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Human Capital. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education

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... El capital humano, dentro del estudio del emprendimiento, toma en cuenta el conocimiento como el indicador principal, sin embargo, los autores seminales que han definido esta última variable (Becker, 1983;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Mincer, 1984), explican que este se compone de distintas dimensiones que capturan la acumulación de conocimiento, la movilidad de los individuos, su integridad, y como estos se integran en el mercado laboral de forma eficiente (Becker, 1983;Mincer, 1984Mincer, , 1989. Es así como no solo se debe buscar medir una dimensión, si no que, por su naturaleza, se deben de conformar indicadores lo más robustos posibles para representar a esta variable en las investigaciones empíricas (Valdés Pasarón et al., 2018) Considerando al capital humano como un constructo multidimensional, permite capturarlo con las siguientes características: i) acumulación, que se identifica con indicadores del nivel de conocimiento de la población; ii) aprovechamiento, relacionado con el nivel de empleo; iii) integridad, medida como la inversión que hacen los individuos para asegurar su bienestar futuro o su acceso al sistema de salud (Becker, 1983;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Mincer, 1989). ...
... El capital humano, dentro del estudio del emprendimiento, toma en cuenta el conocimiento como el indicador principal, sin embargo, los autores seminales que han definido esta última variable (Becker, 1983;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Mincer, 1984), explican que este se compone de distintas dimensiones que capturan la acumulación de conocimiento, la movilidad de los individuos, su integridad, y como estos se integran en el mercado laboral de forma eficiente (Becker, 1983;Mincer, 1984Mincer, , 1989. Es así como no solo se debe buscar medir una dimensión, si no que, por su naturaleza, se deben de conformar indicadores lo más robustos posibles para representar a esta variable en las investigaciones empíricas (Valdés Pasarón et al., 2018) Considerando al capital humano como un constructo multidimensional, permite capturarlo con las siguientes características: i) acumulación, que se identifica con indicadores del nivel de conocimiento de la población; ii) aprovechamiento, relacionado con el nivel de empleo; iii) integridad, medida como la inversión que hacen los individuos para asegurar su bienestar futuro o su acceso al sistema de salud (Becker, 1983;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Mincer, 1989). ...
... El capital humano, dentro del estudio del emprendimiento, toma en cuenta el conocimiento como el indicador principal, sin embargo, los autores seminales que han definido esta última variable (Becker, 1983;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Mincer, 1984), explican que este se compone de distintas dimensiones que capturan la acumulación de conocimiento, la movilidad de los individuos, su integridad, y como estos se integran en el mercado laboral de forma eficiente (Becker, 1983;Mincer, 1984Mincer, , 1989. Es así como no solo se debe buscar medir una dimensión, si no que, por su naturaleza, se deben de conformar indicadores lo más robustos posibles para representar a esta variable en las investigaciones empíricas (Valdés Pasarón et al., 2018) Considerando al capital humano como un constructo multidimensional, permite capturarlo con las siguientes características: i) acumulación, que se identifica con indicadores del nivel de conocimiento de la población; ii) aprovechamiento, relacionado con el nivel de empleo; iii) integridad, medida como la inversión que hacen los individuos para asegurar su bienestar futuro o su acceso al sistema de salud (Becker, 1983;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Mincer, 1989). Es así, que se pretende estudiar el efecto de este constructo sobre el emprendimiento en sectores intensivos en conocimiento, diferenciando este trabajo de la literatura que han estudiado cada una de las dimensiones por separado (Benos & Karagiannis, 2016;Di Maria & Stryszowski, 2009;Hatak & Zhou, 2021). ...
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El capital humano es un elemento clave para el crecimiento económico, ya que permite generar emprendimientos, principalmente en sectores intensivos en conocimientos, que generan oportunidades en el territorio. En esta investigación se analiza el efecto del capital humano en el emprendimiento y el crecimiento económico en los municipios mexicanos. Aplicando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales encontramos que el capital humano ejerce un efecto positivo en el emprendimiento y el crecimiento económico nominal, así como un efecto positivo del emprendimiento sobre el crecimiento económico nominal, destacando que el camino al desarrollo está determinado por la escolaridad, la salud y la empleabilidad de los mexicanos.
... Human capital accumulation via education facilitates the adoption and development of sustainable technologies that can reduce the extent of resource degradation. Human capital is a composite of skills accumulated by workers through learning by doing or education (Becker 1964). ...
... It is often predicted by human capital theory that investment in education has a positive impact on cognitive and other skills. These, in turn, supplement the productivity of labor (Becker 1964, Schultz 1961. The adult agents of generation t-1 are endowed with a unit time endowment, which she/ he devotes entirely to work and earns income (Y t-1 ); a part of this income, that is, ℰ Y t-1 , is transferred to their child or young agent of period t-1. ...
... It is often predicted by hu has a positive impact on cognitive and other skills. Th (Becker 1964, Schultz 1961. The adult agents of endowment, which she/he devotes entirely to work an is, ℰ −1, is transferred to their child or young agent o We assume that the initial endowment of natural resou 1 and aggregate economy-wide endowment is distribu t-1. ...
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We develop an economic model to derive the conditions under which individuals will invest in human capital and move on to adopt sustainable technology instead of natural resource-intensive technology. For this purpose, we extend the overlapping generation model developed by Ikefuji & Horii as our analytical framework. Unlike Ikefuji & Horii who developed an overlapping generation model (OLG) in the context of local pollution, the authors adopted it in the context of renewable natural resources. To do this, we have introduced the production sector that relies on natural resource-intensive technology. This research extends beyond the Ikefuji & Horii model by assuming that an individual derives utility by investing in his child’s education apart from utility derived from consumption when young and adult. Human capital accumulation enables individuals to participate in human capital-intensive production, which produces output through sustainable production technology. As the main result of our theoretical analysis, we find that more educated individual is less dependent on the natural resource endowment for earning their income. We also find that sustainable consumption growth requires that individuals assign a certain positive weight to investment in their child’s education. A long-run steady-state equilibrium level of human capital accumulation is higher and higher than the weight assigned by the parents to the child’s education. In this overlapping generation’s economy, sustainable consumption growth requires that individuals assign a certain weight or give some importance to human capital accumulation. This follows from the fact that the long-run steady-state value of the income earned by an individual depends positively on the expenditure on education.
... The used category "human capital" was introduced into the practice of management in the latter half of the 20th century. The theory of human capital was developed by Nobel Prize winners T. Schultz (1979) [1] and G. Becker (1962) [2]. Speaking about the formation of human capital, it is worth saying that the concept itself is based on the theory of human investment and the theory of human capital production. ...
... According to this approach, investments in education are oriented to obtaining economic benefits in the future. This theory of human capital was supported by A. Smith [3], G. Becker [2], A. Marshall [4]. A. Smith defined human capital as "knowledge, skills and abilities" that are "owned by the worker" [3]. G. Becker argued: "human capital is everyone's stock of knowledge, skills, motivations" [2]. ...
... This theory of human capital was supported by A. Smith [3], G. Becker [2], A. Marshall [4]. A. Smith defined human capital as "knowledge, skills and abilities" that are "owned by the worker" [3]. G. Becker argued: "human capital is everyone's stock of knowledge, skills, motivations" [2]. K.A. Erfrut considered human capital as "an accumulated, capitalized stock of personal qualities, the realization of which leads to the receipt of both economic and non-economic income in productive and non-productive life activity of a person" [5], which was formed by investment. ...
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Digital technologies provide unlimited access to information resources, contribute to the formation of skills in demand in the modern labor market. They also create new opportunities for entrepreneurship and business. All this is impossible without human participation. In this article we discuss the impact of digital educational technologies on the formation of human capital. In our opinion, digital educational technologies play a significant role in the development and growth of the individual, society and the economy as a whole. They make it possible to improve access to education, increase quality and efficiency, and adapt learning materials and methods to the individual needs of the learner. Digital education is becoming more and more popular every year, and new trends are emerging to shape its development.
