ArticlePDF Available

The Effects of Substitution of The Natural Sand by Steel Slag in The Properties of Eco-Friendly Concrete with The 1:2:3 Ratio Mixing Method

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study was motivated by the need for the development of eco-friendly concrete, and the use of large quantities of steel slag as an industrial waste which is generated from the steel manufacturers. This eco-friendly concrete was developed with steel slag as a substitute for natural sand. Properties of concrete which used waste slag as the fine aggregate with the 1 cement: 2 sand : 3 coarse aggregate ratio mixing method were examined. That ratio was in volume. Then a part of natural sand replaced with steel slag sand in six variations percentages that were 0 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. The compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of concrete specimens were determined after curing for 28 days. The research results demonstrate that waste steel slag can increase the performance of concrete. The optimal percentage substitution natural sand by steel slag sand reached of slag on the percentage of 20 % which reached strength ratios of steel slag concrete to the strength of conventional concrete with natural sandstone were 1.37 for compressive strength and 1.13 for flexural strength. While the tensile strength reached a higher ratio of concrete with steel slag sand to the concrete with natural sand on the 80% substitution of natural sand with steel slag sand.
Content may be subject to copyright.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
PAPER • OPEN ACCESS
The Effects of Substitution of The Natural Sand by
Steel Slag in The Properties of Eco-Friendly
Concrete with The 1:2:3 Ratio Mixing Method
To cite this article: A Rahmawati and I N Saputro 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 333 012097
View the article online for updates and enhancements.
Related content
The use of steel slag in concrete
P Martauz, V Vaclavik and B Cvopa
-
The effect of steel slag as a coarse
aggregate and Sinabung volcanic ash a
filler on high strength concrete
R Karolina and A L A Putra
-
Use of steel slag as a new material for
roads
R Ochoa Díaz, M Romero Farfán, J
Cardenas et al.
-
This content was downloaded from IP address 173.211.23.91 on 06/04/2018 at 13:26
1
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
The Effects of Substitution of The Natural Sand by Steel Slag
in The Properties of Eco-Friendly Concrete with The 1:2:3
Ratio Mixing Method
A Rahmawati1, I N Saputro2
1,2Department of Building Engineering Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,
Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia
E-mail: anisrahmawati79@gmail.com
Abstract. This study was motivated by the need for the development of eco-friendly concrete,
and the use of large quantities of steel slag as an industrial waste which is generated from the
steel manufacturers. This eco-friendly concrete was developed with steel slag as a substitute
for natural sand. Properties of concrete which used waste slag as the fine aggregate with the 1
cement: 2 sand : 3 coarse aggregate ratio mixing method were examined. That ratio was in
volume. Then a part of natural sand replaced with steel slag sand in six variations percentages
that were 0 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. The compressive strength, tensile strength,
and flexural strength of concrete specimens were determined after curing for 28 days. The
research results demonstrate that waste steel slag can increase the performance of concrete. The
optimal percentage substitution natural sand by steel slag sand reached of slag on the
percentage of 20 % which reached strength ratios of steel slag concrete to the strength of
conventional concrete with natural sandstone were 1.37 for compressive strength and 1.13 for
flexural strength. While the tensile strength reached a higher ratio of concrete with steel slag
sand to the concrete with natural sand on the 80% substitution of natural sand with steel slag
sand.
1. Introduction
The development of eco-friendly and sustainable construction materials has gained major attention by
the construction industry. One of the most significant activities stressed by the engineers and scientists
related to construction industry especially in the concrete industry were aims to use raw materials with
the possibility of improvement of cement characteristics and durability of concrete that will support
the thought of green concept in concrete [1-2]. The three major objective behind green concept in
concrete is to reduce greenhouse gas emission (carbon dioxide emission from cement industry, as one
ton of cement manufacturing process, emits one ton of carbon dioxide), secondly to reduce the use of
natural resources such as limestone, shale, clay, natural river sand, natural rocks that are being
consume for the development of human mankind that are not given back to the earth, thirdly use of
waste materials in concrete that also prevents the large area of land that is used for the storage of waste
materials that results in the air, land and water pollution. This objective behind green concrete will
result in the sustainable development without destruction natural resources [3].
