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Human Capital. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education

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Human Capital. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education

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... Dans cette seconde sous-partie, nous nous intéresserons à la définition de la carrière scientifique au travers de différents prismes : la théorie économique (Becker, 1964 ;Biddle et Roberts, 1994 ;Sent, 1999 ;Stephan et al., 2007), celle de la sociologie des sciences (Merton, 1968) et celle de sciences psychologiques (Dalton et al., 1977 ;Lent et al., 1994 ;Hall, 1996 ;Arthur et Rousseau, 1996 ;Sullivan et Baruch, 2009). L'objectif est d'adopter une appréhension de la carrière scientifique la plus riche possible à l'échelle individuelle pour mieux comprendre l'activité de collaboration qui se déroule dans son cadre. ...
... 1-Approche économique : progression de carrière d'un agent autonome Nous présenterons deux grandes théories économiques de la carrière scientifique : celle des Néoclassiques (Arrow, 1962 ;Becker, 1964) et de Stephan (Stephan et al., 2007). Ces théories économiques insistent sur la perception du chercheur comme un agent autonome dans la gestion de sa carrière. ...
... Également, la théorie néoclassique du travail et du capital humain (Becker, 1964) ...
Thesis
Ce travail vise à contribuer à la compréhension de la dynamique de collaboration des chimistes. Nous appréhendons le comportement collaboratif du chercheur comme non singulier et nous nous attachons à décrire sa multiplicité et son évolution au fil de la carrière scientifique. A partir d'une base de données bibliométrique originale, nous identifions et expliquons les dynamiques collaboratives via l'utilisation de données contextuelles, géographiques et sociales. Alors que beaucoup de travaux se positionnent sur l'étude de la compétitivité du chercheur au travers d'études macro, nous affinons notre perception de la carrière à partir de données micro et longitudinales dans une démarche descriptive et compréhensive. A partir de trois chapitres empiriques issus de diverses méthodologies (méthodologie mixte, économétrie des données de panel, analyse de réseaux sociaux, analyse de données), nous illustrons différentes dynamiques collaboratives reposant sur des relations sociales et des géographies particulières.
... He noted that the most valuable of all forms of capital is an investment in human beings. According to Becker (1993), the theory assumes that there are firm's specific human capital which include expertise gathered through education and training in management system and accounting software e.t.c and generalpurpose human capital relating to general knowledge for varieties of activity within the firms (Marimuthu, Arokiasamy & Ismail, 2009). Becker (1993) postulated that investment in education and training would result in increased productivity due to improved human capital formed in human resources through the investment process. ...
... According to Becker (1993), the theory assumes that there are firm's specific human capital which include expertise gathered through education and training in management system and accounting software e.t.c and generalpurpose human capital relating to general knowledge for varieties of activity within the firms (Marimuthu, Arokiasamy & Ismail, 2009). Becker (1993) postulated that investment in education and training would result in increased productivity due to improved human capital formed in human resources through the investment process. The theory proposed three stages of relationship resulting from the investment. ...
... Ho1: Entrepreneurial administrative skill has no significant impact on youth economic inclusion through agripreneurship in Osun State. Becker (1993), in support of the result above postulated that investment in education and training will result in increased productivity as a result of improved administrative human capital formed in human resources through the process of the investment. To prepare the youth for economic inclusion in agripreneurship, researchers have argued that entrepreneurial human capital (administrative) skills acquisition will assist in making the youth ready for a turn-around in their life. ...
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The high rate of youth unemployment in Nigeria has prompted a shift in focus to agricultural pursuits to ensure youth economic survival. However, entrepreneurship in agriculture will not happen in a vacuum but with adequate attention for human resource capabilities. The impact of entrepreneurial human capital on youth economic inclusion through agripreneurship was examined in this study. The study used a survey research approach, with primary data collected by a standardised questionnaire delivered to 100 selected unemployed currently in the National Youth Service Scheme in Osun State, Nigeria. The study employed multiple regression to analyse the data gathered. At the same time, the results revealed that both entrepreneurial administrative skills and entrepreneurial accounting skills have a significant positive impact on youth economic inclusion through agripreneurhip with values of adjusted R 2 =0.922 and 0.971 at ≤0.05 level of significance, respectively. The study, therefore, recommends that adequate attention should be given to the human capital stock of the youth for optimal productivity in the economy of Osun State via agripreneurship.
... Department of Education, 2019). According to the human capital model developed by Gary Becker (Becker, 1964), a student tends to drop out from school and enter the labor market when the marginal cost of education is higher than the expected benefit of education (Long, 2007). This is an undesirable outcome for the institutions because graduation rates are prominent in both government funding criteria and popular-press school-ranking criteria (Lin, 2020). ...
... To better understand the effect of loan debt on graduation, this study further includes the perspective of the human capital model in the conceptual framework (Chen and Hossler, 2017). The human capital model was developed by Gary Becker (Becker, 1964) and has been used by many studies to understand college enrollment and outcomes (Charles and Luoh, 2003;Chen and Hossler, 2017;George-Jackson, Rincon, and Martinez, 2012;Lee, 2018;Venti and Wise, 1983;Willis and Rosen, 1979). The model suggests an individual will decide to enter the labor market instead of attending school, if the marginal cost of education is higher than the expected benefit of education (Long, 2007). ...
... Human Capital Theory has traditionally been used as a theoretical framework for examining the connection between college degree completion and economic growth (Becker, 1993). The literature consistently shows that workers who complete postsecondary credentials have higher lifetime earnings than workers who do not (Carnevale et al., 2011). ...
... Human Capital Theory (HCT) attempts to explain why some people earn more economic rewards over the course of their lifetimes than others, and how training ultimately contributes to the overall economy (Becker, 1993). In this theory, formal education or training is viewed as one kind of human capital that has an observed impact on earnings and productivity in the United States. ...
Thesis
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Associate’s degree completion has been billed as the quickest way to upskill the workforce and a ticket to the middle class (Carnevale et al., 2018; Gittell et al., 2017). Yet, over 35 million Americans have left college without a degree (Wheatle et al., 2017). Black and Hispanic students are more likely than White and Asian students to leave college before completing a degree (Shapiro et al., 2017). This study examined if economic benefits differ between those whose highest level of educational attainment is “some college, no degree (SCND)” and an associate’s degree, specifically by analyzing heterogeneity and interaction effects between race/ethnicity, sex, citizenship and nativity. Human Capital Theory (HCT) and Intersectionality framed this study. Using data from the Current Population Survey 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement, this study employed OLS and logistic regressions to examine heterogeneity in economic rewards. Propensity score matching was also employed to estimate causal treatment effects using observational data. On average, associate’s workers reaped more economic rewards than SCND workers. However, in almost every category, the advantage of additional training (completion of the associate’s degree) was lost when the worker held at least one socially disadvantaged identity. The economic disadvantage was multiplied for some workers who had more than one disadvantaged identity. The findings of this study support the economic value of completing an associate’s degree, and unmask the disparate outcomes in the labor market when examining economic returns for workers of diverse races/ethnicities, sexes and nationalities.
