Article

Efficacy of new herbicide (bispyribac sodium 10% SC) against different weed flora, nutrient uptake in rice and their residual effects on succeeding crop of green gram under zero tillage

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Abstract

Field experiment was conducted in the wetland farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during rabi season (August to February) of 2011-12 to evaluate the herbicide (Bispyribac sodium 10% SC) on weed control and their nutrient management in direct seeded lowland rice. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The results revealed that Early Post Emergence (EPOE) application of bispyribac sodium 10% SC 40 g ha-1 recorded higher weed control efficiency and lesser weed density, nutrient uptake at reproductive stage of the crop. Different weed management practices imposed on rice crop did not affect the germination of succeeding green gram.

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... ha -1 as post emergence which recorded lower total weed density and biomass has reported higher nutrient uptake and grain yield. Moreover, absence of weeds will always provide favorable conditions for the crop to grow well and absorb more nutrients through minimum competition thereby offering less scope for the robbery of nutrients by weeds ultimately resulting in higher grain production [18,19]. The aqueous allelochemical plant extracts were not as effective as manufactured chemical herbicides but their performance was still appreciable as reflected in the significantly higher grain yields when compared with control. ...
... There is strong positive correlation between the weed biomass and nutrient removal by the weeds (Figs 3 a & b). In unweeded control absence of effective weed management practices allowed the weeds to utilize the available growth resources to the fullest extent leading to uptake of more nutrients from the soil [18,19]. ...
Article
Herbicide based weed management is the emerging and effective method for controlling the weed flora of direct seeded rice. Weed growth often has an impact on crop development by interfering with plant nutrients. A two-year weed experiment with twelve treatments was set up at the University of Agricultural Sciences in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to know the effect of weed management practices on weed and nutrient dynamics in direct seeded rice. Significantly lower total weed density and biomass was observed with bispyribac sodium 10 SC 40 g a.i. ha-1 as post emergence which recorded statistically at par values with bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor 6.6 GR 660 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence during both the years of study. The allelochemicals used in the study performed well over unweeded control but it was far less when compared with chemical herbicides. Nutrient uptake by the direct seeded rice (82.17, 31.76 and 68.83 kg ha-1 NPK in 2020 and 89.38, 38.84 and 75.62 ha-1 NPK in 2021, respectively) and grain yield (4.98 t ha-1 in 2020 and 4.99 t ha-1 in 2021, respectively) was also reported to be higher with bispyribac sodium 10 SC 40 g a.i. ha-1 as post emergence which was on par with bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor 6.6 GR 660 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence. As the nutrient uptake by the crop and weeds are negatively correlated, the same treatments have recorded lower nutrient removal by the weeds. Higher weed biomass and rapid nutrient removal by weeds had resulted in poor soil nutritional status in unweeded control compared to all other treatments. Application of bispyribac sodium 10 SC 40 g a.i. ha-1 as post emergence or bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor 6.6 GR 660 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence were considered to be best management practices for weed management under direct seeded rice.
... This might be due to lesser total weed density during the cropping period. These results conform with the findings of Kumaran et al. (2015) [8] . The highest weed dry weight was observed in unweeded control plots (T 9 ). ...
... This might be due to lesser total weed density during the cropping period. These results conform with the findings of Kumaran et al. (2015) [8] . The highest weed dry weight was observed in unweeded control plots (T 9 ). ...
... The general weed flora recorded in direct sown rice in Tamil Nadu were Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crusgalli, Brachiaria platyphylla in grasses; Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Scirpus spp and Fimbristylis miliacea in sedges; Ammania baccifera, Eclipta alba, Ludwigia parviflora and Marselia quadrifoliata in broad leaved weeds (Chinnusamy et al., 2012). Reddy et al. (2013b) and Kumaran et al. (2015) also reported similar observations. ...
... Kumar et al. (2017) recorded higher grain and biological yield of rice by 37.66 and 34.93 per cent higher under Pyrazosulfuron followed by Bispyribac Sodium (150g a.i./ha as PE; 25g a.i./ha as POE) for transplanted rice. Similarly, Kumaran et al. (2015) revealed that Early Post Emergence application of bispyribac sodium 10% SC 40 g/ha recorded higher weed control efficiency and lesser weed density, nutrient uptake at reproductive stage of the crop. Saha (2005) reported that there was no phytotoxic effect of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 20 -25 g/ha and pretilachlor + safener at 750 g/ ha in wet direct sown rice crop. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing labour cost and scarcity has shifted in trend towards mechanization. Rice being a labour-intensive crop method like direct sowing using drum seeder could help in reducing the nursery and transplanting costs. Moreover, chemical weeding for direct sown rice need to be evaluated which could aid in the developing labour crisis. This review article focuses on the chemical weed management practices for direct sown rice. Pre-emergence (PE) herbicides like pretilachlor, anilofos and pendimethalin along with post-emergence herbicides (POE) like azimsulfuron and bispyribac sodium at different dosages and combinations are evaluated using available literature in contrast to manual hand weeding and mechanical weeding practices. It is a known fact that hand weeding is the best management practice till date and chemical combinations showing comparable performance to hand weeding can be chosen for further evaluation. It could be enlightened that the use of pretilachlor as PE followed by bispyribac sodium as POE have shown to be an appropriate, cost efficient weed management practice. Based on this the recommended dosage for application for pretilachlor @ 750 g (active ingredient) a.i./ha on 8 days after sowing (DAS); and bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i./ha on 30 DAS for direct sown drum seeded rice could enhance the weed control efficiency.
