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Impact of agribusiness on food security and livelihood generation: A case study in Assam, India

Abstract and Figures

Assam is predominantly a rural phenomenon, stemming principally from underperformance of the agriculture sector and lack of alternative employment avenues mainly in the rural areas. Decadal growth rate of population of Assam reflected a per square increase trend of population in the state. With increase population people below poverty line started increasing and average size of holding started to decrease. Area, Production and average yield of food grains in Assam found stagnant for a long period as a result per day per capita availability of most of the food grains found decreasing for the state. The study revealed that Assam has deficit in fish and livestock products as per nutritional demand. But has potentiality in horticultural crops. So to maintain the food security and livelihood to the people of Assam transition of agribusiness is very much required which will include cultivation of high yielding crop varieties, mechanization of agriculture, development of contact farming, establishment of food processing industry and development of cooperative fish and livestock farming in the state.
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH C OMM UNICATION CENTRE
www.arccj ournals.co m
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: sborah007@gmail.com
Impact of agribusiness on food security and livelihood generation: A case study
in Assam, India
Sangita Borah*
Assam Rajiv Gandhi University of Cooperative Management,
Sivasagar-785 640, Assam, India.
Received: 02-01-2018 Accepted: 08-02-2018 DOI: 10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1341
ABSTRACT
Assam is predominantly a rural phenomenon, stemming principally from underperformance of the agriculture sector and
lack of alternative employment avenues mainly in the rural areas. Decadal growth rate of population of Assam reflected a
per square increase trend of population in the state. With increase population people below poverty line started increasing
and average size of holding started to decrease. Area, Production and average yield of food grains in Assam found stagnant
for a long period as a result per day per capita availability of most of the food grains found decreasing for the state. The
study revealed that Assam has deficit in fish and livestock products as per nutritional demand. But has potentiality in
horticultural crops. So to maintain the food security and livelihood to the people of Assam transition of agribusiness is very
much required which will include cultivation of high yielding crop varieties, mechanization of agriculture, development of
contact farming, establishment of food processing industry and development of cooperative fish and livestock farming in
the state.
Key words: Agribusiness development, Employment opportunity, Food availability, Population growth.
INTRODUCTION
Indiahasbeenranked74inthelistof113countries
in the Global Food Security Index on September, 2017. India
expected to become the most populous country in the world
by 2025, feeding the population is likely to be one of the
serious challenges that the country will face in the coming
decades (GFSI, 2017).
Assamisoneof the importan t states of North
Eastern region of India, where agriculture is the mainstay of
economy that accounts for 40 percent of state domestic
product. (Dikshit K.R. et al, 2014).
Just after independence, the state had enough food
for the population, which gradually decreased until 1981-
83. But, after 1981-83, the per capita availability of food
grainshadincreasedgraduallyduetouseofmodernpractices
of cultivation viz., high yielding varieties, fertilizers, etc.
which led to increase in production. Nevertheless, this
increase could not surpass the normative requirement of total
food grains. Thus, alth ough per capita availability of
totalcerealswas mar ginall y h igher t han th e norma tive
requirement, the state remained food deficit state since 1961-
63 to 2000-02. (Borthakur et al, 2015).
According to the 19th Livestock Census 2012 total
livestock population of Assam is 19.08 million, the cattle
populat ion constitutes the largest group with 54.02%
followed by goat population 32.23% and pig 8.5%. Mostly
indigenous population of livestock is prevalent in the state.
Assam fishery sector contribute more than 2% of
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) to the state economy
and plays an important role in providing livelihood to a
significant population of the state. The state of Assam has
an excellent sub-tropical climate for the development of fresh
water fish culture in 3.91 lakh ha of water area an addition
of 1.58 lakh hectares of paddy field area. (Budhin Gogoi et
al, 2015) The state stan ds 6th in inland fish production in
the country and contributes around 73% of fish production
to the regions total fish production. The vast fishery resources
existing in the state need to be exploited properly and
carefully adopting scientific fish farmin g to enhan ce
productivity. However, the fisheries potential of these
resources is still underutilized.
