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Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice

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... Wurm's 'Cabinet of Curiosities ', 1655', . Bahn (1996. ...
... Sir Mortimer Wheeler, 1890. Renfrew & Bahn (1996. Guernsey's Parliament, The States of Deliberation. GMAG Collection. Figure 30 The growing industry in Guernsey. GMAG Collection. ...
... Many autodidacts and polymaths of the Victorian era were utterly remarkable scholars (Bahn, 1996, xn) ...
Thesis
p>Frederick Corbin Lukis, lived in Guernsey in the Channel Islands from 1788-1871. This study is an assessment of his archaeological archive, the majority of which is now held in the collections of Guernsey Museum and Galleries. Evidence is presented to make the case that he should be remembered as a remarkable archaeologist, worthy of recognition alongside the central characters omnipresent in many histories of archaeology. The introduction outlines the research design and is followed by a review of the history of antiquarianism and the development of archaeology as a discipline, with particular reference to the nineteenth century. The various genres of the writing of histories of archaeology are also considered, including broad narratives, the development of the earliest archaeological institutions and local societies, and biographies of many of well known archaeologists who made significant contributions to the burgeoning discipline in the nineteenth century. A description of Guernsey is then drawn, and a biography of Lukis’ life is presented, against the social background in which he grew up and lived, in nineteenth-century Guernsey society. Most importantly, his work as an archaeologist is examined and evaluated, and through his network of contacts, both home and abroad, his intellectual milieu is established. It soon becomes apparent that F.C. Lukis is an important player in the transition period between the early nineteenth-century ‘barrow diggers’ such as Colt Hoare and the more scientific methodology and fieldwork of Pitt-Rovers at the end of the nineteenth century. Finally, the legacy that Lukis left his successors and its importance to the study of archaeology in general, but in particular to Guernsey and the other Channel Islands, is discussed. The fieldwork legacy, the museum collections and Lukis’ influence on the development of practical and intellectual archaeological epistemologies is considered, and an assessment made of the work which Lukis carried out. This work, although carried out without the scientific basis that modern day studies would involve, still forms the basis for any serious study of Guernsey’s prehistoric past.</p
... En la segunda fase se llevó a cabo el registro arqueológico que tuvo por objetivo la identificación de sitios y el análisis del patrón de distribución de los asentamientos. Para ello entre el 2017 y el 2019 se llevó a cabo una prospección arqueológica extensiva (Renfrew y Bahn, 2008[1991), que comprendió una superficie de 1109 km². Esta se inició con la revisión de vocablos toponímicos Kañaris y Kichwas en cartas topográficas (pata: terrazas de cultivos; shi/chi/ zhi: aldeas; pu/bu: tolas; y pukaras: sitios sagrados), para la identificación de potenciales sitios arqueológicos. ...
... En la segunda fase se llevó a cabo el registro arqueológico que tuvo por objetivo la identificación de sitios y el análisis del patrón de distribución de los asentamientos. Para ello entre el 2017 y el 2019 se llevó a cabo una prospección arqueológica extensiva (Renfrew y Bahn, 2008[1991), que comprendió una superficie de 1109 km². Esta se inició con la revisión de vocablos toponímicos Kañaris y Kichwas en cartas topográficas (pata: terrazas de cultivos; shi/chi/ zhi: aldeas; pu/bu: tolas; y pukaras: sitios sagrados), para la identificación de potenciales sitios arqueológicos. ...
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Aunque la importancia de la agricultura como factor clave del desarrollo económico de los pueblos y territorios andinos ha sido ampliamente reconocida a nivel mundial, han sido escasos los intentos por evaluar su importancia histórica en la construcción de los paisajes agrarios precolombinos en los Andes del Ecuador. En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los paisajes agrarios Kañari en la cuenca alta del Chanchán, mostrando una larga trayectoria histórica que se extendió por casi 2000 años desde el Período Formativo Tardío (543-381 cal AC) hasta la fase final del Período de Integración (1386-1438 cal DC). Los sistemas de agrocultivo extensivos e intensivos (campos permanentes y terrazas) actuaron como un agente transformador del espacio, imprimiendo una firma cultural agro-sacralizada con la configuración de tres tipos de paisajes: doméstico, social y sagrado. La agriculturización de estos paisajes muestra cómo la intensificación de la agricultura bajo un modelo de progresión unilineal no significa generalmente un retroceso natural de los procesos ecosistémicos, a causa de la intervención humana para la producción de sus cultivos. La elasticidad de los agroecosistemas Kañaris prehispánicos pudo ser sostenida ante los procesos históricos de la agriculturización durante toda su trayectoria histórica.
... Desde o advento dos estudos sistemáticos voltados para a compreensão dos processos envolvidos na formação dos registros arqueológicos (Binford, 1981;Schiffer, 1975;Renfrew & Bahn, 1991;Hodder & Hutson, 2003), muito foi discutido sobre a permanência dos vestígios arqueológicos nos seus locais de origem e as transformações pelas quais eles passam ou mesmo sobre o que é a 'vida' desses contextos e quais fatores podem influenciá-los. Diferentes técnicas e abordagens foram elaboradas desde essa época; termos como N-Transform, C-Transform, Tafonomia, in situ, e fenômenos pós-deposicionais tornaram-se conceitos compreendidos e empregados pela grande maioria de arqueólogos/as. ...
