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Music, the Arts and Ideas

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... Among music scholars, this view was first crystallized by Meyer (1956Meyer ( , 1967, with the resurgence of associationist theories in the cognitive sciences-which placed the brain's predictive mechanisms at the forefront of contemporary research in music psychology-following soon thereafter. Krumhansl (1990) has suggested, for example, that composers often exploit the brain's potential for prediction by organizing events on the musical surface to reflect the kinds of statistical regularities that listeners will learn and remember. ...
... There is a good deal of support for the role played by expectation and prediction in the perception of closure (Huron, 2006;Margulis, 2003;Meyer, 1956;Narmour, 1990), with scholars also sometimes suggesting that listeners possess schematic representations for cadences and other recurrent closing patterns (Eberlein & Fricke, 1992;Eberlein, 1997;Gjerdingen, 1988;Meyer, 1967;Rosner & Narmour, 1992;Temperley, 2004). Yet currently very little experimental evidence justifies the links between expectancy, prediction, and the variety of cadences in tonal music or indeed, more specifically, in music of the classical style (Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven), where the compositional significance of cadential closure is paramount (Caplin, 2004;Hepokoski & Darcy, 2006;Ratner, 1980;Rosen, 1972). ...
Article
This study examines how the mind’s predictive mechanisms contribute to the perception of cadential closure during music listening. Using the Information Dynamics of Music model (or IDyOM) to simulate the formation of schematic expectations—a finite-context (or n-gram) model that predicts the next event in a musical stimulus by acquiring knowledge through unsupervised statistical learning of sequential structure—we predict the terminal melodic and harmonic events from 245 exemplars of the five most common cadence categories from the classical style. Our findings demonstrate that (1) terminal events from cadential contexts are more predictable than those from non-cadential contexts; (2) models of cadential strength advanced in contemporary cadence typologies reflect the formation of schematic expectations; and (3) a significant decrease in predictability follows the terminal note and chord events of the cadential formula.
... In the Western tradition of research, creativity has been a subject of much research internationally, leading researchers to talk about a creativity movement (Guilford, 1980). Much of the research in creativity has focused on intelligence and 42 2 Spirituality in India: The Ever Growing Banyan Tree personality (Barron & Harrington, 1981), problem solving (Osborn, 1953), genius (Simonton, 1984), organizational creativity (Amabile, 1988), how innovations are made in such domains as music and art (Meyer, 1967), and how creativity can be taught in schools (Raina, 1980). However, very little effort has gone into examining the influence of culture on creativity. ...
... In the Western tradition of research, creativity has been a subject of much research internationally, leading researchers to talk about a creativity movement (Guilford, 1980). Much of the research in creativity has focused on intelligence and personality (Barron & Harrington, 1981), problem solving (Osborn, 1953), genius (Simonton, 1984), organizational creativity (Amabile, 1988), how innovations are made in such domains as music and art (Meyer, 1967), and how creativity can be taught in schools (Raina, 1980). However, very little effort has gone into examining the influence of culture on creativity. ...
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The concept of self has been studied from multiple perspectives in India. A review of the study of self in India reveals that indeed the core of Indian self is metaphysical, and it has been the focus of study by philosophers as well as psychologists. There is general agreement that the metaphysical self, Atman, is the real self. This metaphysical self is embodied in a biological self, and through the caste system right at birth, the biological self acquires a social self. In this chapter, I present material from ancient and medieval texts that describe the indigenous concept of self in India from multiple perspectives. What emerges is a rich indigenous concept of self that simply would be missed if we followed the traditional Western psychological approach employed in the study of self. I start by examining the concept of self as it relates to stages of life, examine concept of self as it appears in the bhagavadgItA and other texts, and finally relate concept of self and identity by discussing regional and national identities. The Indian concept of self is then examined in light of the contemporary psychological research, and implications for global psychology are discussed.
