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Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

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... In order to support the statements above, the research titled Essays on cultural appropriation have been examined by Bruce Ziff. Based on his old ideas, appropriation is about stealing the culture and traditions of other people in order to generate profit [16]. However, his ideas have changed, and he expresses that in reality appropriation is always related to colonialism and the display of authority [16]. ...
... Based on his old ideas, appropriation is about stealing the culture and traditions of other people in order to generate profit [16]. However, his ideas have changed, and he expresses that in reality appropriation is always related to colonialism and the display of authority [16]. In this case, the Western culture can be considered the dominant culture, however it cannot be considered a display of authority. ...
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Hungarian embroidery is already well known and represented all around the world, however its history and origin are unknown to most non-Hungarian people. The culture and heritage of Hungary are very colorful ones amongst the European countries with a wide range of traditions, dances, and elements of clothing. The two main types of Hungarian embroidery, Matyó and Kalocsai, travelled through time until they reached their current form. The research will give a historical introduction of these types and how their significance and meaning are resented in the 21st century compared to the meanings and uses in the past. To obtain such change, several different factors played a significant role and their influence on Hungarian embroidery will be explained. These include cultural appropriation, othering in tourism and homogenization
... En lo sustantivo, sin embargo, el fenómeno nos remite a la negación u ocultamiento de una idea original que le pertenece a otro para atribuirla como propia. Además, generalmente se reconoce una desigualdad social entre una cultura dominante que usufructúa manifestaciones culturales de otra cultura marginada, entendida como una forma de opresión a las culturas minoritarias (Ziff & Rao, 1997;Young, 2010). ...
... Desde el mundo de las artes, la apropiación cultural es entendida como la adopción o uso de elementos culturales por parte de miembros de otra cultura. También es conocida como apropiación cultural indebida, a menudo descrita como dañina y considerada una violación del derecho de propiedad rchd: creación y pensamiento, 6(10), intelectual contra la cultura de origen (Ziff & Rao, 1997), aun cuando desde el mundo legal no existe una normativa internacional y jurídicamente vinculante que regule este tipo de prácticas (Sádaba, LaFata & Torres, 2020). ...
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En un mundo globalizado los casos de apropiación cultural relacionados con marcas de moda se han hecho habituales, obligándonos a revisar los procesos de Diseño que articulan intercambios entre grupos culturales distintos, especialmente cuando estas transacciones están asociadas a diferencias de poder que impiden una relación simétrica. A partir de un análisis visual de casos que involucran a marcas de moda vinculadas con usos indebidos de elementos iconográficos de diferentes comunidades indígenas, se estudian las dimensiones del concepto de apropiación cultural, desde una perspectiva relacional y constructivista de la identidad, para comprender el impacto que estas prácticas del Diseño de indumentaria tienen a nivel cultural, desde la triada arquetípica del intercambio social propuesta por el antropólogo francés Marcel Mauss, basada en el dar, recibir y devolver. Finalmente se propone un modelo relacional para comprender las dimensiones de autoría, coautoría e identidad en los procesos de Diseño, y reflexionar en los alcances que posee el concepto de apropiación cultural para el Diseño, más allá del ámbito jurídico; puesto que como práctica disciplinar, estimula la invisibilización del otro, impide la creación de un vínculo social entre diseñadores, marcas y comunidades usufructuadas, y niega la alteridad necesaria para la construcción identitaria de ambos grupos humanos.
... At times, one needs a finely tuned local vernacular literacy to appreciate the "borrowed power" (Rao and Ziff 1997) garnered from appropriating elements of a multinational's brand. One subtle example is a local photography studio's sign: 麥叔叔兒 童專業攝影棚 (Mài shūshu értóng zhuānyè shèyǐng péng) which translates as "Uncle Mike's (or Mac's) Professional Photography Studio for Children" (Figure 4). ...
... (Some viewers also interpret the shape of 房 as suggesting the image of an elephant.) These features provide an intricate orthographic/phonetic/semantic/image interplay that weaves together the company names, logo, and product line into a modern, fashionable whole and, to paraphrase Rao and Ziff (1997), "borrows a bit of power" from the elite use of French/ English(ness). ...
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The creative employment of language scripts and (typo)graphic design in the commercial linguistic landscape (LL) of Taipei often serves as a key social semiotic resource in indexing various frames of identity in Taiwan - including sociocultural, ethnolinguistic, and political identities. As argued by Tam, typography is a visual metalanguage that encodes verbal language and is thus “already bilingual”. Multilingual and polyscriptal typographies, therefore, amplify this interaction between the verbal and the visual. Borrowing from Thurlow's research on “the three P's of creativity” in new media studies, I observe that polyscriptal typographies in Taipei's LL involve a visual “vernacular literacy” that is “often poetic, usually playful and always pragmatic” (Thurlow). Moreover, these practices are ideologically informed by social, economic, and geopolitical hierarchies which have been shaped by Taiwan's long history of migration, colonization, and globalization. Accordingly, the local vernacular literacy of polyscriptal/typographic creativity in Taipei's LL frequently entails “a fourth P,” the negotiating of power relations in Taiwan's ongoing efforts to carve out spaces of identity in the interstices of Asian-Pacific and global geopolitics.