... As transformações pelas quais passam os contextos com remanescentes humanos também foram alvo de estudos conduzidos por especialistas forenses (Bass, 1995), bioantropólogos/as ou bioarqueólogos/as, e os resultados vêm contribuindo significativamente para a compreensão dos sepultamentos arqueológicos (Buikstra & Ubelaker, 1994; T. White & Folkens, 2000). Tanto na arqueologia quanto nas disciplinas forenses, há busca pela compreensão sobre quais agentes/ações interferem nos contextos após a deposição de um corpo em um determinado local e quais os resultados dessas ações proporcionaram o estabelecimento de um consenso sobre as etapas imprescindíveis para as análises em campo, observável pela multiplicação do número de manuais disponíveis para arqueólogos/as, bioarqueólogos/as, antropólogos/as forenses etc. (Bass, 1995;Ubelaker, 1999;Renfrew & Bahn, 1991;Coles, 1973;Dupras et al., 2006;Buikstra & Ubelaker, 1994; entre outros). Um elemento em comum nesses manuais e nas pesquisas originadas a partir da nova arqueologia dos anos 1970 (Trigger, 1989) é a necessidade de se entender o ambiente e o impacto das ações humanas através de experimentações. ...
Article
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Resumo Desde o início dos estudos sobre a formação do registro arqueológico, vem se buscando ferramentas para acessar os processos de deposição e de transformação desses locais ao longo do tempo. A experimentação com o objetivo de reproduzir contextos arqueológicos, apesar de amplamente utilizada em algumas regiões, ainda foi pouco explorada em contextos amazônicos, que possuem processos tafonômicos específicos. Este trabalho visa, através da experimentação, testar algumas das variáveis estabelecidas em regiões temperadas para movimentação e preservação de material ósseo, buscando entender tanto suas validades para a Amazônia quanto as dinâmicas específicas dos microcontextos. Foram utilizados galinhas e materiais de acompanhamento para estruturar os ensaios, enterrados e deixados em superfície. Os resultados apontam para fatores extrínsecos conhecidos, como a presença de raízes de plantas, o contato direto ou não com o solo e outros, mas cujas dinâmicas em contexto amazônico parecem amplificadas. Ao final, propomos que as observações obtidas podem ser significativas para a arqueologia amazônica como um todo.
... La decisión acerca del lugar donde excavar se tomó sobre la base de las características del recinto y su vinculación espacial con la habitación de molienda. La excavación se realizó por niveles artificiales de 5 cm, con registro tridimensional de los materiales recuperados y control de los cambios sedimentarios (Renfrew y Bahn, 2000). ...
Article
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El casco histórico del pueblo de Payogasta (Cachi, provincia de Salta), ubicado en las proximidades de la margen derecha del río Calchaquí, fue el centro de las actividades sociales y económicas durante los siglos XIX y XX, antes de la construcción de la ruta nacional Nº 40. Se trata de un conjunto de construcciones, con variable grado de conservación, caracterizadas por una típica arquitectura colonial y postcolonial, entre los cuales se encuentra un molino hidráulico y una vieja casona, ubicada enfrente. Nuestras investigaciones en el área, iniciadas en el año 2017, estuvieron centradas originalmente en el molino, atendiendo a sus aspectos cronológicos y funcionales. No obstante, la posibilidad de que esta casona tuviera algún grado de articulación, por su cercanía y similitudes arquitectónicas, hizo que las pesquisas también incluyeran este edificio. En virtud de esto, en este trabajo presentamos los primeros datos procedentes de la excavación de la casona y su correlación con las excavaciones realizadas en el Molino Harinero de Payogasta. Los primeros resultados permiten confirmar que ambos fueron contemporáneos, si bien la casona habría sido propiedad de sectores sociales vinculados a la propiedad de la tierra, en tanto los dueños del molino estaban más bien relacionados al sector comercial del pueblo, que brindaba el servicio de la molienda. Con esto no se descarta que en momentos previos ambos hayan sido parte de la misma Hacienda, a juzgar por los antecedentes que hay para la región.
... Adanya konteks kultural yang signifikan, melalui kondisi matriks, provenance, dan asosiasi, menjadikan data ekofak sebagai penunjang non-artefak yang signifikan terhadap interpretasi perilaku manusia pada masa lalu. Selain itu, penggunaan data ekofak juga melengkapi rekonstruksi kondisi lingkungan dan sosial pada masa budaya tertentu (Renfrew & Bahn, 2016). Mengacu pada potensinya yang signifikan, kajian terhadap adaptasi lingkungan oleh penghuni Gua Arca di Pulau Kangean akan dilakukan dengan analisis temuan ekofak dan residu mikrobotani. ...