... This study is conducted under the guiding light of Human Capital theory, which provides a framework for examining the impact of acquired variables such as education, learning and experience, on career outcomes; it was further developed on the assumption that education can serve as a key determinant of decision choice and providing benefit to specific ventures (Ojeifo, 2013). Human Capital Theory is concerned with decisions with respect to investments in education and work experience (Becker, 1993). In cognizance of this fact, Adejimola and Olufunmilayo (2009) and Ojeifo, (2013) opined that education should be designed with a view to creating and enhancing the supply of entrepreneurial initiatives and activities. ...
... In the past, means of production constituted a major share of an organization's tangible assets. Today, human talent is seen as a form of capital which talented persons carry within them, in their knowledge and expertise, and acts as an important part of the means of production (Becker, 1993). ...
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In Nigeria and other developing nations of the world, the strategic role of the entrepreneur as an agent of economic development cannot be over emphasised, particularly in the aspects of employment generation, wealth creation and poverty reduction. Statistics show that the incidence of poverty in developing countries is more prevalent in rural areas, where more than half of the population reside, hence the focus of attention on rural entrepreneurship as a strategy for tackling the problem, has been on the increase. The problem of rural-urban drift of youths (especially the educated ones), which has led to overpopulation in urban centres, is also another major reason why encouraging rural entrepreneurship is imperative. Achieving success with this strategy however, depends, to a large extent, on the human capital of the rural entrepreneur, whose role in the enterprise is very strategic, and often determines the chances of survival of the enterprise. This study therefore examined the impact of entrepreneurial human capital development, in terms of entrepreneurship education, on rural entrepreneurship growth in selected rural communities in Ayedire Local Government of Osun State, Nigeria. Fifty rural enterprises were selected and data was sourced with a questionnaire. Their responses were analysed using Simple Regression Analysis where the result revealed that 61% variation in rural entrepreneurship growth is explained by entrepreneurial human capital development. It was concluded from the findings, that entrepreneurial human capital development has a positive and significant impact on rural entrepreneurial growth. Many young rural entrepreneurs however, do not have access to tertiary education due to poverty, and are therefore denied entrepreneurship education, which is presently incorporated only in tertiary education curriculum in Nigeria. The need to include entrepreneurship education in secondary school curriculum is therefore imperative.
... For the practice of sustainable entrepreneurship, education and training are critical. According to (Becker, 1994), these two are the "most essential investments in human capital" (p. 17). ...
... Although the distinction between training and education is sometimes overlooked and confused, the two are beneficial in different ways. While the former refers to general education obtained via schooling or university, the latter refers to any training that aids in the acquisition of skills (Becker, 1994) (see Figure 1). ...
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The main purpose of this research was to investigate how universities may help Saudi Arabian students who are planning to become entrepreneurs promote sustainability development goals. The intersection of ecological development and entrepreneurship is referred to as “sustainable entrepreneurship.” Entrepreneurs want to provide practical educational solutions. Thus, this study seeks to fill this gap by developing a new model for measuring the relationships between entrepreneurial culture, sustainability training, and sustainability education in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research “survey questionnaire” found in the human relations theory of sustainable entrepreneurship was used to collect data. This study looked at the impact of three dimensions connected to the role of entrepreneurship in higher education using AMOS and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The data ( n = 252) was examined using AMOS and SEM. Therefore, this study specifies 37 items, three of which are the most important. 1) a sustainable entrepreneurial culture, 2) sustainability training, and 3) sustainability education. The findings imply that a sustained entrepreneurial culture has a good influence on training and education. Furthermore, sustainability training has a good influence on sustainability education. As a result, this research supports the extended human relations theory of the function of a sustainable entrepreneurial culture by indicating that the model anticipates university students increasing their entrepreneurial culture via training and education in higher education.
... It links humans, income, and labor performance and has remained a focus for decades for scholarly exploration. The essential focus in human capital development remained to establish intellectual and personal foundations essential for education and value creation in humans (Becker, 2004). North (1961) economic history publications from 1961 and 1966 mostly adhered to the conventional wisdom. ...
... Introducing the concept of human capital to the development of economic science highlights the ability of industrial workers; or included to design modern systems to improve workforce productivity. These represent skills that everyone develops according to their knowledge, competencies, and utilizing abilities to improve human social progress (Becker, 2004). An investment in human capital is comparable to an investment in machinery or other forms of non-human capital. ...
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Psychological, social, cultural, emotional, and organizational perspectives consistently highlight human capital's importance in the literature. We argue that the collective view of different capitals with self-notion is essential for establishing impression, image, and self-esteem. According to the review findings, religious capital could predict context-specific psychological, cultural, social, emotional, and organizational capital. This acknowledgment can assist academicians in better understanding how religion, social psychology, and other capitals co-create value in human capital development. This study's relevant section includes several possible future paths and remarkable qualities that enhance human capital value development research
... Individuals usually choose to train for an occupation to enhance their human capital in income-generating abilities, i.e., occupation-specific KSAs they need to exercise an occupation to earn their living. Acquiring human capital implies a certain period of education, training, and learning, which may come at the cost of educational/ training expenses (Becker, 1994). Individuals aim to be reimbursed for these expenses by finding a job that best covers their expenses by being well-paid. ...
... Wage, in turn, increases with a worker's level of occupation-specific experience as a form of human capital (Kambourov and Manovskii, 2009;McDonald, 2011). The level of occupational experience rises with the time working in a particular occupation by a further accumulation of occupationspecific KSAs, which enhance working productivity (Becker, 1994). Since occupational experience goes along with acting and learning in social contexts, individuals gain occupation-specific social resources such as information, influence, and status over time (Lin, 2001). ...