... O conceito de apropriação cultural é complexo (Ziff & Rao, 1997;Schneider, 2003;Rogers, 2006;Young & Brunk, 2012), e aprofundar sua discussão seria um desvio dos propósitos do presente artigo. Apropriação cultural será entendida aqui como a adoção indevida de elementos de determinada cultura ou identidade por outros grupos -em especial, quando MODOS revista de história da arte volume 6 | número 1 janeiro -abril 2022 ISSN: 2526-2963 381 uma maioria dominante se apodera de práticas ou produtos de comunidades minoritárias, de modo não consentido, ou quando um agente cultural privilegiado lança mão de formas de expressão geradas por tradições ou criadores subalternizados, levando ao apagamento de sua origem. ...
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Entre as décadas de 1940 e 1960, os artistas Dimitri Ismailovitch e Maria Margarida Soutello, ambos de origem europeia e imigrados ao Brasil, produziram juntos uma série de obras representando figuras negras e versando sobre temáticas ligadas à afro-brasilidade. O presente artigo examina essa produção e discute sua primeira recepção, com o objetivo de tentar compreender sua inserção no contexto cultural da época. Longe de entender essas obras como mera apropriação cultural, aprofunda-se a análise daquilo que será chamado aqui de ‘imaginação diaspórica’. Argumenta-se que a condição de deslocamento e dupla consciência dos artistas, característica do exílio, canalizou seu olhar sobre a negritude para um esforço de reinvenção identitária por meio da mascarada e do misticismo. O aspecto carnavalesco da cultura brasileira permitiu que essa construção imaginária prosperasse, se constituindo em realidade social.
... Microaggression is just one of the concepts derived from critical theories that outsiders might unfamiliar and objectionable. Other new kinds of offenses include cultural appropriation (such as when members of dominant cultures the clothing styles or eat the foods associated with marginalized cultures), heteronormativity (when someone makes a statement that implies heterosexuality is normal), and white fragility (when whites are defensive over being confronted with their racism and privilege) (Ziff and Rao 1997;Warner 1991;DiAngelo 2018). Another concept that can be jarring to outsiders is the idea of white supremacy (Newkirk 2017). ...
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Sociology is the science of social life, and as such, it is different from the pursuit of social justice and other efforts to evaluate or to reform the social world. Still, the idea of social justice is intimately connected with the idea of sociology. It arises along with scientific understandings of the social world and draws from these understandings to reshape society. The problem is that in practice, social justice activists often draw from only one type of sociological theory, conflict theory, and from a particular form of conflict theory known as critical theory. In doing so, they may ignore potential problems with the theories they are drawing from, and they may overlook many possibilities for effective reform. Conflict theory orients activists toward fighting oppression, but other theoretical approaches could help societies to achieve other possible moral goals, such as promoting understanding, increasing virtue, incentivizing virtue, making virtue easier, and strengthening solidarity.
... Budig and the yoga industry have appropriated from the body positivity movement. Appropriation is defined as a process where one group takes intellectual property, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions, or artifacts from another group's culture without permission or understanding of the original history, meaning, or use of the appropriated good (Ziff and Rao 1997). The process is characterized by a power difference where members of a dominant group have more power to take from a culture that has often been systematically oppressed. ...
... Cultural appropriation and colonialism go hand in hand. For a dominant culture to take or 'adopt' aspects of a subordinate culture has gained notoriety of late (Ziff and Rao, 1997). But this typifies Britain's colonial relationship with China and Chinese culture, resulting in the dilution of cultural markers over time (Wong, 2013;Rogers, 2006). ...
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This paper focuses on the responsibility of advertising messages to authentically mirror and reflect British audience feelings towards ‘the Other’ and discusses caricatures of the Chinese in advertising through early martial arts tropes. It provides contextual background to Chinese depictions on screen in Britain before illustrating martial arts representations on print and television advertising during the 1970s. The paper includes examples of two popular brands in Britain: Pfizer’s ‘Hai Karate’ (1973) and Golden Wonder’s ‘Kung Fuey’ (1974-76) to illustrate colonial notions of the ‘Oriental’ during the 1960s and ’70s. This interdisciplinary study borrows from ethical representation and martial arts discourse in film and TV, to explain the exoticisation and exclusion of the Chinese in the context of authenticity and appropriation in advertising.