Article
Tulisan ini membahas tentang eksplorasi dan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam oleh penghuni gua. Data yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini adalah hasil ekskavasi situs Gua Arca di Pulau Kangean, Sumenep, Jawa Timur. Metode yang digunakan deskriptif dengan analisis ekofak dan analisis residu mikrobotani pada artefak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya pola adaptasi dari penghuni pulau ini, dengan melakukan eksplorasi maksimal terhadap sumber daya alam di darat dan laut. Pada periode awal hunian sekitar 6000 BP, terjadi pemanfaatan sumber daya darat yang cukup dominan berupa binatang dengan habitat hutan terbuka, yaitu Cervidae, Bovidae, Macaca sp., dan binatang kecil seperti Cercopithecidae, Rodentia dan Varanidae. Pada periode setelahnya, sekitar 900 BP, terjadi perubahan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam. Pemanfaatan sumber daya laut menjadi lebih dominan, yang sebagian besar diperoleh dari lingkungan perairan mangrove dan daerah pasang surut. Tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan antara lain pisang liar, padi liar, kelapa, umbi, dan penggunaan intensif tanaman Zingiberacea.
... Adanya konteks kultural yang signifikan, melalui kondisi matriks, provenance, dan asosiasi, menjadikan data ekofak sebagai penunjang non-artefak yang signifikan terhadap interpretasi perilaku manusia pada masa lalu. Selain itu, penggunaan data ekofak juga melengkapi rekonstruksi kondisi lingkungan dan sosial pada masa budaya tertentu (Renfrew & Bahn, 2016). Mengacu pada potensinya yang signifikan, kajian terhadap adaptasi lingkungan oleh penghuni Gua Arca di Pulau Kangean akan dilakukan dengan analisis temuan ekofak dan residu mikrobotani. ...
Article
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Keywords: Cave-dwelling; subsistence; residue; microbotany; paleo-environment This paper discusses the exploration and utilization of natural resources by a cave-dwelling community. Data was obtained from the excavation at Gua Arca site in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java. The results from ecofact analysis and micro-botanical residue analysis on artifacts show the adaptation pattern of the inhabitants of this island by optimizing the exploration of terrestrial and marine resources. During the early occupancy period of c. 6000 BP, there was a fairly dominant use of terrestrial resources, indicated by open forest animal remains, such as Cervidae, Bovidae, Macaca sp., as well as small animals, such as Cercopithecidae, Rodentia, and Varanidae. In the later period of c. 900 BP, the exploitation of natural resources shifted to marine resources, which mainly from the mangrove forest and intertidal zones. Plant utilization was indicated by the presence of wild bananas, wild rice, coconuts, tubers, and the intensive use of Zingiberaceae plants. ABSTRAK Kata Kunci: Hunian gua; subsistensi; residu; mikrobotani; lingkungan purba Tulisan ini membahas tentang eksplorasi dan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam oleh penghuni gua. Data yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini adalah hasil ekskavasi situs Gua Arca di Pulau Kangean, Sumenep, Jawa Timur. Metode yang digunakan deskriptif dengan analisis ekofak dan analisis residu mikrobotani pada artefak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya pola adaptasi dari penghuni pulau ini, dengan melakukan eksplorasi maksimal terhadap sumber daya alam di darat dan laut. Pada periode awal hunian sekitar 6000 BP, terjadi pemanfaatan sumber daya darat yang cukup dominan berupa binatang dengan habitat hutan terbuka, yaitu Cervidae, Bovidae, Macaca sp., dan binatang kecil seperti Cercopithecidae, Rodentia dan Varanidae. Pada periode setelahnya, sekitar 900 BP, terjadi perubahan pemanfaatan sumber daya alam. Pemanfaatan sumber daya laut menjadi lebih dominan, yang sebagian besar diperoleh dari lingkungan perairan mangrove dan daerah pasang surut. Tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan antara lain pisang liar, padi liar, kelapa, umbi, dan penggunaan intensif tanaman Zingiberacea.
... For many features of objects, it is known how to map them to a certain time span, and even within this time span, frequency differences are known, resulting in probabilistic information. The mathematical procedure to develop such mappings, known as "seriation" was developed by Sir William Flinders Petri as early as the end of the 19th century (Renfrew and Bahn 2019), and today many such chronologies are available. ...
Article
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In some applications, only a coarsened version of a categorical outcome variable can be observed. Parametric inference based on the maximum likelihood approach is feasible in principle, but it cannot be covered computationally by standard software tools. In this article, we present two commands facilitating maximum likelihood estimation in this situation for a wide range of parametric models for categorical outcomes—in the cases both of a nominal and an ordinal scale. In particular, the case of probabilistic information about the possible values of the outcome variable is also covered. Two examples motivating this scenario are presented and analyzed.