... In 2001, the OECD (2001) also noted that human capital comprises the knowledge, skills, competencies, and attributes sustained in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic well-being. However, Becker (1992) argued that education and training are the most critical investments in human capital, noting that investment of human capital is one of the most significant ways to bring people with low incomes to decent levels of income and health. Despite their differences, the views of Johnson (1960), Schultz (1961), and Becker (1992) are essentially quite similar. ...
... However, Becker (1992) argued that education and training are the most critical investments in human capital, noting that investment of human capital is one of the most significant ways to bring people with low incomes to decent levels of income and health. Despite their differences, the views of Johnson (1960), Schultz (1961), and Becker (1992) are essentially quite similar. They mainly focused on the value of human capital in the market as it increases corporate profits and general well-being (Dae-Bong, 2009). ...
... It is difficult to find a complete approach to measurement (Han et al., 2008). Many researchers and organizations measure human capital using different indicators (Afiouni, 2014), for example, formal education (Schultz, 1961;Becker, 1992;Braun and Aßheuer, 2011;Baron, 2011), vocational training (Unger et al., 2011), individual skills and knowledge (OECD, 2001;Bozbura et al., 2007;Santos-Rodrigues et al., 2010), health (Bloom and Canning, 2003;WEF, 2013), leadership ability (Paul et al., 2012), and job experiences (Baron, 2011;Gates and Langevin, 2010). ...
... Similarly, Cunha and Heckman (2007) and Heckman et al. (2006) demonstrated that individuals attain non-cognitive skills best through early education interventions and continuous competence growth programs during their early adolescent years. According to human capital theory, individuals that have developed HCAs are more likely to achieve better performance outcomes and success either as employees or self-employed individuals (Becker, 1964;Mincer, 1958). Likewise, entrepreneurs are poised to achieve better productivity and, consequently, higher success with developed HCA. ...
... Taking the domain-speci c view of human capital theory, the relationship between EEPs as human capital investments and HCAs as their learning outcomes represents only the rst part of the human capital theory model. In fact, Becker (1964) and Mincer (1958) contend that education is a human capital investment that should positively affect the evolution of HCAs. Thus, EEPs are a rather ef cient way of improving entrepreneurship-related HCAs (Martin et al., 2013), especially if the EEPs in question use experiential pedagogical methods (Huber et al., 2014;Unger et al., 2011), where the pupils develop HCAs by experiencing a simulation of entrepreneurship (Gibb, 2002). ...
... Regarding the human capital factors, the human capital theory of labor productivity finds employee training, the level of education, managerial experience, and Research and Development (R & D) as principal drivers of firm performance (Schultz, 1961;Becker, 1964;Mincer, 1974). Various empirical studies also support the theoretical findings. ...
... Theoretically, this study borrows heavily from the neoclassical production function which specifies labor, capital, and technological progress as crucial determinants of productivity (see Cobb and Douglas, 1928). This neoclassical theory of production is blended with the human capital theory which attributes productivity growth to human capital factors namely education level, managers' experience, formal training, and R & D (see Schultz, 1961;Becker, 1964;Mincer, 1974). In the model derivation, we first capture our main variables of interest which are the investment climate factors, and then augment them with the theoretically determined indicators of firm performance. ...
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The productivity of Kenyan manufacturing firms is way lower than that of many developed economies and has generally exhibited a consistent decline over the last decade. While this productivity trend has largely been attributed to the presence of a high distortionary institutional and business regulatory environment, existing studies on the role of the investment climate in determining firm performance are ostensibly scanty. This study, thus, employed the World Bank panel enterprise data for the period 2007-2013- 2018 in assessing whether investment climate mattered for firm performance in Kenyan manufacturing firms. More particularly, the study sought to establish the role of the court system and property rights ownership in determining firm performance; a feat that remains unexplored in the Kenyan context. The random effects model was estimated while controlling for the year, industry, and firm-specific control variables. The findings revealed that while court inefficiencies significantly impeded labor productivity, property rights ownership significantly increased productivity. Further, human capital positively determines labor productivity. Concerning governance and institutional factors, ISO-certified firms were found to be significantly more productive. Conversely, business licenses and permits constrain firm productivity. Therefore, to ensure unrelenting firm productivity, speedy and just delivery of court rulings on firm-related matters is critical. Secondly, the acquisition of patents relating to product or process innovation by firms enhances product competitiveness. Thirdly, manufacturing firms should invest more in human capital. Finally, the imposition of favorable business licenses and permits by the governments globally coupled with the ISO Certification requirement by firms is integral in optimizing labor productivity.
... Nevertheless, the relationship between education level and perceived employability can be explained by the human capital theory (Becker, 1993), which suggests that the qualifications, knowledge, skills, and experience of a person would increase their gains or productivity. Education and the development of skills would represent an investment in human capital, which would increase the perception of employability in workers (Wittekind et al., 2010). ...
... The influence that educational level might have on perceived employability can be explained through the human capital theory (Becker, 1993), which suggests that the qualifications, knowledge, skills, and experience of a person would increase their gains or their productivity, which in times of uncertainty could acquire a fundamental value for that person. This could explain the present results. ...
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This article examines the relationship between uncertainty against Industry 4.0 and job insecurity. Additionally, it explores the moderating role of perceived employability, considering the age and education level of employees. We carried out a study on a sample of 224 Chilean workers. Correlational statistical analysis and a multiple regression analysis were conducted to establish the moderation relationship between the intervening variables. Results support the role of uncertainty against Industry 4.0 as a predictor of quantitative (i.e., risk of job loss) but not qualitative job insecurity (i.e., risk of losing valued job features). Further, we found evidence for the importance of the education level of workers in the previously posed relationship. These findings have theoretical and practical implications given that the higher the education level of the worker, the higher their perceived employability, which acts as a personal resource that moderates and decreases their job insecurity perception. Thus, organizations should consider these factors when implementing new technological changes to facilitate the adaptation of workers.
... Human capital is defined as an investment in school, training, or medical care with the purpose of adding to the person's knowledge or wellbeing (Becker, 2009). Furthermore, Becker (2009) argued that education and training are the most important investments in human capital as higher education leads to higher average income. ...
... Human capital is defined as an investment in school, training, or medical care with the purpose of adding to the person's knowledge or wellbeing (Becker, 2009). Furthermore, Becker (2009) argued that education and training are the most important investments in human capital as higher education leads to higher average income. Increased education has a positive influence on earning potential in the labour market for individuals from The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries (OECD, 2020a.). ...
Article
This work examines the choices of individuals with respect to higher education in the Czech Republic and Canada. Specifically, how do the students’ socioeconomic backgrounds influence their study decisions. Data from the Czech edition of The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey and the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics was used to identify influences of students’ entry to university. Individuals from households with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to enter university than people who were less well off in both countries. Social selectivity is much more present in higher education in the Czech Republic than in Canada. Key words: Higher Education, Czech Republic, Canada, Social Selectivity, Logistic Regression, Ordered Statistics Ce travail examine les choix des personnes en matière d'enseignement supérieur en République tchèque et au Canada, notamment comment les antécédents socio-économiques des étudiants influencent leurs décisions relatives aux études. Les données de l'édition tchèque de l'enquête Statistiques sur le revenu et les conditions de vie de l'Union européenne et de l'Enquête canadienne sur la dynamique du travail et du revenu ont été utilisées pour identifier les influences sur l'entrée des étudiants à l'université. Dans les deux pays, les personnes issues de ménages ayant un statut socio-économique élevé étaient plus susceptibles d'entrer à l'université que les personnes moins bien loties. La sélectivité sociale est beaucoup plus présente dans l'enseignement supérieur en République tchèque qu'au Canada. Mots clés: enseignement supérieur, République tchèque, Canada, sélectivité sociale, régression logistique, statistiques ordonnées
... McMahon (McMahon 2009, Ch. 9) sets out a neoclassical framework of the economy to analyse the channels through which education may impact on the environment. The model specifies individuals as utility maximisers that value environmental benefits and for which education increases productivity via the human capital stock (Becker 1994), which is a homogenous input in production (i.e. no differentiation between types of skills). ...