Alternative materials can be used to substituted natural aggregates to support green concrete are
industrial by-products that are easily available, require little or no pyro-processing and have inherent
or latent cementitious properties. These materials are producing a greener concrete concerning
2
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
resource and energy consumption [4]. Such industrial by-products are commonly called as
supplementary cementitious materials or mineral additives [5]. One of the wastes generated from
industries were looked upon as possible alternatives to be used in concrete production is steel slag,
which is a waste product generated from the steel industry. Steel slag is the inevitable by-product
which is 15~20% of the production of crude steel in steelmaking process [6] or equivalent with 130
200 kg of slag from one ton of steel production, depending on the composition of the steel and on the
steel production process [7]. Slag often appears as granulated materials containing large clusters,
coarse and very fine particles. A significant amount of steel slag was always disposed of as waste
which results in the waste of resource, environmental pollution even ecological destruction. Thats
why the recycling of industrial waste slag is the core content of sustainable development. The
recycling of steel slag will inevitably become an essential measure for the environment protection and
therefore can lead to great social significance [8].Steel slag can be seen as a potential alternative to
natural aggregates. The uses of steel slag as an alternative material help save a large share of natural
resources and protect the environment [9] . This study used steel slag as a substitute material in
concrete productions.
Although there are many studies that have been reported by researchers on the use of steel slag in
concrete mixture [6,10-16], not much research has been carried out in Indonesia and other countries
concerning the mechanical properties of steel slag concrete which use the most simple and easy
concrete mix design that is 1:2:3 ratio mixing method. Therefore, to generate specific experimental
data on properties of steel slag as the natural sand replacement in the concrete mixture, the present
study has been performed.
In Indonesia, there are many small steel industries located in several areas, one of which is in
Klaten, Central Java. In this central of steel casting industrial, there are more than 50 small-medium
industries which concerned in steel casting industry. The average of production capacity is 1000
ton/week which produces about 100 m3 steel slag. So far surrounding communities used steel slag as
ground landfill, which can cause environmental pollution, especially water pollution. For this, this
study conducted to study in using steel slag as substitute material of the natural sand in concrete with
the 1:2:3 ratio mixing method. This method was chosen because it is a conventional method used by
communities in around of this central of small steel industries. So the result from this study will be
easier adopted by communities. Normal concrete used natural sand as fine aggregate, which usually
comprises up to 30 percent of the total volume of concrete. Consequently, characteristics of sand
significantly affect the performance of fresh and hardened concrete and have an impact on the cost-
effectiveness of concrete [17].
The main objective of this research was to provide information about the effects of substitution
of the natural sand by steel slag in the composition of concrete with the 1:2:3 Ratio Mixing Method to
the mechanical properties of concrete. In this work, we have characterized the mechanical proprieties
of concrete with steel slag sand regarding compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength.
These mechanical properties than compared to the performance of ordinary concrete.
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
Portland Cement Composite (PCC) manufactured by HOLCIM was used. Its confirmed to Indonesian
specification of SNI 7064-2004 [18] . Coarse aggregate was taken from Merapi mountain’s quarry
which crushed with the maximum size of 20 mm. Physical properties of coarse aggregate are
presented in Table 1. The natural fine aggregate was taken from Merapi mountain’s quarry, which
selected by sieving on sieves size and selected the fine gradation as shown in figure 1. Physical
properties of fine aggregate are listed in Table 2. Steel slag took from the steel industries in Klaten,
Central Java, Indonesia. The large clusters and coarse steel slag than crushed with the maximum size
of 4.8 mm as shown in figure 2. The granulometric curves which comparing of natural sand aggregate
and steel slag sand resulting from the previous granulometric adjustment are shown in Figure 1, while
3
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
the physical properties of steel slag are listed in table 3. The physical properties of all aggregates than
compared with the standard from SNI 03-6861.1-2002 [19].
Table 1. The Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate
Property
Point
Specific gravity
3.85
Abrasion
32.068
Fineness modulus
3.48
Table 2. The Physical Properties of Fine Aggregates.