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Organizations may need to attract occupational groups they did not recruit so far to implement strategic changes (e.g., digital transformation). Against the backdrop of this practical problem, this study introduces and explores an occupation-based measure of person-organization fit: occupational fit. I investigate its relationship with employer attractiveness based on human capital theory and explore the role of employer image as a moderator in this relationship. I surveyed 153 software engineers and mechanical engineers to analyze whether their occupational fit with software engineering and mechanical engineering firms is related to employer attractiveness. I find that occupational fit is only related to a firm’s employer attractiveness among software engineers. Employer image does not moderate this relationship. A qualitative follow-up study proposes first explanations for the unexpected differences between the two occupations by indicating that occupations may differ in the logic they apply to determine fit and their degree of professionalization. The study contributes to research by highlighting the neglected role of occupation in recruitment research and exploring potential boundary conditions of recruitment for fit. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
... First, the level of education is often cited as a major determining factor. According to the human capital theory (originally developed by Mincer, 1958, andBecker, 1964), selection on the labour market is based on the skills that the individual has acquired. By investing in training and education, individuals gain additional skills and hence greater human capital, which increases their productivity. ...
... In conceptualizing employability, human capital is deemed critical (Becker, 2009;Clarke, 2018). However, employability is a complex model (Harvey, 2001). ...
Chapter
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What is learned in higher education institutions may not align with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that jobs require. In situations where jobs are shrinking, and more and more graduates are seeking jobs, understanding what employability means to recruiters is critical for students and institutions to enhance students’ future employment prospects. To this end, this chapter reports the results of a mixed-methods study on the important skills and qualities for employability from the perspectives of job interviewers in Hawaii, the United States. The study detected key qualities contributing to or detracting from graduates’ success in job interviews and being employees. Through these results, students and higher education institutions will be informed to better monitor their employability and meet market needs.
... Until now, the mainstream theoretical models have focused on the demand for university education, but there is a need for models that reflect the changes in the supply side described above. There are representative studies on human capital theory such as Becker (1964), review papers by Hanushek and Welch (2006), Woessmann (2011), Hanushek et al. (2016), and Epple and Romano (1998) on education vouchers. (2016), and Epple and Romano (1998) on education vouchers. ...
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This study applies the state of the Japanese university industry to a theoretical model of monopolistic competition. Using a model of spatial economics, it is possible to identify how and why an increasingly competitive university environment leads to university agglomeration and dispersion. The study analyses whether the location of universities will be less unevenly distributed in cities and whether the number of universities and students in rural areas will increase. Using a model of spatial economics, the study analyses two aspects: the demand aspect of the choice of universities by students and the supply aspect of location by universities. A decrease in the number of students per university results in a decrease in the quality of education through a decrease in university income. The results of this study can also explain the impact on the quality of education. The analysis leads to the following conclusions. The higher the cost of interregional travel during the job search, the fewer students are willing to move from one region to another to find a job, and the lower the number of students enrolled. When the substitutability between university varieties is weak, the number of universities increases because prospective students need more variety, and the number of students per university decreases. When fixed inputs are low, e.g. when the fixed costs of a university are low due to online etc., the number of universities increases because it is easier to establish new universities and the number of students and graduates per university decreases. In a model that assumes two types of students within the same university who want to work in their region or another region, there will be more students who move between regions. The location of universities is determined by the balance between market size and the level of competition. As people move from one region to another in the course of their job search, there will be competitors in the other region, and the effect of new competition will be weaker in regions with more universities than in regions with fewer universities. Thus, regions with more universities will have a larger market relative to the level of competition, and more universities than their share of the population will be located there. Even in a model with two regions, one with universities in higher education and the other with homogeneous goods in non-university production, the region with the largest population has a larger share of university enrolments than its share of the population. This means that even if the two regions have the same level of technology and resources, they will experience a reduction in enrolment simply because of their small population size. Smaller universities in rural areas mean that a negative spiral of declining enrolments will occur.
... There has been extensive analysis of education, including endogenous growth models and microeconomic analyses via measurements of investing in education (Zon and Antonietti, 2016;Paganetto and Scandizzo, 2003). In fact, education boosts the productivity of individuals and their lifetime earnings (Becker, 1993). It follows that economic growth can be attributed to enhanced education (Adu and Denkyirah, 2017;Benos and Zotou, 2014). ...
Article
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This article is devoted to an analysis of household demand for private tutoring in Tunisia. The data come from the National Household Budget, Consumption and Standard of Living Survey. Logistic regression models are used to determine the association between family socio-economic conditions and the decision to use private tutoring. The results show that the demand for private tutoring is positively linked to a family's patrimony and its financial capacity. The negative coefficient of the dwelling factor may seem strange given that households which own their dwelling can be considered wealthy people, but this is not the case in Tunisia. Family size is positively and significantly correlated with private tutoring. This can be explained by the particularity of the Tunisian context. Location is an important factor, and households in coastal areas are more motivated for private lessons.
... Additional years of education translate into higher wages (Psacharopoulos, Patrinos, 2018). This effect is partly explained by the human capital theory, which assumes that better education translates into skills that increase our productivity (Becker, 1975). An alternative explanation is that by passing through the education system, one signals its innate ability and employers reward it with higher wages (see Page, 2010, for a review). ...
Article
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We estimate the effect of the 1999 education reform in Poland on employment and earnings. The 1999 education reform in Poland replaced the previous 8 years of general and 3/4/5 years of tracked secondary education with 9 years of general and 3/3/4 years of tracked upper-secondary education. The reform also introduced new curricula, national examinations, teacher standards, and a transparent financing scheme. Our identification strategy relies on a difference-in-differences approach using a quasi-panel of pooled year-of-survey and age-of-respondent observations from the Polish sample of the EU-SILC database. The results indicate that the reform has increased employment probability (by around 3 percentage points) and earnings (by around 4%).
... According to the human capital theory, originally developed by Becker (1964) and Mincer (1958), selection on the labour market is based on the skills that the individual has acquired. By investing in training and education, or acquiring professional experience, individuals gain additional skills and hence greater human capital, which increases their productivity. ...
Technical Report
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With this report, the High Council for Employment aims to analyse the position of immigrants born outside the EU on the Belgian labour market, in order to understand the reasons for their low level of integration and to suggest potential solutions.
... Education is widely considered to be the most important form of human capital (Becker, 1993). In order for education to fulfill this role, it must accept the demands of the labor market at the national and international levels. ...