... While colonial theft is obviously a crime by contemporary moral standards, the demands from the historical victims for repatriation are not necessarily free from strategic, geopolitical motivations, and the moral questions regarding this issue are far more complex than popular discourse (and an article like this) can justify. 5 For information on cultural appropriation, seeZiff and Rao 1997, Brown 2004, Rogers 2006, Jenkins 2016. ...
... Cela montre bien, à notre avis, la nécessité de mener une analyse de contenu élargie, car cet usage du « nous » et du concept d'appropriation culturelle, le cas échéant, est sans doute révélateur de représentations sociales. Sur cette controverse ou d'autres du même type, les discours à analyser ne manquent pas et d'autres manifestations artistiques auraient pu connaître la réception réservée aux pièces de théâtre SLĀV et Kanata au Québec 2 : les écrits savants sur le concept montrent que de nombreuses oeuvres d'art ou de fiction (bédés, chansons, films, romans, séries télévisées, danses, etc.) influencées par ou figurant des évènements et phénomènes du passé (continus, revenus ou révolus) partagent des caractéristiques similaires aux pièces susmentionnées, qu'elles soulèvent des questions aussi vives socialement et sèment des controverses d'une nature et d'une intensité comparables(Coutts Smith, 2002;Spickard, 2018;Young, 2005;Ziff et Rao, 1997).Cette disparité et cette fréquence des emplois du syntagme « appropriation culturelle » dans le débat laissent croire en une hétérogénéité de définitions qui nous convainc de nous tourner vers les écrits savants afin d'en extraire les caractéristiques et de cerner au moins l'usage savant majoritaire de nos jours. ...
... That adds to retraumatization : : : [it] renders you, once again, to the place of the margins, of the place of being silent, of the place where your voice isn't really important" (Sevelius, Williams, Kahn, & Red Bear, 2017) Appropriation of voice in this way reflects a larger cultural and historical appropriation of traditional healing methodology. Cultural appropriation is primarily concerned with accessing culture and knowledge outside of one's own, and utilizing it for capital gain without connecting back to those who first produced it (Ziff & Rao, 1997). Red Bear goes on to describe this very phenomenon in psychedelic science: ...
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In recent years, the study of psychedelic science has resurfaced as scientists and therapists are again exploring its potential to treat an array of psychiatric conditions such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and addiction. The scientific progress and clinical promise of this movement owes much of its success to the history of indigenous healing practices; yet the work of indigenous people, ethnic and racial minorities, women, and other disenfranchised groups is often not supported or highlighted in the mainstream narrative of psychedelic medicine. The review addresses this issue directly, first by highlighting the traditional role of psychedelic plants and briefly summarizing the history of psychedelic medicine; Secondly, through exploring the historical sociocultural factors that have contributed to unequal research participation and treatment, thereby limiting the opportunities for minorities to be acknowledged for their contributions. Finally, the review provides recommendations for broadening the Western medical framework of healing to include a cultural focus and additional considerations for an inclusive approach to treatment development and dissemination for future studies.
... See(Ziff and Rao 1997; Young 2010).Arts 2019, 8, 45 ...
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With the outbreak of the Syrian conflict in 2011, many artists left as part of a massive migratory flow out of the country. Other artists had already migrated because of perceived constraints to art-making due to censorship and lack of professional opportunities. Both waves of migration converged in artistic hubs throughout the Middle East and Europe. From the interviews I carried out with visual artists from Syria displaced in London and other locations, it emerged that they faced a shared dilemma. Many wished to move away from politics focusing on universal themes like human suffering, which in the Syrian art-scene were perceived to be apolitical. In exile, however, it is precisely these themes that marked their works as political in the eyes of agents of the artworld and international audiences. I argue that this politicization is a form of essentialization and homogenization of the Syrian art-scene abroad, for categorizing these artists as ‘Syrian’ or ‘Middle Eastern’ flattens their individual creativity by placing them within a national or regional category. This form of ‘othering’ is rooted in the history of Western colonialism in the Middle East and postcolonial geopolitics and power relations structuring the Syrian conflict and Western perceptions of it. I show how my informants attempt to overcome these constraints by employing the discursive register of universalism, while often organizing their lives around the ‘Syrian artist’ category.
... 118-120). 6 Matthes 2016) 7 See ''Of Seeds and Shamans'' and ''Native American Intellectual Property Rights: Issues in the Control of Esoteric Knowledge'' in Ziff and Rao (1997). 8 See Briahna Joy Gray on cultural exploitation: https://www.currentaffairs.org/2017/09/the-question-ofcultural-appropriation. ...