Characteristic
Point
Standard from SNI
Water content
0.13%
1-3%
Specific gravity
2.58
2.5-2.7
Fineness modulus
3.44
2.5-3.8
Table 3. The Physical Properties of steel slag
Characteristic
Point
Standard from SNI
Water content
0.06%
1-3%
Specific gravity
2.83
2.5-2.7
Fineness modulus
4.7
2.5-3.8
Figure 1. The gradation of aggregates
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.4
Passing (%)
Sieve diameter (mm)
Natural Sand aggregate Steel Slag Sand
4
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
Figure 2. Steel Slag
2.2. Mixing proportions of concrete
Concrete mixing method using 1 cement: 2 fine aggregate:3 coarse aggregate ratio is widely used in
the concrete made by the unprofessional one due to it’s simple and easy way to be adapted. In this
study, six concrete mixtures were designed. All concrete mixtures were prepared kept all cement (PC),
sand, and coarse aggregate ratio constant that was 1pc: 2 sand:3 coarse aggregate. That ratio was in
volume. Cement and coarse aggregate content were kept constant in all mixtures. All concrete
mixtures used constant 0,8 water/cement ratio. The high water/cement ratio was obtained from the
primary trial test of mixing concrete which produces a homogeneous mixture. Then the steel slag was
substituted to the mixture with variations of concrete composition was listed in table 4. The concrete
specimens prepared with mineral admixtures are summarized in Table 5.
Table 4. Variation of Composition of Steel slag in Concrete Mixture
Mix code
0
1
2
3
4
5
Cement
1
1
1
1
1
1
Natural sand
2
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
Coarse aggregate
3
3
3
3
3
3
Steel slag sand
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
Table 5. Mixing proportions of steel slag Concrete
Mixing
code
Cement content
(m3/m3 mixture)
Natural sand
content
(m3/m3 mixture)
Coarse aggregate
content
(m3/m3 mixture)
Steel slag sand
content
(m3/m3 mixture)
0
0.17
0.33
0.50
0.00
1
0.17
0.27
0.50
0.07
2
0.17
0.20
0.50
0.13
3
0.17
0.13
0.50
0.20
4
0.17
0.07
0.50
0.27
5
0.17
0.00
0.50
0.33
5
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
2.3. Castings of concrete specimens
Castings of cylinder concrete specimens with dimensions were 300 mm in height and 150 mm in
diameter, were prepared to determine the compressive strength and tensile strength of steel slag sand
concrete. While the specimens for the flexural test was the beam (150x150x600mm).
At first, steel slags, natural sands, and cement were mixed together in the dry state for about 3 minutes
to obtain a uniform mixture. Next, the water was added to the blend slowly and mixed into a
homogeneous mixture and then added the coarse aggregates and the residual water. The mixing was
performed using a 350-litre mixer. The fresh concrete mixture was then poured into the molds and
compacting manually using steel rod compactor.
After casting, the specimens were covered with wet burlap and left in the casting room at a
temperature of (20±5)°C for a period of 24 h. The specimens were then de molded and submerged in
water and measured at 28 d.
2.4. Testing
All concrete tested at 28 days age. Compressive strength was carried out on concrete cylinders using
Compressive Testing Machine by following codes of SNI 1974-2011 [20] . The Tensile strength was
determined using the standard of SNI 2491:2014 [21]. The flexural test using a simple beam with
center-point loading was performed according to standard SNI 4154-2014 [22].
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Compressive strength test results
The value of the considered compressive strength constitutes the average of the results from four
specimens. The ratios of compressive strength used steel slag sand to the strength of conventional
concrete with ordinary sandstone fine aggregate were illustrated in Figure 3. Results have shown that
concrete with 20% substitution of fine aggregate by steel slag sand reached a highest compressive
strength than others concrete mix.
Figure 3. The Ratio of Compressive strength
3.2. Tensile Strength test results
The ratios of tensile strength used steel slag sand to the strength of conventional concrete with natural
sandstone fine aggregate were illustrated in Figure 4. It was average from four specimens for each
type of concrete studied here. While the results have shown that the largest recorded value of the
tensile strength was that of concrete with 80% substitution of natural sand with steel slag sand, which
1.0
1.4
1.0 1.0 0.9
0.8
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Compressive Ratio
Steel Slag Percentage
6
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
reached 18% of tensile strength’s increasing. But the overall difference of tensile strength’s value from
all concrete mixture in this study was not significant.
Figure 4. The Ratio of Tensile strength
3.3. Flexural strength test results
The ratio of flexural strength used steel slag sand to the strength of conventional concrete with natural
sandstone fine aggregate which came from the average of five samples tested specimens for each type
of concrete studied here shown in figure 5. From the figure noted that concrete with 20% substitution
natural sand with steel slag sand reached higher flexural strength than the other concrete mix.