... The analytical parsimony of human capital excludes context. At the micro level, Becker (1994) focussed on the individual's investment decision and did not explicitly model the host economy. When used to examine overall economic activity at a macro level (Krueger Alan and Lindahl 2001) human capital is an input in aggregate production functions, and the opportunities and constraints facing particular individuals are not observed. ...
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We use new survey data from 1,203 households in rural Eastern India to estimate cross-sectional models of overall energy use and embedded emissions. Findings indicate that the primary driver of household energy use is household size and affluence. This is unsurprising and consistent with findings from the engineering literature on energy demand. However, there is also a substantial and significant moderating influence of skills on energy use. For emissions, we observe a bifurcated relationship in line with educational attainment. For those that have completed secondary education or more, skills are negatively associated with energy use and emissions, whereas for those with lesser qualifications more skills are associated with more energy use and emissions. The results are consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve, which implies that a critical level of affluence is required before environmental impacts start lessening. The results also echo a sociological critique of human capital theory − that individual abilities are not productive in and of themselves, but rather in relation to socially determined opportunity structures. Our findings show that this could also hold for greenhouse gas emissions.
... This study applies Becker's (2009) human capital theory to explore the relationship between international mobility (both in-person and virtual) and career development. Human capital is understood as the knowledge and skills that allow an individual to be productive and contribute to socio-economic development. ...
... Human capital is understood as the knowledge and skills that allow an individual to be productive and contribute to socio-economic development. Traditionally, formal education has been conceptualised as the principal driver of human capital development (Schultz, 1971;Becker, 2009). However, in an increasingly globalised world, human capital theory has also been used to understand the importance of intercultural skills gained through international experience, not necessarily within the realm of formal education (King & Magolda, 2005). ...
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International mobility programmes, both in-person and virtual, aim to build human capital. Though there is evidence of their impact on skill development, there is scant research on career and professional benefits. Moreover, because virtual mobility is a new concept, there has been little investigation into how this mode affects the perceived benefits. Using the lens of human capital theory, this study explores outcomes of in-person and virtual mobility in the Queen Elizabeth Scholars-Advanced Scholars programme, which includes doctoral, post-doctoral and early career scholars. Through interviews with 23 scholars, we explore the perceived impact of the programme, considering mode of delivery, on the career and professional development of scholars. Despite challenges with the unexpected shift to virtual mobility during Covid-19 lockdowns, both in-person and virtual mobility scholars reported benefits to their career and professional development. These results suggest that virtual mobility may be considered as a viable option to enhance the flexibility, inclusivity, and accessibility of such programmes.
... Another study was carried out by Becker (1993) in the USA. Becker touched upon the impact of the family on human capital and stated that the future income of the children of families whose average income is 20% higher than their peers in the USA is approximately 6% higher than that of their peers. ...
... Becker touched upon the impact of the family on human capital and stated that the future income of the children of families whose average income is 20% higher than their peers in the USA is approximately 6% higher than that of their peers. Wealthy families allocate more resources to their children's education, while children from poor families may not be as responsive to this type of investment as their children tend to live away from home for various reasons (physical, psychological, etc.) [54]. ...
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Education plays an important role in the fight against poverty and contributes to the formation of human capital by increasing the knowledge and skills of the individual. It increases the educational opportunities for future generations, provides more opportunities to participate in public life, and makes a significant contribution to social development. Education is influenced by various factors. One of the main factors influencing education is the socio-economic conditions of family life. This study explores the relationship between the socio-economic status of the family and the level of education in Azerbaijan. To this end, the influence of two main independent variables, namely, the influence of family elders and family income, on the level of education of an individual was studied. As a result of the study, it was found that mothers compared to grandparents and grandparents compared to fathers have a positive impact on the level of education of children. It was also found that household income is a determining factor in choosing a risky career and that children from families with an upper middle income are especially more positive than those from low income families.
... Research on the economic impact of education was first based on human capital theory proposed by Schultz [16] and Becker [17], which provides fundamental support for investigating how education affects economic growth. Since then, many economic growth theories have emphasized the role of education (e.g., the Solow growth model and endogenous growth theory). ...
... It reflects the educational resources that each student can receive, which is an important indicator of the fairness of education expenditure. Following human capital theory [16,17], LGHE promotes economic growth through direct or indirect channels. Furthermore, technological innovation is an important mediating variable in indirect channels, which can improve total factor productivity and upgrade the industrial structure, ultimately promoting economic growth [31]. ...
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The ability of fair investments in local general higher education to drive sustainable regional economic growth is explored. Based on spatial theory, the exploratory spatial data analysis method is used to examine the spatial characteristics of local general higher education expenditures in China’s 30 provinces from 2000 to 2021. The spatial Durbin model is employed to analyze the impact of education expenditures on regional economic growth. The results reveal that education expenditures had positive spatial autocorrelation. Education expenditures promoted regional economic growth, and the long-term effect was greater than the short-term effect. These expenditures also had a positive spillover effect, showing that strategic spatial interactions between provinces positively influence growth. The positive spillover effects nationwide and in the eastern region were significantly greater than the direct effect, whereas the spillover effects in both the middle and western regions were negative.
... "The central factor in HRD is the human resources or the human capital in an organization. They are viewed as the driving force for the success of organizations because of their skills, competencies, knowledge and experience (Becker, 1975 [35][36][37][38][39][40][41] . However, "these are some of the problems faced by employers and organisations and seen as a hindrance to the effective management, training and development of humanresources in a global economy (Roberts & McDonald, 1995)" 42 .In specific context, "the literature has indicated that there is a shortage of HRD professionals who are skilled and experienced systems thinkers (Bing et al, 2003), and who have the ability to manage the vast and specialized function of HRD across organizations (Eidgahy, 1995)" [43][44] . ...
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Training effectiveness is not solely dependent on the rigorous adherence of the steps involved in various training models. But its role is to cover much larger expanse of the canvas. Educating and training though remains the core objective of its efforts yet the other and the more important dimension is to make the participants unlearn the obsolete and willingly and objectively acquire the latest skills/ knowledge required for maintaining the utmost desired productivity. Probably the principles of memory functioning would be needed to be invoked here. Besides the trainees are matured adults who can apply their experience to decide the wrong and right at their own without warranting external intervention. Most of the times they prefer not welcoming any such interventions in their matters-personal or professional unless feel thoroughly convinced. In such scenario different tools of learning need to be institutionalized-andragogy, heutagogyetc. Effective transfer of learning would always be the key objective of ensuring training effectiveness but this entire exercise is not bereft of inherent challenges-certain surmountable and certain insurmountable. So the biggest challenge would be how to minimize the scale of insurmountable challenges of the game to ensure efficacy of training interventions pushed in at various levels and stages.
... According to this theory, organizations base their further development on other organizations that are perceived as exemplary, either as a whole or in specific aspects. Furthermore, the human capital theory [72] and endogenous growth theory [73] suggest that investments to enhance human capital, such as in intrapreneurial training, can lead to productivity gains, stimulate innovation, and foster knowledge generation, thereby accelerating economic and institutional growth. Additionally, the spillover effect [74] reinforces the knowledge exchange within and beyond organizational boundaries. ...
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Over recent years, employee-driven innovation (EDI) has emerged as a prominent topic in both practical and academic circles. Particularly in economic-oriented organizations seeking growth, there is an increasing trend to involve "ordinary" employees-those whose primary responsibilities do not traditionally include innovation tasks-in the innovation process. These employees are tapped for their creativity and experience in the hope that they will generate innovative ideas beneficial to the organization. Consequently, EDI is increasingly acknowledged as a significant source of competitive edge, with employees often seen as initiating innovators that complement traditional channels, such as formal research and development departments. Despite the growing body of research in the interdisciplinary field of EDI and the interplay of multiple perspectives and effect areas, a comprehensive overview remains elusive. In this article, we conduct a systematic literature review to expose the vast effect areas of EDI, focusing on the micro (employee) and meso (organizational) levels. We identified four effect areas at the micro-level and seven at the mesolevel. Our research enhances the understanding of the multi-layered components of EDI and provides insights and implications for academics and practitioners aiming to harness its potential.