... Identifikasi Nilai Penting Kawasan dan Rekomendasi4.1 Nilai Penting Kawasan Das Hovorit Cekungan KapuasSebelum membahas lebih jauh mengenai rekomendasi hasil penelitian ini, terdapat dua konsep yang harus kita pahami bersama, yaitu konsep 1) tinggalan arkeologi dan 2) cagar budaya. Tinggalan arkeologi dapat dimaknai sebagai sisa kebudayaan materi manusia masa lalu yang bertahan hingga masa kini, dapat berupa artefak, ekofak, dan fitur(Renfrew & Bahn, 2008). Sementara menurutUndang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2010 tentang Cagar Budaya, cagar budaya merupakan warisan kebendaan berupa benda, bangunan, struktur, situs, dan kawasan yang perlu dilestarikan keberadaannya karena memiliki nilai penting bagi sejarah, ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan, agama dan/atau kebudayaan melalui proses penetapan.Dari dua definisi tersebut, terdapat dua hal yang harus dipenuhi oleh suatu objek untuk dapat ditetapkan sebagai cagar budaya, yaitu memiliki nilai penting ata u arti khusus bagi sejarah, ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan, agama, dan/atau kebudayaan untuk suatu kelompok masyarakat serta melalui proses penetapan sesuai amanah undang-undang.Dalam penelitian ini, melalui studi pustaka terhadap penelitian -penelitian terdahulu dan diskusi kelompok terpumpun (DKT) yang diadakan pada tanggal 14 bulan Agustus 2020, kami berusaha mengidentifikasi nilai penting dari kawasan das Hovorit Cekungan Kapuas Hulu.a. ...
Research
We created a predictive model of potentials archaeological caves exists at the river flow area of Hovorit, Kapuas Hulu, West Borneo. The goal is to make a prediction of occupational area that we will explore in the next year field research.
... Scatters of fragmented pottery found on the surface are considered as archaeological proxies, evidence of past human activity, and indicators for sub-surface archaeological features [1,2]. As a non-destructive method, intensive surface survey has been widely adopted by archaeologists since the 1960s to record potsherds, lithics, and architectural features [3][4][5][6]. ...
Article
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Mapping surface ceramics through systematic pedestrian archaeological survey is considered a consistent method to recover the cultural biography of sites within a micro-region. Archaeologists nowadays conduct surface survey equipped with navigation devices counting, documenting, and collecting surface archaeological potsherds within a set of plotted grids. Recent advancements in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing analysis can be utilised to support such surface archaeological investigations. In this study, we have implemented two different artificial intelligence image processing methods over two areas of interest near the present-day village of Kophinou in Cyprus, in the Xeros River valley. We have applied a random forest classifier through the Google Earth Engine big data cloud platform and a Single Shot Detector neural network in the ArcGIS Pro environment. For the first case study, the detection was based on red–green–blue (RGB) high-resolution orthophotos. In contrast, a multispectral camera covering both the visible and the near-infrared parts of the spectrum was used in the second area of investigation. The overall results indicate that such an approach can be used in the future as part of ongoing archaeological pedestrian surveys to detect scattered potsherds in areas of archaeological interest, even if pottery shares a very high spectral similarity with the surface.
... The main objective of archaeology is to reconstruct the lifeways of the people responsible for the archaeological remains (Renfrew and Bahn 1991), and to synthesize the knowledge of human material remains from the past in the context of time and space, in order to recreate the history of man in its true cultural and physical environment (Krishna, et al' 1967). ...
Article
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Pottery production has been recognized as one of the ancient Tiv practices that have survived to this day. Therefore, whenever remains of pottery objects are identified at an archaeological site within the Tivland, they usually contain tangible information regarding the group that made and used them. This research is an ethnoarchaeological investigation of pottery tradition in Usambe community. The researcher uses ethnographic information on pottery production and usage in the area to infer about the cultural formation process, growth and advancement of the Tiv people that made and used clay wares found in fragments on the hills of Usambe. The results, however, align with the position of various scholars of Tiv tradition that the hills located in the present Usambe community are among the hills inhabited by the Tiv people during their exodus into the Benue Valley of Nigeria. Keywords: Ethnoarchaeology, Pottery making, Tivland, Usambe community.
... petit exemple représenté Fig. 3 est proposé dans Renfrew et Bahn (1991) pour illustrer cette démarche. Les tombes (C, B, D, G, A, E et F) sont réordonnées, selon un axe de présenceabsence des éléments de décor repérés par l'archéologue dans les sites de cette région ; cet ordre correspond probablement à l'ordre chronologique (direct ou inverse) d'invention puis d'abandon de ces créations artistiques. ...
Conference Paper
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AMADO online permet de visualiser et d'analyser des matrices de données (présence/absence, ou comptages, ou réponses sur des échelles, ou me-sures de variables hétérogènes) selon les principes de Jacques BERTIN. Les nombres sont représentés par des rectangles dont la surface leur est proportion-nelle. Pour mettre en évidence la structure des données, les lignes (et/ou les colonnes) peuvent être réordonnées à la main, ou automatiquement selon leurs coordonnées sur le premier axe factoriel de l'Analyse des Correspondances, ou en Composantes Principales, selon la nature des données ; une double Classification Ascendante Hiérarchique est disponible. Selon le cas, on obtient une sériation (chronologique par exemple), ou des blocs exacts ou approximatifs, ou des classes relativement homogènes. Ces graphiques sont fidèles aux données et faciles à lire. Le Guide de l'Utilisateur, en français et en anglais, détaille les commandes sur de nombreux fichiers d'exemples fournis avec l'outil. https://paris-timemachine.huma-num.fr/amado/
... 2 Feições são evidências de atividades humanas que não podem ser retiradas do contexto sem que sua forma seja destruída (buracos de estacas, sepultamentos, fogueiras, manchas de sedimento), desse modo, tal definição inclui tanto objetos como sedimentos (Kipfer, 2000;Renfrew & Bahn, 2016;. O conceito de estrutura atribui funcionalidade e significado a uma feição: " 'Feição' é entendido então como um termo mais genérico (...), que pode ser aplicado a qualquer elemento contextual da camada arqueológica, enquanto 'estrutura' implica que tal elemento contextual possa ser interpretado em termos de função" (Scheel-Ybert et al., 2020, p. 177). ...