Figure 5. The Ratio of Flexural strength
The use of steel slag sand as 20% substitution of natural sand in concrete, increasing flexural
strength by about 13%. Then more percentage of steel slag sand produced lower flexural strength.
1.0 1.1
0.8
1.1 1.2
0.9
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Tensile Ratio
Stee Slag Percentage
1.0
1.1
0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Flexural Ratio
Stee Slag Percentage
7
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
3.4. Discussion
The test results indicated that concrete using steel slag as substitution material replacing a part of
natural sand have a potential to produce better concrete performance than ordinary concrete. Theory
said that steel slag concrete has lower strength at early ages. Therefore, steel slag can be used to
control the hydration process so that concrete with high strength and good performance can be
obtained [23]. According to recent studies, an increase in the compressive strength reported if steel
slag used as a mineral admixture in the concrete mixture in term of EAF oxidizing slag aggregates
[10-11], fine aggregate [12,13,14], partial replacement of sand [15], or fine and coarse aggregates
[6,16]. Generally, using steel slag in concrete mix would improve the workability and compressive
strength and does not give any deterioration as results of reaction with alkali in cement [21]. In this
study, the highest compressive strength and flexural strength reached by 20% substitution natural sand
by steel slag sand.
The increase in the compressive strength could be attributed to the high compactness of concrete
achieved by adding sand slag in suitable proportions [24]. Steel slag sand used in this study have
coarser gradation than the natural sand. Until the 20% substitution of steel slag, this coarser aggregate
contributed to the higher compressive strength of the concrete. The improving of concrete
performance also influenced by the shape of steel slug crushed sand. The shape and texture of steel
slag crushed sand particles have a significsnt effect on the interlocking of paste and aggregate
particles, providing good aggregate-binder bonding, which will lead to an improvement of strength of
concrete [25,4]. After 20% substitution, then the higher percentage of steel slag sand produced lower
compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete. The decrease in compressive and flexural
strength with increasing steel slag sand after 20% substitution was believed to be due to the more
existence of weak aggregate and paste interface due to the formation of the coating of calcite on steel
slag surface which hinders the bonding between the paste and aggregates [26-27] . The thin coat of
calcite cause steel slag’s surface similar with glass surface which has weak bonds between the
particles and the cement paste [28]. More steel slag sands mean more aggregates and paste interfaces
exist in the concrete mixture. Furthermore, aggregate with good gradation and finenes modulus will
be able to result in maximum density and minimum porosity, which will generate higher compressive
strength in concrete [29]. In this study, natural sand has finer grain size than the steel slag sand.The
decrease of concrete strength also can be explained by the poor quality of granulated slag as sand due
to its high degree of absorption [16]. Steel slag have more pores than the natural aggregate, that will
absorb more waters from concrete admixture which caused less water available for cement hydration
process.
4. Conclusions
In this work the effect of using steel slag sand as substitution of natural sand in the concrete mixture
was preliminary studied to investigate the possibility of using a compound mineral admixture of steel
slag as an additive material for concrete production with 1:2:3 ratio mixing method. From the test
results and calculated strengths of the steel slag concrete, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. Concrete with good performance could be produced using compound mineral admixture of steel
slag with 1:2:3 ratio mixing method
2. Compressive strengths of steel slag concrete reached the highest compressive strength by mixture
ratio 1 Pc: 1.6 Sand: 3 Coarse aggregate: 0.4 steel slag which get 1.37 of ratio of concrete steel
slag sand compressive strength than concrete with natural sand.
3. Tensile strengths of steel slag concrete reached the highest tensile strength by mixture ratio 1 Pc:
0.4 Sand: 3 Coarse aggregate: 1.6 steel slag which get 1.18 of ratio of concrete steel slag sand
tensile strength than concrete with natural sand.
4. Flexural strengths of steel slag concrete reached the highest flexural strength by mixture ratio 1
Pc: 1.6 Sand: 3 Coarse aggregate : 0.4 steel slag which get 1.13 of ratio of concrete steel slag sand
flexural strength than concrete with natural sand.
8
1234567890‘’“”
International Conference on Advanced Materials for Better Future 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 333 (2018) 012097 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012097
In brief, it can be said that the steel slag sand could be an alternative for use in concrete
applications using 1:2:3 ratio mixing method which has higher strength than concrete with natural
sand in substitution till 20%. Finally, the use of steel slag as building materials should be considered
as a viable solution in terms of environmental conservation, which satisfies society’s current
requirements.