The Planning Commission observes that poverty
in Assam is predominantly a rural phenomenon, stemming
principally from underperformance of the agriculture sector
and lack of alternative employment avenues mainly in the
rural areas. (One World Foundation India, 2011) To increase
the food security status and livelihood for people of Assam
transition of agribusiness is very important in an immediate
effect to increase value addition of the raw agricultural
commodities and to create a link between farmers and process
food producers to increase agricultural contribution towards
GDP of the state. Present Study is conducted to understand
the importance of transition of agribusiness for food security
and livelihood generation of Assam.
Asian J. Dairy & Food Res, 37(1 ) 2018 : 41-49
Print ISSN:0971-44 56 / Online ISSN:09 76-05 63
42 ASIAN JOURNAL OF DAIRY AND FOOD RESEARCH
Objectives of the study:
1. To study the growth of population and per capita
availability of food in Assam
2. To study the livelihood generation and employment status
in the state
3. To study the opportunity of agribusiness in food security
and employment generation activities
DATA AND METHODOLOGY
Th e study was condu ct ed to under sta nd the
importance of transition of agribusiness for food security
and livelihood generation in Assam. The study was purely
based on secondary data collected from various published
sources including journals, books and conference papers of
different organizations working with food security, livelihood
ge n er ation , cr op prod uctio n sta t i s tics, rec ords of
agribusinesses etc.
Various tabular and percentage meth ods were
applied to present the collected data in a proper way. Along
with that various graphical representations were also made
to develop a clear picture of entire study.
CGR: Compound growth rates were computed by fitting
the exponential function.
The exponential functional form is
yt = abt
Or logyt = log a + t log b
The CGR was worked out as,
r = (antilog ‘b’ -1) × 100
Where, yt= Dependant variable
a = Intercept
b = Regression co-efficient
t = Time period in year
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. GROWTH OF POPULATION AND PER CAPITA
AVAILABILITY OF FOOD IN ASSAM
1.1 Population growth trend of Assam and India 1991-
2001 and 2001-2011: From the decadal growth rate of
population of Assam and India it was clearly reflected that
population of Assam and the whole country was observed to
be increasing in a decreasing trend. This decrease trend of
population observed in the country and the state of Assam
was due to increase awareness among the people about the
negativity of increase population. Similarly with increase
educational standard people are more aware about economic
standard of living in the individual level. Table 1 reveals
that total increase population recorded under census 2001
and 2011 was 45, 13, 744 nos for Assam and 18, 14, 55,986
nos for India as a whole.
1.2 Population density of Assam from 1901-2011:Table 2
reflects the population density of Assam from the year 1901
to 2011. It was recognized from the Table that growth of
population from 1901 to 2011 was 8.56 per cent and density
of population was 4.04 per cent. Per square increase tr end
of population found to be the reason behind the increase
populous situation of Assam and at the same time will be the
reason behind increase demand for food commodity in the
state.
1.3 Comparative statement on percentage of population
below poverty line in Assam: TENDULKAR Methodology
reflected that percentage of population below poverty line
in Assam from the year 2004-05 to 2011-12 was remained
to be stagnant for both rural and urban categories. That
stagnant poverty standard indicated a prevaili ng food
insecurity situation in the state. Table 3 reveals that from the
year 2004-05 to 2009-10 percentage of BPL in Assam was
increased from 34.40 percent to 37.9 percent. While for the
year 2011-12 it was observed to be decreased to 31.98
percent due to implementation of various schemes by the
government for food security and livelihood generation.
1.4 No. of operational holdings since 1970 - 71 to 2010 –
11 in Assam: Fig 1 presented the no of operational holding
since 1970-71 to 2010-11 in Assam. The operational holding
size of land was found to be stagnant in the long 40 years.
While the entire period of 1970 -2011 revealed an increase
population of 146 lakh to 312 lakh in the state. Increase
populat ion and stagnant operational holding for food
production may be the main reasons for export of food
commodities from the other states to meet the domestic
demand.
1.5 Average size of holdings (in hectares) since 1970
71 to 2010 – 11 in Assam: Average size of holding since
1970-71 to 2010-11 in Assam presented in the Fig 2. From
the fig a continuous decrease of average size of holding
from 1.47 ha to 1.1 ha was observed durin g the whole
period. Recorded increase population (146 la kh to 312
lakh) and decrease average size of holding (1970-71 to
2010-11) leading to an increase food production pressure
in the limited land areas.
1.6 Area, production and average yield of total food
grainsinAssamfrom2007-08to2015-16:Fig 3 reveals
the area, production and average yield of total food grains
in Assam from 2007-08 to 2015-16. From the fig area under
total food grains throughout the period was observed to be
stagnant, while production showing a slightly increasing
Table 1: Population growth trend of Assam and India 1991-2001 and 2001-2011
Items Total Population Total increase Percentage Decadal Growth Average annual ExponentialGrowth
2001 2011 from 2001-2011 1991-2001 2001-2011 1991-2001 2001-2011
Assam 2,66,55 ,528 3,11,69,2 72 45,13,744 18.92 16.93 1.75 1.58
India 1,02,87,37,436 1,21,01,93,422 18,14,55,986 21.54 17.64 1.97 1.64
Source: (Census of India, 2011)
Volume 37 Issue 1, 2018 43
Table 2: Population density of Assam from 1901-2011.
Years Population (in Lakh) Density (Person per Sq. Km)
1901 33 42
1911 38 49
1921 46 59
1931 56 71
1941 67 85
1951 80 102
1961 10 8 138
1971 14 6 186
1981 180* 230
1991 22 4 286
2001 26 6 340
2011 312 397
CGR 8.56 4.04
*Interpolated, Source: (Census of India, 2011)
Table 3: Comparative statement on percentage of population
below poverty line in Assam.
Years Using TENDULKAR Methodology (Poverty
Headcount Ratio)
2004-05 Rural 36.40
Urban 21.80
Combined 34.40
2009-10 Rural 39.9
Urban 26.1
Combined 37.9
2011-12 Rural 33 .89
Urban 20.49
Combined 31.98
Source: NSS
Fig 1: No of operational Holding
Fig 2: Average size of holding
trend in the entire periods. Similarly no change was reflected
in the average yield of th e food grains during th e whole
period.
1.7 Per capita per day availability (in Gram) of food
between 2000- 01 and 2010-11 in Assam: It is observed
from the Table 4 that per capita per day availability of most
of the food crops was found decreasing from 2000-01 to
2010-11. Only fruits (10 per cent) spice (27 per cent) and
vegetables (53 per cent) reflected an increasing trend of
availability during the whole period. A recorded decrease
trend of essential dietary food grains seems to be a reason
for development of food insecurity situation in the state for
44 ASIAN JOURNAL OF DAIRY AND FOOD RESEARCH
Fig 3: Area, Production and Average Yield of total food grains in Assam.
Table 4: Per capita per day availability (in kg) of food between 2000- 0 1 and 2 010-11 in Assam.
Food Crops Per Capita Per Da y Availability (in kg) PercentageIncrease/ D ecrease
2000-01 2010-11 Between Periods
Total Rice 0.408 0.397 Decreased by 2 percent
Wheat 0.088 0.059 Decreased by 33 percent
Total Pu lses 0.069 0.060 Decreased by 13 percent
Total Food Grains 0.425 0.410 Decreased by 4 percent
Rape & Mustard 0.101 0.096 Decreased by 18 percent
Total Oilseeds 0.408 0.397 Decreased by 31 percent
Sugarcan e 0.088 0.059 Decreased by 5 percent
Potato 0.068 0.059 Decreased by 11percent
Fruits 0.127 0.139 Increased by 10 percent
Spice 0.015 0.019 In creased by 27 percent
Vegetables 0.252 0.389 Increased by 53 percent
Source: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in
the later period. As flood was proved to be a serious disaster
of Assam from a long time back a decrease production level
in most of th e food crops may be the negative impact of
flood in those crops. Farmers are mostly found to be attracted
towards cultivation of fruits, vegetables and spices instead
of other food grain crops as it requires less investment along
with less land areas to get good returns within a very short
period of time.
1.8 Milk production and per capita availability of milk
in Assam from 2001-02 to 2015-16: Table 5 reflects the
milk production and per capita availability of Milk in Assam
from 2001-02 to 2015-16. Durin g the whole per iod
compound growth rate of milk production and per capita
availability of milk was recorded to be 1.31 per cent and -
0.18 per cent respectively. Negative growth rate of per capita
availability of milk for the entire fifteen years reflected the
severe food insecurity status in the entire state as milk
availability was obser ved to be far below the ICMR
recommended milk requirement norms of 208 ml per head
per day.
1.9 Status of fish production in Assam and import of fish
from outside the state: Table 6 has shown the status of Fish
production and import of fish from outside the state. Fish
production was found increasing from the year 2008-09 to
2015-16 (2.07 lakh ton to 2.97 lakh ton), while import of
fish decreased slightly in the entire period. This means fish
production and availability of fish on demand is moving in a
positive trend in the state. From the record of Department of
Fisheries Assam in 2015-16, per capita consumption of fish
in the state was found 9 kg, while present nutritional demand
per capita was 11 kg for the state. As a result a deficit of
0.34 lakh ton fish was observed for the period. To maintain
the buffer stock of fish as per consumption demand, fish
production level should increase every year as per the
requirement.
2.LIVELIHOOD GENERATION AND EMPLOYMENT
STATUS IN THE STATE
Livelihood strategies include how people combine
their income generating activities, the way in which they
use their assets, which assets they choose to invest in, how
they man age to preserve existing asset s a nd income
(Department for International Development, DFID). The
most common livelihood activity in rural Assam is self
employed. Among the two categories of self employed-
agriculture and non agriculture, the percentage of self
employed in agriculture is higher than the non agriculture.
2.1 Sector-wise compound Annual Growth Rate of Rural
Employment (UPSS) in Assam and India: 1993-94 to
2011-12: Table 7 reflects the sector-wise growth rate of rural
employment in Assam and India from 1993-94 to 2011-12.
Volume 37 Issue 1, 2018 45
Table 7: Sector-wise compound annual growth rate of rural employment (UPSS) in Assam and India: 1993-94 to 2011-12.
Industry 1993-94 to 2004-05 2004-05 to 2011-12
Assam India Assam India
1. Agriculture and Allied a ctivities 2.05 0.76 -3.45 -2.30
2. Mining and Quarrying 6.95 -0.31 -8.62 -1.26
3. Manufacturing 1.46 3.02 9.44 0.85
4. Electricity, water, gas etc -7.98 1.52 -23.92 2.12
5. Construction 16.64 9.03 16.88 14 .25
6. Trade, hotels and Restaurants 5.47 5.13 5.56 0.78
7. Transport, storage and communication 9.20 7.58 4.59 2.03
8. Finance, insurance, real estate and business 2.70 6.84 15.91 5.52
services
9. Community, social and personal services 3.22 -0.31 1.52 3.07
Non-farm [(ii) to ( ix)] 4.89 3.93 6.19 4.43
Source: NSS
Table 5: Milk production and per capita availability of milk in
Assam (gms/day).
Years Milk Production Per Capita Availability
(000’ tonnes) of Milk (gms/day)
2001-02 682 70
2002-03 705 71
2003-04 727 71
2004-05 739 72
2005-06 747 72
2006-07 750 71
2007-08 752 70
2008-09 753 70
2009-10 756 69
2010-11 790 71
2011-12 796 70
2012-13 800 69
2013-14 815 69
2014-15 829 70
2015-16 843 70
CGR 1.31 -0.1 8
Source: NDDB
Table 6: Status of fish production in Assam and import of fish
from outside the state.
Year Fish Production in Fish Imported from outside
Assam( Lakh Tone) the State (Lakh Tone)
2008-09 2.07 0.19
2009-10 2.18 0.19
2010-11 2.32 0.18
2011-12 2.44 0.17
2012-13 2.54 0.16
2013-14 2.67 0.12
2014-15 2.82 0.16
2015-16 2.97 0.17
CGR 5.22 -3.41
Source: Deptt.of fisheries, Assam
It was observed from the Table that compound growth rate
of rural employment in agriculture and allied activities during
the period 1993-94 to 2004-05 was 2.05 percent for Assam
and 0.76 per cent for the entir e India. On the other hand
fr om 2004-05 to 2011-12 the growth r ate of rur a l
employment declines drastically recorded -0.34 per cent for
Assam and -2.30 per cent for the whole country dur ing the
period. Similarly negative growth rate of employment was
observed in mining and quarrying in the state Assam and
country as a whole. Manufacturing, Finance, insurance, real
estate and business services recorded positive compound
growth rate of employment in the state. While electricity,
water, gas etc recorded continuous negative growth rate of
employment from 1993-94 to 2011-12. Other sectors like
Construction, Trade, hotels and Restaurants, Transport,
Storage, communication, Community, social and personal
services reflected a positive and almost constant growth in
the entire periods. Table signified that construction and
business services takin g the main role in creati on of
employment opportunity and livelihood to rural youth.
2.2 Unemployment rate in Rural and Urban areas on
usual status basis during 2004-05, 2009-10 and 2011-12
in Assam: Table 8 reveals a continuous increase (2.6 per
cent to 4.5 per cent) unemployment rate in the rural areas
and decreased unemployment rate (7.2 per cent to 5.6 per
cent) in urban areas of Assam from the year 2004-05 to 2011-
12. This is due to the fact that engagement in agriculture and
all i ed activi t ies ar e con t in uou s ly decl i n i n g wh i l e
manufacturing and service sector started contributing more
towards employment generation in the State.
2.3 Per Capita Income of Assam from 1960-61 to 2014-
15 (in Rupees): Per capita income of Assam both in current
price and constant price from 1960-61 to 2014-15 presented
in Fig 4. It has seen from the figure that per capita income at
current prices increases continuously with a positive and fast
growth trend, while per capita income in constant price
showing a slow growth of increasing trend for the state. This
reflected that only nominal income increases but real income
not increases at a faster rate causing a stagnant livelihood
standard among most of the people of Assam.
3. OPPORTUNITY OF AGRIBUSINESS IN FOOD
SECURITY AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATION
ACTIVITIES
Achieving food security for all requires investing
more in rural employment and rural workforce development.
From FAO statistics it was observed that people may spend
46 ASIAN JOURNAL OF DAIRY AND FOOD RESEARCH
Framework of a typical agribusiness production chain
(JICA, 2015)
Producers
Input Suppliers
Agro industry
Wholesale
Retail
Consumers
Fig 4: Per Capita Income of Assam from 1960-61 to 2014-15 (in Rupees).
as much as 70 percent of their income on food an increase in
personal income can have immediate effects on household
food security. If this income was sourced from secure
working arrangements, households will gain in consumption
stability and quality of life. Agribusiness had a large and
rising share of GDP across developing countries. The
majority of agro-enterprises are small, located in rural towns,
and operated by households that often have wage labour and
farming as additional sources of income. Small and medium
agro-enterp rises (SMAEs) play a critical role in driving
the modernization of the agricultural subsector s. (FAO
report, 2016)
In large parts of the developing world the potential
of agro-enterprises remains unexploited. Smallholder farms
remain trapped in a cycle of subsistence for two main reasons.
Firstly, their yields are too low to generate marketable
surpluses due to a lack of access to modern technology,
information and production factors. Secondly, they cannot
get their produce to markets because of weak infrastructure
and missing linkages between farm-level production and
down-stream activities such as processing and marketing.
However, the agriculture sector remains the backbone of
economic activity, employment and livelihoods in developing
countries. Strengthening the sector and adding value to
agricultural commodities are instrumental in enhancing food
security, stimulating economic growth and reducing poverty
in a sustainable manner. (3ADI, report)
Agripreneurship is solution to many economic
problems like urbanization, poverty, unemployment and low
econ omic growth . This situ ation can be cha nged by
generating employment opportunities in rural areas through
agribusiness
3.1 Potential horticultural crops in different districts of
agro-climatic zones of Assam: Table 9 indicates potential
horticult ura l crops that cultivated in different agro
Table 8: Unemployment rate in Rural and Urban areas on usual
status basis during 2004-05, 2009-10 and 2011-12 in
Assam.
years Items Un employment rate
2004-05 Rural 2.6
Urban 7.2
2009-10 Rural 3.9
Urban 5.2
2011-12 Rural 4.5
Urban 5.6
Source: NSS
Volume 37 Issue 1, 2018 47
Table 9: Potential Horticultural Crops in different districts of Agro-Climatic Zones of Assam.
Agro-Climatic Zones Potential Horticultural Crops Grown Districts/Areas
North Ban k Plain Zone Banana, Potato, Vegetables, Lemon, Orange Darrang, Sonitpur, Dhemaji,
Lakhimpur
Upper Brahamputra Valley Zone Banana, Potato, Vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Areca nut, Sibsagar, Tinsukia, Dibrugarh,
Jackfruit, Pineapple, Guava, Litchi, Mango Jorhat, Golaghat.
Central Brahamputra Valley Zone Banana, Potato, Vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Areca nut, Nogaon, Morigaon, Kamrup
Jackfruit, Pineapple, Guava, Litchi, Mango.
Lower Brahamputra Valley Zone Banana, P otato, Vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Areca nu t, Nalbari, Barpeta, Bongaigaon,
Jackfruit, Pineapple, Guava, Litchi, Mango Kokrajhar, Goalpara, Dhubri
Barak Valley Valley Zone Banana, Potato, Vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Areca nut, Cachar, Karinganj, Hailakandi
Jackfruit, Pineapple, Guava, Litchi, Mango
Source: Report on Value chain analysis of selected crops in NE by SFAC
Table 10: Requirement and Availability Livestock Products in Assam from 2009 -10 to 2013-14.
years Milk(million ltr) Egg(million nos) Meat(000’tonnes)
Requirement Availability Requirement Availability Requirement Availability
2009-10 2286 830(36.3) 5414 486(9.0) 330 33(10.0)
2010-11 2308 833(37 .1) 5474 470(8.6) 334 34(10.2)
2011-12 2338 838(37 .1) 5542 471(8.5) 336 35(10.4)
2012-13 2395 845(35.3) 5677 471(8.3) 347 37(10.7)
2013-14 2423 857(35.4) 5744 472(8.2) 351 38.3(10.9)
Figure in bracket shows the ‘Availability” to “Total Requirement”
Source: Directorate of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Assam
Fig 5: Total fish production and import from other side in Assam
climatic zones of Assam. It was observed that Banana, Potato,
Vegetables, Lemon, Orange etc. were the main potential
crops that can cultivate well in entire Assam. Similarly Areca
nut, Jackfruit, Pineapple, Guava, Litchi, and Mango has
established their potentiality in most of the zones of Assam.
Potentiality of the listed horticultural crops has reflected
scope of development of food processing industry in different
zones leading to development of increase livelihood standard
and food security in the state.