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What could ground normative restrictions concerning cultural appropriation in cases where they are not grounded by independent considerations such as property rights or harm? We propose that such restrictions can be grounded by considerations of intimacy. Consider the familiar phenomenon of interpersonal intimacy. Certain aspects of personal life and interpersonal relationships are afforded various protections in virtue of being intimate. We argue that an analogous phenomenon exists at the level of large groups. In many cases, members of a group engage in shared practices that contribute to a sense of common identity, such as wearing certain hair or clothing styles or performing a certain style of music. Participation in such practices can generate relations of group intimacy, which can ground certain prerogatives in much the same way that interpersonal intimacy can. One such prerogative is making what we call an appropriation claim. An appropriation claim is a request from a group member that non-members refrain from appropriating a given element of the group’s culture. Ignoring appropriation claims can constitute a breach of intimacy. But, we argue, just as for the prerogatives of interpersonal intimacy, in many cases there is no prior fact of the matter about whether the appropriation of a given cultural practice would consitute a breach of intimacy. It depends on what the group decides together.
... However, given that integral theory has already appropriated most spiritual traditions of any size, it is no surprise that it should attempt to do the same with a competing theory that points to the highly problematic shortcomings of its perennialist approach. Cultural appropriation is the exploitation of other cultures by a more dominant culture (e.g., Ziff & Rao, 1997), as when European-American culture takes on Native American elements of dress or practice, outside of the context of an informed and mutually respectful relationship with the communities to whom these cultural elements belong. Perennialism, which considers itself superior to every tradition and self-authorized to inform each tradition about its actual essence, is a strong example of cultural appropriation (e.g., King, 2001). ...
... Previous studies have examined whiteness in film (Dyer, 1992;Foster, 2003;Vera & Gordon, 2003) in terms of characterization and representation, whereas others (Hall, 1995;Rhodes, 1993;Shohat & Stam, 2000) have examined the role of racist ideologies in media. In addition, Whites' cultural appropriation of Native American cultural practices and artifacts has been examined thoroughly (Deloria, 1998;Huhndorf, 2001;Root, 1996;Ziff & Rao, 1998). The present study lays out several notable similarities between these characterizations and appropriations and the filmic depictions of Whites mastering Asian martial arts. ...
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This chapter examines strategies of whiteness in the discourse of the popular film producer and director Quentin Tarantino. Quentin Tarantino's public rhetoric about issues of blackness as well as the racial realities both of and between black and white are illustrative of whiteness in many ways. Tarantino claims an authorial position of “being black” in order to justify using the word “nigger” in his public statements and popular films. Doing so helps him establish white artistic privilege while simultaneously subverting the moral authority of black filmmakers, such as Spike Lee. Moreover, Tarantino's rhetorical tactic of appropriating black culture and identity employs a postmodern discourse that reinforces whiteness's hegemonic power and privilege through its appeal to uncritical white publics.
... Ce faisant, elle s'inscrit dans un courant théorique qui remet en question la légitimité et l'authenticité de ceux qui s'expriment sur certains sujets (Ziff et Rao, 1997). Cette question semble particulièrement délicate lorsque ce sujet a des ramifications identitaires, culturelles ou religieuses. ...
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En s’appuyant sur l’important ouvrage d’Hélène Thomas, Les vulnérables : la démocratie contre les pauvres , cet essai pose un regard critique sur le discours de la vulnérabilité au coeur de l’intervention des programmes de prévention précoce. L’auteure se penche principalement sur le rôle et la responsabilité des chercheurs et des intervenants dans la création et la reproduction de discours et de savoirs sur les pauvres. Elle reconnaît les effets pervers liés à la production d’un discours misérabiliste sur les pauvres et les risques liés à l’appropriation illégitime de leurs voix et elle pose clairement les dilemmes éthiques que la recherche et l’intervention soulèvent. Elle souligne cependant l’importance de résister et de s’approprier le discours dominant de façon subversive sur le terrain et refuse le relativisme dans lequel Thomas nous confine en suggérant des façons de dire, de faire et d’intervenir qui permettent de dénoncer les inégalités de conditions et de droits dont les pauvres sont victimes et de s’engager avec eux dans la lutte contre la pauvreté.
... He saw cultural capital as the habits or cultural practices based on knowledge and demeanours learned through exposure to role models in the family and other environments. Concepts of place identity, sense of place and social representation, cultural attachment, symbolic constructions and meanings, and historically layered social relations, are emerging in the literature (Barthel-Bouchier, 2001;Kovac, 2001;McIntosh et al., 2002;Schouten, 1996;Ziff & Pratima, 1997) as descriptors of culture. These descriptors often form the basis of cultural tourism when the life ways of rural regions and communities are commodified for that purpose. ...