... In many ways, the non-denotative nature of instrumental music makes it an ideal candidate for studying what linguists refer to as -tone of voice.‖ Leonard Meyer (1967) said, -The mere collection and counting of phenomena do not lead to significant concepts. Behind any statistical investigation must be hypotheses that determine which facts shall be collected and counted." ...
... Behind any statistical investigation must be hypotheses that determine which facts shall be collected and counted." (Meyer, 1967). ...
... It was thus frequent for a 'serious' composer to write in the light or functional genres and that among composers of the same period, or even in the production of a given composer, there co-existed several creative attitudes. The musical creation of the second part of the twentieth century was much more profoundly segmented; the attitude of systematic breaks and experimentation became the dominant norm in producing and evaluating the originality and excellence of compositions (Meyer 1967). It rapidly led creators seeking consecration to take position in the same segment of production, which was a new situation historically. ...
... The incompleteness of a pattern or a deviation from expectations leads to tension, while the fulfillment of expectations leads to relaxation; their interplay gives rise to changes in arousal and emotion (Meyer, 1967;Juslin & Västfjäll, 2008;Steinbeis, Koelsch & Sloboda, 2006). While this theory was primarily based on Western music, hierarchical tonal structure is a feature of music from other cultures as well (e.g., Hindustani classical music; Rohrmeier & Widdess, 2012), though tonal systems (the set of rules governing how tones relate to each other) typically differ. ...
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While listeners can infer the mood expressed by the music of a different culture, the question of whether strong felt emotional responses can also be induced cross-culturally remains unanswered. We address this question by measuring chill responses, sudden increases in emotional arousal, through self-report and skin conductance measures. Excerpts of Western classical, traditional Chinese, and Hindustani classical music were presented to three groups of participants, each familiar with one of these styles. Participants felt a similar number of chills to both familiar and unfamiliar musical styles, but significantly fewer chills to scrambled music, which acted as a control. Acoustic analyses revealed that sudden peaks in loudness, brightness and roughness were correlated with chills across styles, suggesting that similar acoustic elements induced emotional responses cross-culturally. The number of chills was also related to the degree to which participants paid attention to the music, rated the music as emotional and as having affected their own mood, but not to how much participants liked the music. Overall, this research counters the idea of musical emotional meaning as being entirely generated within cultural conventions and supports the claim that some aspects of the way music conveys emotion may be shared across cultures.
... In such areas, innovations based on aesthetic ideals and performance standards that deviate substantially from and challenge existing modes of expression and conventions are unlikely to be supported or welcomed, particularly if vertically integrated oligopolies dominate access to audiences, as in the film and record industries for some decades in the 20 th century (Parkinson 2012: 81-110;Peterson and Berger 1975;. The importance of being able to access resources and the necessary means of dissemination of outputs from a diversity of actors and organisations for the development of radically disparate forms of expression and their acceptance by sub groups of artists and associated supporters is illustrated by some changes in art music in the twentieth century, particularly after the end of the second world war (Glock 1991;Meyer 1994;Ross 2012;Rupprecht 2015: 94-109). Here, university music departments, public radio organisations such as the BBC, various public agencies and private supporters, amongst other groups and institutions in different countries, provided opportunities for composers and performers to develop new ways of writing and performing music and disseminating their results to audiences, sometimes publicly celebrating their lack of appeal to traditional concert goers. ...
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In this paper we explore how recent changes in the socioeconomic environment of novelty production, dissemination and evaluation in the arts and sciences can be expected to influence the development and institutionalisation of different kinds of innovations in differently organised fields as a contribution to the broader understanding of innovation development processes in novelty-driven cultural production systems. While the production of novelties has become a central feature of the modern arts and sciences, it is important to note that only some novelties become innovations in the sense that they have a lasting effect on the work of other producers. The processes by which new ideas become innovations and affect established ways of doing things vary between different fields of cultural production according to a) the degree to which practitioners depend upon each other in producing and evaluating new outputs, b) the extent of their collective authority over technical and significance standards, resource allocation procedures and dissemination of outputs, and c) the importance, variety and organisation of non-practitioner audiences for new art works and research results. These differences depend in turn on the broader socioeconomic conditions in which artistic and scientific activities are conducted. We argue that recent changes in socioeconomic conditions make fields of cultural production prioritise short-term novelty over time-consuming and resource-intensive innovation and turn the opportunity to innovate into a privilege of a relatively small elite that is secure in its career and reputation, thereby diminishing the diversity of sources of innovation.
