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Abstract

This chapter explores stalking as a phenomenon that began in physical spaces but has now expanded into digital space with the advent of the internet and digital devices. This form of intimate partner violence is often misunderstood by lay persons as well as professionals within the criminal justice system, which furthers the negative impact for the largely female victims of this violence. In this chapter, definitions are first provided for stalking and cyberstalking before moving to examining the prevalence of, and motivations for, stalking and cyberstalking. Impacts of this behaviour are explored before examination of the issues in relation to seeking assistance from the criminal justice system and finally covering the informal measures that may be adopted in attempts to prevent stalking and cyberstalking or stop the stalking after it has begun.
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Stalking: An age old problem with new expressions in the digital age
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Chapter
STALKING: AN AGE OLD PROBLEM WITH
NEW EXPRESSIONS IN THE DIGITAL AGE
Nicola Cheyne, PhD*
Queensland Centre for Domestic and Family Violence Research, CQU,
Brisbane, Queensland
Marika Guggisberg, PhD
Queensland Centre for Domestic and Family Violence Research, CQU,
Perth, Western Australia
ABSTRACT
This chapter explores stalking as a phenomenon that began in physical
spaces but has now expanded into digital space with the advent of the
internet and digital devices. This form of intimate partner violence is
often misunderstood by lay persons as well as professionals within the
criminal justice system, which furthers the negative impact for the
largely female victims of this violence. In this chapter, definitions are
first provided for stalking and cyberstalking before moving to
examining the prevalence of, and motivations for, stalking and
cyberstalking. Impacts of this behaviour are explored before
examination of the issues in relation to seeking assistance from the
criminal justice system and finally covering the informal measures that
*Corresponding Author: n.cheyne@cqu.edu.au
Cheyne & Guggisberg
2
may be adopted in attempts to prevent stalking and cyberstalking or
stop the stalking after it has begun.
Keywords: Cyberstalking, intimate partner violence, stalking
INTRODUCTION
Stalking is overwhelmingly a crime of violence against women carried out
by men (Mohandie, Meloy, McGowan, & Williams, 2006). This constellation
of behaviours has existed for centuries, in the guise of ordinary and socially
accepted relationship pursuit behaviours, and has only recently been recognised
as unlawful, much like violence against an intimate partner (Smoker & March,
2017). Stalking is often thought of as an issue that occurs among strangers; this
has been driven by media representations and indeed by the origins of
legislation prohibiting this behaviour. Legislation was first introduced in
California in 1990 (Gilligan, 1992; Tjaden, 2009), with Queensland being the
first state in Australia to introduce stalking legisation in 1993 (Kift, 1999). The
Californian legislation was largely prompted by the case of an actress stalked
and then murdered by an obsessed fan (Ngo & Paternoster, 2013). Other
celebrity stalking cases, as well as media representations of stalking, have
driven a common misperception that stalking is largely engaged in by strangers
(Weller, Hope, & Sheridan, 2013).
In fact, stalking is most often engaged in by male romantic partners as
opposed to someone unknown to the victim (Buzawa, Buzawa, & Stark, 2017;
Mullen et al., 2006). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey
in the US found that of all women who reported stalking victimisation, only
13% were stalked by a stranger (Buzawa et al., 2017). It follows that stalking
often forms part of intimate partner violence, where the stalker’s control is
further extended over the victim’s life, a fact thatis being increasingly
recognised in the research literature (Kraaij, Arensman, Garnefski, & Kremers,
2007; Mechanic, Weaver, & Resick, 2008; Walker, 2017). Buzawa and
colleagues (2017) indicated that the majority of intimate partner violence (IPV)
perpetrators commenced their stalking behaviours while the relationship was
Stalking
3
ongoing, with control tactics involving threats of or actual violence and sexual
assault.
There is a distinct difference between partner stalking and stranger stalking.
An intimate partner knows the actions that will arouse the most fear for victims
and the victim knows even seemingly inconsequential behaviours by the stalker
possess a specific intent to intimidate and cause fear (Fraser, Olsen, Lee,
Southworth, & Tucker, 2010). Stalking by a partner is more dangerous than
stalking by a stranger, with threats being most often delivered by ex-partner
stalkers (Mullen et al., 2006; Mullen, Pathé, & Purcell, 2000), and such threats
being used as coercive control tactics (Buzawa et al., 2017). Previous research
has outlined that ex-intimates engaged in more severe cyberstalking behaviours
including delivering threats over the internet (Barnes & Biros, 2007). Women
were more likely to be physically harmed by a stalker who was their current or
former partner (Björklund, Häkkänen-Nyholm, Sheridan, & Roberts, 2010;
Rosenfeld, 2004; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). Indeed, previous violence and
threats by ex-partners were the best predictors of future stalking violence
(McEwan, Mullen, MacKenzie, & Ogloff, 2009). A recent national US study
found that 31% of women stalked by their partners were also sexually assaulted
by them (Buzawa et al., 2017). Concerningly, Mohandie et al. (2006) found that
male ex-intimate partners were more likely than strangers to persist in their
stalking behaviours even after legal interventions. All of this evidence suggests
that current or former intimate partners are largely perpetrating stalking against
their female partners and that more serious types of stalking are likely to be
engaged in by these partner stalkers. In addition, partner stalkers often use
information technology as a further tool to extend their power and control over
their victims (Woodlock, 2017).
Cyberstalking has emerged as a new type of stalking since the introduction
of the Internet and mobile phones. However, this is an under-researched area in
comparison to stalking that occurs offline (Ménard & Pincus, 2012).This
chapter sets out to clarify the definition of stalking before moving to discuss the
latetst incarnation of this set of behaviours, cyberstalking. In this regard, it is
important to note that in-person stalking and cyberstalking tend to overlap,
particulary in relation to IPV (Breiding et al., 2014; Groban, 2016). The
prevalence and impact of stalking will then be examined before moving to a
discussion of the inherent difficulties involved in meeting both common and
Cheyne & Guggisberg
4
legislative definitions of stalking to assist with accessing the criminal justice
system. The chapter will conclude with some preventative strategies that could
be adopted to try to prevent stalking from occurring or stop the stalking after it
has begun.
DEFINING STALKING
Stalking is commonly described as the repeated harassment of a person
which would cause the victim, or a reasonable person in the same situation, to
fear for their safety (Abrams & Robinson, 2011; Dennison, 2007; Diette,
Goldsmith, Hamilton, Darity, & McFarland, 2014; Dunlap, Hodell, Golding, &
Wasarhaley, 2012; Englebrecht & Reyns, 2011; Lambert, Smith, Geistman,
Cluse-Tolar, & Jiang, 2013). Stalking incorporates a range of actions, from
seemingly innocuous overtures that would not otherwise be thought of as
criminal, such as giving gifts or sending emails, to threats of or actual violence
against a person (Brewster, 2000; Dutton & Winstead, 2011; Sheridan, Davies,
& Boon, 2001). Stalking most often involves the harassment or pursuit of a
person to exert control, intimidate and/or cause fear rather than the physical
assault of the victim (Brewster, 2001, 2003; Buzawa et al., 2017). It is important
to note that even innocuous acts, when repeated over a period of time, can cause
a person to feel fearful (Dutton & Winstead, 2011). Therefore, the three key
premises of stalking are (1) the varied nature of stalking actions, (2) the repeated
nature of the actions, and (3) the fear felt by the victim.
