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Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste

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... However, such explanations, particularly with regards to the manufactured (literal and figurative), fail to meet the meta-theoretical assumptions implicit in evolutionary psychological theories of aesthetic preference, specifically the criteria of domain specificity and reverse engineering with reference to the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (Bowlby, 1969;Tooby & Cosmides, 1997). aesthetics mean to consumers, it is necessary to understand the conditions under which tastes are acquired and expressed (Bourdieu, 1984). ...
... Cultural frameworks do not exist as hard-and-fast rules for consumption practices and experiences. Rather they are generative frameworks that exist independently of specific consumables, and are transposable to a wide range of consumption situations (Bourdieu, 1984;Holt, 1997). It is not so much what agents in particular social spaces consume, but how they consume them. ...
... In addition, consumption patterns exist differentially in relation to other patterns of consumption and create and instantiate distinction (Bourdieu, 1984). Consumer lifestyles are defined by how they distinguish the consumer from the practices of other social groups (Holt, 1997). ...
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The following discussion research introduces a theoretical model of postmodern consumer aesthetic product design evaluation. At present, theory and research into consumer aesthetic evaluation is comparatively disparate, and arguably lacking in meta-theoretical integration. The aim of the model is to integrate knowledge from the disciplines of design, consumer behaviour and linguistics to produce a fully recursive model of generative consumer behaviour with sociological and psychological implications using generative-structuralist theory. The model is hoped to provide insight into not so much what consumers evaluate aesthetically, but how their evaluations are made. Further, it is hoped to provide practitioners and researchers with a platform for discussion of the factors contributing to consumer aesthetic evaluation, as well as where they might fit into the proposed model.
... • Χωροταξική αντίληψη και αναγνώριση Ο Bourdieu (1989) προτείνει την ανάπτυξη μιας «σχεσιακής άποψης» που αναγνωρίζει τον διαλεκτικό τρόπο με τον οποίο δομή και συντελεστές αλληλεπιδρούν για την παραγωγή κοινωνικής πρακτικής. Οι μελέτες του για την παραγωγή της κοινωνικής πρακτικής διατρέχουν πολλούς εμπειρικούς και θεωρητικούς τομείς, όπως την εκπαίδευση, την εργασιακή και οικονομική αλλαγή, τη γλώσσα, τις τέχνες, τις επιστήμες. ...
... Εξηγεί αυτή τη διπλά διαμορφωμένη πραγματικότητα τυποποιώντας και παρατηρώντας το σημείο στο οποίο υλικά και υποκειμενο-πνευματικά συστήματα συγκλίνουν ή αποκλίνουν. Η άποψη του Bourdieu (1984), όπως και του Weber και του Marx, για τον κοινωνικό κόσμο, είναι θεμελιωδώς ανταγωνιστική. Εντούτοις, ο Bourdieu συνεχίζει πέρα από τον δομικό υλισμό, εστιάζοντας στην διαλεκτική αλληλεπίδραση ανάμεσα στην υλική δύναμη και την συμβολική δύναμη σε μια διαδικασία κοινωνικών σχηματισμών. ...
... Ο Bourdieu συνθέτει τη σχέση ανάμεσα στον υλικό και στον φαινομενολογικό κόσμο μέσα στην αναπαραγωγή ή το μετασχηματισμό της κοινωνικής πρακτικής παραθέτοντας τρεις κατηγορίες: της συνήθειας (habitus), του κεφαλαίου (capital) και του πεδίου (field). Προειδοποιώντας για την αποσπασματική χρήση των ιδεών του, τονίζει ότι η ερμηνευτική δύναμη της θεωρίας του εδρεύει στις σχέσεις που εγκαθιδρύονται ανάμεσα στις προτεινόμενες κατηγορίες (Bourdieu, 1989). ...
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Με την εργασία αυτή γίνεται μια προσπάθεια διερεύνησης της σχέσης των μαθητών του Δημοτικού Σχολείου με τα ηλεκτρονικά παιχνίδια. Σε σχετική έρευνα που πραγματοποιήθηκε σε 7 Δημοτικά σχολεία της Αχαΐας και με δείγμα 707 μαθητών, διερευνήθηκαν οι τύποι παιχνιδιών που προτιμούνται, ο χρόνος που αφιερώνουν οι μαθητές σ’ αυτή τη δραστηριότητα, οι πηγές πληροφόρησής τους για τα νέα παιχνίδια και η άποψή τους για την ενδεχόμενη επιρροή των παιχνιδιών στην επίδοσή τους στο σχολείο. Από τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας φάνηκε ότι μέσω των ηλεκτρονικών παιχνιδιών οι μαθητές, συχνά, έρχονται σε μια πρώτη επαφή με τους ηλεκτρονικούς υπολογιστές και με το Διαδίκτυο, ενώ γενικά αφιερώνουν αρκετές ώρες εβδομαδιαίως παίζοντας με αυτά. Αρκετοί μαθητές θεωρούν ότι αν έπαιζαν λιγότερο με τα ηλεκτρονικά παιχνίδια δεν θα είχαν καλύτερες επιδόσεις στο σχολείο, ενώ αρκετοί άλλοι θεωρούν ακριβώς, ότι οι επιδόσεις τους στο σχολείο οφείλονται σε κάποιο βαθμό και στο γεγονός ότι ασχολούνται με τα ηλεκτρονικά παιχνίδια.
... Critical intellectual action that challenges the status quo has long been recognised as triggering social change: examples include decolonisation (Said 1979), critical scholarship (Gramsci 2000;Hall 2016), deconstructive approaches (Escobar 1995) and feminist theory (Haraway 1991). Our aim here is to advance an approach that places the knowledge-centric practices of individuals within specific fields of power (Bourdieu 1984), which co-evolve with the agency of those who attempt change in the system. This approach builds on a body of environmental governance work that investigates the agency-structure interface using the lenses of subjectivity and symbolic violence Nightingale 2011;Nightingale and Ojha 2013), Bourdieu's fields and deliberative politics (Ryfe 2007;Ojha 2008;Ojha et al. 2014), critical action research (Ojha 2013), and the political nature of climate adaptation (Eriksen et al. 2015). ...
... To link agency with the politics of knowledge and social action, we use Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the 'field' to capture interwoven social relations, political economies and cultural norms (Bourdieu 1984(Bourdieu , 1998) that constitute domains like environmental governance (Ojha 2008;McDonald 2016). We believe that the 'how' question on transformation can be tackled by exploring these recursive dynamics between agency and structure (field) by taking a more optimistic view than Bourdieu (1984) himself of the deliberate agency of social actors. ...
... To link agency with the politics of knowledge and social action, we use Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the 'field' to capture interwoven social relations, political economies and cultural norms (Bourdieu 1984(Bourdieu , 1998) that constitute domains like environmental governance (Ojha 2008;McDonald 2016). We believe that the 'how' question on transformation can be tackled by exploring these recursive dynamics between agency and structure (field) by taking a more optimistic view than Bourdieu (1984) himself of the deliberate agency of social actors. Bourdieu's notion of 'field' characterizes how actors engage in a complex social universe to contest and access different resources or capitals, and in the process, how they take different positions and develop differentiated dispositions to those social practices (Bourdieu 1984;Ojha 2008). ...