... Özellikle 1960'lı yıllara gelindiğinde ise neoklasik yönetim sisteminin de etkisi ile sermaye kavramı insanları ve onların kapasitelerini de ifade edebilecek şekilde genişlemiştir. Başlangıçta Theodore Schultz (1961) ve daha sonra Becker (1964) tarafından geliştirilen insan sermayesi fikri, ekonomistlerin işçilerin becerilerinin değerini ölçmelerine yardımcı olacak bir araç gibi kullanılmaya başlanmıştır (Field, 2008). ...
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"İnsan Kaynakları Açısından Spor İşletmelerinde Performans Değerlendirme " başlıklı kitap bölümü, spor sektöründe insan kaynakları yönetimi ve performans değerlendirmesine odaklanan önemli bir konuyu ele almaktadır. Bu bölüm, spor işletmelerinin başarılı olmaları için çalışanlarının performansını etkili bir şekilde değerlendirmenin önemini vurgulamaktadır. Spor işletmeleri, performansa dayalı bir sektördür ve çalışanların performansı işletmenin başarısını doğrudan etkilemektedir. Performans değerlendirmesi, çalışanların güçlü yönlerini belirlemelerine yardımcı olurken, geliştirme alanlarını da tanımlar. İyi bir performans değerlendirmesi, motivasyonu artırabilir ve çalışanların kariyer gelişimine katkı sağlayabilir. Performans değerlendirmesi süreci, hedeflerin belirlenmesi, performansın takip edilmesi ve geri bildirim verme aşamalarını içerir. Hedefler net, ölçülebilir ve zaman sınırlı olmalıdır. Spor işletmelerinde performans değerlendirmesi, başarıyı artırmak için vazgeçilmez bir araçtır. Bu bölüm, spor işletmelerinin performans değerlendirmesi sürecini anlamalarına ve geliştirmelerine yardımcı olacak önemli kavramları ele almıştır. İşletmeler, bu bilgileri uygulayarak personelin daha yüksek performans sergilemelerine katkı sağlayabilirler.
... Human Capital Theory, originally developed by economist Gary Becker in the 1960s, posits that individuals make investments in education, training, and skills development to enhance their productivity and future earning potential (Becker, 1964). In the context of "Energy Transition and its Impact on Employment in East Africa," this theory is relevant as it can help explain how investments in human capital, particularly education and training programs in renewable energy technologies, can lead to improved employment outcomes. ...
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Purpose: The main objective of this study was to explore the energy transition and its impact on employment in East Africa. Methodology: The study adopted a desktop research methodology. Desk research refers to secondary data or that which can be collected without fieldwork. Desk research is basically involved in collecting data from existing resources hence it is often considered a low cost technique as compared to field research, as the main cost is involved in executive’s time, telephone charges and directories. Thus, the study relied on already published studies, reports and statistics. This secondary data was easily accessed through the online journals and library. Findings: The findings revealed that there exists a contextual and methodological gap relating to energy transition and its impact on employment in East Africa. Preliminary empirical review revealed that the energy transition presents a significant opportunity for East Africa to address its energy needs, combat climate change, and create employment opportunities for its growing population. However, realizing the full potential of this transition requires a coordinated effort from governments, businesses, and civil society. Policies and investments should be designed to ensure that the benefits are inclusive, reaching all segments of society, including women and marginalized communities. By addressing the challenges and leveraging the opportunities of the energy transition, East Africa can not only achieve its energy and environmental goals but also contribute to sustainable economic development and improved livelihoods for its people. This study serves as a foundation for further research and policy action in this critical area, emphasizing the need for a holistic and equitable approach to the energy transition in East Africa. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: The Human Capital theory, Structural Transformation theory and the Just Transition theory may be used to anchor future studies on energy transition and employment. The study made the following recommendations: investing in workforce development and training programs, promoting gender inclusive employment, facilitating just transition mechanisms, supporting community based renewable energy projects and fostering public-private partnerships.
... Education is another factor shaping work-family trajectories. According to the theories of human capital (Becker, 1964), signaling (Spence, 1973), and segmentation (Piore, 1975), lower educated people have fewer opportunities in the labor market and generally acquire more insecure positions than higher educated people. Therefore, they encounter more unemployment (Visser et al., 2016a). ...
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Introduction: Work and family trajectories develop and interact over the life course in complex ways. Previous studies drew a fragmented picture of these trajectories and had limited scope. We provide the most comprehensive study of early-to-midlife work-family trajectories to date. Methods: Using retrospective data from waves 3 and 7 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we reconstructed work-family trajectories from age 15 to 49 among almost 80,000 individuals born between 1908 and 1967 across 28 countries. We applied multichannel sequence and cluster analysis to identify typical trajectories and multinomial logistic regression models to uncover their social composition. Results: The results revealed six common trajectories. The dominant and therefore standard trajectory represents continuous full-time employment with having a partner and children. Women, the lower educated and persons from conservative and liberal welfare regimes are underrepresented in this trajectory, whereas men, higher educated people and those from social-democratic, Eastern European and Baltic welfare regimes are overrepresented. The other trajectories denote a deviation from the standard one, integrating a non-standard form of work with standard family formation or vice versa. Mothers in a stable relationship generally work part-time or not at all. When mostly in full-time employment, women are more likely to be divorced. Lower educated persons are less likely to have work-family trajectories characterized by full-time work and a non-standard family, yet more likely to be non-employed for large parts of their life with standard family formation. Younger cohorts are underrepresented in non-employment trajectories, but overrepresented in part-time employment trajectories along with a partner and children as well as full-time employment trajectories with divorce. Individuals from Southern European and liberal regimes are more likely to be non-working and self-employed partnered parents and those from social-democratic regimes are more likely to be full-time employed divorced parents. We also found pronounced gender differences in how educational level, birth cohort and welfare regime are associated with work-family trajectories from early to midlife. Discussion: Our findings highlight the socially stratified nature of earlier-life work-family trajectories in Europe. Potential implications for inequalities in later life are discussed.
... Winkler (1987) doubts whether a degree, generated through investment in education, truly represents an employee's actual abilities. For example, a graduate with a bachelor's degree may be doing the same job as his high school peers (Becker, 1993). Hence, one critique of human capital is an over-focus on the narrow attributes of education. ...
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Since the conclusion of the Belfast Agreement in 1998, whilst Northern Ireland is part of the UK, it has had the right to set its education policy independently of its county of origin (O'Connor et al., 2020). As a result, Northern Ireland has a separate Statutory Curriculum for Key Stage 3: Principles and Details. The aim of this paper is to critically analyse the educational ideology embodied in KS3 and the globalisation trends of the period corresponding to the policy context. The policy is systematically analysed using theoretical concepts such as Human capital and Social Efficiency to shed further light on the historical and economic context in which KS3 has emerged.
... Building on Schultz's work, Gary Becker (1964), developed the concept of the "human capital theory". According to Becker, individuals make rational decisions regarding their investments in human capital based on the expected returns they will receive in terms of higher wages, better job opportunities, and improved quality of life. ...