3.2 Requirement and availability livestock products in
Assam from 2009-10 to 2013-14: Table 10 pointed out the
gap between requir ement and availability of livestock
products in Assam from 2009-10 to 2013-14. Here from the
Table we can clearly identified that all the livestock items
were under deficit situation and for that we need to have
import those items to maintain the minimum availability of
dietary requirement in the state. From 2009-10 to 2013-14
the availability of Milk and Egg decreased from 36.3 to 35.4
per cent and 9.0 to 8.2 per cent. On the other hand, Meat
signified a stagnant state of availability throughout the period.
This stagnancy has created some level of gap in requirement
and availability of livestock products for a long period. For
removal of gap in food requirement and availability along
with maintenance of nutritional security in the state Livestock
business may develop employment opportunity for balancing
nutritional standard and livelihood to people of Assam.
Similarly, that will reduce import of livestock products from
other states of the country and finally leads to economic
growth.
3.3 Total fish production and import from other side in
Assam from 2008-09 to 2013-14: Fig 5 reflects total fish
production and imported total fish to Assam from 2008-09
48 ASIAN JOURNAL OF DAIRY AND FOOD RESEARCH
to 2013-14. This signified that total fish production in the
state was not found sufficient to maintain availability of fish
in the state. As a result a large quantity of fish needs to import
from other parts of the country to maintain availability and
food security in the state. Even though the fish imported
from other part of the country declined slightly, still th ere
was a huge gap in requirement and availability of fish in the
state. Considering the fact fish farming business may be a
profit gainful business for Assam as this will increase total
production of fish and simultaneously can reduce investment
in import of fish from other sides.
3.4 Post harvest processing and value addition for loss
management and livelihood generation: Crop production
immediately follows harvesting. After harvest fresh Fruits
and Vegetables including r oot crops are mostly perishable
in nature. They begin to deteriorate immediately after its
separation from the parent plant and suffer considerable
losses during the process of Marketing.
These losses may be of following nature:-
1. Quality downgrading due to handling
2. Physiological spoilage (rooting and sprouting)
3. Pathological Spoilage from pest and diseases
4. Oversupply to markets
Main Reason of Post Harvest Losses:-
1. Inadequate or Inappropriate application of proper Post
Harvest Practices.
2. Improper production planning.
On the Other hand, Value Addition in Horticulture
is the process in which a high price is realized for the same
volume of a primar y product, by means of processing,
packing, upgrading the quality or other such methods.
From the Table 9 we came to know that Assam has
potentiality in production of various horticultural crops in
the different agro climatic zones. On the basis of availability
of production of raw fruits various processing industry can
develop for minimize crop loss and for better return to the
producers.
CONCLUSION
Inequitable distribution of food among different
segments of the population is one of the major factors
responsible for under-nourishment in India. Low levels of
income prevent households from substituting the nutritional
value of cereals with increased consumption of fruits and
vegetables, milk, meat, fish, etc. (Kumar et al, 2016).
From the decadal growth rate of population of
Assam and India it was clearly reflected that population of
Assam and the whole country was observed to be increasing
in a decreasing trend. Growth of population from 1901 to
2011 was 8.56 per cent and density of population was 4.04
per cent for Assam. From the perspective of TENDULKAR
Methodology poverty standard for both rural and urban
people of Assam was stagnant for 2004-05 to 2011-12.
Similarly, operational holding was observed to be stagn ant
from the year 1970-7 1 to 2010-11. Wh ile popul ation
increases from 146 lakh to 312 lakh during that period. On
the other hand, average size of holding decreases from 1.47
to 1.1 ha. This continuous rise of population and decrease
average size of holding reflected an increase food production
pressure in the limited land area. Area, production and
average yield of total food grains in Assam have shown a
constant growth for a long time. On the other hand per capita
per day availability of most of the food crops was found
decreasing from 2000-01 to 2010-11. Only fruits (10 per
cent) spice (27 per cent) and vegetables (53 per cent)
reflected an increasing trend of availability during the whole
period. Constant per capita availability of milk for the last
fifteen years (2001-02 to 2015-16) causing the severe food
insecurity status in the entire state as milk availability was
observed to be far below the ICMR recommended milk
requirement n orms of 208 ml per head per day. From the
record of Department of Fisheries Assam in 2015-16, per
capita consumption of fish in the state was found 9 kg, while
present nutritional demand per capita was 11 kg for the state.