Stalking is a special type of crime as so many actions are considered to
constitute stalking, and these actions can occur in physical or digital spaces. For
example, stalking can consist of actions such as the stalker hanging around the
victim, telephone calls, text messages, emails, GPS tracking, letters, offensive
items given to the victim, threats of violence, and violent actions towards the
victim (Buhi, Clayton, & Surrency, 2009; Sheridan & Lyndon, 2012). The
stalker may also recruit other people to obtain information about the victim or
engage in stalking behaviours against the victim (Spitz, 2003). Moreover, the
acts considered to be stalking differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from
country to country, with no commonly agreed upon definition as to what
constitutes stalking (Amar, 2007; Blaauw, Sheridan, & Winkel, 2002).
However, the commonality across jurisdictions and countries is that stalking
behaviours exist on a continuum, from actions that would not otherwise be
Stalking
5
considered criminal, such as telephone calls, to actions involving violence
(Brewster, 2000; Dutton & Winstead, 2011; Sheridan et al., 2001). The crucial
elements in defining these disparate actions as stalking are the repetition of the
perpetrator’s behaviours and the psychological reactions they invoke in the
victim.
For other types of crimes,one act would be sufficient to constitute a crime.
For stalking to be recognised, however, actions must be repeated or they must
occur on one occasion over a long time period (Cass, 2011; Cass & Rosay,
2012; Davis, Swan, & Gambone, 2012). This repetition is required to
demonstrate that a course of conduct is being engaged in by the stalker against
the victim. The same action does not need to be engaged in on these repeated
occasions. Any of the actions, as long as they are repeated, constitute stalking,
if the victim experiences a negative psychological reaction to those actions. The
requirement of repetition is another reason stalking is a special type of crime.
The final reason stalking is a special type of crime is the requirement that
the victim must experience fear or psychological harm such as extensive
distress. For other crimes, the emotions of the victim would be irrelevant in
categorising the violent action against the victim as criminal. Regarding
stalking, the victim, or a reasonable person in the same situation (the
‘reasonable person test’), is required to interpret the actions as fearful in order
for a crime to be recognised (Cass, 2011; Cass & Rosay, 2012; Davis et al.,
2012). For example, if a person received five emails from a current or ex-
partner, unless they acknowledged these actions as frightening or that a person
in the same situation would experience fear, these actions would not be
considered stalking. Ultimately, whether someone interprets an action as
ordinary relationship/pursuit behaviour or threatening/harassing behaviours
depends on the victim’s subjective interpretation of the circumstances
(Campbell & Moore, 2011; Strawhun, Adams, & Huss, 2013).
The psychological reactions of victims are vital to the identification of
behaviours as stalking, and therefore, their designation as criminal actions
(Campbell & Moore, 2011). This is because the interpretation of actions as
stalking may be assisted by how the person feels in relation to those actions
(Abrams & Robinson, 2011; Amar, 2007; Kamphuis & Emmelkamp, 2001). In
fact, many women who are stalked by their intimate partners do not recognise
the behaviour as stalking (Woodlock, 2017). There is some concern over the
Cheyne & Guggisberg
6
victim’s experience of fear as the sole measure of psychological reaction to
stalking, because not all women may experience extensive fear in relation to
stalking events. For example, Dietz and Martin (2007), analysed data from the
National Violence Against Women survey and found that 25% of female
stalking victims reported that they did not feel fearful. Therefore, some women
do not recognise that they are stalked, and others may feel the actions they have
experienced constitute stalking, but they have not experienced the fear required
by legislationso that the behaviour may be defined as a crime (Blaauw et al.,
2002).
With the emergence of the internet as a global medium, men who use
violence against their intimate partners now have an additional tool to control
their female partners by using all manner of surveillance techniques to elicit a
sense of entrapment, distress or fear. Discussion will now turn to the definition
of cyberstalking.
DEFINING CYBERSTALKING
Cyberstalking is defined as using email, the internet or other electronic
communication to engage in repeated harassment or threats, which cause fear
for the victim or a reasonable person in the same situation (Parsons-Pollard &
Moriarty, 2009; Shimizu, 2013; Strawhun et al., 2013). This type of stalking
can occur as an extension of offline stalking, or it may involve only online
stalking (Barnes & Biros, 2007; McFarlane & Bocij, 2003). Ready access to
cheap digital technology extends stalkersreach, allowing them access to their
victim in additional and subtle ways, creating further intrusions into the victim’s
life (Boland, 2005; Fraser et al., 2010; Strawhun et al., 2013). Indeed, each new
digital advance brings with it attendant opportunities to engage in new stalking
behaviours (Fraser et al., 2010). In opposition to offline stalking, cyberstalking
does not require physical proximity. In addition, victims do not need to be
online in order for stalkers to make contact with them, and, often much less
effort is required to engage in actions against the victim (Nobles, Reyns, Fox,
& Fisher, 2014; Shimizu, 2013). Cyberstalkers also may recruit others to harass
or threaten their victims (Shimizu, 2013; Woodlock, 2017).
Types of cyberstalking include mailbombing (sending a large number of
messages to the victim’s email address or mobile phone), spamming, identity
Stalking
7
theft, gaining access to the victim’s computer, infecting the victim’s computer
with a virus (McFarlane & Bocij, 2003), posting sexualised content along with
the victim’s name and contact details on the internet (Duggan, 2014; Parsons-
Pollard & Moriarty, 2009; Wolak, Finkelhor, Walsh, & Treitman, 2017), using
GPS to track the victim (Boland, 2005; Breiding et al., 2014; Groban, 2016;
Hamid & Maple, 2013), and using social media platforms to embarrass,
humiliate and isolate victims (Woodlock, 2017). Research on cyberstalking is
growing, which may assist understanding of the extent and impacts of this type
of stalking as well as offering women additional ways of managing the
behaviours that they experience (Strawhun et al., 2013).
EXTENT OF STALKING AND CYBERSTALKING
In-person stalking and cybertstalking affect a large proportion of society.
Tjaden and Thoennes (1998) examined the results of an American-wide survey
of 16,000 males and females and discovered that 2.2% of males and 8.1% of
females had experienced stalking victimisation in their lifetime. Fisher, Cullen,
and Turner (2002) found higher rates again when examining stalking among a
national study of female college students, with 13.1% having been stalked.