Article
The commodification of culture for tourism can result in fundamentally changing a community's structure. Focusing on one rural Atlantic Canadian community, this article examines the transformation of longstanding stable forms of human and social capital that have bonded a local community over two centuries, and in so doing helped to ensure sustainability. Transformations induced by tourism development may dramatically transform such cultures. To avoid corrosive transformation of local culture, careful management plans that protect community values must become the focal point of the plan. This paper discusses the commodification of the culture process as it has unfolded and transformed local culture in a case study rural community. Results of the study show that while local culture may be a community's most valuable asset, the commodification of local culture for tourism may, in reality, impede a community's efforts to achieve sustainability. Cultural-based tourism development invokes transformation, whereas the traditional community culture dies away while attempting to simultaneously create a new culture based on the icons of the traditional one. This may be described, metaphorically, as a death–rebirth-like process. This research suggests that conventional notions of cultural tourism as a means of community sustainability without regard for traditional practices and values may not be appropriate.
... Worth noting is the justification for the name rectification. As the Party Secretary and the Mayor of Tongliao municipality wrote in their glowing piece published in People's Daily on October 6, 1999: 'This is the result of deepening reform, expanding opening-up, and accelerating development undertaken by the people of Tongliao under the leadership of the Party. . . . By replacing league with municipality, history once again gives Tongliao people a development opportunity that comes only once in a thousand years.' ...
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Three decades of discourse on rising emerging nations have failed to produce a theory of emerging multinational-led emancipation. This paper draws on the case of Huawei in China and the European Union (1987–2020) to theorize multinationals’ role in writing back an emancipating imaginary from the Global South to the Global North. Combining postcolonial theory of the multinational as a hybrid space, and a post-Gramscian lens on the multinational as a counter-hegemonic agent, I theorize the multinational as a “writing-back myth-prince.” The lens of a multinational as a writing-back agent and space from the global south radically broadens the emancipatory potential of the key postcolonial concept mimicry. It also affords a view on emancipation beyond the opposites and distincts of very different subject positions in the Global South and North. I identify four writing back phases, each of which involves the political and fantasmatic articulation of an emancipating imaginary from the Global South. I develop critical explanations of the four writing back phases, insofar as they reproduce inequality, disenfranchisement and oppression, and weaken the multinational as a space and agent of hybridity rather than essentialism.
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"The drum rhythm" is an original music composition which derives its techniques from the concept of the Pentanata and African drumming techniques. The Pentanata is a musical composition coined and created by Kenn Kafui, an African art music composer. It represents an amalgamation of African idioms and Western compositional techniques to create intercultural music. Pentanata, as a musical composition, seems to have gained some world recognition and acceptance as performed on several occasions in different countries. However, very little information has been written regarding its theoretical analysis and documentation. Hence, this study explored the influences that culminated in the development of the Pentanata and its defining characteristics. It also examined the compositional idioms that the composer incorporated in the concept of the Pentanata, and recontextualised Kafui's ideas as a framework to establish a new compositional idiom for a string quartet. The research employed grounded theory research design under qualitative research methodology, to generate an analytical method that brings to account the eclectic features of the Pentanata. The primary source included an interview with the composer and the secondary source included analysis of the two Pentanatas. The study revealed that the Pentanata draws compositional techniques from Western twentieth-century vocabularies which include Pandiatonicism, Pentatonicism, bitonality, tone clusters, secudal, quartal, quintal harmony, and African idioms such as syncopation or shifted accents, pentatonic scales, ostinato technique, and homophonic parallelism. Using Verstehen, hybridity, and music appropriation as its conceptual framework, this thesis provides a theoretical analysis and different interpretation of the Pentanata. It argues that the theoretical structures of the Pentanata were based on unrestricted self-expression; that is, the freedom from the bonds of musical conventionality.
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Cultural appropriation is a highly contested subject within the media and society more broadly, often provoking moral outrage. It is receiving increasing interest within the academy and the last 20 years have seen the publication of a number of important studies. Cultural appropriation takes many forms, covers a range of types of action, and has many consequences. It is not a uniform practice and needs to be assessed on a case by case basis but there are common themes and issues. What follows is a discussion of the key concepts and literature in the field.
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Set within the frame of proposed Indigenous recognition in the Australian Constitution, this research asserts the need for informed understanding of how to appropriately represent Indigenous culture and to its broader relationship with the Australian national identity. It explores the notion of knowledge sharing and investigates methods to improve the quality of Indigenous graphical representation in communication design practice. The research asks, what are the protocols required for practitioners working on projects involving the visual representation of Indigenous knowledge and culture? The findings outline a cognitive strategy based on respectful engagement processes, cultural protocols and Indigenous-led collaboration.