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Cette étude vise à déterminer l’impact de l’aide publique au développement sur les performances scolaires au sein de l’Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine (UEMOA). L'aide à l'éducation est ventilée par sous-secteurs de l'éducation. Nous avons sept (07) pays et une période de 20 ans s'étalant de 2002 à 2021. Nous sommes donc confrontés à un paramétrage de données de panel avec N = 7 et T = 20. Les caractéristiques des séries chronologiques des données qui sont constituées d'un mélange de variables I(0) et I(1), a indiqué que le modèle approprié à utiliser est un ARDL de panel. Ainsi, un modèle ARDL doit être estimé à l’aide de la méthode Pooled Mean Group. Les résultats ont montré qu'à long terme, l'APD allouée à l'éducation dans l'UEMOA contribue à améliorer les performances scolaires dans les sous-secteurs de l'enseignement primaire et secondaire ; La gouvernance dans l’UEMOA a un impact négatif et significatif à la fois sur le taux d’achèvement du primaire et sur le taux brut de scolarisation dans l’enseignement secondaire. Les résultats ont également montré qu’à court terme, la gouvernance a un impact négatif sur le taux brut de scolarisation dans l’enseignement supérieur. Ainsi, les pays africains en général, et ceux de l’UEMOA en particulier, gagneraient donc à améliorer la qualité de leurs institutions, de leur système éducatif, à lutter contre la corruption et à créer un environnement politique stable et exempt de violence.
... The study is grounded in the Human Capital Theory by Gary Becker. Human Capital Theory posits those investments in education and practical training contribute to the accumulation of human capital, which encompasses knowledge, skills, and competencies (Becker, 1962(Becker, , 1964. This theory provides a foundational perspective on how financial resources allocated to education, including funding for practical work, can enhance students' human capital. ...
... Eventually, all these lead to increased productivity, profits and a good business brand-name. Improved human qualities through education and training can increase individual talent and organizational financial output (Becker, 2009). Overall, human capital theory classifies human capital elements in terms of education, communication skills, people skills, workplace training, problem solving skills, and physical, mental and emotional wellbeing (Gillies, 2011). ...
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This study assessed the influence of situational analysis in TVET institutions on graduate employability in Kenya. The study was anchored on human capital theory. Survey research design was used in the study. A sample size of 353 was selected from a target population of 3036 key TVET management staffs from 506 public and private TVET institutions in Nairobi, Machakos, Kiambu and Kajiado. Applying Yamane formula, stratified sampling technique was used to select 59 principals/deputy principals, 59 Registrars, 59 Dean of students for academics, and 176 Heads of Departments. A selected number of Ministry of Education officials were interviewed for additional data. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of both close and open-ended questions to capture quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics aided by SPSS version 25 computer software and Excel worksheets, and presented using tables and figures. The findings established that 86% of the TVET institutions carried out regular situational analysis as part of their strategy review process to enhance graduate employability, with 68% of the reviews dictated by market trends, 48% by availability of financial resources, 63% by competitiveness of courses, and 94% educational resources. The study concluded that situational analysis was an important element of strategy review that should be embraced by all TVET institutions. However, a number of the institutions were unable to carry out regular situational analysis due to lack of financial and human resource capacities to institute and implement this process in a regular manner and to a right scale. The study recommended that TVET institutions should create budgets for regular and thorough situational analysis.
... In developing countries, the low level of education and skills of informal workers contribute to low levels of productivity and income; thus, increasing the education and skills of informal workers is also an essential point in improving capabilities along with opportunities for decent and productive employment (ILO, 2008). According to Becker (2009), education is one of the most important influencing factors in determining the quality of human capital. Through improved education and better skills of informal workers, it is expected that opportunities for employment in the formal sector will increase. ...
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The presence of informal and unskilled workers are the two major characteristics of the Indonesian labor market, representing around 57.27% of the total workers in 2019. Moreover, many studies on poverty dynamics have highly emphasized education attainment as an essential factor against poverty. However, how education can influence poverty especially through the labor market has not been deeply explored. Theoretically, people having higher educational levels would have greater chances to be hired in formal jobs that provide better incomes, enabling workers to move out of poverty. This study aims to analyze the effect of education on employment mobility from informal to formal workers (informal turnover), as well as its effect on the poverty dynamics in Indonesia. The exploration of the National Panel SocioEconomic Survey (2011-2013) revealed that those with improved education tended to move out of the informal sector, indicating that education had a significant effect on the tendency of moving out of informality. The study also found that the predicted informal turnover decreased the probabilities of being transient poor and always poor by 69% and 14%, respectively. JEL Classification: I25, I32, J01
... The theory of human capital posits that individuals possessing diverse knowledge, skills, and experiences hold economic value and exhibit increased productivity (Becker, 1964;1975;Schultz, 1960). As inferred by Becker (1975), the foundational notion of human capital theory is that a higher level of human capital results in improved performance in specific tasks. ...
... Source: compiled on the basis of (Ani Matei;Artuc, Docquier, Özden, Parsons, 2015;Becker, 1993;Borshch, 2020;Di Bartolo, 1999;Graham, Webb, 1979;Guillaumont, McGillivray, Wagner, 2017;Makazan, Los, 2020;Mincer, Solomon, 1974;Trovato, 2020;4 Techniques for Assessing Human Capital) Vol. 9 No. 3, 2023 the help of high information technologies. By adding an estimate of the value of the future competitiveness of human capital, a comprehensive assessment of a company's human capital can be obtained. ...
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The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the existing methods and procedures of estimation of human capital as a dominant factor in improving profitability and competitiveness of the enterprise. The main tasks of the paper are to study and analyse the concept of human capital and its characteristics, to systematise approaches and methods of estimation of human capital within the framework of the company and the national economy. Methodology. This study analyses the theoretical basis of the estimation of human capital at different levels. The method used is literature review. Findings. The article raises the problem of using human capital as one of the indicators of efficient development of the economy. The analysis of the methodology of estimation of human capital is carried out. The article considers current methods of estimation of human capital at different levels: micro-, meso-, macro-, as well as their comparative analysis. The characteristics of the basic approaches to the estimation of human capital are considered, the analysis of the problems of indirect methods of estimation of human capital, objectivity and sufficiency of data for the construction of estimates is carried out. External factors such as socio-psychological resources, environmental influences, human lifestyles, such as dietary intake, need to be taken into account in order to estimate human capital accurately. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses. The weaknesses are more related to the difficulties in quantifying some of the components of human capital and the difficulties in collecting, processing and statistically analysing information at all levels of the study. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses. The weaknesses are more related to the difficulties of quantifying some components of human capital, and the difficulties of collecting, processing and statistically analysing information at all levels of the study. The authors also found that the investment approach is the most popular and provides the most adequate estimates. Practical implications. The results of this study provide a methodological basis for improving the methodology of estimating the value of human capital. The analysed approaches can be used at different levels of the national economy (macro-, meso- and micro-) by different organisational structures for further management decisions.
... Scientific principles and postulates that have developed within the framework of the new formative scientific direction of health economics [1,2,3,4,5], as well as the concept of human capital [6,7,8,9] and the quality of life of the population [10,11,12,13] allow us to draw conclusions that are important from the standpoint of substantiating the sustainable socio-economic development of territories. ...
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The theory, methodology and practice of studying the functioning and development of sanatorium and resort activities in the context of ensuring stable regional dynamics and sustainable development of territories are at the stage of comprehension. The strategic vector of socio-economic development of a new subject of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Crimea, is seen by the authors in close connection with the development of sanatorium and resort activities. The study is aimed at substantiating the most important factor in the sustainable dynamics of the Republic of Crimea, namely the stable functioning and development of sanatorium and resort activities. The methodological basis of the study was the findings and conclusions of scientists studying the issues of sustainable functioning of sanatorium and resort activities and working in the subject field of regional economics, health economics, the concept of human capital, the concept of the quality of life of the population, and the theory of services. The research methodology is based on formalization and systematization approaches, bibliometric and content analysis, and the method of analogies and comparative analytical methods are also used. The information base consisted of scientific publications of domestic and foreign scientists, regulatory, analytical, program and strategic materials of the Government of the Russian Federation, state regional authorities of the Republic of Crimea. The main results of the study are: putting forward and proving a scientific hypothesis confirming the importance of the functioning and evolution of sanatorium and resort activities and medical tourism in the system of factors for ensuring sustainable development of the Republic of Crimea. The results of the study contribute to the development of theoretical and methodological principles of regional economics, public management of economic and social processes in order to achieve sustainable regional development.