Article
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Over the past decade, widespread concern has emerged over how environmental governance can be transformed to avoid impending catastrophes such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and livelihood insecurity. A variety of approaches have emerged, focusing on either politics, technological breakthrough, social movements, or macro-economic processes as the main drivers of change. In contrast, this paper presents theoretical insights about how systemic change in environmental governance can be triggered by critical and intellectually grounded social actors in specific contexts of environment and development. Conceptualising such actors as critical action intellectuals (CAI), we analyze how CAI emerge in specific socio-environmental contexts and contribute to systemic change in governance. CAI trigger transformative change by shifting policy discourse, generating alternative evidence, and challenging dominant policy assumptions, whilst aiming to empower marginalized groups. While CAI do not work in a vacuum, nor are the sole force in transformation, we nevertheless show that the praxis of CAI within fields of environmental governance has the potential to trigger transformation. We illustrate this through three cases of natural resource governance in Nepal, Nicaragua and Guatemala, and Kenya, where the authors themselves have engaged as CAI. We contribute to theorising the ‘how’ of transformation by showing the ways CAI praxis reshape fields of governance and catalyze transformation, distinct from, and at times complementary to, other dominant drivers such as social movements, macroeconomic processes or technological breakthroughs.
... Sociological research has long shown that cultural participation is stratified by individuals' objective social status (Bourdieu, 1979;Chan & Goldthorpe, 2007a;Lizardo, 2019;Peterson, 1992). ...
... Nevertheless, as Jenkins (2014) explains, this internal identification process requires outsiders to recognise it for an objective collective identity to emerge. In addition, cultural consumption has long been recognised as a mechanism used by social groups to signal their social position (Bourdieu, 1979;Friedman & Reeves, 2020). Thus, subjective social positioning itself is important for an ample range of socially meaningful distinctions, including cultural consumption. ...
... Based on quantitative data collected in Paris during 1960, Bourdieu documented distinctions in which people higher up the social hierarchy have highbrow tastes and cultural consumption (Bourdieu, 1979). Thus, those with higher cultural capital define what constitutes taste within the society, and those with low overall capital (economic, social, or cultural) accept it as legitimate. ...
Article
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Cultural omnivorousness and status inconsistency in Chile: the role of objective and subjective social status Sociological research has long suggested that cultural participation is socially stratified. We build on this literature to discuss the role of the subjective and objective dimensions of stratification, and how they are linked to practices of social distinction through cultural consumption. The aim of this study is to understand (1) the effect of subjective and objective social status on patterns of cultural participation, and (2) the implications of the status inconsistency. We use a probabilistic and representative sample of the Chilean urban population over the age of 18. Latent class analyses show that a significant proportion of Chileans can be considered cultural omnivores. Multinomial diagonal reference models suggest that omnivorousness is positively predicted by subjective and objective social status. Moreover, regarding inconsistency, objective social status is prominent in the explanation of omnivorousness for both status-underestimating and status-overestimating actors. These findings provide important insights for discussing the implications of status inconsistency on cultural consumption.
... This perspective typically posits -as Saito (2007) does, too -legitimate culture at one end of the spectrum of social value and mass, popular culture at the other. Aesthetic competence is an important aspect of social structural reproduction in cultures with established social hierarchies, like Japan, because it is perhaps one of the most difficult forms of social competition to censure, due to its prima facie Kantian disinterestedness (Bourdieu 1993, 1984a, Hughes 2010, Hara and Seiyama 2005. ...
... Central to such hierarchical aestheticization is the accumulation of symbolically valuable social skills, which French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1984a) describes as cultural capital. This is a form of cultured disposition that is acquired and embodied through enculturated familial, academic and occupational contexts. ...
... Further, time is a necessary feature of pecuniary distinction precisely because an enculturated disposition cannot be materially exchanged or easily transmitted between social agents (Bourdieu 1984a, Bullen 2010, Veblen 2003, Hughes 2010. In these regards, it seems little surprise that mastering shodo ( 書道 Japanese ink-brush calligraphy) can take a lifetime, whereas Japanese pop-idol groups such as AKB48 change members and produce and sell records at breakneck speed. ...
Article
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The current study draws on Saito’s (2007) application to western context of the Japanese practice of appreciating the aesthetic and ethical aspects of everyday objects, examined through the complexity of aesthetic evaluation. Bourdieu’s (1984a) moderating variable cultural capital is used to advance an understanding of perceptual and linguistic complexity in daily aesthetic consumption. By engaging participants in a quasi-experiment of multi-sensory trials of everyday products (lemon squeezers), an examination was made of how language use reveals embodied knowledge of daily consumption practice. As the participants’ volumes of cultural capital increased, there was a greater tendency to categorize the stimuli according to their formal aspects and use more complex language derived from decorative, ethical and artistic schema. Thus, the logic of everyday aesthetic practice appears to be contingent on contextualized interaction. This research is followed with a discussion of how such inclinations relate to Japanese aesthetic practices in everyday life, by considering the influence of intercultural exchanges and the actions of cultural gatekeepers in Japan and abroad during the development of aestheticized Japanese cultural metonymy in the post-Meiji Restoration era. Further, some discussion is made of the parallel development of the aestheticization of daily practices in Japan and European contexts, and how this likely influenced the cultural context of the research is made. Finally, some of the challenges of instituting an everyday aesthetic as an antidote to the problems generated by mass-consumption society are discussed.
... Capital is a notion first used in economic theory. Bourdieu (1986b) argues that economic capital alone cannot explain the sophistication and complexity of social distribution and social exchanges. Bourdieu (1986b) proposes three forms of capital including economic, social and cultural capital that are convertible into each other. ...
... Bourdieu (1986b) argues that economic capital alone cannot explain the sophistication and complexity of social distribution and social exchanges. Bourdieu (1986b) proposes three forms of capital including economic, social and cultural capital that are convertible into each other. These concepts have helped to explore different social phenomena such as health inequity (Chang et al., 2016), acculturation outcomes of immigrants (Erel, 2010), stigma management (Reich, 2018), academic outcomes (Jack, 2016) or digital living (Ollier-Malaterre et al., 2019). ...
... Social capital is considered to be the primary source of capital as other types of capital are built up through one's relationships with others and made available to him/her through these relationships (Bourdieu, 2013;Zschau et al., 2015). This classic concept of social sciences has become widely popular in recent years. ...
Thesis
Overcoming drug addiction has been proved to be realistic and common. However, it remains unclear how these people manage to do it, what facilitates and what hinders their efforts. This study seeks to understand the experiences of life with drug use with insights from Vietnam by investigating three specific questions: (1) What major hardships do people who inject drugs (PWID) encounter in their daily lives? (2) How do they cope with these challenges? (3) What resources (more specifically, what social and cultural capital) do they mobilize during this process? We employed ethnographic observation in peer support group offices for a total of 12 months and in-depth interviews with 62 drug-injecting individuals in Haiphong, a major port city in Northern Vietnam with a high burden of heroin addiction and HIV. About one third of participants were interviewed a second time a year after their first interviews. We found that stigma and living with HIV were the two major hardships that PWID in Vietnam encounter in their daily lives. Although participants actively sought to cope with these challenges and mobilized their available cultural knowledge and social resources, their efforts were most effective in reducing their negative feelings but had limited impact on changing their living situations. This limited impact relates to participants’ broader disadvantages in terms of education and employability and a lack of supportive structural mechanisms. This study argues that the drug-related challenges of PWID in Vietnam are inseparable to broader structural factors. Thus, effective interventions must tackle broad social issues, instead of being limited to drug issues, to strengthen the existing support structure for PWID and improve the quality of life of PWID.