Thesis
This dissertation explores the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging, the phenomenon of people in Western countries who combine elements from multiple religious traditions, as it has come to be known in theological scholarship. This phenomenon can be conceptually distinguished in three types: hard multiple religious belonging, medium multiple religious belonging and soft multiple religious belonging. The first refers to individuals who identify with two religious traditions. The second refers to individuals who identify with only one religious tradition, but also engage in practices from other religious traditions. The third refers to individuals who do not identify with any religious tradition in particular, but practice religion transversally. The research question is formulated as follows: How does the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging challenge existing interpretations of religious belonging and religious diversity, what are the historical backgrounds of these existing interpretations, and how can an cross-cultural comparison with Chinese approaches to religious belonging and religious diversity lead to a new hermeneutic of religious belonging and religious diversity that allows a fruitful engagement with multiple religious belonging? In the first chapter I discuss the history and the discourse of “multiple religious belonging” as it has developed in theology. I analyse that in theology two positions are most commonly expressed in favour of multiple religious belonging: a particularistic position, which emphasis the own religious tradition in engaging with multiplicity, and a particularistic positions, which emphasizes the equality of religious traditions and looks at it from a perspective outside any particular tradition. I also discuss cognate phenomena in social sciences; though not called “multiple religious belonging”, religious hybridity is also a widely studied phenomenon in social sciences. I conclude that there are two hermeneutics running next to each other: a hermeneutics of religions, which emphasizes distinct religious traditions, and a hermeneutics of religiosity, which emphasizes religiosity as an inherently multiple phenomenon. In the second chapter I use this distinction to look at the three constituting concepts of multiple religious belonging: multiplicity, religion, and belonging. The concept of the multiple can be distinguished between a “spatial” multiplicity, which understands religions as bounded off spatial areas, of a “temporal” multiplicity, which understands the multiplicity of religion as an infinite process, without putting importance of faith boundaries. The concept of religion has developed in the study of religion to come to refer to “world religions”, such as Buddhism, Christianity, Islam… But the concept of religion also refers to something which is beyond religious traditions, for example a “religious truth” or “ultimate meaning”. Belonging can refer to “possession”, “membership”, or “desire” (longing). Normally, the second definition is emphasized in “multiple religious belonging”, but I conclude that the understanding of belonging as “longing” is more appropriate to understand multiple religious belonging. In the third chapter, I compare Chinese understandings of religious diversity with multiple religious belonging. In China, religious traditions are not bounded off as faith communities with membership. Religious traditions can better be understood as complementary repositories of rituals, with different functions. Furthermore, the concept of “religion” has been absent for Chinese philosophy until very recently. This shows that Chinese culture has been more hybrid in understanding cultural multiplicities. In the fourth chapter, I will develop the concept of “rhizomatic belonging”, based on these insights from earlier chapters and argue that this concept is a more fruitful way to approach the belonging of multiple religious belonging. The concept of the rhizome, as it has been coined by Deleuze and Guattari, expresses the inherent multiplicity and interconnectedness of an infinite, temporal, multiplicity. Individuals with a “multiple religious belonging”, do not belong to “multiple religions”, nor to a unified religious truth beyond religious traditions, but to an infinite flux and a specific network of religious elements that they have come to know in their lives. Multiple religious belonging has challenged the scholar of religion to engage on a deeper level with the question what “the multiple” means in the context of religious belonging. The answer to this question is: rhizomatic belonging. Rhizomatic belonging can help us understand religious associations which are neither limited to a “religion”, nor a belonging to “everything”, nor a belonging that is simple “floating”. Rhizomatic belonging describes the specific connectedness of any individual in an infinitely diverse religious environment.
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Debates about migration and heritage largely discuss how newcomers integrate into the host societies, and how they manage (or not) to embrace local and national heritage as part of their new cultural landscape. But relatively little attention has been paid to how the host society is changing culturally because its new citizens have collective memories constructed upon different geographies/events, and emotional attachments to non-European forms of cultural heritages. This short book explores how new cultural identities in transformation are challenging the notions and the significance of heritage today in Europe. It asks the questions: How far are contemporary Authorized Heritage Discourses in Europe changing due to migration and globalization? Could heritage sites and museums be a meeting point for socio-cultural dialogue between locals and newcomers? Could heritage become a source of creative platforms for other heritage discourses, better “tuned” with today’s European multicultural profile?
Chapter
This chapter introduces protocols and explains that while most First Nations communities share some commonalities, there is not one set of universal protocols that can be applied to all First Nations communities. Understanding appropriation, the need for respect and the value of listening can help non-Indigenous people to work with protocols, adapt to diversity, and collaborate with each unique and individual community with whom we collaborate.