Thesis
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Os sambaquis são a ocupação humana mais antiga e duradoura no litoral sul de Santa Catarina (7500-1500 cal AP). No entanto, a partir de 2000 cal AP, são observadas uma série de mudanças, como decrescimento da construção de sambaquis, alteração da composição estratigráfica -- com maior deposição de sedimento rico em matéria orgânica -- e maior variabilidade de sítios --, como os sambaquis tardios (sítios rasos) e sítios monticulares e conchíferos com cerâmica Itararé-Taquara, associada a grupos Jê do planalto. Ao mesmo tempo, também são observados elementos de continuidade, como a manutenção da arquitetura funerária na paisagem lagunar, nos processos construtivos, na dieta marinha e no conjunto artefatual lítico. Pesquisas anteriores indicam que as mudanças seriam resultado de fatores ambientais, como a remodelagem costeira, e processos culturais, como a migração de grupos Jê do planalto para o litoral ou interações entre grupos costeiros e do planalto. A partir do estudo de categorias de sítios pouco exploradas no litoral sul, em conjunto com o levantamento bibliográfico, documental e museológico, esta pesquisa buscou aprofundar o conhecimento sobre o contexto tardio ao investigar os processos de interação entre ambos os grupos, bem como a organização territorial Jê no litoral sul. São apresentados os dados da escavação de dois sambaquis tardios e um sítio com estruturas semissubterrâneas, a análise da cerâmica Itararé- Taquara de sítios monticulares e conchíferos, e modelos de mobilidade estimados entre os sítios ativos no período tardio. A sistematização de todos os dados possibilitou apresentar um refinamento da dispersão temporal, espacial e funcional dos sítios ativos entre 2000-500 cal AP, indicando mudanças nos padrões territoriais, verificadas pela ocupação de novos espaços, que passam a integrar a territorialidade tardia. Os sambaquis tardios investigados foram interpretados como locais de congregação social, enquanto pesquisas prévias indicam os sítios monticulares como locais de sepultamento de indivíduos de destaque no grupo, e os sítios conchíferos como áreas de ocupações temporárias. A partir da abordagem regional de longa duração, da perspectiva social da paisagem e da Arqueologia dos Encontros, esta tese propõe que os sambaquis tardios e sítios monticulares/conchíferos com cerâmica Itararé-Taquara são resultado de um longo e complexo processo de interação entre grupos do litoral e Jê, o que resultou na construção de novas materialidades, e na sua compreensão como lugares significativos e persistentes.
... Recently, however, this critical stage in the investigative process has been studied systematically and in depth, demonstrating both the widespread presence of evidence relating to this period and the ineffectiveness of traditional methods for the primary identification and characterization of archaeological contexts. Although reasonably effective for the detection of evidence relating to the comparatively robust material culture of some historical periods (Renfrew & Bahn, 2020), long-trusted methods have proved decidedly less successful in dealing with the more fragile material remains of the early mediaeval period, subject to decay and erosion by normal taphonomic processes over the passage of time (Campana, 2009;Ghisleni et al., 2011;Hamerow, 2005;Liebeschuetz, 2007;Vaccaro et al., 2013). Archaeological research in the last two decades has shown very clearly that across a large part of southern Europe the domestic and other buildings of the early mediaeval period relied largely on the use of readily decaying materials such as timber, clay and straw. ...
Article
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This article discusses the application and implications of magnetic prospection within two complex early mediaeval sites of the 5th–10th centuries BCE in northern Spain, at Aistra and Peña Amaya in the Upper Ebro Valley. In this period most sites displaying domestic and other forms of occupation present multifaceted and challenging problems due to the poor preservation of stratigraphic relationships in rural contexts and rarity and poor visibility of early mediaeval horizons in multi‐period urban sites. It is now widely acknowledged that extensive magnetic prospection, both in rural areas and in abandoned townscapes, can on a variety of sites facilitate the identification of domestic settlements, productive areas and monumental structures as well as the patterns of former roads, trackways and field boundaries. The two sites described here were selected to test this approach in the particular environment of the Ebro Valley and to draw any resulting conclusions about early mediaeval settlement in the area.