... One can conclude that transitions at the two hierarchical levels of chords and keys follow a similar shape but differ with respect to the concrete transitions. This finding renders it unlikely that both hierarchical levels conform to the identical set of rules, thus underpinning musicological positions critiquing assumptions of hierarchical uniformity [10,55]. ...
Article
Tonal harmony is one of the central organization systems of Western music. This article characterizes the statistical foundations of tonal harmony based on the computational analysis of expert annotations in a large corpus. Using resampling methods, this study shows that 1) the rank-frequency distribution of chords resembles a power law, i.e. few chords govern a large proportion of the data; 2) chord transitions are referential and chord predictability is significantly affected by distinguished chord features; 3) tonal harmony conveys directedness in time; and 4) tonal harmony operates differently at the hierarchical levels of chords and keys. These results serve to characterize tonal harmony on empirical grounds and advance the methodological state-of-the-art in digital musicology.
... Aunque no hay unanimidad, tenemos varias explicaciones para explicar la capacidad emocional de la música. Meyer (1967) plantea que proviene de las expectativas generadas mediante tensión-reposo, inestabilidad-estabilidad, ambigüedad-claridad. Los compositores impregnan la música de emoción conociendo nuestras expectativas y controlando cuando las quieren satisfacer o si en cambio optan por sorprendernos. ...
... Aunque no hay unanimidad, tenemos varias explicaciones para explicar la capacidad emocional de la música. Meyer (1967) plantea que proviene de las expectativas generadas mediante tensión-reposo, inestabilidad-estabilidad, ambigüedad-claridad. Los compositores impregnan la música de emoción conociendo nuestras expectativas y controlando cuando las quieren satisfacer o si en cambio optan por sorprendernos. ...
Chapter
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¿Hasta qué punto nuestros gustos musicales, muestras preferencias por un estilo u otro, son deudores de nuestro origen social, entorno familiar y tipo de educación? Por qué escuchamos un estilo u otro de música?
... [4] Due to its formal structure, music was one of the early targets in cognitive research. Several researchers and experimental musicians were convinced that music could be analyzed mathematically as some sort of code, and could therefore be artificially generated (Meyer 1967). Avant-garde artists dreamed of ensembles of humans and computers improvising in jam sessions. ...
... Yet few such studies have applied the schema concept to the variety of recurrent harmonic and melodic ending formulae found in Western tonal music-what theorists and composers have for centuries called cadences. Indeed, the tonal cadence is generally considered to be the quintessential phrase-level event schema (Eberlein, 1997;Eberlein & Fricke, 1992;Gjerdingen, 1988;Meyer, 1967;Rosner & Narmour, 1992;Sears, 2015Sears, , 2016Sears, Caplin, & McAdams, 2014;Temperley, 2004), with the specificity of the mental representation reflected in the strength and specificity of the schematic expectations it generates. And yet experimental studies explicitly examining the perception of cadences (or cadential closure) are notably few (e.g., Tillmann, Bigand, & Madurell, 1998;Sears et al., 2014). ...