... The current knowledge of the topic is intertwined in the works of numerous sociologists, philosophers, economists and other scholars who explore the problems of the education system modernization with an inclination to marketing environment. Here we should recall: a number of works that enlighten students' perception of themselves as 'consumers' of higher education (Lomas, 2007;Finney & Finney, 2010;Baron & Corbin, 2012;Tomlinson, 2017;Bunce & Bennett, 2021); general aspects of the marketisation of higher education (Molesworth et al., 2009;Tomlinson, 2014;Tomlinson, 2018;Branch & Christiansen, 2021); the impact of market-driven higher education on student-university relations (Tomlinson, 2016); questions of moral attitudes (Baker, 2020) and missing values in the realm of higher education (Tomlinson, 2021); accessibility aspects on the example of some education forms (Papastamatis & Panitsidou, 2009;Rasmussen & Lolle, 2021); the role of the state in the development and organization of specific types of education (Coleman, 1976;Nicol, 2010;Clair & Käpplinger, 2021), and some issues of Chinese educational tradition (Stovpets, 2020); the impact of welfare state regimes on barriers to participation in adult education (Rubenson & Desjardins, 2009); social-philosophic aspects of professional training in specific fields (Stovpets & Stovpets, 2019;Mann et al., 2020); reflections on possibilities of creation more horizontal relationships among professionals, colleges of education, public schools, and low-income communities (Anderson, 2017); problems of graduates' employability (Holmes, 2001;Qenani et al., 2014); work-integrated learning issues (Trede & Jackson, 2021); interconnections between education and industry (Keep, 2012); analysis of the roles of instructional leadership, teacher collaboration, and collective efficacy beliefs in support of student learning (Goddard et al., 2015); some ties between phenomena of freedom and justice, and educational rights in liberal society (Borinshtein et al., 2021); some issues of creativity in the education process (Stovpets, 2017); digital diversification and the prospect of use of immersive technologies in the educational process (Stovpets, 2022); questions of entrepreneurial education (Cruzata-Martínez et al., 2021); applying LMS in the educational process in quarantine ; transformations in the idea of higher education (Barnett, 1990;Moyer & Sinclair, 2020), and reflections on why it's time for radical change (Connell, 2019); the intensification of rankings logic in an increasingly marketised higher education environment (Locke, 2013); media literacy and social responsibility of educators in contemporary information conditions (Svyrydenko & Terepyshchyi, 2020); human capital loss or obtaining, depending on progress level in the higher education (Becker, 1994;Svyrydenko et al., 2021). All these works have influenced, less or more, on the way of making the following research. ...
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This study is aimed to contribute into the improvement for 'educational marketing' as one of the essential and defining areas that accelerates a comprehensive social development of today's Ukraine, strengthening the intellectual potential of Ukrainian society and the State. The methodology used in the research allows developing a renewed strategy of educational marketing, which would take into account the system of professional education based on marketing policy, focused on a set of marketing patterns. The research gives a general understanding of what material & technical, legal-organizational, socio-economic, and mental problems Ukraine's contemporary education system functions with. The emphasis is made on the problems of the Higher Education reforming. The scientific novelty element consists in the proposal to create a profile package of a modern senior- and middle-level specialist, focusing higher education institutions on the development of marketing skills for these specialists.
... Ключевые слова: инвестиции, социальный капитал, социальная рента, социальные связи № 2(13), июнь 2015 Сегодня проблематике социального капитала ежегодно посвящены сотни научных публикаций. В основе соответствующих изысканий лежит предположение, что, наряду с капиталом физическим и человеческим (совокупность знаний и способностей индивидов [Becker 1964]), существует также социальный капитал в виде заключённых в общественных структурах ресурсов, которые могут извлекаться индивидами в своих целях. Немаловажная особенность теории социального капитала -акцент на эмпирических исследованиях при выявлении строгих корреляций между социумом и экономикой [Thomson 2005]. ...
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The article contains the conceptual analysis of the social capital theory. It reveals that most interpretations of the “social capital” phenomenon do not reflect the classical and contemporary notions of capital in economics. This leads to a confusion of concepts. Today, social capital is described as social norms, values, and connections. Economists theorize about the positive influence of these phenomena. However, this article reveals that, as a rule, the behavior of social actors cannot be described as a rational investment process. More often than not, individuals’ decisions are governed by principles other than the desire to make a profit or fulfill egocentric needs. We believe that the positive impact on economics that researchers speculate about is merely a byproduct of day-to-day social activity. This prompts a conclusion that it would be incorrect to refer to certain social phenomena as “capital”. This article attempts to bring some clarity into the matter. In our view, social capital is the return on investment. Individuals invest in social connections, hoping to profit from them in the future. That said, in most cases it is difficult to distinguish social capital investments from actions that are guided by other motives, such as love, loyalty, or empathy. We believe that some social phenomena (for instance, fatherly love, etc.) cannot be referred to as “capital” for purely ethical reasons. In this context, our research shows that some versions of the social capital theory are best described through the prism of the economic rent theory. In classical economics, the term “rent” refers to the benefits that individuals receive from sources other than labor or capital. In a way, it could be described as a “gift of nature”. After all, it is hardly surprising that the rent theory initially started out as the study of land rent: the labor and capital investments being equal, different plots of land can provide different yield. When reviewing social phenomena, we propose a new interpretation of the so-called “social rent”. We believe the social rent is determined by a favorable social environment. A given individual may be born in a comfortable environment, or they may befriend someone without thinking that this friendship could potentially be beneficial. In addition, social rent is frequently determined by the specific features of social structure (trust, social norms and values, etc.). In our opinion, the reason why certain forms of social rent are relevant is their connection to everyday social interactions. All of this means that research on the matter needs a more careful approach, with a more skeptical attitude towards individuals as economic actors and a greater emphasis on individuals as social actors.
... Understanding how human resources are managed, and what makes them committed to the organization are crucial for an organization to develop and improve in order to obtain better productivity and performance. In other words, human resources affect all aspects of organizational performance (Becker, 2009). In addition, . ...
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Many studies have been conducted in organizations on the topics of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). However, there is a shortage of these topics in higher education institutions in the Asian context. Therefore, this article attempts to fill this literature gap. The study examines the influence of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational commitment in the higher education sector in Vietnam. It analyzes the effect of OCB components on three aspects of organizational commitment: affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuance commitment. A self-administered survey was collected from 301 employees working for 21 higher education institutions in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and the structural equation was analyzed by using Smart PLS-SEM. The results establish that OCB components such as helping, sportsmanship, loyalty, individual initiative, compliance, civic virtue, and self-development influence organizational commitment. Furthermore, “helping” demonstrated the most substantial effect on organizational commitment. The research also found a difference in organizational commitment between groups of respondents based on age and educational level. However, the research was restricted to Ho Chi Minh City universities and future research could broaden the sample size to vocational colleges as well as other Asian contexts. Theoretical contributions, practical implications, and future research directions are discussed.