Article
Although all forms of body fashion, from ancient to modern, entail a degree of manipulation, the styles found among Japanese youth are often construed by older Japanese and outside critics as nothing more than contamination from Euro–American beauty ideology. Yet we are missing something if the only interpretation we imagine is failed imitation of foreign bodies. Japan’s own thriving media and popular culture industries are potent sources for youth body styles and fashions. This article points to ways that beauty experimentation should be viewed as much more than a simplistic type of deracialisation. Young people playfully critique notions of gender and racial homogeneity through their body modification and cosmetic surgery projects. These new body forms represent an undermining of the ethnic homogeneity their parents endorsed and reified. They relate to notions about individualism which in turn are tied to easily available beauty technologies. In addition, different zones and features of the body may have different cultural histories. Body traits that will be explored (eye shape, eye colour, hair colour, skin tanning) are discussed in terms of their own complex histories and associated beauty ideologies.
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Ser testigo de Jehová. Una mirada antropológica a la vida en el paraíso terrenal (2018), Antonio Higuera Bonfil, México: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte A. C.-UQROO-RIFREM, 355 pp.
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This paper examines the Japanese cultural appropriation of Okinawan min’yō (folk songs) in diasporic Okinawan communities in Osaka, focusing on Japanese–Okinawan relationships in min’yō learning. During the ‘Okinawa Boom’ in the 1990s and 2000s, Okinawan popular music, media and tourism gained nationwide popularity. Among them, Okinawan min’yō is celebrated and romanticised as a tradition that is ‘alive’ with creativity. Japanese enthusiasts of Okinawan min’yō not only learn music but also engage in ‘Okinawan play’ – intermingling with their Okinawan hosts and emulating them – and in doing so, seek to act out the sense of authenticity. In turn, Okinawan hosts earn recognition and respect from Japanese Okinawaphiles, which they may find insufficient in their relationship with fellow Okinawans. Although Japanese–Okinawan relationships seem mutually beneficial in the search for authenticity and recognition, the tension and conflicts surrounding the min’yō scene betray the host’s vulnerability. Moreover, Okinawan practitioners of min’yō are concerned with the possible degradation of the genre itself due to their dependence on Japanese participation. Such ambivalence indicates the power asymmetry between the appropriators and the appropriated, and the potentially negative effects on the object of cultural appropriation and the identity of the appropriated.
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Reseña del libro "Ser testigo de Jehová. Una mirada antropológica a la vida en el paraíso terrenal", de Antonio Higuera Bonfil. México: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte/uqroo/rifrem, 2018, 355 pp.
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Fashion is considered an element of “cultural identity”. At the same time, it has always been a dynamic phenomenon in which different styles, designs and models converged, acting both as a source of attraction for designers as well as a source of inspiration to draw and depart from in an attempt at innovation. Influences were reciprocal, with the phenomenon of Orientalism going hand in hand with that of Occidentalism. Today’s discussion focuses on the vindication by various ethnic groups of ways to protect their own folklore as expression of their own cultural identity. The questions that arise are manifold. This contribution aims at framing the problem in the nowadays fashion industry as well as investigating the various possibilities of protecting folklore while preserving cultural identity. The discussion will deal with recent studies that have analyzed the various aspects of cultural appropriation. Intellectual property will be taken into consideration as a way to protect folklore. Nevertheless, this article suggests that other options for achieving protection of cultural heritage and folklore emerge in the field of Private Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility that will offer new opportunities to tackle the problem of cultural appropriation in the fashion world.
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I examine the dominant conversations on cultural appropriation. The first part of the essay will examine the ideological configuration of what constitutes cultural appropriation (hereafter as CA) first, as the politics of the diaspora and second, within a normative understanding of culture and its diachronic contradictions. This will be followed by a critical reevaluation of our subject theme as primarily a discourse of power with multiple implications. Framed as a discourse of power, CA is equally exposed to ideological distortions, and its critics becoming afflicted with the same virus they set out to cure in the first place. I am interested in the aspect of culture as a constant location of tensions and rupture, yet constitutive of core credential in the making of modern identity. I argue that the failure of dominant criticisms of cultural appropriation is precisely because they do not leave epistemic space for prior commitments: the internal variation of culture. If as critics have argued that CA enables cultural violence, we need to understand the epistemic space where cultural violence occurs in order to make a meaningful proposal for identity discourse and conversation. I will make a case for what may be termed multiple humanity (ies) as a way of transcending the homogenous claims imposed upon cultural memories.