... Koulutus joko uusintaa yhteiskunnan luokkarakennetta tai edistää sosiaalista liikkuvuutta. Siten yliopistotutkinto voidaankin nähdä joko sosiaalisen aseman kohottamisen tai uusintamisen välineenä (Becker & Tomes 1986;Bourdieu 1984). Lisäksi koulutuksen laajentuminen voidaan nähdä eräänlaisena varastointimekanismina, joka suojaa työttömän työvoiman työkykyä ja ylläpitää valmiuksia työllistyä. ...
... Tiettyjen teorioiden mukaan koulutuksesta saatavilla tutkintotodistuksilla tai tutkinnon antamilla valmiuksilla toimia alalla ei ole mitään tekemistä yksilön koulutuksen tuottojen kanssa, vaan koulutus toimii laillisena ulos sulkemisen välineenä. Sosiaalisen sulkemisen mekanismilla "eliitti" monopolisoi pääsyn tiettyihin resursseihin sulkemalla toisilta ryhmiltä mahdollisuudet koulutuksen avulla (Weber 1978;Murphy 1988;Bourdieu 1984). ...
... wealth, education, health inequality etc.) (Bourdieu, 1987, Tilly, 1998, Fragkandreas, 2012, Dorling, 2019, as well as being shaped by various (multi-scalar) factors and forces, such as education, gender, race, international trade, immigration, declining union membership and minimum wages, financialisation, unequal organisational structures, neoliberal policies, and welfare state retrenchment (Neckerman and Torche, 2007, DiPrete, 2007, Lemieux, 2008, Donegan and Lowe, 2008, Piketty, 2014, Tomaskovic-Devey, 2014, Stockhammer, 2017, Cavanaugh and Breau, 2018, Munir, 2020. ...
... The idea that inequality shapes the nature and direction of innovative activity has a very long intellectual pedigree in social science. For instance, Karl Marx's (1999) work on social classes, Thorstein Veblen's (1899Veblen's ( /2009 analysis of the leisure class, Werner Sombart's (1967) theory of economic development, and, more recently, Pierre Bourdieu's (1987) work on social distinction underline that inequality has a profound effect on innovation and economic development in general. In a somewhat similar manner, neoclassical economists have long believed that inequality provides strong incentives for economic agents (i.e. ...
Article
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Prompted by rising income inequality (in short, inequality) in advanced economies, a rapidly growing number of studies across various fields and disciplines of social science have, since the 1990s, sought to find out how innovation (as the main engine of economic progress) affects the distribution of income in modern-day capitalist societies. Using the systematic literature review method, this paper provides the first critical review of 166 studies on innovation and inequality published in 114 journals in the last three decades (1990-2019). It is shown that while the great majority of studies under review concur that innovation induces inequality, this finding is subject to the disciplinary origins of research (e.g., development studies, economics, etc.) and the country under investigation (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, etc.). Furthermore, guided by an original causally holistic analytical framework, the analysis demonstrates that the relationship between innovation and inequality is significantly more causally complex than the most popular theoretical perspective (i.e. skill-biased technological change account) has let us believe; in particular, it is subject to five causal scenarios and a range of explanatory factors (i.e. skill premiums, technological unemployment, international trade, declining union membership, spatial aspects, changing employment conditions, policy, horizontal inequalities, sectoral composition and types of innovation). The paper ends by discussing findings, policy implications and knowledge gaps, one of which concerns the following under-researched question: how, and under what conditions do publicly-funded innovation policies reduce (or increase) inequality?
... In 2019, when the ESC came to Tel Aviv, this link between gay ESC fans and substantial local homonational politics opened an opportunity for the former to gain socio-national value and become homonormative. However, as seen below, they chose a different path and adopted a politics of distinction (Bourdieu, 1984), rejecting homonational masculinity in favor of a counterhegemonic, queer identification, self-characterized as "ESC geeks." In that, they adhered to their marginal space and low social value within the wider culture of gay men. ...
... They are ESC geeks, who have specialist knowledge and the public interest erodes the value of their specialty. This is in line with Bourdieu's (1984) argument that distinction is a strategy for differentiation based on class and habitus, reflecting social groups' status and abilities to gain and produce social value. ...
Article
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In 2019, the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) was hosted in Tel Aviv. Like other national contests such as the Olympics or the FIFA World Cup, the ESC is a political event. For gay Israeli men who are ESC fans, this was an opportunity to become more integrated in the gay and national communities through homonormativity and homonational processes. However, as this case study shows, Israeli gay men ESC fans mostly rejected homonational masculinity in favor of a counterhegemonic identification, self-characterized as "ESC geeks." In that, they adhered to their marginal space and adopted a subversive queer perspective. Analytically, this means that homonationalism should not be considered a political form of normalizing power that is accessible to all gay men. Rather, it is a process that produces manifold, including queer practices, and it can no longer be seen as accessible to all LGBTs, or as something into which LGBTs are duped.
... This process includes the molding of uniform taste, custom, and etiquette in their various forms, i.e., the formation of behavioral and emotional patterns that moved gradually toward self-discipline, self-control, and restraint. 6 These features were further articulated in Bourdieu's concept of habitus as "the tastes and distastes, sympathies and aversions, fantasies and phobias which, more than declared opinions, forge the unconscious unity of a class" (Bourdieu [1979(Bourdieu [ ] 1996. ...
... This process includes the molding of uniform taste, custom, and etiquette in their various forms, i.e., the formation of behavioral and emotional patterns that moved gradually toward self-discipline, self-control, and restraint. 6 These features were further articulated in Bourdieu's concept of habitus as "the tastes and distastes, sympathies and aversions, fantasies and phobias which, more than declared opinions, forge the unconscious unity of a class" (Bourdieu [1979(Bourdieu [ ] 1996. ...
Article
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This article proposes a reassessment of the development of Ḥaredism, that is, the application of strict, maximalist, commandment-oriented Judaism to increasingly large lay publics, in light of confessionalization processes in Europe. Whereas historiographical and sociological convention locates the sources of Ḥaredism within the development of 19th century orthodox Jewish responses to the Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah), Reform, and secular Zionism, this article argues that Ḥaredi structures and practices preceded these movements, and, in some cases, influenced their development. The basis for the priority of Ḥaredi identities to Jewish secular identities is rooted in the social disciplining and religious engineering of Jewish societies in the early modern era, until just before the Haskalah, and beyond. This disciplining was predicated on the imposition of religious, social, and ascetic education systems on growing segments of the population. Ḥaredism as a concept and as a phenomenon emerged in 16th century Safed (Ottoman Palestine); there, previous Jewish ascetic patterns were reworked, reorganized and structured under the aegis of the print era, and became a basis for mass, super-regional education. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Ḥaredi religiosity steadily percolated through European Jewish societies by means of works of personal ethic and conduct that were written, printed, and reprinted many times, in Hebrew and Yiddish, through works that enumerate the commandments, and through popular works that make the Jewish halakhic code, Shulḥan Arukh, accessible to the masses by abridging or reworking it. Starting in the early 19th century, with the mediation of the Ḥasidic and Lithuanian religious movements, this process massively penetrated broad strata of society.