Article
Cognitive accounts for the formation of expectations during music listening have largely centered around mental representations of scales using both melodic and harmonic stimuli. This study extends these findings to the most recurrent cadence patterns associated with tonal music using a real-time, continuous-rating paradigm. Musicians and nonmusicians heard cadential excerpts selected from Mozart’s keyboard sonatas (perfect authentic cadence [PAC], imperfect authentic cadence [IAC], half cadence [HC], deceptive cadence [DC], and evaded cadence [EV]), and continuously rated the strength of their expectations that the end of each excerpt is imminent. As predicted, expectations for closure increased over the course of each excerpt and then peaked at or near the target melodic tone and chord. Cadence categories for which tonic harmony was the expected goal (PAC, IAC, DC, EV) received the highest and earliest expectancy ratings, whereas cadence categories ending with dominant harmony (HC) received the lowest and latest ratings, suggesting that dominant harmony elicits weaker expectations in anticipation of its occurrence in cadential contexts. A regression analysis also revealed that longer excerpts featuring dense textures and a cadential six-four harmony received the highest ratings overall.
... As Meyer put it, "The world is seen as a single interrelated field or continuum in which everything that interacts with -is the 'cause' of -everything else; there are no separable causes and effects." 37 A relational view of an otherwise individually drawn construct is applicable now more so than ever in the age of open application programming interfaces (APIs) and cloud computing compared to an previous time of monolithic customer-hosted on-premise software. Looking back, we can argue that the age-old relational database, that contains primary and foreign keys, the latter a reminder of the presence of others, is a herald of this change of perspective. ...
... Thus, musical perception is dependent on how each listener perceives the auditory information presented. Because the structural elements that exist in Western music appear to create a sense of expectation on the part of the listener (Meyer, 1967;Sloboda, 1985), researchers have become increasingly interested in examining how people perceive and cognitively process melodic, harmonic, and tonal information (Radocy & Boyle, 2003). Researchers have long determined that tonality is a culturally learned phenomenon (Farnsworth, 1969;Holleran, Jones, & Butler, 1995;Taylor, 1976;Tillman, Bharucha, & Bigand, 2000;Wassum, 1979), in which individuals are able to recognize differences at a very early age (Boyle & Penticoff, 1989;Costa-Giomi, 1994;Hair, 1973;Wassum, 1979). ...
... Entre outras virtudes, a apreciação e reprodução de padrões dos "clássicos" é considerada um sinal de maturidade social e emocional. De fato, Meyer (1967) argumenta que esta música é superior pois nestes estilos a satisfação não é imediata. Por outro lado, adeptos do currículo por Assimilação argumentam que a preferência por música popular e étnica é um sinal de imaturidade, pois elementos musicais "sensuais" (e.g., timbre, textura, dinâmicas, ritmo) tendem a ser predominantes nesses estilos e a recompensa emocional dessas músicas é normalmente imediata (Meyer, 1967, pp. ...
... However, in spite of my careful and meticulous research into the entirety of Gostuški's Legacy, including his correspondence, one question will remain unanswered: Why wasn't his lecture published in the Colloquium Proceedings, published in Pesaro two years later, since we know that the text had been completely finished by the beginning of the meeting? 10 The confirmation of the presumption that the author was fully satisfied with the content of the lecture can easily be found in the fact that its full, unchanged version appeared in 1977 in the prestigious journal International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music (Gostuški 1977), 11 whose initiator and its first Editor-in-Chief was the world-famous sociologist Ivo Supičić -one of the Colloquium's most prominent participants from Yugoslavia. Dragutin Gostuški's theoretical contribution to the field of the semiotics of music has since been awaiting expert evaluation from the angle of the discipline's development trends. ...
Article
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The main goals of this article, devoted to the contribution of the prominent Serbian musicologist, composer and aesthetician Dragutin Gostuški (1923-1998) to the semiotics of music, are the following: 1) to show the evolution of semiotic ideas in Gostuški’s work; 2) to reconstruct the circumstances under which preparations for the First International Colloquium on the Semiotics of Music took place; and 3) to encourage new research that would re-examine Gostuški’s major theoretical opus in the historical context of the discipline. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177004: Serbian Musical Identities Within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges]
... It was thus frequent for a 'serious' composer to write in the light or functional genres and that among composers of the same period, or even in the production of a given composer, there co-existed several creative attitudes. The musical creation of the second part of the 20th century was much more profoundly segmented; the attitude of systematic breaks and experimentation became the dominant norm in producing and evaluating the originality and excellence of compositions (Meyer, 1967). It rapidly led creators seeking consecration to take position in the same segment of production, which was a new situation historically. ...