Dressing and colleagues (2005) analysed data from 679 participants (400
women and 279 men) using a postal survey in Mannheim, Germany. The
researchers found that 17% of females and 3.6% of males had been stalked. In
addition, Purcell, Pathé, and Mullen (2002) in the Australian state of Victoria,
found that almost 25% of 1,844 participants who completed a postal survey
would have satisfied the Victorian legal requirements for being a stalking
victim. The lifetime prevalence rate for female victims was 32.4%, and 12.8%
for male victims. Weller et al. (2013) noted that the lifetime prevalence rates of
stalking for women ranged from 12% to 32% and for men from 4% to 17%. It
is important to note that no universally accepted definition of stalking exists
(Campbell & Moore, 2011), which may explain the discrepancy in results along
with varying methodologies that are applied to gauge prevalence estimates
(Nobles et al., 2014). Regardless, existing research clearly demonstrates that
victims are primarily female (Amar & Alexy, 2010; Baum, Catalano, Rand, &
Rose, 2009; Björklund et al., 2010; Budd & Mattinson, 2000; Fox, Gover, &
Kaukinen, 2009; Purcell et al., 2002; Spitzberg & Cupach, 2007; Tjaden &
Cheyne & Guggisberg
8
Thoennes, 1998) whereas it has been found that stalkers are usually male (Baum
et al., 2009; Björklund et al., 2010; Budd & Mattinson, 2000; Purcell et al.,
2002; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998).
Some studies have also been conducted to examine the characteristics of
cyberstalking. The results of a study at a large American university with a
random sample of 974 students indicated that 46.3% of the women had been
cyberstalked (Reyns, Henson, & Fisher, 2012). The researchers found that
women experienced cyberstalking at a significantly higher rate than men.
Research has consistently indicated that young women are particularly
vulnerable to cyberstalking. A large American survey of 2,849 internet users
found that women were over three times more likely to experience
cyberstalking when compared to men. Duggan (2014) reported that 26% of
women compared to 7% of men aged 18 to 24 stated that they were
cyberstalked. Overall, 9% of women in the sample had been cyberstalked
compared to 6% of men.
Researchers contend that stalking is most likely to occur amongst people
that are currently, or were formerly, intimate partners (Bennett Cattaneo, Cho,
& Botuck, 2011; Spitzberg & Cupach, 2007). Some research also demonstrates
that this is the case with cyberstalking (Sheridan & Grant, 2007). Tjaden and
Thoennes(1998) conducted a national study of victimisation in the USA,while
Bjerregaard (2000) examined a sample of 788 American university students.
Between 42% and 59% of women were stalked by a current or former intimate
partner. Spitzberg and Cupach (2007), in a meta-analysis of 175 stalking
studies, found that 49% of all stalkers were intimates (no differentiations were
made by gender of the stalking victim; although, it was noted that the majority
of victims were women across the studies).
In-person stalking and cyberstalking are now recognised as common
behaviours when women experience intimate partner violence (Buzawa et al.,
2017; Nobles et al., 2014; Woodlock, 2017). Buzawa and colleagues (2017)
argued that the key tactic of perpetrators is to instil fear and to attack women’s
sense of safety by conveying omnipotence and omnipresence. Along the same
lines, Woodlock (2017, p. 602) found that women experienced a great sense of
insecurity due to the perpetrator’s ability to generate impressions that they
know and see everything”. Furthermore, while stalking often commences
during the relationship, the risk of severe violence and even femicide increases
Stalking
9
when the couple is separated (Buzawa et al., 2017). In this regard, Doerner and
Lab (2017) explained that women are most at risk when they want to break the
cycle of violence and leave the abusive relationship. They stated,“...once the
woman is determined to abandon the abusive relationship, the male...may resort
to stalking activity or threats in an effort to thwart her escape and re-establish
control over the victim (p. 280).
MOTIVATIONS FOR STALKING
Theories of Stalking
Explanations of the motivations for stalking include a range of theories.
These theories include attachment theory (Patton, Nobles, & Fox, 2010),
learning theories of crime and delinquency (Ménard & Pincus, 2012),
evolutionary theory (Duntley & Buss, 2012), feminist approaches (Brewster,
2003) and relational goal pursuit theory (Cupach, Spitzberg, Bolingbroke, &
Tellitocci, 2011; Cupach, Spitzberg, & Carson, 2000).These will be briefly
outlined below.
The most commonly applied theory to explain stalking perpetration is
attachment theory (Brewster, 2003; Davis, Ace, & Andra, 2000; Dutton &
Winstead, 2006; Dye & Davis, 2003; Hazan & Shaver, 1987; MacKenzie,
Mullen, Ogloff, McEwan, & James, 2008; Ménard & Pincus, 2012; Morrison,
2008; Patton et al., 2010; Tonin, 2004). Bowlby (1988), a psychoanalytist like
Freud, explained mental health and behavioural problems as stemming from
issues with early childhood attachment. The proposition is that if children’s
needs are not fulfilled due to maternal failure to initiate appropriate bonding, or
if bonding is disrupted, longterm consequences will occur. These consequences
include psychopathy, increased aggression and delinquency. Attachment theory
is one of the best known psychological theories of delinquency, particularly the
notion of ‘maternal deprivation’. There is much evidence that associates family
dysfunction with delinquency in general as well as well as specifically to
stalking behaviours (Newbury, 2017). For example, it has been theorised that
disorders of attachment to the parent in early childhood have a consequent
impact on adult attachment to romantic partners, which then leads to stalking
(Brewster, 2003). Stalking perpetration was found to be significantly
Cheyne & Guggisberg
10
associated with an insecure attachment style, which included elements of
anxiety that drove the stalkers to engage in stalking behaviours in attempts to
re-establish the relationship (Patton et al., 2010).
Learning theories explain offending as learned behaviour,whereby children
learn violent behaviours from their parents and reproduce these behaviours in
their later relationships (Ménard & Pincus, 2012). Behaviours are a
consequence of interaction with others, particularly family and peers, which
introduces people to particular social norms. Through learning and imitation,
attitudes towards rules (including the law and its transgression) are learned.
Attitudes favouring deviance then influence engagement in deviant behaviours
(Rothwell & Hawdon, 2008). Consequently, learning takes place in a social
context and the reproduction of behaviour is a conscious process (Newbury,
2017). In this regard, McGuire (2004) stated that criminal behaviour is a process
and the result of activities such as thoughts, feelings, attitudes or interpersonal
exchanges(p. 71). Empirical evidence suggests that stalking perpetrators learn
from their parents or peers that stalking is an acceptable behaviour to engage in
and then reproduce this behaviour (Fox, Nobles, & Akers, 2011; Ménard &
Pincus, 2012).
Evolutionary theorists have highlighted the biological imperatives that
drive stalking perpetration (Duntley & Buss, 2012). Darwin (1871) posited that
natural and sexual selection is related to human adaptation to the environment
through psychological, physical and behavioural mechanisms to secure survival
and reproduction. Sexual conflict evolves because of the different adaptations
of females and males. Duntley and Buss (2012) offered an evolutionary theory
of stalking suggesting that the behaviour is a successful strategy to regain sexual
access to a former intimate partner. The theorists further stated that stalkers
operate largely out of conscious awareness” (p. 314), and their actions are an
expression of adaptive behaviours to ensure human evolution and represent a
beneficial strategy to try to bring a lost mate back into the relationship(p.