References
[1] Muhammad I A K, Emmanuel R. 2007 Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Cement Based Materials
and Appl. in Civil Infrastructure 289−299
[2] Rai A, Prabakar J, Raju C B, Morchalle R K 2002 Constr. and Building Materials 16 489−494
[3]Arun A 2015 Vit university http://www.researchgate.net/post/what_is_green_concrete retrieved at
November 28, 2016
[4] Anastasiou E, Filikas K G, and Stefanidou M 2014 Constr. and Build. Mater. 50 154161
[5] Altun I A.and Yilmaz I. 2002 Cement and Concrete res. 32 1247−1249
[6] Liu C, Zha K, and Chen D 2011 Int. Conf. Adv. Eng. Proc. Eng. 24 412416
[7] Subathra D B and K Gnanavel 2014 Proc. of 12th Global Congress On Manufacturing And
Management, Procedia Eng. 97 95 104
[8] Sun Shu-Shan, Zhu Gu I-Lin, Zhang Yu 2007 China Waste Steel 4(2) 21−28
[9] K. Behfarnia, M. Shojaei and R. Mohebi 2015 Asian J. of Civil Eng. 16(4) 505-513
[10] S-W Kim, Y-J Lee, and K-H. Kim 2012 J. of Asian Arch. Build.Eng. 11 1 133138
[11]Sekaran A, Palaniswamy M, and Balaraju S 2015 The Sci. World J.
[12]Singh G and Siddique R 2016 Constr. and Build. Mater. 128 8895.
[13] Ouda A S and Abdel-gawwad H A 2015 Housing And Building National Research Center 06
[14] Tarawneh S A, Gharaibeh E S, and Saraireh F M 2014 American J. of Appl. Sci. 11(5) 700706.
[15] Al-Rawi, R. S. 2001 Using Local Steel Slag as a Fine Aggregate in Concrete (Baghdad: College
of Engineering)
[16] L Zeghichi 2006 Asian J. of Civil Eng. (Building And Housing) 7(1) 27-35
[17] Gauhar S, Rafiqul A T and Syed M J 2016 Int. Conf. on Sustainable Design, Eng. and Constr.
Procedia Eng. 145 66 73
[18] SNI 7064:2014 2014 Portland Cement Composite (Jakarta: Indonesian National Standardization
Agency)
[19] SNI 03-6861.1-2002 2002 Specification Of Building Materials - Part A: Non Metals Building
Materials (Jakarta: Indonesian National Standardization Agency)
[20] SNI 1974-2011 2011 Test method for compressive strength of concrete with cylindrical specimen
cast (Jakarta: Indonesian National Standardization Agency)
[21] SNI 2491:2014 2014 Test Methode For Tensile Split Strength Of Concrete With Cylindrical
Concrete Specimen (ASTM C496/C496M-04, IDT) (Jakarta: Indonesian National
Standardization Agency)
[22] SNI 4154-2014 2014 Test Method For Flexural Strength Of Concrete Using A Simple Beam With
Center-Point Loading (Jakarta: Indonesian National Standardization Agency)
[23] Li Y-F, Yao Y, and Wang I 2009 J. Cent. South Univ. Technol. 16 0768−0773
[24]Senani M, Ferhoune N, and Guettala A 2016 Alexandria Eng. J. 06
[25] Al-ameeri A S A and Al-baghdadi H M 2012 Int. J. Art. Sci. 5(7) 187196
[26] Palankar N, Shankar A U R, and Mithun B M 2015 Int. J. Sustain. Built Environ. 4(2) 378390
[27] Palankar N, Shankar A U R, and Mithun B M 2016 J. Clean. Product. 129 437448
[28] Guadalupe F, Manuel C J, Luis J, Paola A S, Mendivil-escalante J M, Gomez-soberon J M,
Mendivil-escalante J M 2016 Int. J. of Civil Eng.
[29] Purwati A, As’ad S, Sunarmasto 2014 E-Jurnal Matriks Teknik Sipil 2 2 58-63
... These three aggregates have different characteristics. Several studies on the characteristics of this aggregate have been conducted by previous researchers, including Kulon Progo aggregate [78][79][80][81][82], Merapi aggregate [83][84][85][86], Gunung Kidul aggregate [87,88]. The specific gravity of Kulon Progo aggregate generally exhibits higher values than that of Merapi and Gunung Kidul aggregates. ...