... 86 Yet the concepts of world systems theory have profoundly influenced postcolonial, globalization, and empire studies. 87 The discussion in ancient  Binford 1962;Clarke 1968;Renfrew and Bahn 1991;Wells 1992.  Bowman and Wilson 2009;Weaverdyck, ch. ...
... A university-level introductory textbook is a primer that provides instruction on the rudiments and basic skills of a branch of knowledge; it includes a systematic presentation of the fundamental vocabulary, analytical principles, methods and explanatory theories. Examples in archaeology include Fagan and DeCorse (2005), Kelly and Thomas (2017), and Renfrew and Bahn (2016). Advanced texts are those that assume the reader is a professional-has advanced training and/or experience-and knows and understands the fundamentals of a field of inquiry; thus the text focuses on nuances of methods and theories (e.g., Bentley et al., 2008;Goodale and Andrefsky 2015;Hodder 2012;Johnson 2020;Lucas 2012;Shennan 2008). ...
Article
Archaeological types have been derogatorily characterized as descriptive, but they must be descriptive in terms of pertinent attributes to be analytically useful. Classifying artifacts has long been (and still is) referred to as “pigeon holing” because some formal variation is masked by the categorization process. Recent discussions of the “tyranny of typologies” echo such concerns. Such caricatures may be the result of inadequate discussion of the hows and whys of archaeological systematics first in the classroom, and second in the professional literature. Seventy-four introductory university-level fundamentals of archaeology textbooks published between 1949 and 2017 devote an average of 2.7% of their pages to archaeological systematics; several recent advanced texts on archaeological method and theory include no discussion of archaeological systematics; over the last 100 years 51 programmatic books on zoological systematics have been published in contrast to eight programmatic volumes on archaeological systematics. After continuous growth since 1900 and a peak in the 1970s, the number of journal articles and book chapters on the programmatics of archaeological systematics published per decade has decreased over the past 40 years; the substantive literature seems to display the same trend. These data suggest reduced consideration by the discipline of the whys (ontologies) and hows (epistemologies) of archaeological systematics. Additional study of the substantive research literature—applications of typologies to particular sets of artifacts—may find discussion has shifted to this sort of venue. Hopefully the future will witness more extended discussions of systematics in new introductory textbooks, and discussions of the relevance of particular mechanics and specific theories of systematics with respect to archaeologists’ favored explanatory theories.
... What is the evidence for the Pleistocene? Renfrew and Bahn (2000) report a world population in the 5-20 million range at the end of the long Pleistocene. Cohen (1980 p. 275) estimates annual population growth of 0.001-0.003% ...
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Chapter
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Thesis
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The present text is the interpretation of an Archaeological landscape: the natural region of the Upper Paiva (Portugal) and was developed within the project “Upper Paiva – societies and strategies of settlement from prehistoric times to the middle ages”, coordinated by Domingos J. Cruz. It means to contribute, through a regional scale study, to develop the scientific knowledge of continuity/rupture that occurred in the area between Douro and Vouga rivers, throughout the Romanization period and early Middle Ages. By sketching the evolution of settlement a few question arose and some hypothetical explanations were set forth. By means of extensive methods an inventory of over one hundred sites was made, this was the base for the interpretative analysis. The Upper Paiva region, an upland complex, is not rich in resources and probably for that reason has been looked at as a marginal area during historical times. The ancient landscape was certainly ruled by ancestral rural rhythms and certainly pastoral, due to the favourable conditions that the region offers. In more troubled periods –like Late Antiquity and during boundary conflicts between Christians and Muslims– it was a place population fled to in search for security. Its peripheral character mustn’t, however, deceive us. This area was crossed by communication axis of roman and medieval periods through natural corridors that are outlined from the north to the south and from the west to the east. These routes allowed a regional and trans-regional circulation, in part proved by archaeological data. The romanization introduced a level of complexity not known to the indigenous communities, integrating them into a quite different society (universe): the Roman Empire. The proximity of water and roads seams to have influenced the localization of disperse settlement, whose territory includes some fertile lands and other less fertile and at a higher altitude, suggesting herding, agriculture and some foraging were used in complement. The Early Middle Ages are still quite unknown, but the gathered data allows us to think there was a certain tendency to cluster settlement and reoccupation of old hilltop settlements due to the troubled times. Herding was certainly the major economical activity, and agriculture was less important due to the soils inferior quality. From the eighth century on, christians marked the landscape with their rock carved graves, placed close to settlement area, in places that stand out and frequentely close to paths. These graves are found isolated or in groups forming small cemeteries, showing a dispersed settlement seeking water and fertile lands. This marginal area is not going to be appealing to the Islamic conquerors, though the importance of this territory seams to grow when the frontier between the Christian and Islamic worlds builds up next to the Douro margins. During that period Alto Paiva is probably an interesting place for those who seek refuge. Rudimentary defences are built by the population for moments of distress, some of these fortifications emerge close to the villages in high, easily tenable places. This study revealed a more humanized area than it was expected for such a barren territory that the writer Aquilino Ribeiro named “Terras do Demo” (“devil’s land”, because of the hard living conditions that people had to deal with) and poses a series of questions about the peopling of this region along the centuries, namely the more obscure period of Early Middle Ages.