315). It was further acknowledged that sexual exploitation and predatory
stalking is predominantly used by men.
Feminist approaches have drawn attention to the gendered nature of
violence against women and children (Guggisberg, 2010). Historically,
attention to violence against women was very limited and men’s behaviours
were rarely scrutinised. Tacit acceptance of male violence against women and
Stalking
11
rationalisation of this behaviour was common. Only in the 1970s did this
violence begin to be challenged by feminist work that made female
victimisation visible and illustrated the danger in the family home (Marin &
Russo, 1999). Power and control were acknowledged as motivating factors for
sexual and physical violence and also as reasons for why the criminal justice
system failed to respond appropriately to the violence, given this was a male-
dominated system that stereotyped and blamed victimised females. It is
important to note that there are numerous feminist approaches. However, there
are shared principles, such as the notion of gender being a social construct of
attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours and the need for this to be recognised
in relation to violence against women (Guggisberg, 2010). Feminist-informed
theories have been used to explain stalking, particularly in the context of
intimate partner violence (Basile, Hall, & Walters, 2013). Using a feminist
approach, stalking is seen to be another element of partriachal society, where
the accepted gender roles consist of dominant menwho are active pursuers of
their selected women who are expected to be subservient recipients of their
advances (Brewster, 2003). Consequently, stalking is seen as an extension of
the man’s ‘right’ to control the woman who, as a function of being in a
relationship with the man, belongs to him.
Finally, relational goal pursuit theoryposits that intimate relationships and
connectedness are human needs (Cupach et al., 2011). A break up of a
relationship elicits strong emotions including sadness, frustration, jealousy and
anger of varying intensity. Research evidence suggests that the greater the
negative emotion, the greater the risk of engaging in harassment and stalking,
because the pursuer is overwhelmed by negative emotions that serve as constant
reminders of rejection (Davis et al., 2012). The use of stalking behaviours is
explained as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and fulfil the
relational goal to (re)connect. However, possessive acts due to jealousy may
result in compounded guilt from rejection and the experience of shame may
cause the pursuer to seek revenge. In such cases, the goal is to inflict harm to
the person who rejected the stalker, which may become dangerous as stalking
escalates and the behaviour threatens the safety of the victim (Cupach et al.,
2000). Angry temperament and a need for control due to attachment issues in
childhood have been found to be related to intimate partner stalking behaviours
(Davis et al., 2012). The theory has been found to successfully explain stalking
Cheyne & Guggisberg
12
perpetration, whereby ex-partners strongly believe that attempts at
reconciliation will be successful and they pursue their partner in order to meet
their important life goal of being in a relationship (Cupach et al., 2011;
Spitzberg, Cupach, Hannawa, & Crowley, 2014; Winkleman & Winstead,
2011).
Typologies of Stalking
In addition to theoretical explorations of stalking, a number of typologies
have been advanced to classify stalkers according to their motivations for
pursuit (see for example Harmon, Rosner, & Owens, 1995; Kienlen,
Birmingham, Solberg, & O'Regan, 1997; Wright et al., 1996; Zona, Sharma, &
Lane, 1993). A typology by Mullen, Pathé, Purcell, and Stuart (1999) classified
stalkers by placing them into five categories: rejected (usually an ex-intimate
partner who cannot accept the end of a relationship and stalks out of revenge
but also the desire to reconcile with the victim); intimacy seekers (who wish to
establish a relationship with the victim, while also believing that the victim
returns their affections); incompetent suitors (who also seek to develop a
relationship but through socially unacceptable means as they are socially inept
or intellectually challenged); resentful (they engage in stalking to cause fear and
apprehension in the victim as the stalker believes the victim has wronged them);
and predatory (they collect information about the victim in preparation for a
sexual attack).
McFarlane and Bocij (2003) devised a typology of cyberstalkers based on
the accounts of 24 victims. The four categories cross over to some extent with
Mullen et al.’s typology (1999): intimate (ex-intimates or those infatuated with
the victim who wish to gain the affections or attentions of the victim); vindictive
(ferociously pursue their victim and are likely to threaten their victim);
composed (do not wish to establish a relationship with the victim but want to
cause them distress and wish to cause constant annoyance and irritation); and
collective cyberstalkers (corporations or groups pursuing victims online to get
back at the victim for criticising the corporation or for a perceived wrong against
the group).
It is important to note that many of these typologies have been largely
based on forensic or clinical samples. The existing research on stalkers outside
of clinical samples suggests that some stalkers had a history of childhood
Stalking
13
trauma or experienced harsh parenting, which is associated with an insecure
attachment style and personality problems (Kingham & Gordon, 2004; Ménard
& Pincus, 2012) as discussed above. Research by Ménard and Pincus (2012)
demonstrated that traumatic childhood events, sexual abuse and some aspects
of narcissism predicted both offline and online stalking; although insecure
attachment predicted cyberstalking. Further, Strawhun et al. (2013) found that
problems with attachment, jealousy and violence in the relationship predicted
cybertstalking.
As outlined above, a number of theories have been suggested and
typologies created by researchers and clinicians in recent years with the aim to
better understand the motivations for stalking behaviours. What researchers and
clinicians agree upon is that partner stalking is not only by far the most prevalent
but also the most dangerous type of stalking (Björklund et al., 2010; Buzawa et
al., 2017; Rosenfeld, 2004; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). Furthermore, stalkers
have different motivations for stalking. However, obsession with the victim is
one marked trait of stalking (Spitz, 2003), which leads to the examination of an
important issue in relation to the motivation for partner stalking, which is sexual
jealousy and possessiveness.
Sexual jealousy and possessiveness have been associated with stalking
behaviours and dangerous violence against an intimate partner. Men have been
found to be much more prone to suffer from feelings of possessiveness and
sexual jealousy than women with a rate of 95% versus 5%, with the majority of
these mencohabitingwith their partner or being married (Kingham & Gordon,
2004). Men who experience possessiveness and sexual jealousy pose a danger
to their ex-partners (Brownridge, 2009). The reason for this increased risk is
because women who have left the relationship have, in these men’s minds,
deprived them of their ownership, and, therefore, the men feel entitled to take
back their possession (p. 67). Possessiveness and sexual jealousy are
associated with irrational cognition and emotions along with controlling
behaviour that includes physical and sexual violence and stalking (Buzawa et
al., 2017). It is important to note that even when men are presented with
evidence that their jealousy is unfounded, they do not seem able to modify their
beliefs and reactions. Instead, they reject the evidence and continue to accuse
their intimate partner of infidelity.These men have a sense of ownership of their
partner and often justify violent behaviour as well as stalking as they believe
Cheyne & Guggisberg
14
their female partner is unfaithful and has provoked or actively encouraged their
jealousy (Brownridge, 2009; Kingham & Gordon, 2004). Sexual jealousy then
quickly becomes obsessional, which explains sustained stalking behaviours
(Buzawa et al., 2017; Walker, 2017).