... Besides, several authors acknowledged that training is the effective means of acquiring skills, enriching knowledge and improving behaviour and attitude to perform well (Goldstein, 1980;Tannenbaum and Yukl, 1992;Luntley, 2008;Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009;Latham, 2011;Noe and Kodwani, 2018;Swanson et al., 2001). This perspective appears to reflect the assumptions of Becker's (1964Becker's ( , 1993 theory of human capital, which considers training as a sort of investment that contributes to great individual output. These views are congruent with the findings of existing studies (Moreno-L opez et al., 2022;Arwab et al., 2022;Chang et al., 2011), which demonstrate that training initiatives represent an investment aiming to enrich skills of employees rather than a cost. ...
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Purpose-The purpose of this study is to analyse the perception of employees towards training and also examine the mediation effect of employee engagement between training and task performance. Design/methodology/approach-An integrated model has been developed highlighting the relationship of the motivation for training and support for training and their implications on task performance through the mediating role of employee engagement. Using the sample of 397, structural equation modelling has been used with the help of SPSS and AMOS to validate the hypothesized relationship and evaluate the responses of employees working in travel agencies operating in Delhi (capital), India. Findings-The findings of this study demonstrated a positively significant relationship between training and task performance of employees in the tourism and hospitality industry. Simultaneously, employee engagement positively mediates the relationship between training and task performance directly and indirectly. This study goes over the ramifications of the findings and offers some suggestions for practical implementations. Practical implications-The findings of this study can be used by managers and HR professionals to organize exclusive training programs for improving employees' performance based on the dimensions used in this study. This study also suggests that training program enhances employee engagement in organizational activities which leads to build up team work and overall organizational as well as individual performance. Originality/value-This study also introduces a conceptual model and theoretical framework that provide a significant contribution to the training and task performance of employees. This study provides a strong theoretical foundation by incorporating the social exchange theory to confirm the role of employee engagement in performance. Further, this novel piece of research explores the relationship between training and task performance with employee engagement as a mediator, especially in the Indian tourism and hospitality industry.
... To assist in the analysis and interpretation of the findings, the researcher used human capital theory and the workplace learning interrelationships model as the conceptual framework. The human capital theory explains how an investment in a student's skill development provides advantages for the individual, organization, and community (Chavis, 2017;Becker, 1975). Sweetland (1996) and Mincer (1989) noted that human capital theory explains the direct correlation between economic growth, education, and skill development while emphasizing how human capital rises with economic development. ...
... This study was anchored on the principle of human capital theory. The human capital theory according to Schultz (1961) and Becker (1964) maintains that education increases individuals' productivity which results in enhanced job performance. Accordingly, education provides marketable skills and abilities relevant to job performance through formal training. ...
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The study was conducted to ascertain the electrical measurement and control skills needed for manpower development in Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used in the study whose sample is composed of 82 subjects (24 electrical graduates and 58 supervisors). One research question guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire by the researchers titled 'Electrical Measurement and Control Skills for Development Questionnaire (EMCSDQ)'. EMCSDQ was designed on a 5-point Likert Scale. Three experts validated the instrument whose reliability was ascertained via Cronbach's Alpha which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.83. A total of 89 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents by the researchers and one other research assistant. From the total questionnaire distributed, only 82 (representing 92.1%) was recovered and used for data analysis. Mean was used to answer the research question and standard deviation was used determine the closeness and homogeneity in the responses of the respondents. The finding of the study revealed that electrical measurement and control skills of instrument calibration, system servicing, troubleshooting and maintenance, electronic system simulation among others are needed for manpower development. Consequently, it was recommended among others that the government and polytechnic administrators should ensure adequate provision of training facilities in polytechnics workshops and laboratories; effective students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES); engage experienced lecturers and instructors in polytechnics for quality manpower development of graduates.
... Although the above has focused on firm-external resources, innovation is similarly affected by firm-internal characteristics such as the level of R&D and physical capital investments (Love and Roper 2015;Eisenhardt and Martin 2000;Naz, Niebuhr, and Peters 2015). Research has further pointed to the pivotal role of the general human capital that is embodied in a firm's employees and determined by their education (Naz, Niebuhr, and Peters 2015), and to the specific human capital that is built through experience (Becker 1993;Capozza and Divella 2019). Regarding the former, more highly educated employees are better capable of knowledge work requiring the recognition, assimilation, and utilisation of disparate types of information -i.e. they have a higher absorptive capacity (ibid.; Cohen and Levinthal 1990). ...
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It is well-established that firms leverage both internal and external resources for their innovation activities. Even though the role of agglomeration economies in shaping the external resources available to firms has been particularly well-studied it is still unclear whether it is diversity or specialisation within agglomerations that drives firm innovativeness. We suggest that both do but that their relations with firm innovativeness are moderated by managerial industry experience. Using data from four South-East Asian economies we find that managers with more industry experience are better able to make the most of where they are, leveraging the opportunities afforded by their geographic environment. This finding is most pronounced in rural areas where firms with inexperienced managers almost never innovate, whereas half of the firms with experienced managers do. This suggests that future agglomeration research should be attentive to firm-level idiosyncrasies.
... We chose to focus on articles and reviews as document types. (Jensen & Meckling, 1976;Stiglitz & Weiss, 1981) -Resource-based View Theory (Barney, 1991) and Resource Dependence Theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978) -Human Capital Theory (Becker, 1964(Becker, , 1975 Public offerings ...
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Plain English Summary In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on entrepreneurial ventures’ valuation drivers and their underlying theoretical lenses, highlighting how and why they vary along firms’ life cycle. The valuation of entrepreneurial ventures is a challenging task for practitioners and a relevant issue that attracts the attention of scholars in entrepreneurship, finance, management, and economics. The literature on the topic is highly fragmented. Indeed, the context in which venture valuations are observed (e.g., in private deals or public offerings) differs across different financial milestones. The introduction of new digital financing channels (e.g., crowdfunding, initial coin offerings) and the increased diversity in the sequence of financial milestones that ventures go through further challenge our understanding of valuation drivers. This study is primarily aimed at scholars, offering them a map to create order in what we know about the drivers of entrepreneurial venture valuations and indicating promising avenues for future research.
... The application of the human capital theory becomes appropriate in this research because human capital theory suggests that education or training raises the productivity of workers by imparting useful knowledge and skills, hence raising workers' future income by increasing their lifetime earnings (Becker, 1994). Human capital can be viewed in general terms, such as the ability to read and write, or in specific terms, such as the acquisition of a particular skill with a limited industrial application. ...