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This article reports on the Australian Indigenous Design Charter: Communication Design (the Charter), exploring the needs and motivations behind the development of this document and the growing demand for designers to understand and apply ethical practices when working on projects involving the representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island culture. This best practice guide presents a concise, workable set of protocols for communication designers to follow. In this instance, the focus sits squarely on design practitioners to develop respectful processes of communication, consultation and collaboration whenever Australian indigenous culture is referenced in commercial applications. This article reflects on the impetus and objectives of a practice document, framed to accommodate past and present ontologies that speak to all stakeholders. The concept of an open document is espoused as a key feature of the Charter, whereby opinions and comments will be gathered, analysed and used to inform future, periodical iterations of the Charter.
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This paper explores a landmark production in the history of Asian intercultural theatre, Singaporean director Ong Keng Sen and Japanese playwright Kishida Rio's Lear (1997/1999). A lavish production underwritten by the Japan Foundation Asia Center, Lear helped establish Ong's "fiercely intercultural" aesthetic as an internationally recognisable brand (Peterson 2003: 81). It also drew critique as a symbolic apologia for neoliberal globalisation. The critical literature on Lear has yielded trenchant insights into the global political significance of intercultural performance. At the same time, however, it has tended to overshadow questions of the work's aesthetic specificity and local significance. This paper seeks to recuperate Lear's local meanings both as a text and as a uniquely Singaporean political allegory. In the paper's first section, I will outline the play and its critique as late capitalist spectacle. In the following section, I will bracket this critique and return to the texts at hand. Finally, I will move back outward by tracing a Brechtian tension between Kishida's text, Ong's realisation, and the Singaporean state's "choreography" of racial, cultural and linguistic difference.
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How has « world music » moved from remote academic interest to global commercial marketplace? The article first concerns this history of « world music » as a discourse, narrated equally by tropes of « celebration » and « anxiety. » It then considers «world music » as a zone of interactions and contacts, as well as aesthetic and business practices. These are represented in a case study of a traditional lullaby first recorded in Solomon Islands by an ethnomusicologist, then sampled on a multi- million selling CD by a major European pop group, and then re-appropriated by a prominent European jazz musician. Finally, the article questions whether « world music » creates more artistic humiliation for indigenous traditions than true possibilities for new musical resistance or hybridity.
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US youth organizations, several now celebrating their hundredth birthdays, have inherited a history of crafting selves through cultural appropriation. In organizations such as the YMCA, Boy Scouts of America, and Camp Fire Girls, woodcraft and wilderness sports associated with Native Americans have played a privileged role, serving to construct American citizens through a form of mimesis popularly known as ‘playing Indian’. As dominant ways of dealing with cultural diversity have changed from assimilation and cultural appropriation to multicultural inclusion, and as various anti-discrimination laws have been enacted, US youth organizations have struggled to transform their traditions. This article tracks a history of cultural appropriation and organized play in US youth development organizations in order to understand these organizations’ dilemmas and strategies as they attempt to remain vital and relevant in the 21st century.
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IntroductionTradition and Modernity: Culture, Works and OthersRecord Collection and Salvage ParadigmsPreserving Indigenous ‘Music’: Rights and ResponsibilitiesThe Harms of AppropriationInformation SocietyRights-Based Arguments for Restitution and Limited PropertiesRepatriation and RecollectionConclusion AcknowledgmentsReferences
Article
This brief submission serves two purposes. It reiterates the core issues that were previously made in the Holcombe, Rimmer and Janke submission and it raises further issues that emerged from the workshop in the final session that Holcombe attended. Workshop issues: The question; “what is Indigenous knowledge’ and ‘what does it have to do with bio-diversity’ was asked by a panel member. I draw the Review’s attention to the International Society of Ethnobiology (ISE) Code of Ethics (attached). This code recognises that “culture and language are intrinsically linked to land and territory, and cultural and linguistic diversity are inextricably linked to biological diversity” (2008:4). That is; cultural diversity is inseparable from biological diversity. For many thousands of years Australian Indigenous peoples have been managing this country’s land and its resources: this includes those that are edible, that have medicinal properties, those that are bush fire retardant, their seasonality, and so on.
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Who Owns Native Culture? MICAHEL F.BROWN. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003, 315 pp. Illustrations and index.
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Buddhism provides a powerful force in the lives of large numbers of people in Burma. The military junta ruling Burma has recognized and attempted to appropriate Buddhism as a means of legitimating its authority. This regime has consistently promoted the notion of national unity and identity in which strong links with a Buddhist Burmese heritage have been forged. This desire for Burma to become more fully integrated into the global economy has seen the encouragement of foreign investment and the promotion of the country as a destination. A strong relationship has been established between Buddhism and tourism, and this link has been appropriated by the regime in seeking to achieve its political and economic aspirations.
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