IMPACTS OF STALKING AND CYBERSTALKING
The impacts of offline and/or online stalking are numerous and devastating
for victims. In relation to cyberstalking, it is important to note that evidence
suggests that the impacts are similar to those for traditional in-person stalking
(Strawhun et al., 2013). A significant proportion of victims experience negative
impacts from stalking, with in excess of 40% of victims in a national US study
experiencing significant concern for their safety and more than a quarter
seeking counselling (Ngo & Paternoster, 2013; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). The
impact of stalking includes helplessness, fear, anxiety, depression, grief,
attempted suicide, and alterations in behaviour (McFarlane & Bocij, 2003;
Parsons-Pollard & Moriarty, 2009; Spitz, 2003). Women subjected to stalking
have been found to experience financial consequences through loss of income,
being too afraid to leave their homes for work, or being fired because they
cannot concentrate at work, medical costs, legal costs, replacement costs for
damaged property, and moving costs when relocating away from the stalker
(Ngo & Paternoster, 2013; Spitz, 2003). Additionally, social consequences are
numerous, such as having to change their routine, choosing to stay at home
instead of going on social outings, leaving their job and even changing their
identity, which all impact on victims’interpersonal relationships (Campbell &
Moore, 2011; Sheridan & Lyndon, 2012; Spitz, 2003). Furthermore, multiple
psychological and physical consequences include increased fear, distrust of
others, nausea, gastro-intestinal conditions from chronic stress, eating
disorders, anxiety, depression, panic attacks and sleep disturbances (Sheridan
& Lyndon, 2012; Smoker & March, 2017). Importantly,while victims may take
refuge within their own homes, they often feel unsafe in those homes (see for
example Woodlock, 2017), which contributes to significant distress and mental
and physical health problems (Buzawa et al., 2017). As a result, they often
disengage from social activities, both offline and online (Walker, 2017).
Stalking
15
ISSUES AROUND HELP-SEEKING FROM THE CRIMINAL
JUSTICE SYSTEM
The first step in seeking official help is the recognition that stalking is
occurring. However, victims may not recognise the behaviour as stalking
(Duntley & Buss, 2012; Woodlock, 2017). Often, members of the general
public fail to understand the seriousness of stalking given the subtle nature of
the majority of stalking. Behaviours such as telephone calls and text messages
do not appear outwardly threatening; however, in the context of a repeated
pattern of behaviours, these actions take on new meaning (Strawhun et al.,
2013). Similar to societal perceptions of IPV, the psychological aspects of
offline stalking and cyberstalking are often not seen as being as serious as
physical and/or sexual violence. Furthermore, there is a lack of awareness in the
general community and among many professionals in the health and criminal
justice system that stalking behaviours often form part of the power and control
tactics men apply in the context of IPV. Members of society tend to see partner
stalking behaviours as misguided attempts at romantic pursuit (Parsons-Pollard
& Moriarty, 2009), which may reinforce the perpetrator’s denial of harmful
behaviours (Kingham & Gordon, 2004). Research has demonstrated that
community members believe that stranger stalkers are more dangerous and
require the intervention of police in comparison to intimate partnerstalkers
(Scott, Lloyd, & Gavin, 2010). However, evidence demonstrates that partner
stalkers are actually more dangerous.
If victims manage to move past societal perceptions of stalking and
recognise their own situations as comprising stalking, they may attempt to
contact police for assistance. Police have been shown to take physical violence
more seriously than non-physically violent methods of stalking, much like IPV
(Weller et al., 2013). The relationship between stalkers and victims can also
impact the way in which police view the behaviours, with strangers being more
likely to be seen as‘real’ stalkers in comparison to intimate partners (Scott et
al., 2010; Weller et al., 2013). Police may not recognise the seriousness of
cyberstalking and ask victims to return to the police station when the stalker has
issued physical threats against them (Parsons-Pollard & Moriarty, 2009).
Furthermore, if the police do not have a dedicated computer crimes unit, they
Cheyne & Guggisberg
16
may be much less likely to pursue cyberstalking offenders than when specific
cyber crime squads exist (Parsons-Pollard & Moriarty, 2009).
The seriousness of stalking in the context of IPV has been well documented
(Buzawa et al., 2017; Kingham & Gordon, 2004; Walker, 2017). Women’s
increased risk of femicide at the hands of their intimate partner should be of
particular concern to criminal justice officials, given that stalking behaviours
have not always been taken seriously by police officers and often women who
were murdered had previously taken out a restraining order against their ex-
partner (Buzawa et al., 2017). Threats of homicide also have been found to
frequently precede intimate partner homicide (Guggisberg, 2010; Kingham &
Gordon, 2004). Therefore, the absence of physical violence should not be taken
to indicate that there is no risk of harm to the victim.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Given the challenges outlined above, a number of actions are
recommended, both for general members of society and those who have already
been subjected to stalking in an attempt to assist people to work preventatively
and gain a better understanding of stalking behaviours.
Preventing Stalking From Occurring
Broader societal education about in-person stalking and cyberstalking may
assist community members to understand the behaviours that constitute stalking as
well as the impacts on victims of these behaviours (Dhillon & Smith, 2017). Such
education would assist community members to take actions to reduce their risk of
being stalked but also to recognise stalking if they were to experience it and provide
them with knowledge about how to proceed in terms of seeking assistance.
Preventing Stalking After it has Started
Spence-Diehl (1999) stated that victims of stalking should trust their
instincts and refrain from downplaying behaviours that they feel uncomfortable
with, even when others believe the behaviours to be of little consequence. As
Stalking
17
has been demonstrated, professionals, family members and friends often lack
knowledge and understanding of stalking behaviours. Therefore, their advice
may not recognise the threat of harm and actually may be counterproductive. It
is very important for victims to keep a record of the stalker’s conduct. Careful
documentation may be critical in the case that the decision is made to involve
the police (Fraser et al., 2010). As discussed in this chapter, stalkers often use
technological devices to surveil, control and contact victims, which may
provide critical evidence that can be provided to police (e.g. postings on social
networking sites, text messages, photos, videos, emails and text messages)
(Fraser et al., 2010; Hamid & Maple, 2013).
Victims of stalking are also encouraged to devise a safety plan with help
from a support person. This plan involves a risk assessment and incorporates
considerations of the specific circumstances and options that may reduce the
many harmful impacts of stalking victimisation along with increasing physical
safety. For example, Spence-Diehl (1999) encouraged victims to install an
alarm system, motion detector lights, and consider having a dog, which could
all provide protection in the home. Alternative measures may be taken in the
workplace and other settings, including having a varied schedule. In an online
context, victims may wish to check their privacy settings, regularly change their
passwords on accounts, and take care with the amount of information that is
shared on social media accounts (Hamid & Maple, 2013). It is important that
the suggestion is not made that victims cease use of technology altogether; the
stalker ultimately is at fault for misusing technology. Also, if a stalker cannot
contact the victim in the digital environment, this may enhance the likelihood
of transferring their behaviours to a physical space and even using violence
(Fraser et al., 2010). In relation to physical and mental health, Spence-Diehl
(1999) suggested that victims seek counselling that may assist with stress-
reduction strategies, and address anxiety issues and frequently observed self-
blame.