Chapter
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Descriptive statistics on musical consumption from recent surveys on cultural consumption in France show that the typical audience of classical music and opera consists of older, better educated, and of higher social status people than average cultural consumers. It is also located in the largest cities, with Parisians having a clear edge. Explanatory power of these factors is even stronger when people are asked about their taste or distaste for serious contemporary music, with the three factors of high social status, high educational level and strong musical background working together in combination to explain a propensity for contemporary music attendance. In the same time, listening to new music inherently involves a high potential for dissatisfaction. Two types of ensembles and festivals perform and promote new music: the ‘fostering invention’ type and the ‘mixing new with established contemporary music’ type. Audience of the first type is best described as consisting of stakeholders. The ultimate hope of the second type institutions is to reach lay audience. Based on two surveys of the audience of the InterContemporain Ensemble, one of the most important European organisations in the distribution of modern and contemporary music, the paper shows that lay audience displays loyalty to this highly demanding musical consumption only if it is able to supply ascetic benevolence in order to factor in the high potential for dissatisfaction with works of uncertain and variable value.
... It was thus frequent for a 'serious' composer to write in the light or functional genres and that among composers of the same period, or even in the production of a given composer, there co-existed several creative attitudes. The musical creation of the second part of the twentieth century was much more profoundly segmented; the attitude of systematic breaks and experimentation became the dominant norm in producing and evaluating the originality and excellence of compositions (Meyer 1967). It rapidly led creators seeking consecration to take position in the same segment of production, which was a new situation historically. ...
... It is in showing that these three forms of expectation ultimately have a common music-structural source (as captured in the notion of zygonic relationships) and indicating how they function together that the zygonic model makes a significant contribution to the field. The origin of this thinking, like so many theories in contemporary cognitive musicology, lies in the pioneering work of Leonard Meyer (Meyer, 1956Meyer, , 1967). Meyer's ideas sprang from two main sources: Gestalt perception and information theory, the former relating to what is termed in the zygonic model " within-group " implication, and the latter to implications heard between groups of events, schematically encoded (Bharucha, 1987, p. 4) – that is, at a probabilistic level. ...
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This study investigates expectations in music evoked during the course of hearing a piece for the first time, particularly those which stem from recently appearing groups of notes (Ockelford, 2006). A prodigious musical savant (Derek Paravicini) attempted to reproduce a novel composition on the piano at the same time as hearing it. The piece was designed to minimise the impact of the more general expectations that arise from tonality, whereby different pitch transitions are felt to occur with different probabilities according to their level of past exposure. The design of the study was informed by ‘zygonic’ theory (Ockelford, 2009, 2012b), which holds that structural regularities in music suggest future continuations, whose perceived likelihood of occurrence is proportional to the number of ways in which their existence is implied in what has gone before. Using this principle, a ‘strength of implication’ factor was calculated for each note of the stimulus piece (following the first). It was hypothesised that the higher the implication factor, the more likely Derek would predict its occurrence (and therefore play it correctly at the appropriate point in time). Data gathered from Derek’s performance support the principles of the zygonic model, although they also suggest certain refinements.
... • they channel information, give support and advice, and provide service and resources (DiMaggio 1987a;Powell 1985); • they provide rituals, such as 'name-dropping' which help to construct a shared identity (Douglas and Isherwood 1979); • they help establish an artist's self-image, social position, reputation, and prominence Gerhards 1991 and1991b;Anheier, Gerhards, and Romo 1995;Janssen 1998). • they help to maintain standards artistic standards for insiders (Peterson and White 1989) and provide ideas about styles and techniques, sources of criticisms, and validations for an aesthetic approach or artistic innovation (Meyer 1967;Crane 1989;Ridgeway 1989). ...
