satisfaction evidence from Malaysia. The hypothesis related to the dimension of tangibility was rejected. SERVQUAL model has other dimensions which can still be explored. Further research should utilize bigger sample size which may lead to a situation where all the dimensions of service quality are positively significantly related to customer satisfaction.
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Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, wrote, “the spirit of the age is in favour of equality, though practice denies it almost everywhere”, adding further, “the spirit of the age will triumph” (Nehru, The Discovery of India, Asia Publishing House, 1961: 521). Nehru’s optimising and aspiration for an egalitarian social order notwithstanding, his observations of the prevalence of the social practice of inequality extends to all spheres of human existence, including access to water. Achieving equitable access to water has been one of the dominant principles of water governance policy and practice; however, achieving equity remains a challenge in the water sector. The global policy discourse on water conceptualises equity in terms of access to safely managed drinking water.
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Each year, around 10,000 foreigners obtain a U.S. residence visa after investing half a million dollars or more. Who are the millionaires that acquire these visas and what motivates them to leave their home countries? To answer this question, I analyzed an original data set that combines U.S. visa statistics with data on global millionaire populations. The analysis produced three key findings. First, demand for investor visas was led by millionaires from countries that ranked lower in the global hierarchy of citizenship value. Second, most of the visas were acquired by Chinese millionaires, who recorded the world's highest application rate. Third, when the quality of democracy in a country declined, visa applications surged. These findings suggest that investor visas are used by elites in less developed countries to hedge against the risks associated with authoritarian rule. Such elites perceive investor visas as a foothold in a stable and democratic country that can provide an insurance policy or exit option.
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour objectif de présenter une recherche concernant le comportement d’innovation d’un échantillon d’hygiénistes opérant dans des services d’hygiène hospitalière en France. La recherche vise à comprendre le rôle de certains facteurs susceptibles d’être des leviers (ressources individuelles et organisationnelles) et/ou des freins (individuels et organisationnels) à l’innovation des pratiques professionnelles des services d’hygiène hospitalière. Dans un premier temps, il a été fait une revue des travaux sur le comportement d’innovation organisationnelle, la satisfaction au travail, les caractéristiques du travail motivationnel et les comportements proactifs, en particulier la prise en charge. Deux études ont été réalisées pour le recueil des données : une étude qualitative menée auprès des hygiénistes de quatre Hôpitaux de la Nouvelle Aquitaine, et une étude transversale à partir d’un questionnaire auto-rapporté, envoyé à tous les hygiénistes de la France - Métropolitaine et dans les territoires d’Outre-Mer – adhérents à la Société Française d’Hygiène Hospitalière (SF2H), et ce, en un seul temps de mesure. Pour l’étude quantitative, des échelles de mesure traduites en français ont été utilisées, en l’occurrence pour les caractéristiques du travail, le comportement d’innovation. Pour les besoins de l’étude, d’autres échelles de mesure ont également été créées pour mesurer les contraintes liées au travail, les opportunités liées au travail et les échanges entre les services de soins et les services de d’hygiène.Pour tester les hypothèses de médiation, des modèles d’équations structurelles (SEM) ont été utilisés, ainsi que la Macros Process de Hayes pour tester les hypothèses de modération et de médiation modérée. Ces résultats mettent en évidence les leviers dont disposent les hygiénistes pour innover dans leurs pratiques professionnelles ; à savoir que : (1) la variété au travail et l’interdépendance au travail ont une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation, à travers le comportement proactif de prise en charge, (2) l’autonomie a une relation directe et positive d’une part avec le comportement d’innovation, et d’autre part une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation, à travers le comportement proactif de prise en charge. En outre, le comportement proactif de prise en charge a une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation.De plus, ces résultats permettent également d’identifier que les échanges entre les cadres de santé et les hygiénistes sont un levier organisationnel au comportement d’innovation dans leurs pratiques professionnelles, et les contraintes liées au travail sont quant à eux des défis organisationnels à relever. Ces deux facteurs organisationnels contribuent à accélérer le comportement proactif de prise en charge et renforcent davantage le comportement d’innovation.
Chapter
The aims of the Practicum Study are to identify the mechanisms that operate within the practicum and generate the behaviours and discourse of stakeholders. In the Modelling stage of Womposo, the metaphors emerge. The Australian mentors produced the diverse metaphors: the Hothouse, Mother Nurture and Battery Hens. All three images are interpreted by the professional illustrator. The Canadian mentors reveal, in images drawn by a member of the focus group, Gateways to different Worlds and Cookie Cutter versus Ski Jumper. In other group-drawn images, the English mentors generate the concepts Welcome to the Circus and the Growth of Trainees. The derivation of the metaphor leads to a CATWOE and a root definition utilising the early stages of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). All the mentor groups seek the transformation of the learner into a professional teacher. In the third activity of Womposo the data is categorised in two different ways, as social entities and social objects. This classification leads to the final activity, generating the value functioning figure for each focus group. This results in deductions such as the following: mentors from Possum Primary School in New South Wales seek to challenge and develop themselves professionally in a busy, hothouse environment.KeywordsCATWOEMetaphorPowers and liabilitiesPracticumMentorsRoot definitionSoft Systems Methodology (SSM)StakeholderTransformationWomposo (Worldview, Metaphor and Power of Social Objects)
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