Victim advocates play a critical role in providing education and assistance
to victims. First, they can help victims recognise the behaviour as a stalking
pattern and validate their fear as a normal reaction. It is important to be non-
judgemental as many victims maintain some level of contact with the stalker to
ensure that they and their children are safe. Sometimes, women return to the
stalker as a safety measure and may be in need of help to devise a safety plan
Cheyne & Guggisberg
18
(Spence-Diehl, 1999).Victim advocates can collaborate with professionals in
the criminal justice system and health care providers and actively support the
victim. Importantly, they may be required to provide education in the dynamics
of stalking and help gather critical evidence in the case that law enforcement
officials are involved. Additionally, law enforcement and other agencies that
come into contact with stalking victims may require further education and
training to effectively assist victims of stalking behaviour and to ensure they are
not re-victimised by these statutory agencies (Weller et al., 2013).
In the context of cyberstalking, as many behaviours such as text messages
and emails occur through private channels, an opportunity exists to encourage
companies to adopt some measure of corporate social responsibility for the
stalking and assistin the prevention of cyberstalking behaviours (al-Khateeb,
Epiphaniou, Alhaboby, Barnes, & Short, 2017; Dhillon & Smith, 2017).
Corporations who facilitate communication between various parties should
have a responsibility to take actions to protect women from harassment
including stalking.
Finally, further research is needed to better understand women victims’
experiences and their unmet needs in terms of protecting themselves and their
children. It is hoped that in the future, knowledge of effective interventions will
grow which will allow the development of evidence-based intervention
programs.
Stalking
19
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... Much of this research has developed from the study of domestic violence, which highlights the gendered nature of aggression, with males more likely to engage in severe and harmful physical aggression toward romantic partners compared with females (Dobash et al., 1992). Within domestic violence research, online aggression is viewed as similar in nature but different in form, to the coercive and controlling behavior that abusive males perpetrate against female romantic partners (Cheyne and Guggisberg, 2018;Dragiewicz et al., 2018;Woodlock et al., 2020). The difference is merely that online aggression is facilitated through technology and, thus, functions as a form of digital coercive control (Cheyne and Guggisberg, 2018;Dragiewicz et al., 2018;Woodlock et al., 2020). ...
... Within domestic violence research, online aggression is viewed as similar in nature but different in form, to the coercive and controlling behavior that abusive males perpetrate against female romantic partners (Cheyne and Guggisberg, 2018;Dragiewicz et al., 2018;Woodlock et al., 2020). The difference is merely that online aggression is facilitated through technology and, thus, functions as a form of digital coercive control (Cheyne and Guggisberg, 2018;Dragiewicz et al., 2018;Woodlock et al., 2020). Given the gendered nature of physical domestic violence, it is perhaps not surprising that relatively few domestic violence studies have explored female participation in cyberaggressive behavior toward romantic partners. ...
... The finding that males are more likely to engage in cyberaggression against romantic partners is in line with the research that conceptualizes cyber dating abuse as a form of digital coercive control (Cheyne and Guggisberg, 2018;Dragiewicz et al., 2018;Woodlock et al., 2020). Through this lens, cyberaggression against romantic partners requires an Notes: Each subscript letter denotes a subset of cyberaggression selectivity (i.e. ...
Article
Purpose New ways of perpetrating relational aggression have been facilitated by the increased availability and adoption of technology for communication, resulting in growing cyberaggression rates over the past few decades. Few studies have examined whether perpetrators of cyberaggression are more likely to target friends or romantic partners (or both) and whether this differs across the gender of the perpetrator. This is the key focus of the current study. Design/methodology/approach Participants completed an online survey which assessed three types of cyberaggression (threatened to share secrets, shared secrets and posted embarrassing pictures) against friends and then also against romantic partners. The sample included 678 undergraduate university students who were in a romantic relationship at the time of the survey (72.6% female and 27.4% male, age range 18–50 years, average 21.7 and SD = 4.5). Findings The results of this study showed that a significantly higher proportion of males than females perpetrated cyberaggression against friends and romantic partners. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of males engaged in “general” cyberaggression (targeting both friends and romantic partners), whilst a higher proportion of females engaged in “selective” cyberaggression (targeting either friends or romantic partners). Originality/value Collectively, this study tells us that whilst there has been wide examination of cyberaggression more broadly, very few studies explore who perpetrators target (i.e. the victim–offender relationship), especially across gender of the perpetrator. The current study is original in that it asks perpetrators to report who they target and then examines gender differences in perpetration rates across victim–offender relationships.
... Technology-facilitated stalking or cyberstalking using mobile devices and web-based platforms, such as smartphones and social media, has been used to intrude in personal lives of strangers as well as former, current, and future partners (Cheyne & Guggisberg, 2018). On social media, scrolling through someone's relationship status, their posts, location tags, and family history seeking to connect the myriad digital traces is not perceived as stalking in a legal sense as this behavior is not threatful or fear-inciting; regardless, it may certainly constitute as obsessive relational pursuit behavior (Chaulk & Jones, 2011). ...
... While no universally accepted definition of stalking exists (Cheyne & Guggisberg, 2018), stalking is generally defined as repeated harassing acts that cause the targeted person (or a reasonable person in the same situation), to experience fear and a threat to their safety (Diette et al., 2014). From a legal perspective, the crucial element is the repetitiveness of the stalker's behaviors, as some jurisdictions have moved away from emphasizing fear as a defining factor. ...
... It follows that stalking is considered a complex phenomenon with objective and subjective components. Furthermore, given offline stalking is often associated with online stalking (Cheyne & Guggisberg, 2018), difficulties defining and identifying the behaviors are likely compounded. ...
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Often, individuals share private information on social media, being unaware of online dangers. You, a popular psychological thriller series on Netflix, raises issues of stalking behaviors through social media as part of a pattern of dating violence. Using a qualitative content analysis approach, this study examined how social media is used for erotic stalking, dating violence, and cyber safety awareness (or lack thereof) in You. The researchers analyzed all 10 episodes of the first season of You independently, taking notes. A combined in-depth analysis included discussions of messages and meanings resulting in three overarching themes: obsessive online and in-person erotic stalking, controlling behaviors in the context of the dating relationship, and an apparent indifference about cyber safety with oversharing of personal information on social media, which was exploited by the lead protagonist. You raises important concerns including inappropriate dating behaviors such as stalking, coercive control, violence, and questionable masculine attitudes, which are interwoven with an apparent lack of knowledge and understanding in relation to cyber safety. We concluded that raising awareness of the importance of online safety and security in the context of a dating relationship is imperative and that You can be used as an educational tool.