... De belangrijkste theorie op dit vlak is de human capital theory, of theorie van het menselijk kapitaal. 19 Volgens deze theorie beschikt elk individu over een bepaalde mate van menselijk kapitaal, gevormd door de kennis en vaardigheden waarover dit individu beschikt. Dit menselijk kapitaal is deels aangeboren en komt deels tot stand door investering in verdere ontwikkeling, bijvoorbeeld door het volgen van onderwijs. ...
... Following these intellectual debates regarding growth models, endogenous growth models have closely examined the relationship between economic growth and human capital. In fact, the Human Capital Theory (HCT), which was established by Schultz (1963) and Becker (1975), laid the foundations for these endogenous growth models in analyzing the nexus between human capital and economic growth. Despite human capital is composed of many factors such as health, social capital, and education, it is noteworthy that education emerges as a foremost determinant of human capital. ...
Chapter
Education has often been viewed as a key factor in promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. But some factors like inequalities in education may prevent developing and less developed countries from fully harnessing the benefits of education. This may further exacerbate economic, social, and cultural disparities among countries. Given this backdrop, the relationship between educational inequalities and economic growth seems to be important. Hence, the authors aim to delve into the role of educational inequalities in economic growth for Sub-Saharan African countries over the 2010-2021 period through causality analysis. These findings demonstrate a bidirectional causality between educational inequality and economic growth in 34 SSA during the assessed period. This suggests that changes in educational inequality influence economic growth and vice versa. The findings of this study can provide policymakers with insights into implementing educational policies that foster economic growth and reduce inequality in Sub-Saharan African countries.
... It views individuals as human capital assets and emphasises the importance of investing in human capital for personal and societal development (Hanushek & Woessmann, 2012). Human capital refers to the knowledge, skills, abilities, and attributes that individuals possess and can contribute to economic production (Becker, 1993). It encompasses both formal education (such as degrees and certifications) and informal learning through work experience and on-the-job training. ...
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The hospitality and tourism industries are changing dramatically as a consequence of the application of information technology (IT) to managerial, and strategic and operational tasks. This is stimulated by the competition within the industry as well as the development of new, creative technological advancements. Digital revolution constitutes one of the most significant developments in the volatile business market. Hence, utilising digital technology is essential to maintain competitiveness and keep up with the changing world. Advancements of modern technology, has the potential to replace human labour with artificial intelligence and robotics. Thus, hospitality graduates need to be equipped with the right skills and abilities to meet the needs of the evolving hospitality industry. Further, they need to always upgrade themselves with the right competencies to thrive in the job market. With the goal of evaluating recent developments and technology advancements in the hospitality education and industry, this study analyses past research works in the field as well as theories of skill development, particularly for hospitality graduates. Using the content analysis method, the study examined previous research on how hospitality graduates can enhance their skills. Based on the findings, a conceptual framework for fourth-generation technological abilities was developed for the hospitality sector. The proposed conceptual framework can serve as a basis and guideline for future research efforts as well.
... Most times, this scenario doesn't always occur because of acute competition and influx of possible alternatives. [17][18][19][20]. ...
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The study examined the effect of wages and salaries, bonuses and incentives, and training costs on the return on capital employed of sampled consumer goods firms in Nigeria. Data were collected from annual financial reports of the firms for the period, 2013-2022. The research adopted an ex-post facto research design. The systematic Sampling technique was used to select a total of four (4) companies for the study. The analytical tool used for the study was ordinary least square multiple regression. Results of the test of hypotheses indicate that Wages and Salaries have a negative butsignificant effect on Return on Capital Employed. Bonuses and Incentives have a negative andinsignificant effect on the Return on Capital Employed however; training Cost has a positive andsignificant effect on the Return on Capital Employed of consumer goods firms in Nigeria. The study suggests that Wages and salaries should not be higher than the value addition made by the employees and labourers, rewards should be directly related to performance and as wanted by the recipient and Training of staff is very pertinent to a company’s overall success.
... Investment in human capital through education or training is thus an important area of concern for organizations (Annakis, Dass & Isa, 2014). The phrase "human capital", made popular by Becker in 1964, is the collection of skills, knowledge, and character traits that go into being able to carry out work in a way that creates economic value. According to Pettinger (2017), HC is a measure of labor's capacity, abilities, education, and other factors that affect their potential for income generation and productivity. ...
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This study investigates how organizational performance in Nigeria is impacted by human capital development. 187 employees from nine money deposit banks took part in the study, which used a cross-sectional survey research design. A structured questionnaire was employed for gathering data, and multiple regression analysis was used to assess the hypotheses. Findings reveal that human capital development (knowledge, training, skills, talent management, and competency) was positive and significantly related to organizational performance. It was recommended that organizational policy makers in the financial sector should ensure they invest in their human resources through training to harness their competencies and improved organizational performance. Furthermore, creating a conducive environment for the development of human resources to gain competitive advantage, as well as creating human capital development unit will boosting the overall organizational performance.
... Moreover (Ulmann, 2009), health represents an investment in the future. The role of health is now widely accepted (Grossman, 1972), as is that of human capital in economic growth since Schultz (1961) and Becker (1964). ...
... Even though entrepreneurship is influenced by a complex interplay of factors cutting across personal, social, economic, and spatial factors, and many theories support the influence of both internal and external factors (Becker, 1994;Robinson & Sexton, 1994), most studies hold external factors constant and focus on individual characteristics and behaviours of the entrepreneur (Shane, 2003;Shane & Venkataraman, 2000;Van de Ven, 1993). However, more recently, increasing emphasis is being placed on drifting away from an individualistic, personality-based approach to a system perspective towards understanding the context of entrepreneurship in particular territories (Stam & Van de Ven, 2021;Acs et al., 2017;Isengerg, 2014;Lundstrom & Stevenson, 2005;Gynyawali & Fogel, 1994) and as a more viable strategy toward the development of entrepreneurship (Wennekers & Thurik, 1999;Audretsch et al., 2002;Lundstrom & Stevenson, 2005;Isengerg, 2014). ...
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Purpose: The motivation for this study stemmed from inconsistent attribution of sources of business challenges by entrepreneurs at the beginning and the end of a 3-month entrepreneurship development programme. While the entrepreneurs' general perception was that Nigeria's business environment was not conducive to entrepreneurship, some opinions shifted from inadequate funding to A lack of entrepreneurial skills by the end of the training. This study uses Nigeria as a case study to investigate the role of temporal effects on entrepreneurs’ perception of entrepreneurial ecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology: Quantitative time series analysis was deployed to analyse variables that are representative of the elements of the entrepreneurship ecosystem within the frameworks of the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and mixed data sampling (MIDAS) models. Findings: The study provides evidence that temporal effects may confound entrepreneurs’ assessment of the impact of certain entrepreneurial ecosystem elements on entrepreneurial outcomes. Originality: The study contributes to the attribution theory of entrepreneurial learning by providing evidence that temporal effects have the potential to influence entrepreneurs’ attribution of business failure and the entrepreneurial learning that may arise from there.