Article
Full-text available
The construction and demolition waste from the construction industry contributes significantly to the sustainability of the built environment. Massive amounts of material waste from concrete construction must be managed effectively. The utilization of concrete waste into recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) may preserve natural coarse aggregate (NCA) resources, reduce land pollution, and minimize environmental damage. This investigation uses concrete waste as a partial or full replacement for natural coarse aggregate. The natural coarse aggregate utilized in this investigation was collected from three different locations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, namely Kulon Progo (KP), Merapi (M), and Gunung Kidul (GK). This aggregate is used to adjust to the geographical conditions of the Yogyakarta region in Indonesia and the local practices of utilizing natural resources as building materials. In this study, the recycled coarse aggregate was varied by 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% by total required coarse aggregate weight. The laboratory experiment evaluated fresh properties, including the slump test and slump loss, as well as hardened properties, which included mass density, mass loss, water absorption, porosity, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength. In order to evaluate the compressive strength of concrete, non-destructive tests in the form of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and rebound hammer test (RHT) were also conducted. Finally, the non-destructive test results were compared to the compressive strength results from the laboratory test. This study concludes that natural and recycled coarse aggregate contributes significantly to the properties of recycled concrete. The use of recycled coarse aggregate as a partial replacement for natural coarse aggregate from Kulon Progo reduces the properties of hardened concrete by up to 15%. Meanwhile, using recycled coarse aggregate as a partial replacement for natural coarse aggregate from Merapi and Gunung Kidul has increased its properties by up to 25%.
... La escoria de acero puede verse como una alternativa potencial de agregados naturales y así ahorrar una gran parte de recursos naturales y proteger el medio ambiente (Rahmawati y Saputro, 2018). En Malasia, el vertido de escoria de acero es el método de eliminación más convencional, debido a esto, no solo causa escasez del vertedero, sino que el medio ambiente se verá afectado (Lim, Chew, Choong, Tezara, y Yazdi, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
La presente investigación se basó en la innovación y elaboración de una mezcla asfáltica en caliente (MAC), debido al deterioro prematuro de los pavimentos flexibles, y poca capacidad de cumplir con su vida útil. He aquí la necesidad de asegurar una buena calidad de materiales para la mezcla asfáltica y una búsqueda de nuevo material que sea capaz de dar mayor durabilidad y evitar un prematuro deterioro del pavimento. Se evaluó así la incorporación de escoria de acero para el diseño de MAC, con el objetivo de determinar la estabilidad y flujo de la mezcla asfáltica en caliente incorporando escorias de acero. Para esto, se empleó la metodología Marshall con un porcentaje de escoria de acero respecto al agregado grueso en 0% - 15% - 25% - 50% - 75%. Los resultados obtenidos, en cuanto a calidad de los agregados, cumplieron con los estándares de calidad. Se concluyó que la mezcla asfáltica modificada con la escoria de acero al 15% es la mejor combinación, de igual forma, este porcentaje cumple para tránsito liviano, mediano, al 25% - 50% - 75% solo cumplen para transito liviano. Se logró aumentar la estabilidad y flujo de la mezcla asfáltica al incorporar hasta un máximo de 25% para una MAC respecto a la mezcla de control.
... In the existing literature, there are many studies that assess the potential of different types of slag from the production and refining of various metals to substitute sand in concrete. Possible such substitutes are steel slag (Rahmawati & Saputro, 2018), slag from the refining of lead and zinc (Tripathi & Chaudhary, 2016), and rapid cooling electric arc furnace oxidizing slag (Kim, Koh, & Pyo, 2016). Other industrial wastes, such as palm oil clinker, coal bottom ash (Ong, Mo, Alengaram, Jumaat, & Ling, 2018), fly ash (Rafieizonooz et al., 2017), fixated phosphate industry waste (Lieberman et al., 2018), and waste from granite and marble processing (Singh, Tiwari, Nagar, & Agrawal, 2016) can also be used to partially replace sand. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global low‐carbon transition demands the development of large‐scale infrastructure, which is sand intensive. Natural sand is widely considered abundant, whereas recent research has pointed out the increasing risk of supply shortage in a number of world regions. In the current research, we examine the implication of future sand demand in the context of low‐carbon infrastructure development. We mapped the projected investments on buildings and low‐carbon infrastructure up to 2030 and estimated the sand intensity of the two types of construction. We translated these investments and sand intensity to country‐specific sand‐demand projections under three economic development scenarios. Our results indicate that China is expected to face the highest sand demand, followed by India, and that should the current sand extraction rates and construction practices be maintained, developing countries will be exposed to a significant supply risk of construction sand. Under the scenario of sustainable growth, developed economies are expected to have a relatively stable sand demand whereas South‐East Asia and Africa will see a rapid increase in their sand demand over the next 15 years. Our results call regional sand supply security into attention in low‐carbon transition planning.