... There is general agreement that education is required to address common misperceptions regarding stalking (Brewster, 2001;Cheyne & Guggisberg, 2018;Korkodeilou, 2016;Ogilvie, 2000;Spence-Diehl & Potocky-Tripodi, 2001), and it is important that findings from this and other perception research are incorporated into general awareness campaigns (e.g., UK National Stalking Awareness Week), school education programs (e.g., UK ...
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The present study examines the influence of prior relationship (intimate, non‐intimate), perpetrator‐target sex (male‐female, female‐male) and perpetrator motivation (romance, upset) on (1) the point at which behavior crosses the line and becomes stalking, and (2) the likelihood of offering five forms of advice to the target (formal support, informal support, protective measures, avoidance measures, threatening action). The study used a 2 × 2 × 2 between‐participants experimental design. Four‐hundred and sixty‐one UK students read one of eight versions of a hypothetical scenario that they were informed may or may not depict a stalking situation. Analyses revealed that 97.8% (n = 451) of participants believed the perpetrator's behavior constituted stalking, and that behavior was perceived to cross the line earlier in the scenario when the perpetrator's motivation was to upset the target in the context of a non‐intimate prior relationship only. Prior relationship, perpetrator‐target sex and perpetrator motivation also influenced the likelihood of offering various forms of advice to the target. These findings further demonstrate the impact of situational characteristics on perceptions of stalking and highlight the importance of educational campaigns and programs to increase people's understanding of stalking.
... Furthermore, placing a tracking device onto an ex-wife's car has been identified as coercive control with the intent of causing fear (Elizabeth, 2017). In this regard, Cheyne and Guggisberg (2018) asserted: ...
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Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) involves physical and sexual violence and coercive controlling behaviours to maximise power inequality in abusive relationships. Many women make the decision to exit abusive relationships due to the detrimental impact of IPV on their children. In a qualitative exploration , semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women recruited by purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. Two overarching themes of single mothers' unique experiences of co-parenting with IPV were revealed through interpretative phenomenological analysis. The first theme was Continuous Victimisation, which indicated that post-separation victimisation was an extension of existing IPV whereby fathers used intimidation, threatening behaviours such as stalking and other monitoring tactics and the deliberate undermining of the mother-child relationship. The second theme identified was Systemic Challenges, indicating how court officials applied a 'pro-contact' approach and either minimised or denied mothers' allegations of IPV and the impact on them and the children. The analysis found a persistent bias against mothers. Implications of the study are discussed before the article concludes that attitudinal change regarding IPV is 1 required by decision makers in court processes with a recognition that abusive men may be unwilling to engage in cooperative parenting that focuses on the children's developmental, social, emotional, psychological and physical needs.
... T here is recent growing research interest in cyber dating abuse (CDA), which includes the use of technology to aggress toward and/or control current or former intimate partners. 1 Examples of CDA include cyberstalking and monitoring a partner online, sexually harassing a partner via technology, and publicly humiliating a partner online. 2 Research has highlighted a shared nomological network between CDA behaviors and intimate partner violence (IPV) 3 with CDA co-occurring with offline dating violence. 4 CDA and IPV may share a reciprocal relationship; for example, traditional psychological and physical dating abuse predicts CDA, 5 but there is also evidence that CDA behaviors in turn predict domestic violence. ...
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... For example, drawing on the risk assessment literature, Kropp, Hart, and Lyon (2002) classified behaviours into three groups according to the perpetrator's proximity to the target: (i) remote; comprising behaviours that do not require close proximity to the target, such as sending letters and gifts, and phoning the target; (ii) approach-oriented; including behaviours that require greater proximity but not direct contact, for example, surveillance, delivering gifts to the target's home or place of work, and following the target; and (iii) direct contact; comprising behaviours that require direct contact with the target, such as presenting gifts to the target, and confronting and Sex-based Harassment and Stalking 21 injuring the target. It is important to note that advances in technology have increased the number of 'remote' stalking-related behaviours available to perpetrators of stalking (Cheyne & Guggisberg, 2018;Fraser, Olsen, Lee, Southworth, & Tucker 2010). Example behaviours include audio and video surveillance, GPS tracking, and use of the internet to gather and share information about the target. ...
Chapter
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Sex-based harassment and stalking are highly prevalent forms of interpersonal aggression that often result in an array of detrimental and severe impacts for victims. In this chapter, we examine some of the common challenges associated with defining and legislating against sex-based harassment and stalking, as well as considering existing classifications of behaviour and perpetrator motivations. In doing so, our aim is to highlight the complex nature of these forms of interpersonal aggression and the difficulties associated with ascertaining boundaries between 'reasonable' and 'unreasonable' behaviour. We proceed to discuss the importance of appropriately targeted evidence-based educational campaigns to increase public awareness and understanding regarding the reality of sex-based harassment and stalking. Our conclusion is that increased education will enable greater recognition of the diverse behaviours that constitute sex-based harassment and stalking, so that people are better able to identify both their own and others' victimisation experiences.
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In the decade since the publication of the first edition of The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology, the field has expanded into areas such as social work and education, while maintaining the interest of criminal justice researchers and policy makers. This new edition provides cutting-edge and comprehensive coverage of the key theoretical perspectives, assessment methods, and interventions in forensic psychology. The chapters address substantive topics such as acquisitive crime, domestic violence, mass murder, and sexual violence, while also exploring emerging areas of research such as the expansion of cybercrime, particularly child sexual exploitation, as well as aspects of terrorism and radicalisation. Reflecting the global reach of forensic psychology and its wide range of perspectives, the international team of contributors emphasise diversity and cross-reference between adults, adolescents, and children to deliver a contemporary picture of the discipline.
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Sex-based harassment and stalking are highly prevalent forms of interpersonal aggression that often result in an array of detrimental and severe impacts for victims. In this chapter, we examine some of the common challenges associated with defining and legislating against sex-based harassment and stalking, as well as considering existing classifications of behaviour and perpetrator motivations. In doing so, our aim is to highlight the complex nature of these forms of interpersonal aggression and the difficulties associated with ascertaining boundaries between ‘reasonable’ and ‘unreasonable’ behaviour. We proceed to discuss the importance of appropriately targeted evidence-based educational campaigns to increase public awareness and understanding regarding the reality of sex-based harassment and stalking. Our conclusion is that increased education will enable greater recognition of the diverse behaviours that constitute sex-based harassment and stalking, so that people are better able to identify both their own and others’ victimisation experiences.
Article
Cyber Dating Abuse includes perpetration of aggressive and controlling behaviours against an intimate partner via technology. Despite the significant physical and psychological outcomes, there is a paucity in research exploring predictors of Cyber Dating Abuse. In the current study, we replicate and extend previous research by exploring the utility of jealousy, hostility, narcissism (grandiose and vulnerable), and psychopathy (primary and secondary) as predictors of Cyber Dating Abuse. Participants (N = 817; 78.2% women; Mage = 28.16, SD = 10.49) were recruited via social media and completed an online questionnaire which comprised measures of jealousy, hostility, narcissism, psychopathy, and perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse behaviours. Results supported the hypotheses that jealousy, vulnerable narcissism, and secondary psychopathy would be significant, positive predictors of Cyber Dating Abuse perpetration. No other predictor reached significance, and gender (control variable) was also a non-significant predictor. Results are discussed through the lens of evolutionary theory and the General Aggression Model and indicate that the perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse may be better attributed to reactive, emotional aggression, compared to proactive, instrumental aggression. These results have important clinical and practical implications and may inform management and prevention of online intimate partner abuse and violence.