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All organizations both private and public are set up to achieve certain aims and objectives and to do so within minimum cost and available resources used towards the achievement of the goals. Since some years Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin has been witnessing low quality staff performances. On the part of the academic staff, there was poor research knowledge, poor teaching skills, lack of opportunity to develop themselves and poor interpersonal relationship with the students and co-staff. For the non-academic staff, their low service delivery is evident from poor knowledge of keeping record and filling system not adequately certificated, poor minutes writing, leaking of official secret, late work and inability to cope with the new technology. Realizing these problems, the Management of the Kwara State Polytechnic, constituted the Staff Orientation and Development Committees (SODC) to address the identified problems. The study investigated the level of accessibility of staff to the training programmes designed by the Kwara State Polytechnic Management and appraised the impacts of training by the Kwara State Polytechnic on staff efficiency and service delivery. Source of data were primary and secondary sources. The primary source consisted of questionnaire while secondary source were gathered from journals and published books related to the field of study. Finding of the study revealed that majority of staff are well informed and aware of the existence of the training programmes in Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. The research recommended that Training of staff should not be concentrated on a few staff member who have served the organization for more than ten years. Training should be extended to even the staffs who have served for not less than two years if such staff is qualified.
... The causal effects of specific variables on dropout probability have been extensively studied in economics in order to devise interventions to reduce it (Behrman et al., 2014). The human capital theory is used to examine the determinants of dropout, in which the decision to remain in or dropout of the school system is made by weighing the marginal costs of continuing to invest in education against the marginal expected benefits of getting more schooling (Becker, 2009). This decision can be explained by a range of individual, family, school, and community-related factors like family's income and wealth, school quality, and labor market conditions which shape its costs and benefits (Adelman et al., 2018). ...
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In many education systems around the world, the problem of school dropout is widespread. Identifying students at a higher risk of dropping out is crucial in developing settings, where the cost of preventive interventions is a major concern. By using individual-level administrative data on school enrollment in rural Antioquia, Colombia, I apply supervised machine learning methods to predict school dropout. Using these predictions as a targeting strategy to identify students at risk of dropping out is then examined for the intervention "En Bici a la Escuela". Using data-driven targeting based on the dropout probability can save money in the long run because machine learning is more effective at detecting false positives than other commonly used methods of targeting.
... This study focused on determining if there is a positive correlation between Based on this, the researcher proposed a hypothesis: Entrepreneurship education is seen as a strong factor for the formation of entrepreneurship motivation. Two theoretical concepts that have been developed that support this relationship are the Theories of Human Capital (Becker, 1964); and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Bae et al, 2014). Human Capital Theory states that human capital represents the skills and knowledge acquired by individuals through investment in schools, training in the workplace, and other types of experience. ...
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This research aims to review the direct and indirect effect of entrepreneurship education in family towards attitudes of entrepreneurship and to explain the direct and indirect effect of entrepreneurship education in family and also attitudes of entrepreneurship toward entrepreneurship motivation for the young generation on small scale family businesses in Makassar city. This research is explanatory research. There are 1.267 small scale family businesses as the population, while only 130 small scale family businesses as the sample in this research, in considerate the businesses have been running for at least 2 generations. The result of this research showed that entrepreneurship education has significant effect toward attitudes of entrepreneurship and attitudes of entrepreneurship has significant effect toward entrepreneurship motivation. Based on path analysis, the result showed entrepreneurship education has significant effect toward entrepreneurship motivation through mediating of attitudes of entrepreneurship
... The notion of human capital -as developed by Schultz (1961) and elaborated by Becker (1964) -can be considered to refer to the sum total of resources that an individual accumulates in various ways to secure future monetary and nonmonetary returns (Nimmi et al., 2021). This notion assumes that people invest in themselves to enhance their value, hence developing their employment prospects (Cai, 2013) and improving their position in the labour market (Shivoro et al., 2019). ...
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This study investigates the relationship between career development learning (CDL) and students’ perceived employability (SPE) with the mediating role of human capital. Using a quantitative method based on structured questionnaires to collect data from 512 Vietnamese students before starting their internship at businesses and 322 of them after 4 months, the results of the partial least square Structural Equational Model analysis showed that CDL positively affects SPE over time. Besides, the study explored the mediating effect of human capital in the relationship between CDL and SPE. In particular, scholastic capital and cultural capital play mediating roles while social capital failed to be in the relationship between CDL and SPE. This study is expected to enrich current literature on students’ employability and human capital theory. From practical aspects, the findings of this work can be of benefit to higher education institutions in supporting their students to enhance their employability in labour market.
... Meanwhile, human capital theory (Becker, 1964) suggested that long-tenured workers are better performers because they have accumulated more job-related knowledge over the course of their careers. Individuals can accumulate human capital through both formal education and work experience (Meyer, Griffith & Daugherty, 2004;Singer & Bruhns, 1991;Strober, 1990). ...
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Düzenleyici-aracı modelin test edildiği bu araştırmada, lider-üye etkileşiminin (LÜE) kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla yenilikçi iş davranışı (YİD) üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinin çalışanların sektör deneyimine bağlı olacağını varsayan modelin test edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, Denizli ilinin organize sanayi bölgesinde faaliyet gösteren tekstil işletmelerinde çalışan 302 kişi üzerinde alan araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Alan araştırması sırasında kolayda ve kartopu örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Ayrıca, sosyal izolasyon ve sosyal mesafe kuralları gereği üçüncü kişilerle yakın temastan kaçınılmış, soru cevap şeklinde yüz yüze anket yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Uygulanan anketlerde, bu araştırma kapsamında geliştirilen iki soruya yanıt aramıştır. Bunlar; (1) Tekstil çalışanlarının sahip olduğu LÜE’nin YİD üzerindeki etkisinde kariyer tatmininin aracı rolü var mıdır? (2) Tekstil çalışanlarının sahip olduğu sektör deneyimleri, LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki etkisini nasıl düzenlemektedir? Araştırma sonucunda ilk olarak, LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinin anlamlı olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Diğer bir deyişle, çalışanların liderleri ile olan etkileşiminin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD’nı artırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu sonuç, çalışanın lideri ile olan olumlu etkileşimi arttıkça, kariyer tatmininin de artacağını ve dolaylı olarak YİD sergileyeceğini ifade etmektedir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bir diğer önemli sonuç ise, LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki etkisinde sektör deneyiminin düzenleyici rol oynamasıdır. Bu sonuç, yüksek sektör deneyimine sahip çalışanların düşük olanlara kıyasla kariyerlerinden daha az tatmin olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca bu sonuç LÜE’nin kariyer tatmini aracılığıyla YİD üzerindeki olumlu etkisinin yüksek sektör deneyimine sahip çalışanlarda daha düşük olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Elde edilen söz konusu bulgular doğrutusunda araştırmanın amacına ulaştığı düşünülmektedir.
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International Student Mobility (ISM) has received a lot of attention in the literature on international migration. However, most of the studies assume that investment in skills and knowledge by international students is guided by economic motivations only. Importantly, with an increase in the proportion of international student mobility in total mobility, the students’ motivations have become more complex. Different theoretical approaches across disciplines have been logically extended to study the mobility motivations of international students. Most of the existing approaches do not emphasise the non-economic aspects of motivation and thus, do not provide a holistic understanding of ISM. This paper proposes an augmented human capital framework that incorporates the non-economic motivations of international students through the inclusion of psychic gains and the acquired stocks of personal and social capital.
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In the past, Human Resource Management (HRM) departments suffered from some major pitfalls regarding transgender employees who underwent gender reassignment surgeries. But, modern-day workplaces have realised the importance of including individuals with alternate gender identities to project an image of inclusion and accommodation towards diversity. This paper seeks to study transgender employees transitioning at work and how HRM can respond to the situations. The paper also looks at The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 (Act) which was made effective from 10 January 2020, and a few provisions of the Act that employers and HR managers must take notice of. Also, the paper touches upon Tata Steel in India which rolled out its new HR policy in 2019 that enables its LGBTQ employees to avail of certain benefits.
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Este artigo visa estudar como é feita a comunicação, aos stakeholders, acerca da formação continuada do capital humano dos agentes econômico. Isso resulta da responsabilidade social destes agentes, a qual faz parte do atual e almejado conceito de sustentabilidade corporativa, contribuindo, dessa forma, com o desenvolvimento desses profissionais e da região em que atuam. Para tanto, foram utilizados os pressupostos teóricos da Sustentabilidade Empresarial, da Comunicação Dirigida, a partir do estudo da ferramenta Relatório Anual, e da Teoria do Capital Humano. Para se empreender este trabalho, foram selecionadas quatro empresas de capital aberto, ou seja, todas são Sociedades Anônimas: Banco do Brasil, Braskem, M. Dias Branco e Lojas Renner. Observou- se, de forma comparativa, como foi empreendida a divulgação dos dados, nos referidos relatórios do exercício de 2014, acerca da formação desse capital e se a corporação estudada entende e verbaliza essa capacitação como desenvolvimento social.
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Children Bound to Labor (2009) revealed the ubiquity and idiosyncratic nature of pauper apprenticeship across the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century United States. Despite local and regional differences, pauper apprenticeship served the three related purposes of poor relief, social control, and training for later-life economic independence. Most existing studies focus on whether and to what extent the system achieved the first two objectives. Less is known about later-life outcomes of pauper apprentices. This chapter offers insights into the system’s contribution to the third objective by linking more than 2700 young males apprenticed by family members and by poor relief administrators in Maryland between 1820 and 1860 to the federal censuses of 1860 and 1870. Compared to boys apprenticed by family members, pauper apprentices were indentured at younger ages, but they were otherwise promised similar training, education, and freedom dues during their apprenticeships. In later life, however, pauper apprentices were less likely to be literate and conditional on marriage had fewer children. There were small differences in skilled employment, wealth, and mobility. A second well-documented feature of pauper apprenticeship was its racialized implementation. Maryland’s poor blacks worked in less skilled occupations, were less literate, and amassed notably less wealth. If the system is to be judged by equitable treatment and sufficient training for later-life economic independence, it is not clear that the system succeeded. It took poor black children off the public dole but did not prepare them for more than scraping by in later life.
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This chapter reports a qualitative study on the contributors to the success of 16 international graduates of Australian universities in securing full-time employment in Australia after graduation. Tomlinson (2017) employability capital framework was adopted as the theoretical framework for the study. This research shows that five employability capitals (human capital, social capital, cultural capital, psychological capital, identity capital) suggested by (Tomlinson, 2017) were closely correlated and collectively contributed to participants’ employment outcomes. The results indicate that job seekers’ ability to demonstrate such types of employability capital to employers is vital for successful job applications. This chapter discusses some implications for Australian universities and international students regarding enhancing the latter’s career prospects.
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The labor market is a volatile environment that supports economic activity though, it is directly affected by shifts in economic activity through the channels of labor supply and labor demand. These shifts are observable due to the changes in the relative demand for the occupations. Thus, the changes observed within these two channels can provide important information about the requirements within the labor market. This chapter analyzes the effects of the two major crises (2010, 2020) on the labor market by focusing on the conditions that impact the labor market. Furthermore, the Greek Labor market is being examined in terms of educational requirements for the period 2010–2025. The analysis elaborates on the need for reskilling and upskilling of the workforce as well as on the policy proposals that incorporate training and lifelong learning programs for the workforce.KeywordsPolarization phenomenonSkill shortagesSkill surplusesSkill-mismatchJob transitionsJob pivotsJob familiesLifelong learning
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The study evaluates the quality of human capital on the basis of the Eurostat data. There was also prepared a short bibliography review of the previous research which indicates various definitions of the term human capital. To evaluate its quality in selected EU countries. There was used cluster analysis – the k-medoid method. The analysis was performed for three periods: 2008, 2011 and 2014. The selected states were divided into 4 clusters, and Norway constitute a single-element group. In the other cases, it may be stated that the quality of capital may be determined through the joint economic past or historical traditions.
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This study explores how bonding contracts improve employee attraction and retention. These bonds are payment schemes tied to employment duration, such as the vesting of pensions and stock options. This study presents an employee turnover model in which only the worker knows their taste for their current job. This taste gives the current employer monopsonistic power, resulting in deadweight loss from excessive turnover. Bonding contracts serve as a commitment device for future wages and eliminate such deadweight loss, but only when the roles of bondholders and wage setters are separate. Firms that do this are more competitive to new hires. This model offers several empirical findings regarding a variety of common bonding practices.
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This chapter shows how human capital is related to the economic structure of a society, and how both usually differ from a country to another. Initially, a basic record of contemporary human capital theory is briefly executed. The observed differences in the accumulation of human capital at both national and international levels are noted and it is shown how different management policies are going to result in different results in terms of economic structure. At the same time, rapid technological change today, while reinforcing the importance of human capital, raises the question of what proper structure it should take. What are the required knowledge and skills today? To answer this question, this chapter goes deeper into the concept of human capital based on the different fields of application it may have (from the broadest to the narrowest: general, industry, professional, and firm level). Synthesizing these distinctions, task-specific human capital is established, through which the productive structure can be connected with the structure of human capital. Finally, the links between economic development and human capital are presented. Contrary to theorizing how the accumulation of the latter to lead to the former, we focus on how the refiguration of production structures affects human capital.KeywordsHuman CapitalDevelopment TheoryGrowthStructural TransformationLabor TasksOccupational Information
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This study documents the gender salary gap in the auditing profession and explains its development. Using Swedish administrative data from 2007 to 2015 for all Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), I find that the auditing profession’s overall gender salary gap has substantially narrowed during this period, and more female auditors have moved up to the top earnings group, reducing the wide salary gap at the top of the income distribution. Further analysis shows that the increase in female auditors’ client portfolio size accounts for approximately half of the decrease in the total salary gap. I also find evidence that the rise in female leadership in the Big Six firms is positively associated with the increase in female auditors’ client portfolio size. This effect is more pronounced in the middle and bottom half of firms’ hierarchy, suggesting that female representation at the top of a firm’s hierarchy has spillover benefits for lower-ranked female auditors. The implications of this study may help audit firms narrow their gender gaps and cope better with the overall talent challenges of the auditing industry.