... Social stratification is one of the major topics of sociological research, and many scholars have investigated the characteristics and consequences of social stratification. However, the conceptualization and measurement of social stratification have been controversial-generating considerable dispute among scholars not only in sociology (Featherman and Hauser 1976;Treiman 1977;Bourdieu 1984;Prandy 1990;Erikson and Goldthorpe 1992;Ganzeboom et al. 1992;Hauser and Warren 1997;Sørensen 2000;Weeden and Grusky 2005;Wright 2005) but also in related fields such as epidemiology (Krieger et al. 1997; Bartley et al. 1999;Sacker et al. 2000; Galobardes et al. 2006aGalobardes et al. , 2006bGeyer et al. 2006;Hiyoshi et al. 2013). Recent sociological studies have suggested a return to the traditional conceptualization and measurement of social stratification, namely, Weber's distinction between class and status (Chan 2010;Goldthorpe 2004, 2007a;Goldthorpe 2012;Ridgeway 2014;Weber 1968Weber , 2010. ...
... Status positions impact individuals' life choices, such as cultural consumption and health-related behaviors. I extend the analysis of cultural consumption to the analysis of health-related behaviors because health lifestyles are regarded as a form of consumption, and sociologists as well as social epidemiologists are interested in the relationship between social stratification and healthy lifestyle (Bourdieu 1984;Cockerham 2005;Phelan et al. 2010). Previous studies in sociology and epidemiology used both class and status (Cambridge scale) for the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., poor diet, smoking, non-light drinkers, and no sport) and mortality (Bartley et al. 1999;Sacker et al. 2000;Torssander andErikson 2009, 2010), but the causal relationship has not been well examined. ...
Preprint
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Previous studies have shown that individuals' class positions are more strongly related to economic security, prospects, and life chances than status positions, whereas individuals' status positions are more strongly related to cultural consumption than class positions. This paper addresses whether class and status are associated with life chances and life choices after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity by using data from longitudinal surveys started in 2007 in Japan. The result indicates that class is associated with economic security and income more strongly than status, even after controlling for the unobserved heterogeneity. Status positions are associated with cultural consumption and health-related behaviors. However, after controlling for the unobserved stable characteristics, the associations with cultural consumption disappeared, but those with health-related behaviors remained.
... Bourdieu (1999) was influenced by classical sociologists such as Weber and Marx, who conceptualized unequal distribution of economic capital as a basis of social inequality (Bourdieu, 1999). By the same token, Bourdieu (1984) postulated that there have been power relations and social stratification throughout human society, and that capital, as a symbolic power, plays a key role in either widening or reducing social inequality. ...
... The habits developed by Korean athletes growing up in a context in which they were encouraged to focus on athletics above all else may have hindered their development of capital in certain ways. Moreover, the concept of field-a context in which people, their capital, and their habitus (i.e., cultural tastes and habits) interact (Bourdieu, 1984(Bourdieu, , 1993-is used to understand the former athletes' current employment status and career transition processes. Due to their past life habits as elite athletes and the potential lack of certain forms of capital, many of the participants in the current study have struggled to overcome difficulties with respect to career transition, life skills, language proficiency, and professional knowledge. ...
Article
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South Korea has hosted numerous sporting mega-events and achieved substantial international sport success in recent decades.However, many concerns remain with respect to its policies governing sport. In recognition of such concerns, the South Korean government has initiated a program to assist elite athletes in transitioning to roles as international sport administrators, coaches, and scholars. One aspect of this program involves a partnership between a South Korean governmental organization and a U.S. university. The purpose of the current study was to examine the program’s successes and challenges. The current study has implications for sports policymakers, educators, professionals and avariety of audiences with an interest in launching, developing, and systemizing similar international partnerships. This insight can be used to increase retention of individuals in similar programs, as well as to enhance the quality of programs that support athletes’ transition to life after retirement from elite sport.
... In particular, the skills and social capital that these teachers brought with them had an important influence on what they value and their teaching practices. Bourdieu (1984aBourdieu ( , 1984b suggested that the education sector is a structured and hierarchical social marketplace in which particular forms of social capital are exchanged. Those in the tertiary sector (specifically the university system) occupy an economically and socially dominant position in this field. ...
... Drawing on Bourdieu (1984a), it may be argued that part of the value the these ESL teachers derived from pastoral practices can be understood as an alternative means of accruing social capital (i.e., doing something socially valued by helping others), which is indirectly related to ESL delivery. This was aptly surmised by one of the participants who said, "There must be something about the job that that has kept me in it for more than 25 years-it can't be the money!" ...
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This paper presents a qualitative investigation into how sociocultural interactions with students bring meaning to ESL teachers' work. Aspects of the inquiry tool appreciative inquiry (AI) were used to interview 8 tertiary ESL teachers. AI allowed the participants to reflect on the positive aspects of their careers, from which several interesting patterns emerged. In particular, although the majority of participants did not intend to become career ESL teachers, the value they got from engaging with students encouraged them to become professional teachers. Further, a central aspect of their work-value stemmed from the pastoral care and life-changing sociocultural support they gave to their students. The results of this study, examined from a sociological perspective, suggest that the dynamics of ESL teacher-student relationships can be understood as a process of social history. Moreover, these interactions have positive, important, and lasting influences on both students' and teachers' lives. 本論文では、 学生との社会文化的交流が、 どのようにESL教師の仕事に深い意味を与えるかというテーマについて行った質 的研究を紹介する。Appreciative Inquiry (AI)という問い合わせツールを利用して、 8人の大学ESL講師にインタビューを行っ た。AIを使用することにより、 参加者は、 自分の職歴の前向きな側面を顧みることができ、 そこから幾つかの興味深いパターン を観察することができた。 特に、大半の参加者は、生涯EFL教師として務める意思はなかったが、生徒との交流から得た価値 観が、 彼らに、教師を本職とするモチベーションを与えた。 また、 彼らが生徒にパストラルケア (心理療法的なケア)や人生を 変えるような社会文化的な支援を提供した経験が、 彼らの職業観に大きな影響を与えた。 社会学的な観点から見た本研究の 結果から、ESL教師と生徒の関係の変遷は、 社会史の過程と捉え、 考えることができる。 さらに、 これらの交流は、 教師と生徒 の双方の人生に、 前向きかつ重要で、永続的な影響を与える。 ".. . with other people, it's more or less irrelevant to me that they are intelligent, as long as they are kind, sincere etc."-Marcel Proust R eflection on day-today teaching experience and practice is a valued part of professional development in ESL (Farrell, 2003). However, less emphasis is placed on reflecting on the practice of ESL itself. As with other educational sectors, ESL is a social field that is informed by theoretical orientations of one form or another. However, the socially constructed nature of ESL textbooks, training programmes, and so forth is usually taken for granted. Further, the majority of ESL literature does not engage with the societal level of teaching. Yet, teachers are also micropoliti-cal agents who bring their own agendas and assumptions to their work. As such, their actions have wider impacts on the lives of their students (Crookes,
... The literature yields two countervailing hypotheses in this regard. On the one hand, individuals from a privileged background 2 possess social, economic, and cultural resources (Bourdieu, 1984;Erikson & Jonsson, 1998) that are useful in the migration process. Thus, a privileged background is likely to increase the probability of migration (Ballarino & Panichella, 2021;Impicciatore & Tosi, 2019;Panichella, 2013). ...
... Regarding the availability of resources, individuals from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds possess more financial, cultural and social capital compared to individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds (Bourdieu, 1984;Erikson & Jonsson, 1998). As these resources are useful in the migration process (Carling, 2002), a privileged social background might stimulate internal migration for study and work. ...
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This paper contributes to the literature on social stratification by analysing the role of internal migration as a possible channel for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. While internal migration is associated with social mobility, it can also be used as a strategy of status maintenance among graduates from privileged backgrounds. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize whether internal migration for study or work, and subsequent labour market outcomes, are associated with social origins. Using a rich administrative and survey data set on a cohort of Italian graduates, findings show a substantive effect of social origins on graduates’ migration for study but not on migration for work. Finally, the results also more tentatively indicate that migration for study is one relevant path connecting social origins and income, thus emphasizing how privilege is not bound to place, but travels.
... To dare to follow your own ideas in a making task could also be perilous; it would be safer to stick to a well-worn and uninteresting line. (Salmon in Prentice, 1995: 26) This personal response can be particularly threatening for those who feel their backgrounds are culturally remote from the world of the 'white cube', especially individuals that are termed 'socially excluded' and without the required cultural capital to feel comfortable discussing or experiencing art forms that are unfamiliar (Bourdieu, 1984). It is only through the gradual establishment of a sense of trust they may overcome this and build self-confidence (Salmon in Prentice, 1995). ...
Chapter
Provocation three: from space to (embodied) place: a manifesto for sensory learning In site-specific practices
... Cuisine has an important function in emphasizing differences between nations (Murcott 1996, López-Rodríguez 2014 and even within nations (Bourdieu 2010). Porridge (known as oatmeal in America), an icon of Scottish cuisine along with haggis, may have more definitive roots in the past, and it was used, particularly by the English, as a derisive emblem of the Scots in songs during the Jacobite Risings (Hutton 2004). ...
Book
Gardening may seem worlds away from Nuraghi and brochs, but tending a garden is a long process involving patience, accretion and memory. Scholars argue that memories are also cultured, developed and regained. The monuments in Scotland and Sardinia are testament to the importance of memory and its role in maintaining social relations. This collection of twenty-one papers addresses the theme of memory anchored to the enduring presence of monuments, mainly from Scotland and Sardinia, but also from Central Europe and the Balkans.
... November 14, 2016. 45 For an elaboration of the concept of habitus, see Pierre Bourdieu (1984), Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, London: Routledge. ...
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The Norwegian Mentoring Scheme (NMS) has now been running for six years, and was evaluated for the first time by the end of 2018. This paper dwells on the results of this evaluation, published in Norwegian in February 2019 (Orban, 2019). These results were obtained through access to primary sources from the Directorate of Norwegian Correctional Service (DNCS) and from the NMS’ archives, as well as through semi-structured interviews. Eight were conducted with participants in the scheme. Nine were conducted with their mentors. One particular feature of the NMS is the use of mentors from civil society with different backgrounds in order to engage sentenced radical prisoners and to moderate behaviors and discourses. Twenty interviews were conducted with prison staff working with participants in the program, prison wardens and designers of the NMS. All interviews took place from March 2017 to October 2018. Due to high prison security measures, it was not possible to conduct more than one interview per mentee during the evaluation period. Interviews with both mentees and mentors averaged between 1.5 and 2 hours and were exclusively focused on how participation in the NMS was experienced by both groups. This chapter suggests that good targeting of mentors and mentees and trust building are critical factors to create appropriate conditions for change. Despite shortages, unexpected geopolitical developments and economic constraints, the first results of the NMS review were promising. However, the efficiency of the trust model to prevent recidivism into terrorism has yet to be confirmed in the long term. Aside from the work done on influencing behaviors and mindsets, mentors compensated for the lack of management of radicalized inmates in the prison system by providing a humanized form of support. In that sense, this study also suggests that the NMS might have less in common with deradicalization interventions than with existing reintegration measures that seek to empower prisoners to change their lifestyle and to prevent recidivism into crime.
... Regardless of how deep into human prehistory we search, it is reasonable to assume that luxury in some form has always been with us, for the simple reason that class hierarchal structure has always been with us as a bedrock feature of social communities (Ellis 2017;Trench 2017). Class and luxury are inextricably intertwined; an individual, a family, a dynasty, all had to possess a fortune-in tandem with their venerable lineage-to enjoy the finer things in life (Bourdieu 1984). Not only were those things pleasurable, they also confirmed and signaled status, cementing an individual's position at the pinnacle of the social order (Morhart, Felicity, and Czellar 2020). ...
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... Although the adoption of individual-based medicine was implemented into the local legislative framework, studies show that familistic decision-making processes are preferred (Chan et al., 2015, Cheung et al., 2020. This illustrates how historically incorporated patterns and habits take generations to change (Bourdieu, 2016), why it is not possible to change basic human structures, built up over many generations, only by political and medical decisions. ...
Article
Background : Since the mid 80’ies, the western palliative care philosophy has influenced the development of palliative care in mainland China. However, it has caused several challenges. Objective : To explore the understanding of the ‘good death’ among authorities, professionals, patients, and their relatives in end-of-life care settings in mainland China. Design : Scoping review. The PRISMA-ScR checklist was used. The study is not registered. Settings : End-of-life care settings, Mainland China Participants : Authorities, healthcare professionals, adult patients, and general population in mainland China. Method : Literature searches were performed through Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo and Web of Sciences from 2001-2021, last search 21.4.2021. Inclusion criteria were: Empirical research studies investigating ‘good death’ or political documents about ‘good death’, perspectives from authorities, professionals, patients, and/or relatives, and studies following the Declaration of Helsinki. Exclusion criteria were: Literature reviews, languages other than English and Chinese, editorials, letters, comments, and children's death/dying.The analysis consisted of analysing the data including a descriptive numerical summary analysis and a qualitative thematic analysis. Results : Nineteen articles and two political documents were included. The 19 studies were carried out from 2003-2020, with data collected from 1999 to 2019. The political documents were written in 2012 and 2017. The thematic analysis resulted in three themes: ‘Medicalisation of death’, ‘Communication about death - a clash between two philosophies’, and ‘Dying and death were socially dependent’. The medicalisation of death meant the understanding of the ‘good death’ primarily focused on physical symptoms and treatments. The good death was understood as painless and symptom-free, where all symptoms could be measured and assessed. Dignity and shared decision-making were connected to the understanding of the ‘good death’. However, the contents of the ‘good death’ varied across the different actors. The understanding of the ‘good death’ in mainland China was a negotiation between Chinese traditional philosophy and contemporary western medicine practice. There was a tension between openness and silence about death, which reflected the importance of death education. The understanding of the ‘good death’ consisted partly of a timely and practical preparation for the death and afterlife, partly of a matter of social and financial issues. Conclusions : There seemed to be a clash between two different cultures in the understanding of a good death in Mainland China, where western philosophy seemed to rule the political medical actors while traditional Chinese philosophy seemed to rule parts of the population.
... Prior work has focused on how variation in students' earlier life experiences influences their subjective experiences on elite campuses, but we believe we are the first to consider how privilege and disadvantage are mediated by strategies of college course selection. Whereas some literature focuses on the differences in information available to students when making their decisions (Chambliss and Takacs 2014; Schwartz et al. 2018), we conceptualize course selection as an enactment of habitus: an unconscious expression of style and strategy that varies systematically by social position (Bourdieu 1977(Bourdieu , 1984Bourdieu and Passeron 1990;Lizardo 2004). ...
Article
How do undergraduates make their first course decisions, and are these decisions fateful? Drawing on serial interviews (N = 200) of 53 students at an admissions-selective university, we show that incoming students with disparate precollege experiences differ in their orientations toward and strategies for considering first college math courses. Content repeaters opt for courses that repeat material covered in prior coursework, whereas novices opt for courses covering material new to them. Content repeaters receive high grades and report confidence in their math ability, whereas novices in the same classes receive lower grades and report invidious comparisons with classmates. These strategies vary with students’ socioeconomic background and prior exposure to institutions of higher education, suggesting the role of content repetition in maintaining class disparities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pathways. Findings encourage researchers to resist equating content repetition with remediation, attend to the agentic and social-psychological dimensions of academic progress, and recognize that elective curriculums create conditions for the performative reproduction of academic and socioeconomic inequalities.
... Wider equestrian culture has been shown to take a stoic approach to injury, and riders often revel in physical risk rather than take steps to mitigate them, which may be similar to the attitude seen in horseracing staff here [75]. The drive to keep working through injury or pain could be seen as an embodied necessity, and stopping work undermines the social and cultural capital derived from the activity or engagement in that community [75,79,80]. The potential disengagement from injury discussion beyond the identification of injuries as a 'list of accomplishments' seen in this population warrants further consideration and is something researchers should factor into study design moving forwards when working with horseracing staff. ...
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Occupational health is a key priority for the horseracing industry, yet little research on occupational injuries exists. This study investigated the prevalence and the effect of injury in British horseracing staff during a 12-month period. An online retrospective survey was answered by 352 participants, identifying self-reported injury prevalence, injury management practices and attitudes towards workplace injury reporting. Chi Squared tests for independence were undertaken. A total of 310 (88.1%) staff reported injuries; risk factors for injury type included self-perceived job security, working hours, and perceived job control. Physical limitations, loss of confidence, workplace changes, and lifestyle implications were reported as consequences of injury. A total of 75.3% (n = 134) of staff were likely to seek time-off following fractures, but only 48.6% (n = 86) would take time-off for concussion. Attitudes towards injury management were influenced by financial circumstances, perceived staff shortages, previous injury experiences, and perceived employer expectations. The high self-reported injury prevalence could result in decreased workforce efficiency, poor physical health, and negative implications on retention and career longevity. The perception of invisible injuries, i.e., concussion, and subsequent management, should be of immediate concern to racing organizations. This paper identifies recommendations to enhance the safety and wellbeing of horseracing staff.
... In interviews, chefs highlighted how the methods of preparation, quality, and reputation of the restaurant where fish maw is served, as well as the vendor selling the product, are important features effecting price (Interview NYC December 2020). These factors articulate with forms of class distinction (Bourdieu, 1987). Classed dimensions of consumption are additionally visible in advertisements, such as the one highlighted in Figure 1 that juxtaposes a thin fish maw served to a woman drinking tea with a thick fish maw served to a woman in a fur jacket Figure 1. ...
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This paper argues that the urban and the ocean are co-constituted through relations that are unevenly classed, gendered, and racialized. This argument is empirically anchored in high-value fish maw markets in Hong Kong, New York City, and the oceanic spaces and lives therein. The global inter-urban trade in Totoaba, an endangered fish endemic to the Gulf of California, serves as a primary example of piscine capital circulation, while supporting examples engage a much longer durée of urban ocean relations. Agrarian technologies appropriated through colonial trans-oceanic trade, for instance, are shown to be precursors of Euro-American industrial urbanization , while whale bodies were crucial to urban politics of difference and producing urban spaces in 19th century U.S. cities. Contemporary fisheries on the high seas exemplify how ocean spaces remain frontiers of unfree labor and natural resource extraction that contribute to capital accumulation in global cities. Through these examples, the article details how the ocean is urbanized, how the urban is constituted through the ocean, as well as some of the differentiated social formations and socio-natural effects of urban oceanic relationships. Urban oceanic processes of exploitation, extraction, circulation, and consumption predispose marginalized people and ocean wildlife to premature deaths. Urban oceanic relations could be otherwise constituted. Towards reconstituting these relations, the paper advances a hybrid analytical framework that ungrounds the urban from terrestrial conceptual moorings through engaging interdisciplinary ocean geographies.
... In the early phases of cultural tourism development in cities, the market was dominated by small scale specialist companies, often set up by entrepreneurs with a background in art. Following the logic of Bourdieu (1984), these 'new cultural intermediaries' had high levels of cultural capital, but often low levels of economic capital (Richards 2001). Producing high quality tours for generally older and more wealthy tourists became an effective way of translating cultural capital into economic capital. ...
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Cultural Tourism is a key sector of the global tourism market, accounting for just under 40% of all international travel (UNWTO, 2018). Cities have played a central role in the recent development of the cultural tourism market, particularly as the focus of cultural consumption has shifted from high culture (Culture 1.0) to popular or everyday culture, and from tangible museums and monuments to intangible events and experiences, and from cultural tourism to creative tourism (Culture 4.0). The desire of tourists to experience the everyday life of the local has also driven a shift from distribution systems based on tour operations to collaborative economy platforms for accommodation and the curation of urban experiences. This has stimulated changes in urban space, with growing areas of cities being given over to mass cultural tourism practices. This has arguably led to touristification and gentrification effects, monocultural landscapes and growing penetration of cultural tourists into the interstitial spaces of everyday and private life. In some cities the perception of cultural tourism as a 'good' form of tourism is beginning to be eroded by these changes.
... Scholars have approached the study of wine by being well aware of its participation in specific systems of cultural representations (Ulin, 2002;. Consumers are attracted by what a wine bottle contains not only in terms of pleasure and enjoyment but also, and more significantly, distinction (Bourdieu, 1984). Terroir and vintage constitute respectively the geographical and temporal axes in the coordinate system of wine distinctiveness, shaping unique wines that reflect the strong association of a place with a taste (Trubek, 2008). ...
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This thesis examines the production and consumption of natural wines through an ethnographic account of the work undertaken by female winegrowers in Italy. Drawing on ethnographic materials collected in two Italian regions (Piedmont and Sicily) between 2017 and 2018, this study investigates the multiple meanings and values attached to the production and consumption of these wines. Produced through a minimal interventionist approach which is based on the rejection of synthetic chemical substances in the vineyard and oenological additives in the cellar, natural wines are a debated product category which polarises opinion and lacks a legally recognised definition both at a national and European level due to their alternative sensorial aesthetics. At the interface between traditional claims to terroir, new environmental sensitivities, and consumers’ desires for ecologically and socially embedded food products, natural wines represent a flourishing niche market supported by a transnational network of sales agents and cultural intermediaries. Analysing how female natural winegrowers interact with nature and craft their wines, I argue that these producers frame their work through a highly reflexive posture which informs the ways they critically engage with their locality, approach the organic certification, and challenge the existing normative frameworks of quality. By producing wines through a careful sensorial engagement which preserves the non-human elements inhabiting their vineyards and cellars, these women promote a relational understanding of terroir and taste which emphasises the unfolding materiality of production and consumption. As relatively new social actors in a field historically dominated by men, I argue that these women are powerful agents of change who have successfully carved out their own space within a world which has traditionally excluded them from leading positions and entrepreneurial roles. Through their wines, they craft alternative ways of being in the world which re-shape the relationships between tradition and techno science, culture and nature, and local and global scales.
... 20 Social capital is related to individuals in a community pursuing a common goal, 21 and it can refer to the sense of connectedness between individuals. 22 Additionally, Putnam 18 suggested that social capital includes three characteristics: trust, a network, and reciprocity. Trust is deemed the most critical factor because a social network can only be established once trust is established. ...
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Purpose: The empirical paper aimed to develop a theoretical model of social capital in professional spectating sports by investigating the antecedents and outcomes related to social capital from the spectator's viewpoint. Participant and method: Brothers Elephants, a professional baseball franchise in the Chinese Professional Baseball League, provided the research setting. The study's participants consisted of 422 spectators of a Brothers Elephants game at its home field, Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Field. Around half of the participants were male; 46.4% of them aged between 30 and 39 years old. Data analysis was conducted through structural equation modeling. Results: Results revealed that social interactions positively correlated with social capital, prosocial behavior, and spectator intention to re-attend the sporting event. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) also positively predicted intention to re-attend the sporting event, social capital, and prosocial behavior. Social capital significantly correlated with prosocial behavior and subjective well-being, and prosocial behavior significantly correlated with subjective well-being and intention to re-attend the sporting event. Conclusion: The results suggest that social capital can be developed through social interactions and perceived CSR in the context of professional spectator sporting events, with such social capital increasing, in turn, prosocial behavior, subjective well-being, and intention to re-attend the sporting event. From perspective of practical implication, professional sports franchise can develop more campaigns that boost sports spectators' perceived social interactions and CSR, which can increase their social capital, prosocial behavior, subjective well-being, and their intention to re-attend the sporting event.
... I use 'capital' as in Skeggs (1997, p. 8) interpretation of Bourdieu's theory of capitals as "capital movements through social space." In this sense, various types of capital operate together as the basis for a model of class in which status and power are derived from literal and metaphorical worth, perceived through different lenses of value: cultural capital is derived through cultural embodied conceptions such as gender, through cultural goods, and through knowledge and skill; social capital through connections and associations; and economic capital through ownership of and/or access to financial wealth and material assets (Bourdieu, 1979(Bourdieu, , 1984(Bourdieu, , 1987(Bourdieu, , 1989. Symbolic capital emerges once a type of capital is recognised and legitimised (Bourdieu, 1979(Bourdieu, , 1989. ...
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This paper develops theory on stigma, capitals, and the female reproductive body, explored through analysis of empirical research on the uptake of menstrual cups, a reusable menstrual technology. Conventional menstrual products are single‐use disposables increasingly made of plastic and often disposed of by flushing, adding a significant load to marine pollution. Uptake of reusable products such as cloth pads, period underwear, and menstrual cups is increasing, but so far little is known about the effects of using such products on menstruators and on menstrual organization more broadly. My empirical research studied menstrual cup use in a small cohort of undergraduates in Melbourne, using a dual diary and interview technique. “Sustainability” as a key value was primary in participants' desire to try the cup, which most then found to be more convenient than other methods. These factors contributed to increased cultural capital surrounding menstruation, to the point where the cup and its use were described as “cool”. This new status facilitated articulation of menstrual experience with partners, peers, and families, rendering users greater agency and community in what has normatively been constructed as a solitary, silenced experience. Using the cup detached users from the menstrual disposability market economy, and therefore to some extent from its stigmatizing narrative and symbolic violence. Yet the cup had a significant paradoxical effect, in that users were able to “forget” they were menstruating during the day and in organizational settings, while encountering menstrual blood more intensely when they got home, differently enclosing the female reproductive body.
... Perhaps the least studied intra-racial component of hegemonic whiteness includes white standards for engagement with their own ethnic and cultural practices. These cultural practices are integral to whiteness as they exist as symbolic markers that white people use to distinguish themselves from BIPOC and other less valued whites (Bourdieu, 1984). These distinctions serve as mechanisms that justify the existing racial hierarchy and the unequal distribution of ideological and material resources that accompany it. ...
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Conversations about whiteness in the U.S. have become increasingly common in recent years. Yet, there is still much deliberation about what whiteness is. Existing research has demonstrated that whiteness is a homogenizing force, investing all white people in institutions and cultures that maintain white supremacy. Yet, recent studies have also explored the situated nature of whiteness by demonstrating how whiteness varies based on space, time, and the social location of the white people who embody it. Hegemonic whiteness, a framework that explores how inter- and intra-racial hierarchies are sustained via dominant ideologies and practices, provides insights that account for these seemingly opposing trends. In this paper, I further develop the framework of hegemonic whiteness using Connell’s (1987), Connell and Messerchmidt's (2005), and Messerschmidt’s (2019) framework of hegemonic masculinity. Next, I operationalize the dominant affective, attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural standards associated with one particular type of whiteness: notably hegemonic whiteness in the US context. These standards provide important insights into whiteness by demonstrating the baseline expectations whites from disparate backgrounds are expected to embody to fully reap the “wages of whiteness”. Such understandings can contribute to more effective anti-racist education programs and race-based social justice movements.
... To understand the complex matter of how resources are unequally distributed within a context, Anthias (2006) draws on Bourdieu's concept of economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. Bourdieu (1984) presented material/financial resources, as well as cultural goods, such as education and social resources, in terms of beneficial networks. He also referred to a fifth form of capital, physical capital, which emphasises his view of the body as a possessor of power and status (Bourdieu, 1978). ...
... The interiorization of norms and values has a positive effect on the reproduction of the social system, since it allows social action to follow the role expectations in the correct way (Parsons 1937). Bourdieu's version, on the contrary, expresses the idea that culture induces the actor to act against its interest, thanks to the effects resulting in the positioning in a field that influences its dispositions, habitus and cultural capital (Bourdieu 1984). The reproduction of the system in hence tightly connected to the reproduction of power and inequalities. ...
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The relationship between analytical sociology and cultural sociology is not, prima facie, a fruitful one. The esprit de géométrie that characterizes the former would appear not to agree with the esprit de finesse that marks the latter. While analytical sociology underlines the role of the mechanisms-based explanation, the beacon of cultural sociology is the principle by which social action should be interpreted as a text, and the interpretation depends on the network of meanings that constitute the context of the action. The gap between explanatory science and hermeneutical disciplines is here the deepest. To cut through a vast theoretical underbrush, it could be argued that the aim of cultural sociology is the construction of thick descriptions that are able to seize the cultural meaning of actions to spell out their wide-ranging implications, as well as to highlight the role played by the constitutive rules of social interaction. Analytical sociology, on the other hand, favours thin descriptions (Hedström and Udéhn 2009) and discusses the problem of meaning in an ancillary way as organon of the explanation. The interpretation of meaning becomes either a specific phase of the research process (Goldthorpe 2000) or a component of a micro-founded theory focused on the cognitive complexity of decision-making processes (Esser 1993; Lindenberg 1993, 2000). These wide-ranging and "foundational" differences become less divisive in those empirically oriented pieces of works that have both explanatory and interpretative aims. On the part of cultural sociology, for example, this is the case of the so-called endogenous relevance of the cultural processes (Kaufman 2004) and of the analysis focused on how cultural tastes shape social networks (Lizardo 2006). On the part of analytical sociology, empirical works such as Chain of Affection by Bearman, Moody and Stovel (2004) do the same job and help to close the gap. True as it may be, these attempts do not speak for the mainstream trends, and the dialogue between analytical sociology and cultural sociology is still quite a challenge for social theory. As will be illustrated in the following, to bridge the cliff it is key to properly portray the merits and pitfalls of contenders, while avoiding getting caught in endless ontological debates about the "true nature" of social phenomena. For analytical sociology, paying attention to the sirens of ontology ("is the real relational"?) can doubtless be useful, but only if binding oneself to the theoretical and methodological consequences of this standpoint, never as a self-sufficient question. As any voyage on the seas of contemporary sociology can testimony, explorers less cautious than Ulysses have left many a battered wreck behind. The first divide is determinism vs. intentionality. At first glance, cultural sociology would appear to support a deterministic framework where the social actor is pushed by forces that drive him/her towards "choices" whose main outcome is the reproduction of the social system. This standpoint denoted both the Parsons' version and the Bourdieu's account of the "cultural 1 I am grateful to Krzysztof Krakowski for his comments to an earlier version of the paper.
... There are deeply ingrained ways of acting, thinking and doing that are formed through repetition and internalisation of social norms [15]. These learned habits are often mistaken as inherent or natural [16], including in the context of disability healthcare and MD [17], and are thus very hard to change or even notice. Clinical practice has multiple habitual practices, values and assumptions. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper evaluates a study which aimed to enhance clinical care of young people with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) and their families in two Canadian neuromuscular clinics. We report on how/why the study changed clinical practices in relation to the ‘human’ (e.g., emotional, social, existential, cultural) dimensions of living with MD. Materials and methods The intervention involved regular dialogical exchanges with clinicians across the two sites, during which direct observations of the clinics’ care practices were discussed and changes were planned. We drew from realist evaluation approaches to assess changes in clinical care associated with the intervention. Data sources included dialogical exchanges; clinic observations; interviews with clients, families and clinicians; and team analysis sessions. Results Our evaluation suggests the clinical teams shifted their thinking and practices towards greater consideration of human aspects of living with MD including: more routinely attending to emotional, social and experiential dimensions of living with MD; reconceptualisation of risk; and considerations of affective aspects of clinical care. Not all clinicians changed their thinking and practices in the same ways, or to the same extent, and there were differences between the sites. These differences were likely due to numerous factors, including varying levels of clinician comfort with examining and shifting their own practices, and differing formal and informal clinic routines at each site. Conclusions Overall, this intervention was able to shift clinic practices, and could feasibly be adapted across rehabilitation settings.
... 104 UPFs also carry symbolic value, and this research extends the well-known work of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu on the influence of economic, social, and cultural capital on food consumption. 105 Purchasing a candy bar for one's child or eating out in a fast food restaurant can provide relief from the stresses of low-wage work and poverty, or a rare moment of tranquility when tired working parents can enjoy a meal with their family. [106][107][108] For those experiencing homelessness, UPF consumption is driven by practical considerations such as lacking a space to cook or store food and limited resources to spend on food. ...
Article
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There is growing evidence that consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) has become a leading cause of global premature deaths and preventable diet-related diseases. To reduce consumption of UPF requires an understanding of the multiple forces behind it, including the understudied question of what makes UPF appealing. This critical scan of literature across multiple disciplines aims to fill this gap. We conclude that appeal is a multi-dimensional construct generated through the interplay of the products themselves, the people consuming them, and the practices of the corporations that manufacture, market, and distribute them. We argue that these relationships need to be unpacked to understand UPF appeal fully, and that public health interventions must take on the multiple dimensions of UPF appeal in an integrated way to effectively reduce its consumption. We propose a conceptual framework that can guide research to analyze the causes and consequences of UPF appeal and inform the development of policies and other interventions to reduce UPF appeal and consumption.
... The concept of social capital was developed by Loury (1977), Bourdieu (1984), and Coleman (1988). It has drawn huge interest after Putnam's work was published (Putnam, Leonardi, and Nanetti 1994), which was on the role of social capital in different regional governments of Italy. ...
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This paper explores the composition of social relations in Korean community-led regeneration planning. Power dynamics among participants are understood as an important factor in shaping decision-making planning processes. While the concept of social capital and the social network theory have received great attention, particularly in recent Asian planning cases, as tools to understand participatory processes, empirical studies on processes of building social capital among different social groups in participatory planning are still limited. This study examines the uneven formation of social capital and its operation to unpack participatory planning mechanisms that may unintentionally reproduce the relationships of domination/marginalisation in the decision-making consultation processes. The study focuses on a recently designated community-led regeneration project, the Garibong-dong urban regeneration project in Seoul, a neighborhood where a considerable number of Korean Chinese communities live.
... I realised that my moral deliberations were immersed in culturally laden and gendered discourses on motherhood, which had become an intrinsic part of my moral identity (Tavory 2011). Similar to lifestyle or taste preferences (Bourdieu 2010), moral judgements inhabit moral spaces that are relational and socially constructed rather than rooted in individual cognitions (De Keere 2019). Paradoxically, existential counselling lead David to attend to his predicament in existential terms, while I veered off the existential path caught up in negotiating my socially constructed moral position. ...
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... But we are still missing an explanation of how users gain their "taste" for different apps. In a Bourdieu'an [1] sense, this phenomenon can be explained because of the users different cultural capital and their position in the social field, which is expressed through taste preferences. While the taste paradigm is nearly "hegemonic" [3] in sociology, it is less common to look at technological changes through this lens in the HCI community. ...
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