Article
Full-text available
Context: Online harassment and stalking have been identified with growing accordance as anti-social behaviours, potentially with extreme consequences including indirect or direct physical injury, emotional distress and/or financial loss. Objective: As part of our ongoing work to research and establish better understanding of cyberstalking, this study aims to investigate the role of Police, Mobile Operators, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and owners/administrators of online platforms (e.g. websites, chatrooms) in terms of intervention in response to offences. We ask to what different authorities do people report incidents of cyberstalking? Do these authorities provide satisfactory responses or interventions? And how can this be improved? Furthermore, we discuss the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to encourage the implementation of cyberstalking-aware schemes by service providers to support victims. In addition, CSR can be used as a means to measure the effects of externality factor in dictating the relationship between the impact of a given individuals’ privacy loss and strategic decisions on investment to security controls in an organisational context. Method: A mixed method design has been used in this study. Data collection took place by means of an online survey made available for three years to record both qualitative and quantitative data. Overall, 305 participants responded from which 274 identified themselves as victims of online harassment. Result: Our results suggest that most offences were communicated through private channels such as emails and/or mobile texts/calls. A significant number of victims did not report this to their service provider because they did not know they could. While Police were recognised as the first-point-of-contact in such cases, 41.6% of our sample did not contact the Police due to reasons such as fear of escalation, guilt/sympathy and self-blaming. Experiences from those who have reported offences to service providers demonstrate that no or very little support was offered. Overall, the majority of participants shared the view that third-party intervention is required on their behalf in order to mitigate risks associated with cyberstalking. An independent specialist anti-stalking organisation was a popular choice to act on their behalf followed by the Police and network providers. Conclusion: Incidents are taking place on channels owned and controlled by large, crossborder international companies providing mobile services, webmail and social networking. The lack of support offered to victims in many cases of cyberstalking can be identified asCorporate Social Irresponsibility (CSI). We anticipate that awareness should be raised as regarding service providers’ liability and social responsibility towards adopting better strategies.
Article
Purpose: Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). Methods: We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Results: Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Conclusions: Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images.
Article
The interaction between disjunctive interpersonal relationships, those where the parties to the relationship disagree on the goals of the relationship, and the use of computer mediated communications channels is a relatively unexplored domain. Bargh (2002) suggests that CMC channels can amplify the development of interpersonal relationships, and notes that the effect is not constant across communications activities. This proposal suggests a line of research that explores the interaction between computer mediated communications (CMC) and stalking, which is a common form of disjunctive relationships. Field data from cyberstalking cases will be used to look at the effects of CMC channels on stalking case severity, and exploring the relative impacts of CMC channel characteristics on such cases. To accomplish this, a ratio scaled measure of stalking case severity is proposed for use in exploring the relationship between case severity and CMC media characteristics, anonymity, and the prior relationship between the stalker and the victim. Expected results are identified, and follow-up research is proposed.
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Stalking behaviours performed against former and current intimate partners account for the majority of reported stalking situations, are continuously increasing, and can result in physical, psychological, and financial distress. The rise of technology has led to increased access to personal information and thus has facilitated the ease of stalking an intimate partner online (i.e., cyberstalking). However, the literature indicates a lack of clarity regarding predictive factors of perpetration of intimate partner cyberstalking behaviour. The current study aimed to predict perpetration of intimate partner cyberstalking from the variables of gender and Dark Tetrad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and sadism). Participants (N = 689; 30% men, 70% women) completed an online questionnaire. Gender was a significant predictor of intimate partner cyberstalking, with women being more likely to engage in this behaviour. All Dark Tetrad traits were found to be significant predictors of intimate partner cyberstalking. Results of the current study contribute to the growing body of literature on personality and online behaviours. Identification of factors that influence individuals to engage in intimate partner cyberstalking could be beneficial in cyberstalking interventions.
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We focus on an emerging trend in the context of domestic violence—the use of technology to facilitate stalking and other forms of abuse. Surveys with 152 domestic violence advocates and 46 victims show that technology—including phones, tablets, computers, and social networking websites—is commonly used in intimate partner stalking. Technology was used to create a sense of the perpetrator’s omnipresence, and to isolate, punish, and humiliate domestic violence victims. Perpetrators also threatened to share sexualized content online to humiliate victims. Technology-facilitated stalking needs to be treated as a serious offense, and effective practice, policy, and legal responses must be developed.
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Stalking is a dangerous and devastating crime that irrevocably changes the lives of victims but is frequently misunderstood and minimized. Victims report that their lives are never the same after they have been stalked. Stalking is prevalent and gender-neutral and occurs across all socioeconomic lines and in all clinical settings. The prevalence of stalking provides many opportunities for social workers to intervene, but first they must recognize and understand the problem. This article explains common misconceptions about stalking, contains a brief discussion of the types of stalking, the elements necessary to criminally charge someone with stalking, strategies for the victims, and suggestions for future research.
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Violence Against Women: Vulnerable Populations investigates under-researched and underserved groups of women who are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization from an intimate male partner. In the past, there has been an understandable reluctance to address this issue to avoid stereotyping vulnerable groups of women. However, developments in the field, particularly intersectionality theory, which recognizes women's diversity in experiences of violence, suggest that the time has come to make the study of violence in vulnerable populations a new sub-field in the area. As the first book of its kind, Violence Against Women: Vulnerable Populations identifies where violence on vulnerable populations fits within the field, develops a method for studying vulnerable populations, and brings vital new knowledge to the field through the analysis of original data (from three large-scale representative surveys) on eight populations of women who are particularly vulnerable to violence.
Article
Although research demonstrates that college students are at great risk for stalking occurrences (Fisher, Cullen, and Turner 2002), little scholarship exists on how students define stalking. In the current study, a 2 (offender/target gender: male offender/female target, female offender/male target) × 4 (relationship: stranger, casual acquaintance, exintimate, hook-up) × 2 (respondent gender: female, male) factorial design survey was administered to 527 college students to determine whether these extralegal factors influence the ascription of a stalking label. Logistic regression results revealed that respondent gender and offender/target gender did not statistically influence the application of a crime label. However, cases involving strangers and acquaintances were significantly more likely to be envisioned as stalking than cases between ex-intimates, partly because behaviors by the latter could be excused as attempts at closure or reconciliation. Student narratives further revealed that students often envisioned information gathering, following, or showing up unannounced as indications of stalking. Results also suggested that students do not feel victim fear is necessary for a case to be deemed stalking, a legal requirement set forth by many states. Implications of these findings and directions for future research will be discussed.