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The last decades of archaeological work in Portugal showed an increase in the research of post-medieval contexts and an innate development of approaches related to the contacts from the overseas expansion and the process of globalisation. However, theoretical concepts such as given by cognitive archaeology express the lack of archaeological evidence for altered states of consciousness in the early modern period that only recently have started its chaîne operátoire. Thus, the present approach seeks to continue the debate on the altered state of consciousness concept within Archaeology redefining methodological support and to suggest how this area can be applied on early modern archaeological sites and assemblages from Portugal, but susceptible to application in other geographical regions.
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Age disparities between charcoal samples and their context are a well-known problem in archaeological chronometry, and even small offsets could affect the accuracy of high-precision wiggle-matched dates. In many cases of taphonomic or anthropogenic loss of the outermost rings, sapwood-based methods for estimating cutting dates are not always applicable, especially with charcoal. In these instances, wiggle-matched terminus post quem (TPQ) dates are often reconciled with subjective or ad hoc approaches. This study examines the distribution of age disparities caused by ring loss and other factors in a large dendroarchaeological dataset. Probability density functions describing the random distribution of age disparities are then fit to the empirical distributions. These functions are tested on an actual wiggle-matched non-cutting date from the literature to evaluate accuracy in a single case. Simulations are then presented to demonstrate how an age offset function can be applied in OxCal outlier models to yield accurate dating in archaeological sequences with short intervals between dated episodes, even if all samples are non-cutting dates.
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The purpose of this study is to present the current status of research into human remains excavated from archaeological sites in South Korea following its liberation from Japanese colonial rule, and to examine the improvements potentially needed to conduct adequate archaeological research on human remains in South Korea in the near future. Human remains, as archaeological data, can provide various types of information, such as the biological characteristics of past groups of people. They also provide direct data that can shed light on many aspects of cultural evolution, and discussions regarding how to properly use data from human remains excavated from archaeological sites in Korea are still in their preliminary stages. Continued developments in science and technology are expected to reveal more information than can currently be obtained from ancient human skeletal remains. To gather information on the cultures of ancient people, which is the ultimate goal of archaeology, there has to be a shared understanding that ancient human skeletal remains must be treated ethically before being viewed simply as potential sources of archaeological data. Further, to increase the value of the collected data, there is a need for a higher degree of interdisciplinary research through mutual collaboration with multiple archaeologists as well as other experts in the fields of anthropology, genetics, and biochemistry.
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The paper briefly interprets on the recommendations and positions on the possibility of conducting future, necessary and important archeological research in Karabakh where was liberated from Armenian occupation by Azerbaijani solders in September-November 2020 in accordance with the requirements of modern science. The article was written by the young researchers with prevailing noninvasive methods who are closely familiar with modern archaeological methodology with consideration of experience and errors of the previous years. The paper also discusses a general interpretation of modern methodology, modern technologies in archeological research of cities, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in archeology, restoration of research documents of past research (topography, drawings, profile descriptions) by modern digital technology, archeological excavations are rapidly changing. its role in integration into world reality. The authors focus on the possible ways and importance of the application of the achievements, experience and technologies of Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Japan and world science to the archeology of Karabakh in this paper. The main idea of the article is the involvement of multidisciplinary international staff and the application of interdisciplinary academic research, which is the most important condition of modern science. For achieving their goal, the authors studied the experience of foreign countries in this scientific area, assimilate it in accordance with the realities of Azerbaijan and consider it the main direction to apply it to the liberated Karabakh. The article's reference to recent sources, numerous descriptions, and extensive electronic sources stems from the requirements of archaeological methodology and modern science. This article is the first experience and opens a series that the authors plan to continue and disclose in their next works devoted to the topic of Karabakh archeology and current trends in archaeological science. Açar sözlər: Qarabağın arxeologiyası, müasir arxeoloji metodologiya, qeyri-müdaxilə üsulları, şəhər arxeologiyası, CİS, bərpa və arxeoloji parklar. XX yüzilliyin qanlı münaqişələrindən biri olan "Dağlıq Qarabağ" problemi və bunun nəticəsində ortaya çıxmış Ermənistan-Azərbaycan si-lahlı qarşıdurması, 2020-ci ilin sentyabr-noyabr aylarında Azərbaycan Res-publikasının silahlı qüvvələrinin həyata keçirdiyi əks-hücum və anti-terror hərəkatı və əməliyyatları sayəsində 29 il sonra beynəlxalq hüququn prinsip-ləri çərçivəsində həllini tapdı. İlk başlanğıcda Azərbaycanın Qarabağ bölgəsində milli zəmində baş vermiş narazılıq kimi qələmə verilən problem