Article
Full-text available
The present study discusses the durability performance of alkali activated concrete mixes containing steel slag as coarse aggregates. Steel slag aggregates, a waste product obtained from iron and steel industry are incorporated as coarse aggregates in alkali activated slag concrete (AASC) and alkali activated slag fly ash concrete (AASFC) by replacing traditional natural aggregates. The mix design for AASC and AASFC mixes are optimised to obtain sufficient strength for structural purposes and then steel slag coarse aggregates are incorporated at different replacement levels (0%, 50% and 100% by volume of total coarse aggregate content). Durability properties such as long term ageing performance, water absorption, volume of permeable voids, resistance to sulphuric acid attack and resistance to magnesium sulphate attack are studied in detail and compared with conventional Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete (OPCC). The ecological and economical analysis of concrete mixes is also carried out. It was found that the AASC and AASFC mixes displayed better durability performance as compared to OPCC. The inclusion of steel slag aggregates slightly reduced the durability performance of AASC and AASFC mixes. The AASC and AASFC with steel slag aggregates displayed lower energy requirement and lower production cost as compared to OPCC, thus proving it to be eco-friendly.
Article
Full-text available
This study estimates the flexural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with electric arc furnace (EAF) oxidizing slag aggregates. EAF oxidizing slag is a byproduct of steel production. It is composed mainly of CaO and SiO2, which are similar to the chemical properties of natural aggregates. Simply supported RC beams having various types of aggregates were tested to evaluate the applicability of EAF oxidizing slag as a concrete aggregate. The moment-curvature relationship and crack patterns up to peak load as well as the effective moment of inertia and deflection of the specimens under service load were analyzed and compared with the experimental results of natural aggregate specimens. The experimental results showed that the specimens with EAF oxidizing slag aggregates exhibited similar flexural performance to that of the specimens with natural aggregates.
Article
Full-text available
This study presents an evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties and characteristics of steel slag aggregate concrete in comparison with the typical crushed limestone stone aggregate concrete. Hardened concrete consist of more than 70% aggregate due to the high demand in building construction and the increase of the amount of disposed waste material, suppliers and researchers are exploring the use of alternative materials which could preserve natural sources and save the environment. In this study, steel slag was used as an aggregate replacement in conventional concrete mixes. Steel slag which is mainly consists of calcium carbonate is produced as a by-product during the oxidation process in steel industry. Steel slag was selected due to its characteristics, which are almost similar to conventional aggregates and the fact that it is easily obtainable as a by-product of the steel industry. As a result, utilization of steel slag will save natural resources and clean environment. Furthermore, results have shown that slag aggregate has better abrasion factor and impact value than conventional aggregate. Thorough investigation of the results have indicated that the amount of increase in compressive strength at age of 7 days are much more than that of age 28 days for all types of aggregate replacement. This indicates that the added slag could work as accelerator at early age while at 28 days age, the effect is reduced. The fine slag replacement scores the highest effect.
Article
Full-text available
The present day research is focussed on development of alternative binder materials to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) due to huge emissions of green house gases associated with production of OPC. GGBFS-FA based geopolymer binders are an innovative alternative to OPC which can obtain high strengths apart from being eco-friendly; since its production does not involve high energy and also contributes to sustainability by using the industrial waste materials. Steel slag, an industrial by-product obtained from manufacture of steel can be identified as an alternative to natural aggregates for concrete production, since there is a possibility of acute shortage of natural aggregates in future. The present study is conducted to evaluate the performance of weathered steel slag coarse aggregates in GGBFS-FA based geopolymer concrete. GGBFS-FA geopolymer concrete with steel slag coarse aggregates are prepared by replacing natural granite aggregates at different replacement levels i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (by volume) and various fresh and mechanical properties are studied. The flexural fatigue behaviour of GGBFS-FA geopolymer concrete with steel slag is also studied in detail. Efforts are also made to model the probabilistic distribution of fatigue data of GGBFS-FA geopolymer concrete at different stress levels using two parameters Weibull distribution. The results indicated that incorporation of steel slag in GGBFS-FA geopolymer concrete resulted in slight reduction in mechanical strength. The water absorption and volume of permeable voids displayed higher values with inclusion of steel slag. Reduction in number of cycles for fatigue failure was observed in geopolymer concrete mixes containing steel slag as compared to granite aggregates. Overall, the performance of steel slag was found to be satisfactory for structural and pavement application and steel slag can recognised as new construction material.