As a result a deficit of 0.34 lakh ton fish was identified for
the period. To maintain the buffer stock of fish as per
consumption demand, fish production level should increase
every year as per the requirement.
Sector-wise growth rate of rural employment in
Assam and India from 1993-94 to 2011-12 r eflected that
employment opportunity in the non farm sector increases
continuously while employment in farm sector revealed a
drastic negative growth throughout the period. With decrease
involvement of people in farming activities unemployment
rate in the rural areas of Assam was continuously increasing
(2.6 per cent to 4.5 per cent) from the year 2004-05 to 2011-
12. On the other hand unemployment rate in the urban areas
observed to be decreasing (7.2 per cent to 5.6 per cent) as
with increase employment opportunity in nonfarm sectors.
As per the employment level per capita income at current
prices increases continuously with a positive and fast growth
trend, while per capita income in constant price showing a
slow growth of increasing trend for the state.
Achieving food security for all requires investing
more in rural employment and rural workforce development.
Agripreneurship is solution to many economic problems like
urbanization, poverty, unemployment and low economic
growth (Bairwa et al, 2014). This situation can be changed
by generating employment opportunities in rural areas
through agribusiness. From the study it was reflected that
Assam has potentiality in cultivation of horticultural crops.
In that purpose the state has chances for development of
food processing industry in the area. This will lead to increase
employment opportunity and reduce post harvest loss for
most of the horticultural crops in the state. Similarly,
Volume 37 Issue 1, 2018 49
agribusiness opportunity was observed both in livestock and
fishery sectors in Assam for bringing employment opportunity
and maintaining nutritional food availability in the state.
The main policy implication includes:
The study revealed that with increase population density
of population increases and average size of holding decreases
continuously in the state. In that situation food production
pressure was found more in the limited lan d area. So to
maintain the food security level with increase population
high yielding varieties of crop must need to include for
cultivation.
It was observed from the study that employment in nonfarm
sectors continuously increasing, while farm sectors reflected
a decreasing trend of employment in Assam. So to increase
employment in farm sectors mechanisation of farming is very
important along with development of contact farming system
with industries and farmers. This will lead to secure crop
production by the farmers and will get actual remuneration
for their farming.
As per the record Assam has potentiality in horticultural
crop production so with development of food processing
industry state can develop employment opportunity to the
people of Assam. At the same time it will reduce post harvest
loss for farm commodities.
Assam has found deficit in fish and livestock products
availability as per consumption demand and as per dietary
requirement for food security. In that sense, to maintain buffer
stock for nutritional demand of fish and livestock products
Cooperative Fish Farming and Livestock Farming may
encourage for food security and livelihood generation.
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and Rural Development in India”. M.R.F. Publication, Varanasi. PP 422–425. ISBN 978-81-926935-6-9
Borthakur et al, (2015): “Food security status of Assam: an analysis across agro-climatic zones” published in Annals of Agri Bio
Research,201520(2): 219-223
Budhin Gogoi, Akash Kachari, Rashmi Dutta, A. Darshan, Debangshu Narayan Das.,(2015): “Fishery based livelihood approaches
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One World Foundation India, 2011: Livelihood generation in rural Assam DOCUMENTATION OF BEST PRACTICE.
... These results correlate with the findings of Alam et al. [28] The fat content in the supplemented biscuit was found to be higher than that of the control biscuit, possibly due to the higher fat content of flowers. A similar type of data was obtained by Devi et al. [29,30] Since both flowers and leaves are great sources of fiber, [11,26] the dietary fiber content increased compared to control. Even a slight change in composition brought varied results in terms of total ash content on a dry basis. ...
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