böyüyərək genişlənmiş və iki dövlət arasında müharibəyə çevrilmişdir (8, V). Bunun nəticəsində Azər-bay-can torpaqlarının 20%-ə yaxın ərazisini Ermənistan qoşunları işğal etdi, həm Ermənistan Respublikasından, həm də işğal olunmuş ərazilərdən qovulmuş qaçqın və məcburi köçkünlərin sayı bir milyona çatmış, münaqişədə 20 minə yaxın Azərbaycan vətəndaşı şəhid edilmiş, minlərlə ev, məktəb binaları, tə-sərrüfat sahələri, mədəniyyət ocaqları, tarixi və memarlıq abidələri, arxeoloji komplekslər, nadir təbii sərvətlər və qəbiristanlıqlar dağıdılmışdır (7; 6; 4.) Yuxarıda qeyd edilənlərə əsaslanaraq tam əminliklə söyləmək olar ki, Azərbaycan Respublikasının işğaldan azad olunmuş torpaqlarında həyata keçiriləcək elmi-tədqiqat və axtarışlar öz spesifikliyi və qəlizliyi ilə ölkəmi-zin digər ərazilərində aparılmış araşdırmalardan köklü surətdə fərqlənəcək-2 MANIHDA Olha V., PhD, Researcher at dep. of Kyiv archaeology, head of the Group for Archaeological Geoinformational Researches (Group A_GIS), the Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Stalingrada avе., 12, Kyiv, 04210, Ukraine. ORCID: 0000-0001-9819-8059, (manigda_olga@iananu.org.ua) SƏLİMBƏYOV Şahin A., AMEA Arxeologiya və Etnoqrafiya İnstitutu, Elmi-Ekspozisiya şöbəsinin əməkdaşı, Göytəpə qədim yaşayış məskəninin arxeoloji heyətinin üzvü, ORCID: 0000-0003-4518-6665, (salimbeyov@yahoo.com) ZAMANOV Orxan A., AMEA Arxeologiya və Etnoqrafiya İnstitutu və Xəzər Universiteti Tarix və Arxeologiya departamentinin əməkdaşı və müəllimi, elmi işçi, ORCID: 0000-0001-9367-6736, (ordukaqan@yahoo.com)
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The aim of this paper is to highlight the main benefits of using the Qfield app in archaeological jobs. In particular this article provides examples to use Qfield in open area excavation, Archaeological survey and impact assessment (HIA) projects.
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Human activity are always carried out in the context of the geographical environment. On the one hand, the geographical context causes changes in human culture and action, and on the other hand, human beings make changes in the natural environment with their culture and technology in order to adapt and overcome environmental constraints. In fact, over time, human beings, by increasing their knowledge of the environment, try to establish their settlements in the places that environmental conditions are suitable and increase the productivity of its landscape. The study of the location of ancient settlements in the natural landscape leads to the discovery of environmental potentials and the way of life systems of their inhabitants. Due to the limitations and potentials of the region's ecology, we will see different spatial types of sites in the landscape. The main question of the research is about the relationship and role of environmental factors in the location of settlements pattern of Parthian sites in Khousf County in the eastern margin of Lut desert. This research have been done by descriptive-analytical method and for data analysis and distribution pattern, GIS and SPSS software have been used with correlation and cluster analysis methods. The results show that due to the lack of permanent water resources in the region, access to sustainable water resources (Qanat) has been the most important factor in the formation of settlements in this period. After water sources, slope and soil type are other important factors in the formation of Parthian sites. Therefore, cluster analysis showed that two patterns, including a relatively large local center and a number of small villages around it, can be identified.
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The book addresses the century old debate about the origin of Protobulgarians and thus - contemporary Bulgarians. It includes information about most academic research carried about the question and for the first time combines genetic data gathered to the present moment with the massive archaeological data existing in the field.
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The development of digital technologies and the use of advanced photogrammetry programs for modeling archaeological excavations and sites have opened new possibilities for spatial analysis in archaeology and the reconstruction of archaeological contexts. In addition, these tools allow us to visually preserve the features of archaeological sites for future use and facilitate the dissemination of archaeological heritage to local communities and the general public. This paper summarizes 3D photographic visualization of three cave art sites (Los Cayucos and Cueva No. 1 in Punta del Este, Cuba, and José María Cave in the Dominican Republic) and two burial spaces (Canímar Abajo and Playa del Mango, Cuba) using photogrammetry software. The application of these novel methods at the cave art sites allowed us to visualize faint pictographs that were invisible to the naked eye, to better define the shapes of petroglyphs and to reconstruct the position of lost/removed panels. At the burial sites, 3D modeling allowed us to register the archaeological context with greater precision. The use of 3D modeling will improve spatial analysis and data safeguarding in Cuban archaeology. Moreover, 3D movies are an effective way to disseminate knowledge and connect local communities with their cultural heritage, while reducing the impact of public visits to remote or endangered sites.
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The predominant interpretation of reciprocating grinding tools is generally couched in terms of low archaeological value, anonymity, simplicity, functionality and daily life of women. It is argued that biased opinions and a low form-variability have conspired to deny grinding tools all but superficial attention. Saddle-shaped grinding tools appear in the archaeological record in middle Sweden at the time of the Mesolithic — Neolithic transition. It is argued that Neolithic grinding tools are products of intentional design. Deliberate depositions in various ritual contexts reinforce the idea of grinding tools as prehistoric metaphors, with functional and symbolic meanings interlinked.
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