... The incorporation of music psychological concepts into music analysis, at least at an intuitive level, can focus and legitimate music-analytical techniques. Meyer (1956Meyer ( , 1967Meyer ( , 1973, Narmour (1977), and Lerdahl and Jackendoff (1983) are among the music theorists to have developed links between music theory and music psychology, and to have explored their musicanalytic applications. ...
Article
Nattiez advocated bottom-up analysis, in contrast to Ruwet's top-down; Schoenberg's seminal work on motive engaged with the musical surface; and Schenker did not differentiate between hierarchical voice-leading levels as regards perceptual salience. A critical appraisal and comparison of these contrasting music-theoretic approaches suggests that they may all be consistent with an analysis that begins from the most salient hierarchical level – the phrase and equivalent unitary gestures or figures, which we call the middle level – and moves outward to faster and slower levels. We suppose that the main cognitive processes active at, and characteristic of, the middle level are parsing (segmentation and functional interpretation of segments/chunks), and triggering or deployment of style schemata (topics). We review literature that supports the psychological reality and salience of the middle level, showing how it co-ordinates and focuses analytic activity around a fundamental human cognitive modality, ensures hearing relevance in the analytical outcome, and relativizes divergent analytical approaches.
... Music, while frequently considered an art, captures the sciences in its generative process, and draws on human expectations. The cognitive architecture, the generative processes, the diverse variation and embodiment of human meaning within almost all spheres of human expression, are rich fields of discovery for both the arts and the sciences (Dewey, 1896;Meyer, 1967;Premack, 1990;Schulkin, 2009). This development of art and music was an important evolutionary step in forming the communicative scaffolding for social interactions that have become so crucial or our species. ...
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Music is a core human experience and generative processes reflect cognitive capabilities. Music is often functional because it is something that can promote human well-being by facilitating human contact, human meaning, and human imagination of possibilities, tying it to our social instincts. Cognitive systems also underlie musical performance and sensibilities. Music is one of those things that we do spontaneously, reflecting brain machinery linked to communicative functions, enlarged and diversified across a broad array of human activities. Music cuts across diverse cognitive capabilities and resources, including numeracy, language, and space perception. In the same way, music intersects with cultural boundaries, facilitating our "social self" by linking our shared experiences and intentions. This paper focuses on the intersection between the neuroscience of music, and human social functioning to illustrate the importance of music to human behaviors.
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When postmodernism reached the height of intensity in the 20th century and was attracting the attention of Euro-American artistic critics, Polish composers proposed an alternative way of writing music. They invented the term “sur-conventionalism” as a way to experiment with different musical conventions from past epochs. The aim of this paper is to describe some examples of Polish sur-conventional music written by such composers as Paweł Szymański, Stanisław Krupowicz and Paweł Mykietyn.
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Studies examining the formation of melodic and harmonic expectations during music listening have repeatedly demonstrated that a tonal context primes listeners to expect certain (tonally related) continuations over others. However, few such studies have (1) selected stimuli using ready examples of expectancy violation derived from real-world instances of tonal music, (2) provided a consistent account for the influence of sensory and cognitive mechanisms on tonal expectancies by comparing different computational simulations, or (3) combined melodic and harmonic representations in modelling cognitive processes of expectation. To resolve these issues, this study measures expectations for the most recurrent cadence patterns associated with tonal music and then simulates the reported findings using three sensory-cognitive models of auditory expectation. In Experiment 1, participants provided explicit retrospective expectancy ratings both before and after hearing the target melodic tone and chord of the cadential formula. In Experiment 2, participants indicated as quickly as possible whether those target events were in or out of tune relative to the preceding context. Across both experiments, cadences terminating with stable melodic tones and chords elicited the highest expectancy ratings and the fastest and most accurate responses. Moreover, the model simulations supported a cognitive interpretation of tonal processing, in which listeners with exposure to tonal music generate expectations as a consequence of the frequent (co-)occurrence of events on the musical surface.