... Besides, we controlled certain variables based on the human capital theory of Becker (2009) [6] to measure the power of explanatory variables in predicting the independent variable in our estimation model. For workers doing skilled jobs, viz., the dummy variable of WSJ ijt with a value of 1 was used as a proxy for skilled workers who were doing jobs which were ranked as 2-4 higher skill level by MUS. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the impending relationship between the impact of the US-China trade war on Taiwanese firms' spending on R&D and their offshore investment in technologically advanced countries (TAC), we the authors examined if changes in these firms' R&D ratios and the growing presence of skilled workers in Taiwan's labour market during the trade war have affected their offshore investments in TAC. Design/methodology/approach Using a model built on pooled cross-sectional time-series data from 2012–2019, we the authors examined whether a change in R&D ratios of domestic firms in Taiwan and the growing presence of skilled workers in Taiwan's labour market have affected the offshore investment by these firms during the trade war. Using data from the Manpower Utilisation Survey, we the authors applied differences–in–differences–in–differences (DDD) and differences–in–differences–in–differences–in–differences (DDDD) estimation methods and found that the trade war indeed gave a boost to Taiwan's job market, particularly for skilled workers. Findings From the estimation results, we the authors noticed a rise in employment opportunities alongside a decline in the earnings of skilled workers in industries where more firms have spent on R&D as well as invested in offshore operations. However, firms in Taiwan that had not heavily spent on R&D from industries where investment in foreign operations was otherwise high have also attracted skilled workers during the trade war. Practical implications An in-depth analysis of the impact of the trade war on domestic firms' spending on R&D and their investment in offshore operations in TAC should be helpful to policymakers interested in understanding the effects of the trade war and subsequent changes in firms' spending on R&D on labour market outcomes. If changes in the R&D ratios and a steady supply of skilled workers influenced the outflow of FDIForeign Direct Investment (FDI) to TAC, this insight could be helpful for those devising policies and measures to curb the impact of the trade war on domestic spending on R&D. Originality/value In this section, only the affiliation field can be edited. If any other changes are required in this section please add a comment. Our The study findings not only provide broad lessons to policymakers in Taiwan but the country case study can guide growing economies that are equally careful while perceiving trade war as a significant deterrent to domestic R&D spending and the outflow of FDI
... Tendo em vista a complexidade inerente e a responsabilidade, torna-se cada vez mais relevante que os gestores tenham conhecimento técnico para executar suas tarefas (Ducleos-Bastías et al., 2023;Starepravo, Souza, Milani, 2019;Gallina, Junior, Ferreira, 2019;Júnior et al., 2017). Tais apontamentos trazem à tona a importância do capital humano nos processos de gestão (Becker, 1994), evidenciando quão significativo podem ser os conhecimentos de um gestor em todo o processo de gestão pública. ...
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Este estudo teve por objetivo descrever as características da gestão esportiva municipal e verificar se o índice de desenvolvimento humano municipal exerce influência sobre o desenvolvimento de políticas esportivas educacionais, de rendimento ou de lazer. O estudo possui abordagem quantitativa e consiste em um estudo ex post facto. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por meio do levantamento de dados da Pesquisa de Informações Básicas Municipais de 2016 e do Censo Demográfico de 2010, sistematizados pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Com a realização da pesquisa, evidenciou-se que existe uma diferença entre a escolaridade dos homens e das mulheres para ocupar o cargo de gestor e, de modo geral, verificou-se a importância de os gestores possuírem conhecimento técnico para executar suas tarefas. Além disso, pode-se perceber que existe uma tendência maior na realização de ações esportivas de rendimento quando os municípios possuem Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal maior. Palavras-chave: Esportes, Política pública, Gestão esportiva.
... The modern Human Capital Theory, a derivative of Adam Smith's wage differentials, posits that substantial investment in human capital generates the skilled workforce necessary for economic advancement (Becker, 1994). Human development entails a comprehensive progression of human resources concerning income, education, employment, health, and standard of living. ...
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Despite the big strides taken by the countries on economic growth due to globalization from the last decade of the twenty-first century, lack of financial inclusion, illiteracy and poor health conditions continue to hinder the social development of many countries. At the turn of the current decade, countries are looking at ways to meet the 2030 deadline set for SDGs. This study will guide policy makers to make strategic choices related to their investment in health and education to improve social development sustainably leading to better and sustained financial inclusion. Data related to 18 emerging countries (as given in MSCI report) for the time 2004 to 2018 was retrieved and Fixed Effect Panel Quantile (FPQR) was employed to study the nexus of human development (education, health), financial inclusion and carbon emissions. Each of the constructs related to financial inclusion, human development, health, and education were defined by appropriate variable for which data was available for the 15-year period. Findings of the study include, (i) Income and education have a favorable impact on the FI, but health and CO2 have a negative impact. (ii) Education, GDP, and CO2 have a favorable influence on the health index and a negative impact on FI. (iii) FI, health, and CO2 have positive effects on education but negative effects on GDP. (iv) GDP, education, and health all have a negative impact on CO2 emissions. This study emphasizes the means to achieve financial inclusion through sustained human development through education and health. The effect of environmental degradation caused by economic progression is also considered to give a sustainable model. Emerging economies focusing on improving the FI and HD can have policy ramifications to boost the education level of its citizens as well as increase the access to healthcare services for them. A financially and digitally literate society will improve its score on the human development index.
... Human capital (Bourdieu 1986) is typically described as comprising resources such as knowledge, skills, work ability, education, and experience gained over time (Becker 1993;. According to the OECD (2001), human capital 'facilitate[s] the creation of personal, social and economic well-being' (17) and, thus, represents a key resource for everyone, including language teachers. ...
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Over their career trajectories, teachers experience diverse challenges and uplifts, which influence their sense of wellbeing. While research on teacher career phases provides important insights into their lives, studies exploring teacher wellbeing and capitals they draw on to cope are scarce; and, in the field of language education, virtually non-existent. In this article, we explore the capitals of 58 language teachers from Austria and the UK in pre-service, early-, mid-, and late-career phases. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews and were analysed utilising a combination of inductive and deductive data analyses. The findings revealed four interrelated capitals which supported these teachers' wellbeing: Psychological, social, human, and health capitals. This study offers key insights into well-being through the lens of capitals with clear implications for policy-makers, teacher educators, and other relevant stakeholders to understand how to support language teachers in their professional roles. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Human capital represents the stock of personal knowledge, skills, and abilities accumulated by individuals through formal education, training, and other types of experience (Becker, 1994). Numerous studies have identified human capital as a critical element of positive organizational performance that provides access to a wider range of opportunities, including among entrepreneurs (e.g., Bosma et al., 2004). ...
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Leadership is a force that moves struggles or activities towards success. Leadership means the process of influencing group activities in the context of formulating and achieving organizational goals. Therefore, a leader must optimize management and create an organization always conducive and the quality of education increases. There are two things that characterize leaders in carrying out their duties, namely "openness and willingness to serve”. Therefore, there is a need to study the leadership of school principals and the implementation of an independent curriculum in improving the quality of education. This research is descriptive qualitative research. Observation, interviews and documentation were used as data collection techniques. The research subjects were school principals, teachers and students. Based on the research results, it shows: 1) The school principal as the leader of the organization has carried out his duties well in accordance with procedures and regulations. 2) The implementation of the independent curriculum has been running effectively, efficiently and productively. The advantages of the independent learning curriculum are: 1) making the world of education more flexible, which means removing the shackles of the world of education so that it is easier to move, 2) giving students the opportunity to deepen the lessons they take according to their needs, 3) providing a platform for students exploring general knowledge by going into society, 4) students can prepare themselves to face the world of work. An educational institution is said to be of quality if it has the following characteristics: 1) Students demonstrate a high level of mastery of learning tasks (learning tasks) as formulated in educational goals and objectives, including academic learning outcomes expressed in learning achievement. 2) The results of student education are in accordance with the demands of students' needs in their lives, so that apart from knowing something, they are also able to do something functionally for life. 3) Student educational outcomes are in accordance with environmental needs, especially the world of work. Therefore, relevance is an indicator of quality. Thus, good quality benchmarks are not absolute quality benchmarks, but relative benchmarks, namely those that suit customer needs. School quality will be good if the school can provide services that suit the needs of its customers.
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Institutional scholarship tends to emphasize the tendency of organizations to conform to prevailing practices, but this study investigates Chinese firms’ non-conformity behavior in terms of not participating in credit rating. State ownership and firm status (in terms of age, size, and human capital) are all found to be useful predictors of this non-conformity. Building on institutional theory and resource dependence theory in an emerging market context, this study proposes that non-conformity would be high for state owned enterprises (SOEs) and for both low- and high-status firms, based on their evaluations of the legitimacy of credit rating and the relative power balance between the government and themselves. In contrast, middle-status firms would be less likely to show non-conformity behaviors. Moreover, the influence of state ownership and firm status on non-conformity would be further moderated by the degree of government intervention. The results from an empirical study of 2,708 manufacturing firms in China largely support these hypotheses.