Article
Full-text available
Workability and mechanical properties of steel slag green concrete with different types of steel slag and different dosages of admixtures were investigated. The effectiveness of steel slag powder on suppressing alkali aggregate reaction (AAR) expansion was assessed using the method of ASTM C441 and accelerated test method. Experimental results show that mechanical properties can be improved further due to the synergistic effect and mutual activation when compound mineral admixtures with steel slag powder and blast-furnace slag powder are mixed into concrete. In addition, about 50% decrease in expansion rate of mortar bars with mineral admixtures can be achieved in AAR tests. Mineral admixtures with steel slag powder as partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete is an effective means for controlling expansion due to AAR.
Article
Durability characteristics of self-compacting concrete (SCC) made with iron slag (IS) are presented in this paper. For this purpose, initially, a control SCC was designed, and then fine aggregates were partly (0, 10, 25 and 40%) replaced with iron slag. Various tests were done for fresh SCC properties, compressive strength and durability properties such as rapid chloride permeability, water absorption, resistance to sulphate attack and ultra-sonic pulse velocity up to the age of 365 days. SEM and XRD analysis was also carried out. The test result shows that SCC incorporating iron slag gives better strength and durability than control mixture of SCC, and can be suitably used in SCC.
Article
In this study, usability of Basic Oxygen Process (BOP) slags of Kardemir Iron and Steel Plant, Karabük, Turkey as an additive into cement was investigated. Slags were ground to 4000 and 4700 cm2/g levels, and added in ratios 15, 30 and 45 wt.%. Volume expansion, setting time, compressive strength and bending strength tests were measured according to Turkish standards. Due to impurities of the slags, the 2- and 7-day compression strengths decrease with increase in amount of Mn, but this decrease is lower in the 28-day compression strength, 30 wt.%. It is observed that the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting concrete were acceptable in the Turkish Standards Institute (TSE).
Article
Metallurgical slags (granulated and air-cooled), are disposed as waste from the ferro-manganese and ferro-manganese–silicon alloys manufacturing plants. They find little use unlike blast furnace slags from steel plants. Investigations were carried out to explore the possibility of using high MnO and low MnO metallurgical slags on samples obtained from an alloy plant in India. Low MnO granulated slag was used in making blended slag cement with ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Addition of slag lowered the compressive strength of the blended cement as compared to that of OPC used. However, the composition of a 50:50 blend, ground to 3000 cm2/g (Blaine), was found to conform to IS 455:1989 for Portland slag cements and also to IS 269:1989, 33 grade OPC, with respect to standard consistency, setting times, soundness and compressive strength (22 MPa at 7 days and 33 MPa at 28 days) tests carried out as per IS 4031:1988. X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that low MnO granulated slag was non-crystalline, whereas the air-cooled slags were crystalline containing mainly quartz, MnO and Mn2O3. Chemical analysis showed that the slag samples were low in CaO and Fe2O3 contents and high in SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, MgO, Na2O and K2O, thus indicating pozzolanic reactions contributing to a great extent in the strength development of blended slag cement compositions studied. High MnO (>15%) and MgO (>8%) containing slags were considered unsuitable for blended cements because of their deleterious effects. Air-cooled lumpy slag was evaluated for use as aggregates in concrete. All the tests were carried out as per IS 2386:1963, methods of test for aggregate for concrete and to conform to IS 383:1990, coarse and fine aggregates from natural resources. The material passed all the tests viz. crushing strength, impact value, abrasion, alkali aggregate soundness, except for deleterious materials content. This slag could be used, with slight modification, for non-structural concrete. The results of the investigations provide a direction for profitable plans for making blended slag cements.
Using Local Steel Slag as a Fine Aggregate in Concrete
  • R S Al-Rawi
Al-Rawi, R. S. 2001 Using Local Steel Slag as a Fine Aggregate in Concrete (Baghdad: College of Engineering)