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This thoroughly revised third edition of Allan F. Moore’s ground-breaking book, now co-authored with Remy Martin, incorporates new material on rock music theory, style change and the hermeneutic method developed in Moore’s Song Means (2012). An even larger array of musicians is discussed, bringing the book right into the 21st century. Rock’s ‘primary text’ - its sounds - is the focus of attention here. The authors argue for the development of a musicology particular to rock within the context of the background to the genres, the beat and rhythm and blues styles of the early 1960s, ‘progressive’ rock, punk rock, metal and subsequent styles. They also explore the fundamental issue of rock as a medium for self-expression, and the relationship of this to changing musical styles. Rock: The Primary Text remains innovative in its exploration of an aesthetics of rock.
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O presente trabalho tem a intenção de, primeiramente, estudar a guitarra elétrica como interface de composição e improvisação através da utilização de novas tecnologias digitais na música experimental; em um segundo momento, propõe uma composição musical utilizando alguns aparatos tecnológicos acoplados à guitarra. Essas ferramentas foram escolhidas após um extensivo mapeamento individual e através de experimentações de suas potencialidades do processamento sonoro quando abordadas com o instrumento. O material composicional foi posteriormente construído a partir de observações e reflexões do autor sobre o uso do instrumento enquanto interface no diálogo com as novas tecnologias digitais presentes na computação móvel. O trabalho traz também o registro autoetnográfico do período de pesquisa de algumas das ferramentas digitais selecionadas quando em uso com a guitarra elétrica e o processo de composição e registro da peça proposta, além de sua posterior análise. Em sua conclusão, são apresentadas, portanto, as observações e reflexões desta interação do instrumento e suas novas formas de instrumenticidade quando acoplado ao computador.
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The revolution of sound recording, synthesis and transformation (commenced in 1948 with concrete music and in 1950 with electronic music), followed by the birth of computer music (since 1957), caused the natural emergence of a new professional profile – someone who can work in the phase of researching, writing, creating new instruments, recording and/or performing live during concerts. From the early days, laboratories and electronic music studios have involved the presence of different individuals with diverse but intertwined competencies. This is true for the Milan, Cologne, Paris and San Francisco centres during the first analogue generation; this has continued with the digital revolution (at CCRMA in Stanford and other centres in the United States, in France, Italy, Great Britain, Germany, East Asia, to name a few). Although books and essays dedicated to the history of Computer Music do agree, in principle, on the interdisciplinary nature of this music and the importance of collaboration, and the field of music collaboration starts at last being investigated, the existence of the musical assitant has been often unreasonably neglected. In both the musical score and the program notes, or in written sources (a least in the published ones), his/her presence remains hidden most of the time, and literature on the collaboration composer/musical assistant is scattered. In this chapter I report findings from a study based on primary and secondary sources and administrative documents, conserved at three computer music centres: the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique) in Paris, the CCRMA (Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics) at Stanford University and the CSC (Centro di Sonologia Computazionale) in Padova. The analysis examines two points: 1) institutionalisation and recognition: I would investigate the presence (or absence or understatement, as the case may be) of an express concern for the theme of collaboration and the role of the musical assistant; 2) the presence of passages inside the sources, describing the ways in which this collaboration was undertaken between musical assistants and composers. My study covers the technological historical period which runs from the early computer programs until the first real time experiments. It is intended to enlighen the hidden art-science collaboration, the emergence of a profession, the traces remaining from the habitually wordless communication between a composer and an assistant, in the early era of computer music. It introduces questions about cooperation and the way it could induce dilemmas when considering authorship. The choice of these three centres is motivated by the close historical, musical, organisational, scientific and technological connections, and by the numerous technical, cultural and scientific exchanges between the three.
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