... Thus facilitate the rice crop to attain vigorous growth at the initial stage and in turn provided smothering effect at later stage of the crop. Early POE application of bispyribac sodium 10% SC at 20 g ha -1 was more effective for controlling the grassy weed density at critical stage of crop growth in DSR [19]. ...
... However, the combined application of bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14% SE with wetter at all doses were effectively controlled the sedges present in the experimental plots. The results also indicated the poor control of C. difformis by individual application of almix at 4 g ha Early POE application of bispyribac sodium 10% SC at 40 g ha -1 was more effective against C. rotundus as compared to pretilachlor S at 0.45 ha -1 followed by one hand weeding on 40 days after sowing [19]. ...
... This indicated that different weed management practices applied to rice had no adverse or favourable effect on growth and yield of succeeding green gram crop. Similar results were also reported by Kumaran et al., (2015) that herbicides applied to rice crop had no residual effect on succeeding crops growth and yields. ...
... All these herbicide mixtures were superior to weedy control in reducing the weeds' density and dry weight. The results were in conformity with the results obtained by Kumaran et al., 2015. In conclusion the direct-seeded rice is catching interest of researchers, planners and farmers in India. ...
... Hand weeding twice is still the most effective means to manage weeds in most of the crops but ever increasing efficacy of newly evolved herbicides and still faster increasing labour cost, making manual weeding a less desirable option. The also find support with the works of Kumaran et al., (2015) Das et al., (2017) concluded that the post-emergence application of bispyribacsodium 25 g/ha at 25 DAT proved economical herbicide for transplanted rice as compared to hand weeding twice and also other herbicides and weedy check. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found higher net return ( 17,660 / ha) and B:C ratio (2.57) under two hand weedings, which reduced to 9,847 / ha and 2.26 under the application of butachlor. ...
Article
Rice farming is generally practiced in warm/cool humid subtropics where lack of control over the water by both flooding and drought problems and serious weed infestation thus crop badly suffer. Worldwide, weeds are one of the major biological threats to higher rice productivity and its management in rice is challenging, complex, expensive, and regulated mechanism. Therefore, to control the diverse weed infestation in rice fields, planed weed management strategies have to addressed. Now a day, unavailability of labour due to seasonal migration and lack of farm operations in the peak of the rice growing period adds fossil to the burning complications “the profuse weed infestation” and hence, the precise weed removal/control is utmost required to optimize the yield sustainability and efficient resource use. Among all the weed control methods, chemical weed control is commonly used to overcome weeds infestation which is easy, quick, time saving, cost effective and the most reliable method to control weeds in rice. In view of the limitations of herbicidal resistance of old molecules, it is necessary to promote the potential new molecules of herbicides and their combination (a sustainable option in a long run) for effective weed control. Among the existing herbicides, pre emergence herbicides alone are extensively used for controlling the rice weeds which do not provide extended period of weed control. To control weeds during the critical period of crop weed and escape the development of resistance, a combination of different groups of herbicides having different mode of action to be applied. Integrated approaches for weed management, emphasizing on the combination of management practices and scientific knowledge, may also reduce the economic costs and improve weed control owing to the complexity of the weed community.
... Hand weeding twice is still the most effective means to manage weeds in most of the crops but ever increasing efficacy of newly evolved herbicides and still faster increasing labour cost, making manual weeding a less desirable option. The also find support with the works of Kumaran et al., (2015) Das et al., (2017) concluded that the post-emergence application of bispyribacsodium 25 g/ha at 25 DAT proved economical herbicide for transplanted rice as compared to hand weeding twice and also other herbicides and weedy check. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found higher net return ( 17,660 / ha) and B:C ratio (2.57) under two hand weedings, which reduced to 9,847 / ha and 2.26 under the application of butachlor. ...
... Hand weeding twice is still the most effective means to manage weeds in most of the crops but ever increasing efficacy of newly evolved herbicides and still faster increasing labour cost, making manual weeding a less desirable option. The also find support with the works of Kumaran et al., (2015) Das et al., (2017) concluded that the post-emergence application of bispyribacsodium 25 g/ha at 25 DAT proved economical herbicide for transplanted rice as compared to hand weeding twice and also other herbicides and weedy check. Singh and Namdeo (2004) found higher net return ( 17,660 / ha) and B:C ratio (2.57) under two hand weedings, which reduced to 9,847 / ha and 2.26 under the application of butachlor. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rice-the major crop of Asia is typically grown by the transplantation of seedlings in prepared land which demands increased manual power and large water quantity. Nowadays, many farmers are therefore moving toward the direct-seeded rice systems that are of two types-wet-and dry-seeded rice. The direct-seeded rice system offers numerous benefits to farmers but major limitation is the growth of weeds due to the absence of standing water and rice seedlings, thus causing a significant loss in rice yield. However, weeds can be controlled by application of herbicides or manually. Manual weeding is today less prevalent due to the increased labor cost and unavailability of labor. On the other side, increased use of herbi-cides may lead to shifts in weed populations, development of resistance in weeds, and pollution. Therefore a strong need is nowadays felt to integrate the weed management practices for controlling the weeds in direct-seeded rice systems. This chapter deals with the introduction of commonly found weeds, and traditional and recent weed management practices in direct-seeded rice systems.
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