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Relevance: In an era of rapid digital transformation, the labor market in Kazakhstan faces new challenges and opportunities. This research explores the development of the labor market in the context of Kazakhstan's digital economy, with a focus on sustainable development principles. Background: The authors have identified nine scientific schools that can be applied to investigate the development of the labor market in Kazakhstan's digital economy within the framework of sustainable development. Digital transformation is a key focus in this context, as it impacts the economy, society, and the labor market. Methods: The study draws on the principles and approaches of these nine scientific schools to analyze the development of the labor market in Kazakhstan. This includes examining initiatives such as Digital Kazakhstan and various international digital transformation efforts. Results: The authors find that digital transformation initiatives in different countries share common goals, such as enhancing the competitiveness, innovation, and productivity of the manufacturing sector while addressing workforce development and creating new job opportunities. The Digital Kazakhstan initiative also follows these goals, aiming to improve the country's economic competitiveness through digital transformation. Conclusion: By considering the nine scientific schools and their applications, a deeper understanding of the labor market's development in Kazakhstan can be achieved in the context of digital transformation and sustainable development. The authors recommend that Kazakhstan focuses on key areas such as education, workforce development, innovation, entrepreneurship, digital infrastructure, industry-academia collaboration, targeted strategies for key industries, public-private partnerships, supportive regulatory frameworks, social inclusion, sustainability, and international cooperation to successfully develop its labor market and ensure sustainable growth.
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The COVID-19 pandemic affected employability in different measures, especially workers with a basic educational level and women, contrary to this, employment increased for workers with a higher level, the increase being greater for women. In this study we will analyze how the pandemic affected workers with higher education, identifying inequality by sex, age group and professional training, in addition to measuring the impact on the income of the Economically Active Population (EAP). The data for the analysis comes from the National Occupation and Employment Survey (ENOE), for the years 2019 to 2021. The methodology used is the technique of random imputation of missing data (MAR), the Gini inequality index (IG), and the Mincer income equation. The main results show that the inequality between men and women decreased from 3% to 1.2% in the period of the beginning of the confinement, in addition it is distinguished that it favors women with higher level studies. Regarding age, the gap grew as the age of the interviewee increased; On the other hand, for workers with higher education, inequality decreased for those with a master's degree. Finally, in terms of admission, during the course of the pandemic as in the areas of Humanities, Social Sciences and Behavioral Studies, Information Sciences, Business and Administration, Mathematics and Statistics, and Veterinary Medicine, admission was better for women.
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Extended Abstract Purpose: Brain drain is one of the most critical challenges facing developing countries. Educated and skilled people migrate from these countries to more economically stable ones. Brain drain can reduce the capabilities and economic growth in developing countries. Human capital is significant in the theories of economic growth; as a result, less developed countries, as a source of brain drain, mainly face problems such as a low economic growth rate and a high unemployment rate. Another consequence that the countries of brain drain origin are faced with is the reduction of the economic well-being of the society. This is because productivity decreases with the removal of human capital and the government is forced to increase the cost of education. One of the ways to reduce the problem of brain drain is to raise the level of life expectancy and increase people's satisfaction and self-confidence. For this purpose, it is necessary to improve living conditions and create suitable job opportunities in countries with a low level of human development. In addition, raising education and knowledge can increase people's capabilities and improve working conditions in countries. Political instability is one of the most severe obstacles to a country's economic growth and development. The lack of political stability can lead to decreased investment, increased inflation, and economic and social problems. A low level of political stability has a negative effect on economic and financial development. This is because political instability causes an increase in risk and uncertainty in economic contracts, the structure of property rights, and tax policies for entrepreneurs. Improving the political stability of a country is an essential step toward achieving economic growth and development; countries with higher political stability have more power to create wealth. Nowadays, Brain drain is a critical issue in developing countries. Low income, high unemployment, discrimination, and lack of social justice are the main reasons for brain drain. Developing countries face political, economic and financial instability; as a result, skilled and talented individuals seek better welfare and job opportunities in developed countries. This study aims to investigate the impacts of country risk and human development on brain drain in 106 countries. To achieve the goal of the study, the countries in question are divided into three groups including countries with a low political risk (44 countries), a medium political risk (48), and a high political risk (14 countries) from 2007 to 2020. The research is conducted through the fixed panel method, the standard generalized method of moments, and two-stage generalized method of moments. The results of the research show that country risk and its sub-indices in all the three groups of countries have a positive effect on increasing brain drain. This effect is greater in countries with medium and high political risk levels. Also, the human development index negatively and significantly affects the brain drain in the studied countries. To reduce the level of brain drain, it is suggested for policymakers to give priority to providing suitable conditions for business and investment in the country so as to increase job opportunities and improve economic conditions. Methodology: In this research, both one- and two-step methods have been used to prevent single effects. Two tests are proposed to ensure the appropriateness of using this method for estimating the model. Initially, the Sargan test is used to demonstrate the validity of the instrumental variables. The second test includes a) the first-order correlation test AR and b) the second-order AR. According to Arellano and Bond (1992), in GMM estimation, the disruptive terms should have first-order serial correlation, not second-order one (Arellano & Bover, 1995). Findings and Discussion: The results indicate that country risk and its sub-indices positively affect brain drain in countries with low, medium, and high political risks. However, this effect is more potent in medium- and high-political-risk countries. The human development index also negatively and significantly impacts brain drain in all countries. As an important finding, the effect of country risk and its sub-indices on brain drain in countries with low political risk levels is less than that in countries with medium and high political risks. In fact, in countries with low risk levels, the effect of uncertainty and the risk of brain drain is less; in these countries, investment security is high, and investment laws and regulations are usually substantial. Moreover, Human development can be considered as one of the factors to reduce brain drain. Poverty and unemployment will decrease by increasing education, improving health, and increasing access to economic opportunities, job opportunities, and entrepreneurship. Also, human development can improve living conditions and social security, reducing brain drain. As a comprehensive and inclusive solution, it can help to reduce brain drain in different countries. Conclusion and Policy Implications: Brain drain has become a critical issue in poor and less developed countries. This issue in developing countries is primarily due to political, economic, and financial instability. For this reason, skilled and talented people migrate to advanced countries for better welfare conditions and job opportunities. This issue causes a decrease in human capital and, as a result, a reduction in the economic growth and development of the countries of origin. In addition, brain drain causes discrimination and social injustice in developing countries because people with high abilities migrate to developed countries, while people with fewer abilities and without particular expertise remain in their country of origin. The results indicate that country risk and its sub-indices positively affect brain drain in countries with low, medium and high levels of political risk. However, this effect is greater in countries with medium and high political risk levels. Also, the human development index negatively and significantly impacts brain drain in all the studied countries.
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We study the pay of chief executives of higher education institutions in the UK, known as Vice Chancellors (VCs), over a ten-year period. As different institutions might have different missions and follow different performance objectives, we use the LASSO method in a novel way to choose which performance parameters are most strongly associated with VC pay for each institution. Moreover, we use the same method in order to decide if and how institutions benchmark against other institutions in terms of VC pay by constructing a set of benchmarks for each one of them. We find that while institutions at the lower and medium end of the pay distribution benchmark primarily against institutions with larger VC pay than themselves, the institutions at the higher end of the pay distribution benchmark are primarily towards performance parameters. This type of behaviour can explain the recent inflation in pay observed in the sector. Empirical evidence as well as results from simulations motivate a policy recommendation that symmetric benchmarking by all institutions would prevent upward ratcheting of average VC pay. While we are looking at data stemming from the academic sector in the UK, the method and the recommendations can equally apply to other salaries that are benchmarked such as the ones of professional athletes or CEOs worldwide and therefore, bear generality.
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