Article
The paper develops a two-sector full employment general equilibrium model with endogenous schooling decisions. It aims to evaluate the effects of educational demand management policies on gender inequality in schooling and wage inequality. The results point towards the role of social norms in shaping parental discrimination against girls’ education, which accentuates gender gap in schooling due to gender-neutral education subsidy and rise in household income induced by foreign capital inflow. The two policies are favourable for gender wage gap if the agricultural sector is more female labour intensive than the manufacturing sector and returns to schooling are considerably higher for women than men. However, gender targeted education subsidy policies are in general beneficial with respect to both gendered schooling and wages. The paper contributes to the literature by identifying the role of factor intensity conditions and gender differentiated returns to education on the gendered schooling and labour market outcomes of demand side interventions in education. It also provides theoretical explanations to diverse impacts of these policies and suggests appropriate policy recommendations.
Conference Paper
Understanding the concept of Human Capital is essential to introduce the new paradigm of modernizing Bulgarian economy and industrial landscape. In general, Bulgarian managerial cultural is based on the concept and mechanics of human resources management, presented in Bulgarian institutions of higher education in the form of academic-degree programs of Human Resources Management, as it is the case with the University of Plovdiv. The aim of the present studyis to demonstrate that the concept of academic teaching and design of new managerial and entrepreneurial culture shall be shifted from human resources management to human capital management. The object of the study is expectations and economic reasoning of students in the Master Program “Human Resources Management” at the University of Plovdiv to occupy and career-path in managerial jobs in both public, and private sectors of the Bulgarian economy. The focus is students’ comprehensive rationale and exhaustive computations, reflected in their capstone coursework in the “Human Capital Management” academic course I teach in this Master Program for the period 2016-2020. The collected data are processed with IBM SPSS Statistics 19 software. The results show that future Bulgarian managerial graduates have brave expectations for their returns on Bulgarian labor market, conditioned it is an integral part of the EU labor market.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of recent debates about the financialization of capitalism and examines the implications of financialization for critical social theory, broadly understood. Financialization refers to the increasing importance of financial products, actors, and markets in contemporary society. The chapter begins with a discussion of the financialization of capitalism. It then turns to explore how the predominance of finance within capitalism alters social and political relationships throughout society. The chapter first discusses the financialization of the household and the rise of an asset-based welfare system, which reveal the disparate gendered implications of financialization, and then the historical role of race in structuring the development of finance and the racialized implications of financialization, especially in the context of the United States. The chapter then examines financialization from the perspective of theories of culture and subjectivity. The last portions of the chapter turn to the political consequences of finance: for democracy and the state, and then for ecological politics and the possibilities of averting catastrophic climate change. In both cases, the financialization of capitalism accelerates the forces hollowing out contemporary democracy and generating ecological crises. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of political alternatives to the current organization of financialized capitalism as well as directions for future research.KeywordsFinanceFinancializationCapitalismFinancialization of everyday lifeGenderRaceAsset-based welfareDemocracyClimate change
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The objective of this paper is to identify gender inequality indicators that deteriorate monetary welfare in Africa over the period 2002-2018, based on data from the World Bank, the IMF and the African Development Bank. To this end, we determined the different indicators of gender inequality that deteriorate monetary welfare in terms of income in Africa from a dynamic panel estimated by the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). It is found that the gender inequalities that worsen monetary well-being in terms of income are inequalities in health, education, wages, economic participation, vulnerability to employment, employability and the Kaufman indicators. It is therefore incumbent on African states to address this gender inequality problem which is significantly and negatively affecting the development of this region of the world. Résumé L'objectif de cet article est d'identifier les indicateurs d'inégalité de genre qui deteriorent le bien-être monetaire en Afrique sur la période 2002-2018, en se basant sur les données de la Banque mondiale, du FMI et de la BAD. A cette fin, nous avons déterminé les differents indicateurs d'inégalité de genre qui détériorent le bien-être monétaire en termes de revenu en Afrique à partir d'un panel dynamique estimé par la Méthode des moments généralisées (GMM). Il apparaît alors que les inégalités de genre qui détériorent le bien-être monétaire en termes de revenus sont les inégalités en matière de santé, d'éducation, de salaires, de participation économique, de vulnérabilité à l'emploi, d'employabilité et les indicateurs de Kaufman. Il incombe donc aux États africains de corriger ce problème d'inégalité entre les sexes qui affecte négativement et de manière significative le développement de cette région du monde.
Article
The main purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the role of human capital on the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows toward ECOWAS countries (Economic Community of West African States). FDI is seen as one of the most important tools that promote economic growth, employment, technology transfer and currencies’ inflows in a country. In many African countries, despite reforms implemented, FDI inflows continue to be relatively low. Many studies evaluating the main determinants of FDI in African countries have revealed that one of the most important determinants is human capital. However, in many African countries, human capital is among the least developed in the world. Therefore, an empirical analysis is conducted to investigate the role of human capital in the inflows of FDI of ECOWAS countries. For this purpose, a panel data is used for the fourteen members of ECOWAS countries over the period 1991-2015 where human capital is proxied by both adult literacy rate and degree of freedom. The empirical findings revealed that the degree of freedom is the main proxy for the human capital while the adult literacy rate is not statistically significant.
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The link between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and school-age children's educational success has been well documented. This study, however, explains the link between parental SES and children's future employment prospects in greater detail. It reviews the extant literature and develops a conceptual framework. As children's future employment prospects represent a multi-faceted and complicated issue, parental SES outcome (education) can be used as a mediating factor between parental SES and children's future employment prospects. This study argues that the variations in children's educational success can constrain or enable children's future employment prospects. The current study underscores that parental SES appears to influence children's educational success, which subsequently impacts their future employment prospects. The implications of the study and directions for future research are discussed.
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