Conference Paper

The diversity of stick insects (phasmatodea) on Gunung Jerai, Kedah

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A total of 14 stick insects species from 11 genera under 4 families (Aschiphasmatidae: one species in one genus; Heteronemiidae, 10 species in 7 genera; Phasmatidae: two species in two genera; Bacillidae: one species in one genus) was recorded for Gunung Jerai, Kedah. This was based on 86 individuals obtained through five sampling occasions in December 2016 until April 2017, by active searching using high intensity LED torch lights at three sampling locations down the trails starting at (L1: 1130m; L2: 800m; L3: 230m) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Abrosoma festinatum Brock & Seow-Choen. Lopaphus iolas (Westwood) appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 5 individuals which covers 31.25 % of the total collected specimen in that area. In L3, Lopaphus iolas (Westwood) is also appeared as the most abundant species represented by 6 individuals or 54.54 %. Shannon’s Species Diversity Index (H’) in L2 was the highest (H’=1.836) followed by L3 (H’=1.295) and L1 (H’=1.264), and the evenness index in L2 was the highest (E= 0.7843), followed by L3 (E= 0.7229), and L1 (E= 0.4424). Margalef Species Richness Index in L2 was the highest (R’=2.525), followed by L1 (R’=1.717) and L3 (R’=1.668). It can be summarized that L2 at the altitude 800m appear as the best sampling site for stick insects species in Gunung Jerai, Kedah with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of wings was the central adaptation allowing insects to escape predators, exploit scattered resources, and disperse into new niches, resulting in radiations into vast numbers of species. Despite the presumed evolutionary advantages associated with full-sized wings (macroptery), nearly all pterygote (winged) orders have many partially winged (brachypterous) or wingless (apterous) lineages, and some entire orders are secondarily wingless (for example, fleas, lice, grylloblattids and mantophasmatids), with about 5% of extant pterygote species being flightless. Thousands of independent transitions from a winged form to winglessness have occurred during the course of insect evolution; however, an evolutionary reversal from a flightless to a volant form has never been demonstrated clearly for any pterygote lineage. Such a reversal is considered highly unlikely because complex interactions between nerves, muscles, sclerites and wing foils are required to accommodate flight. Here we show that stick insects (order Phasmatodea) diversified as wingless insects and that wings were derived secondarily, perhaps on many occasions. These results suggest that wing developmental pathways are conserved in wingless phasmids, and that 're-evolution' of wings has had an unrecognized role in insect diversification.
Article
Stick insects (Phasmida) are important herbivores in tropical ecosystems, but have been poorly investigated in their natural environment. We studied phasmids and their food plants in a tropical lowland rain forest in Borneo (Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia). Thirty species of phasmid were collected from 49 plant species during nocturnal surveys in the forest understorey. In most cases (35 plant species), experiments confirmed that these phasmids fed on those plant species from which they were collected. Partitioning of phasmid species among food plant species was highly significant. Two common species had a largely restricted diet: Asceles margaritatus occurred mainly on Mallotus spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and Dinophasma ruficornis on Leea indica (Leeaceae). Other phasmids fed on a broad spectrum of plant families and can be considered polyphagous (e.g. Haaniella echinata, Lonchodes hosei herberti). Feeding experiments were performed on captive phasmids using leaves from eight plant species. Asceles margaritatus showed a significantly higher consumption rate for Mallotus miquelianus leaves than for other plants, while H. echinata showed the opposite trend and the lowest consumption for M. miquelianus. However, A. margaritatus readily accepted foliage from several plant families, particularly when Mallotus was not offered at the same time. Therefore, studies on host specialisation by herbivores need to include their distribution in the natural vegetation.
Komposisi dan Kepelbagaian spesies pokok di
  • W A Juliana
  • M S Nizam
  • Z Nor Faizah
  • N A Nik Norafida
  • A Zainudin Ibrahim
  • Rohani
  • M Sani
Juliana, W.A., Nizam, M.S., Nor Faizah, Z., Nik Norafida, N.A., Zainudin Ibrahim, A., Rohani, S & Sani, M. 2006. Komposisi dan Kepelbagaian spesies pokok di Hutan Simpan Gunung Jerai. Dlm. Shaharuddin, M. I., Wan Yusoff, W. A., Jalil, M. S., Yusoff, M & Latiff, A. (pnyt.). Hutan Simpan Gunung Jerai, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Siri kepelbagaian Biologi Hutan 6, Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia. Hlm. 305-315.
A pocket guide to the phasmids of Peninsular Malaysia and
  • F Seow-Choen
Seow-Choen, F. 2005. A pocket guide to the phasmids of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo).
An illustrated guide to the stick and leaf insects of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore
  • F Seow-Choen
Seow-Choen, F. 2000. An illustrated guide to the stick and leaf insects of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo).