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The effect of mobile phone usage on sleep quality in adolescents

JNBS 2018 Published by Üsküdar University / 2018 Üsküdar Üniversitesi tarafından yayımlanmaktadır
1Milli Savunma Bakanlığı, Ankara, Türkiye
2 Ministry of Health Gulhane Education Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey
*Corresponding author: Duygu Akçay, Milli Savunma Bakanlığı, Ankara, Türkiye, E-mail:
Adölesanlarda cep telefonu kullanımının uyku kalitesi üzerine etkisini değerlendirilmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu tanımlayıcı araştırma, Konya
Lisesinde kayıtlı 9., 10. ve 11. sınıf öğrencileri (n=380, %51.6’sı Bayan, yaş aralığı 16.05±0.87) üzerinde, 13-15 Ocak 2016 tarihleri
arasında yapılmıştır. Öğrencilerin uyku kalitelerini ölçmek amacıyla Pitsburg Uyku Kalitesi Ölçeği (PUKİ) kullanılmıştır. Öğrenciler ilk
cep telefonları ortalama 12.29±1.41 yaşında almıştır. Adölesanların cep telefonunu günlük ortalama 3.03±2.18 saat kullandıkları ve en
çok mesajlaşmak (%89.5) için kullandığı belirlenmiştir. Ortalama uyuma saati ertesi gün okul yoksa 7.34±1.22 saat, ertesi gün okul
varsa 9.11±1.79 saat olarak belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin cep telefonu kullanma süresi arttıkça uyku kalitesinin düştüğü belirlenmiştir
(p<0.01). PUKİ ölçeğine göre uyku kalitesi iyi olan öğrencilerin %20.5’inin, kötü olanların ise %79.5’inin cep telefonu ile meşgul
olduğu zaman yatma zamanını ertelediği belirlenmiştir (p<0.05). Cep telefonları adölesanların yatak odalarından çıkarılmalıdır. Aileler
çocuklarının cep telefonu kullanımını, içeriğini kontrol etmelidirler.
Anahtar Kelimeler: adölesan, uyku kalitesi, cep telefonu, uyku rutini
To evaluate the effect of mobile phone usage on adolescents’ sleep quality. This descriptive study took place from January 13-
15, 2016 with 9th, 10th, and 11th grade students enrolled at Konya High School (n=380, 51.6% female, age 16.05±0.87). A
questionnaire was used for data collection and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure the sleep quality
of the students. Students received their first mobile phones at an average age of 12.29±1.41). They used their phones 3.03±2.18
hours per day on average, mostly for text messaging (89.5%). Average sleeping time was 7.34±1.22 hours when the next day was
not a school day, and 9.11±1.79 hours when the next day was a school day. Sleep quality of the students decreased as the duration
of mobile phone usage increased (p<0.01). Using the PSQI scale, it was determined that 20.5% of the students with good sleep
quality and 79.5% of the students with poor sleep quality delayed their bedtime in favor of continued usage of their phone (p<0.05).
Mobile phones should be removed from the bedrooms of adolescents. Parents should control their children’s mobile phone usage
and contents.
Keywords: adolescent, sleep quality, mobile phone, sleep routine.
Year (Yıl) : 2018
Volume (Cilt) : 5
Issue Number (Sayı) : 1
Doi : 10.5455/JNBS.1519129764
Received/Geliş: 20.02.2018
Duygu Akçay1*, Bülent Devrim Akçay2
JNBS 2018 Published by Üsküdar University / 2018 Üsküdar Üniversitesi tarafından yayımlanmaktadır
and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later
amendments or comparable ethical standards.
2.2. Instruments
Introductory Characteristics of the Students and Status of
Mobile Phone Use Habits Information Form:
This form was created by the researcher for the purpose
of gathering information related to the variables that had
been determined to have an impact, according to a review
of the relevant literature, on the children constituting the
study sample (Arora et al., 2014; Bartel et al., 2015; Bruni
et al., 2015; Cain & Gradisar, 2010; Demirci et al., 2015;
Eyvazlou et al., 2016; Hale & Guan, 2015; Mohammadbeigi
et al., 2016; Sahin et al., 2013; Mak et al., 2014; Yogesh et
al., 2014).
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): The PSQI was
developed by Buysse et al. and adapted to Turkish by
Ağargün et al. (1996) The PSQI is a 19-item self-report
index that assesses sleep quality and disturbances over
the responder’s past month. It consists of 24 questions,
including 19 self-report questions and 5 questions to be
answered by spouse or roommate. The 24 questions of
the index that are scored consist of 7 components. Each
component is assigned a value of 0-3 points. The total score
of the 7 components gives the total score of the index, which
ranges from 0 to 21. A total score higher than 5 indicates
poor sleep quality. The spouse/roommate section was not
used in this study since it was conducted on adolescents.
2.3. Statistical Data
The data obtained from the study was evaluated using the
SPSS 15.0 program. Daily mobile phone usage times were
calculated as (weekday duration x5 + weekend duration
x2)/7. To analyze student demographics and telephone
usage habits, the bivariate Pearson correlation was used to
identify the relationships between frequency, percentage
retrieval techniques, frequency of cell phone use, and
some sleep variables with PSQI. An independent two-group
difference test (t-test) and a Chi-square test were applied to
test the relationship between the postponement of bedtime
and PSQI.
3. Results
The average age that the students received their rst mobile
phone was 12.29 ± 1.41. The students reported using their
mobile phones 3.03 ± 2.18 hours a day on average. Some
students (30.8%) reported many times daily phone usage,
and most (57.1%) used their mobile phone many times a
day. Most of the students (89.5%) used their mobile phones
for messaging (Table 1). Students usually had a 23.34 ±
1.08 bedtime and 7.27 ± 1.30 wake up time. The average
sleep duration was 7.35 ± 1.20 hours if there was no school
the next day, and 9.15 ±1.66 hours if there was school the
next day. The average score for total PSQI was 7.04 ± 3.36.
According to these PSQI scores, 65.5% of the adolescents
participating in the study had poor quality sleep.
1. Introduction
Sleep is a basic necessity that constitutes almost one-
third of the hours in a human’s lifetime. It is a state of
reversible unconsciousness, where the body and mind are
renewed, repaired, and developed (Karadağ, 2017). Sleep
is a cornerstone of adolescent development. Although
sleep duration varies, 8-10 hours per night is sufcient
for adolescents (Hirshkowitz et al., 2015). Electronic
media has a negative effect on the sleep of children and
adolescents (Cain & Gradisar, 2010; Hale & Guan, 2015).
Though the media has begun to form an important
part of the daily life of young people, the increasing
frequency of use of media such as television (TV),
computer games, Internet, mobile phone usage threatens
healthy sleep. Using the media can change the sleeping
time and shorten the sleeping period. Media content can
cause extreme excitement or cause recurring voyages
(Van den Bulck 2010). Research shows that there is a
relationship between mobile phone usage and sleep quality
(Bruni et al., 2015; Demirci et al., 2015; Eyvazlou et al.,
2016; Mohammadbeigi et al., 2016; Sahin et al., 2013;
Yogesh et al., 2014). In other studies on adolescents, it
has been found that the use of telephone delayed (Bartel
et al., 2015), the sleeping time, making sleeping difcult
(Arora et al., 2014), which affects the sleeping negatively
(shortening the duration of sleep) (Hale & Guan, 2015).
In another research conducted on the subject, it has been
determined that despite the frequent use of television
and computer, it is not related to sleep variables, whereas
mobile phone use is associated with all sleep variables
(Mak et al., 2014). Mobile phones are widely used among
young people, and the effect of this habit on their sleep
quality is not well-known. This study was conducted to
evaluate the effect of mobile phone usage on adolescents’
sleep quality.
2. Materials And Methods
2.1. Participants and Procedure
This descriptive study research was conducted January
13-15, 2016. The study population was 9th, 10th, and
11th grade students (n = 982) at Konya High School
during the 2015-2016 school year. Students who reported
that they had a mobile phone and did not have any
psychological, neurological, or respiratory sleep problems
were included in the survey. A total of 380 students (age
16.05±0.87) voluntarily participated in the study. A
questionnaire for data collection was developed to obtain
demographic information and mobile phone usage habits
of the students, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
(PSQI) was used to measure the students’ sleep qualities.
Institutional approval was granted from the Konya
Provincial Directorate for National Education, and the
ethical approval, with the decision number of 2016/2
dated January 12, 2016, was obtained from the Konya
Selçuk University Ethics Committee. Informed consent
was obtained from all participants and their parents.
All procedures performed in this study involving human
participants were in accordance with the ethical standards
JNBS 2018 Published by Üsküdar University / 2018 Üsküdar Üniversitesi tarafından yayımlanmaktadır
Table 2. Relationship Between Mobile Phone Usage
Time and Some Sleep Variables and PSQI
The duration of mobile phone use was 2.48 ± 1.70 hours
for the students whose sleep time was sufcient, and 3.60
± 2.45 hours for those whose sleep time was insufcient
(p<0.001). The duration of mobile phone usage by
students who kept their phone near them while sleeping
was 3.52 ± 2.48 hours, and it was 2.68 ± 1.85 hours for
those who did not keep their phone nearby (p<0.001).
There was a positive correlation (r = .165, p <0.01)
between the duration of mobile phone use and the total
PSQI score of the students (Table 2).
Table 3. Sleep Routine Distribution of the Research
The adolescents in the study group most often delayed
their bedtime due to studying (73.7%), reading (35%),
and using their mobile phone (19.2% ) (Table 3).
Table 4. Relationship Between Bedtime Delay and PSQI
in the Study Group
According to the PSQI scale, 20.5% of the students with
good sleep quality and 79.5% of students with poor sleep
quality delayed their bedtime due to mobile phone usage.
This difference was statistically signicant (p<0.05)
(Table 4). All of the reasons for delaying sleeping time in
Table 3 were compared with the PSQI scale and the only
statistically signicant difference was with “when busy
with mobile phone”.
Mobile Phone Usage Time
n x ± sd
Sleep time
Sufficient 193 2.48 ± 1.70 0.000
Insufficient 187 3.60 ± 2.45
Mobile phone
available and
close by while
Yes 159 3.52 ± 2.48 0.000
No 221 2.68 ± 1.85
Min/Max x ± sd r Significance**
Total PSQI 1/18 7.04 ±
3.36 0.165 0.001
p< 0.01
Sleep Routines*
Reasons For Delaying Bedtime
n %
Studying 280 73.7
Reading 133 35.0
Using a mobile phone (playing
games, speaking, messaging,
73 19.2
Social networking 69 18.2
Internet use 67 17.6
Watching TV or DVDs 65 17.1
Playing games with computers,
game consoles, etc.
60 15.8
Studying with computers 47 12.4
Listening to music 41 10.8
Other (taking a bath, etc.) 28 7.4
Directly going to bed 16 4.2
Sleeping Time Delay Due to Mobile Phone Use
PSQI Yes No Significance*
n % n %
Good 15 20.5 116 37.8 0.005
Poor 58 79.5 191 62.2
Total 73 100 307 100
Table 1. Descriptive Characteristics of the Study Group
Gender n %
Female 196 51.6
Male 184 48.4
Family Income Status n %
Low 14 3.7
Middle 185 48.7
Good 168 44.2
High 13 3.4
Family Structure n %
Nuclear 334 87.9
Broad 37 9.7
Broken 9 2.4
Thinking About Using a Phone Too Much n %
Yes 117 30.8
No 263 69.2
Frequency of Mobile Phone Usage n %
Every hour 72 18.9
Many times in an hour 37 9.7
Once daily 54 14.2
Many times daily 217 57.1
Use of the Mobile Phone* n %
Messaging 340 89.5
Speaking to family 311 81.8
Speaking to friends 288 75.8
Reading news 279 73.4
Going online, researching, solving problems. 245 64.5
Entering social networking sites 245 64.5
Playing games 150 39.5
Listening to music 124 32.6
*Multiple choices were permitted.
*Independent Samples t Test
**Bivariate Pearson Correlation
*Chi-square Test
JNBS 2018 Published by Üsküdar University / 2018 Üsküdar Üniversitesi tarafından yayımlanmaktadır
4. Discussion
In this study, 57.1% of students with mobile phones
used them many times a day and their rst mobile phone
was bought for them at age 12.29 ± 1.41 on average.
They spent 3.03 ± 2.18 hours on them daily, on average.
In a study of adolescents in Japan, it was found that only
31.42% of the students had a mobile phone and they
used the mobile phone in speaking mode for an average
of 7.08 ± 21.42 minutes a day (Mortazavi et al., 2011).
Another study by Munezawa et al. (2011) found that
84.4% of students use a mobile phone, even if only
for a short time each day. In a survey conducted on
adolescents, the average daily phone use of participants
was 131.77 ± 119.9 minutes (Nikhita et al., 2015). In a
study conducted by Mak et al. (2014), participants used
mobile phones an average of 2.31 ± 3.74 hours a day. A
study of university students in Turkey found that 28.3%
of students acquired their rst mobile phone at age 13
or younger, and they used them for more than ve hours
a day (Sahin et al., 2013). These results show that the
mobile phone is one of the electronic media products
most frequently used by adolescents. Today, young
people socialize with their peers through technology,
especially mobile phones. Mobile phones bring the ability
to go online, transfer mobile data, playback music, record
video, take pictures, and keep a calendar, while being
portable. In this study, the increased frequency of mobile
phone usage may be due to developmental factors of the
adolescents or the increased social interaction. Young
people may be using mobile phones because they see
socialization and technological connection as a means of
liberation, fashion, and social status indication.
In this study, 89.5% of adolescents used mobile phones
for messaging and 81.8% used them to talk to their
families. A survey conducted in India found that 94.2% of
participants used their mobile phone to make calls (Stalin
et al., 2016). Another survey found that 33.5% of students
use mobile phones for messaging, and 28.5% use them
for speaking to their families (Sahin et al., 2013). A study
conducted by Charles Sturt University found that 55% of
students prefer text messaging (SMS), while prefer 30%
to speak (Carroll, 2005). Our study is similar to other study
ndings. Young people use mobile phones for purposes
other than communication, which is the main function of
the phone. Young people may prefer to communicate via
SMS because it enables them to communicate as they
are available and allows them to respond more quickly in
everyday life and social relationships.
The students usually had a 23.34 ± 1.08 bedtime and
7.27 ± 1.30 wake up time. The average sleep duration
was 7.35 ± 1.20 hours if there was no school next day,
and 9.15 ± 1.66 hours if there was school the next day.
In a study by Mak et al. (2014), the participants slept an
average of 7.74 ± 1.46 hours per night. In another study
conducted on adolescents, participants slept an average
of 8.06 hours on weekdays and 9.30 hours on weekends
(Gamble et al., 2016). Adolescents are not recommended
to sleep more than 11 or less than 7 hours per night
(Hirshkowitz et al., 2015). In the study group, although
better on school nights, the sleep duration was at the
lower end of the recommendation. The participants were
careful not to allow lack of sleep to affect their daytime
activities and performances by choosing to go to sleep
earlier on school nights.
Students who slept next to their mobile phones and
whose sleep period was considered inadequate had
increased mobile phone usage times. According to PSQI
scores, 65.5% of participants had poor quality sleep. The
sleep quality of the students decreased as the duration
of mobile phone usage increased. Mortazavi et al. (2011)
determined a statistically signicant relationship between
the number of sleeping problems and the amount of
time they used mobile phones for speaking. Another
study among adolescents in Sweden found that the
prevalence of sleep impairment is higher among people
who use the mobile phone frequently (Thomée et al.
2011). Surveys on university students have found that
sleep quality decreased as mobile phone dependency
increased (Demirci et al., 2015; Sahin et al., 2013). In
similar studies, there was a relationship between mobile
phone use and sleep quality (Bruni et al., 2015; Eyvazlou
et al., 2016; Mohammadbeigi et al., 2016; Yogesh et al.,
2014). It was not possible to correlate the deterioration
of the participants’ sleep quality solely to mobile phone
use. However, it was shown that excessive use of mobile
phones affects sleep quality. Keeping mobile phones
away from sleeping adolescents would be a method for
reducing mobile phone usage that would cause minimal
interference. It has been anticipated that it would be
useful to conduct training and intervention studies about
the arrangement of sleep pattern and media literacy in
the study group in the future term. Adolescents should be
directed to activities where they will spend quality time
(e.g., sports, creative and social games, etc.).
The relationship between the adolescents’ bedtime
delay and their rank on the PSQI scale was statistically
signicant. In a meta-analysis of forty studies, phone use
was found to delay bedtime in adolescents (Bartel et al.,
2015). In a large participatory study of adolescents in
Norway, 80% of females and 90% of males used their
mobile phone an hour before bedtime, and this reduced
sleep duration by two hours or more (Hysing et al.,
2015). Munezawa et al. (2011) reported in their survey
of Japanese adolescents, that every day, after turning off
the lights, the participants used their mobile phones 8.3%
to call and 17.6% to send messages. In the same study,
sleep disturbances (short sleep duration, subjective sleep
quality, daytime extreme sleepiness, and insomnia) were
found in people who use their mobile phones to talk
and send messages after the lights are turned off. In a
study by Zarghami et al. (2015), there was a signicant
relationship between sleeplessness and mobile phone use
late at night. In a study by Gamble et al. (2014), there
was a relationship between the long-term use of mobile
phones and delayed sleeping and waking. In a study by
Fobian et al. (2016), there was a negative correlation
between sleep efciency and both daytime messaging and
the number of nightly awakenings by mobile phone. The
current study is similar to other study ndings, in that the
use of the phones causes sleep quality to deteriorate as a
result of delaying bedtime in adolescents. Students that
had their mobile phones near them while sleeping saw an
JNBS 2018 Published by Üsküdar University / 2018 Üsküdar Üniversitesi tarafından yayımlanmaktadır
increased duration of mobile phone usage. As a result,
adolescents are preoccupied with their phones before
bed and it is inevitable that both sleeping and waking
are delayed and sleep quality is affected. Sleep, which is
a basic element in physical growth and in strengthening
academic performance, must be adequate. Signicant
changes are needed in the habits of adolescents in the
study group.
Among the limitations of the research, the sample size
was small. However, as the number of research studies
conducted in this country are few, the results remain
important to raise awareness of this issue.
5. Conclusions
Sleep quality decreases as the duration of mobile phone
usage increases. Young people prefer mobile phones over
other media products because mobile phones are portable
and include almost all the features and capabilities of
other media products. The length of time adolescents
spend with their mobile phone is a matter of concern for
adolescents, and the use of mobile phones by children
can cause health bad effects. Adolescents should make
changes to regulate their sleep patterns. Mobile phones
should be removed from the bedrooms of adolescents.
Families should control their children’s intended use of
mobile phone and its content and should limit the time
spent with them.
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... Where it showed that the levels of glucose metabolism are high in the brain tissues when those tissues are exposed to the radiofrequency radiations emitted from mobile phones and for long periods of 50 minutes or more [16] . One multi-center study carried out by Sadetzki et al, on a sample of mobile phone users from children and teenagers aged between (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19) years where that study revealed a statistically significant health risk of developing brain tumor in regular users (one call weekly and at least for six months). And there was no enough data for the long-term impact of mobile phones on the brain, and it's found that accumulative time from the first use of the mobile until the diagnosis of the tumor was only five years so it requires a lot of research to get more accurate results [17] . ...
... Sleep is considered a need of the necessary human needs which constitute one-third of his/her daily life where sleep is a state of the reversible unconscious and in this case, the cells of the body and mind are renewed and work to repair and develop [18] . The results of several newly published studies apply to a group of young mobile phone users in Turkey [18] Japan [13] Iran [19] has shown that increasing the duration of mobile phone usage reduces the quality of sleep and affects it. ...
... Sleep is considered a need of the necessary human needs which constitute one-third of his/her daily life where sleep is a state of the reversible unconscious and in this case, the cells of the body and mind are renewed and work to repair and develop [18] . The results of several newly published studies apply to a group of young mobile phone users in Turkey [18] Japan [13] Iran [19] has shown that increasing the duration of mobile phone usage reduces the quality of sleep and affects it. Because of the lack of rational use of electronic media has negative effects on the quality of sleep in children and adolescents [18] . ...
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The Wi-Fi devices in mobile phones have a key role in exchanging information and data to show images, audios, videos, and to transfer applications from mobile emitting radio waves. These waves emitted by mobile devices are radio-frequency waves, where many kinds of researches in this field have shown that they negatively affect, especially when using the mobile phone for a long time during the day on the vision and the level of hearing in the young people, as well as the effect on the nervous system caused Headache and muscle aches, as well, it has also been derived from these researches and studies that these waves can cause more depression or psychological stress in children and young users of mobile phones. Moreover, it can cause damage to the brain cells and may have caused a brain tumor even though many studies have not proved it. Also, these studies, which were presented in this article, have concluded that the use of mobile phones, especially late at night, can negatively affect the quality of sleep.
... 5 Research shows that poor sleep quality or reduced sleep length can affect cognitive functioning of students. [6][7][8] Through this study my aim is to find out the effect of smartphone usage on the academics, health and sleep of medical students. Investigation in this area is imperative as smartphone has infiltrated almost every aspect of young adults' lives and the impact of its effect on individuals is just beginning to emerge. ...
... Similar report was seen in a study conducted by Balaji Arumugam et al. 9 In a study done by Soyemi Jumoke et al 10 they discovered that use of smart phones, neglecting their academic activities results in poor academic performance among students in tertiary institution. According to study of Duygu Akcay et al, 8 18.2 % students thinks that delay in sleeping time or delay in going to sleep is due to smart phone usage. In our study, 20.97 % of students reported delay in sleeping time due to phone usage. ...
... Mobile phones ought to be taken out from the rooms of teenagers. [24]. ...
... 7 Many factors can affect sleep hygiene 8 but the role of mobile use in causing sleep problems in adolescence has gained huge attention in the past few years. 9 A recent review by Sohn et al reported that one in every four children and young people are suffering from Problematic cell phone use (PSU), which is linked to depression, anxiety and poor sleep quality. 10 Current metaanalysis by Carter et al showed that bedtime use of media devices was positively associated with poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. ...
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to find out the association between mobile use and physiological parameters of poor sleep quality. It also aimed to find out the prevalence of mobile-related sleep risk factors (MRSRF) and their effects on sleep in mobile users. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1925 students (aged 17-23yrs) from multiple Colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study tools used were Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and MRSRF online questionnaires. Results: The mean age (±SD) of participants was 19.91 ± 2.55 years. Average mobile screen usage time was 8.57±4.59/24 hours, whereas average mobile screen usage time in the bed after the lights have been turned off was 38.17±11.7 minutes. Only 19.7% of subjects used airplane mode, while 70% kept the mobile near the pillow while sleeping. The blue light filter feature was used by only 4.2% of the participants. "Screen usage time of ≥8 hours" was positively correlated with sleep disturbances and decrease in the length of actual sleeping time (p =0.023 and 0.022). "Using the mobile for at least 30 minutes (without blue light filter) after the lights have been turned off" showed positive correlation with poor sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbances and increased sleep latency (p= 0.003, 0.004 and 0.001). "Keeping the mobile near the pillow while sleeping" was also positively correlated with daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbances and increased sleep latency (p =0.003, 0.004 and 0.001). Conclusion: This study concludes that using mobile screen ≥8 hours/24 hours, using the mobile for at least 30 minutes before sleeping after the lights have been turned off and keeping the mobile near the pillow are positively associated with poor sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that MRSRF were highly prevalent amongst the mobile users.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of computer game playing habits of university students on their sleep states. Design and methods: The study was conducted cross-sectionally with the online survey method. Finding: In this study, it was determined that the students who played games for an average of ≥2 hours per day had later bedtime and later wake-up time, poorer sleep quality, and higher daytime sleepiness. It was found that as the level of game addiction increased, sleep quality decreased, the severity of daytime sleepiness increased, and the wake-up time shifted to a later time. Practice implications: Nurses should develop effective intervention strategies involving technology management and sleep hygiene studies to reduce game-playing time of students.
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Background: Poor sleep quality is closely associated with lifestyle habits including use of mobile cell-phones.This study aimed to identify the relationship between sleep quality due to abuse in mobile cell-phones and engagement in social networks. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 undergraduate students selected by proportional stratified sampling in Qom, Iran in 2015. Data were collected by two standard questionnaire including Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire beside the status of usage in cell-phone social networks. T-test, chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression were used in data analysis. Results: The mean age of participants was 21.8 ±3.2 yr, 69.1% were female, and 11.7% were married. The mean of COS and sleep quality scores were 48.18 ±17.5 and 5.38 ±2.31, respectively. The prevalence of over-use of cell phone was 10.7% (CI 0.95; 8.8%, 12.6%) and the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.7% (CI 0.95; 57.1%, 66.3%). The mean of all aspects and total score of sleep quality showed a direct significant association by cell-phone addiction score except sleep duration score that was inversely. Based on multivariate analysis affected to cell-phone addiction, being male gender and studying in general physician level are the most important predictors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions: Over use of internet and social networks via smart phones is related to poor sleep quality and quantity. Predefined sport programs, educational, cultural, and interesting entertainment are the essential needs for all medical students. These interventions are more important especially for male students who have longer educational.
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Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.
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Background: Cell phone is a mere fascinating, as well as entertainment object and serves to keep young individuals in constant contact with their peers; and gives them a feeling of autonomy, identity and credibility. Objectives: Considering the increasing trend of using cell phones, the aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which the students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences use their phones after light-out, and to determine its relationship with sleep quality, headache, tiredness, and distractibility, after elimination of the impact of stressful events. Materials and methods: Overall, 358 students from different schools of the university participated in a cross-sectional study with self-report questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, cell phone use questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and social readjustment rating scale). Descriptive indices were used to express data, and the chi-square and logistic regression were used to interpret the results. Results: Overall, 60% of the students used their cell phones after lights were out. There was a significant relationship between using cell phones late at night and insomnia, low energy, tiredness and headache. Once the impact of stressful events was eliminated, the relationship remained significant only for insomnia. No significant relationship was observed between using cell phones and distractibility. Conclusions: Students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences used their cell phones extensively after lights were out and the resulting insomnia may have affected their learning, as well as the quality of medical services provided by them.
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Introduction: Worldwide, mobile phone usage has been increased dramatically which could affect the health of the people. India has the second largest number of mobile phone users. However there are only few studies conducted in India to assess its effects on health. Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of mobile phone usage and to assess the relationship between certain selected health problems and mobile phone usage among adults. Settings and Design: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kottakuppam, a town panchayat in Villupuram district of Coastal Tamil Nadu, Southern India. It is a semi-urban area with a population of about 16,000. Majority of the residents are Muslim by religion and belong to different socio economic status. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 2121 study participants were interviewed by the pre-final medical students through houseto-house survey using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included the variables such as socio demographic profile, mobile phone usage and pattern, selected health problems, perceived benefits and threats and blood pressure. Selected health problems included headache, earache, neck pain, tinnitus, painful fingers, restlessness, morning tiredness, tingling fingers, fatigue, eye symptoms, sleep disturbance and hypertension. Statistical Analysis Used: Only 2054 were included for data analysis using SPSS 17 version. Proportions were calculated. Chisquare test was used to measure the p-value. The p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of mobile phone usage was 70%. Calling facility (94.2%) was used more than the SMS (67.6%). Health problems like headache, earache, tinnitus, painful fingers and restlessness etc., were found to be positively associated with mobile phone usage. There was negative association between hypertension and mobile phone usage. Conclusion: The prevalence of mobile phone usage was high. There was significant association between selected health problems and mobile phone usage. In future, higher studies are required to confirm our findings.
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Introduction: Mobile phones have become an essential part of modern human life. They have many attributes which makes them very attractive to both young and old. There has been an increasing trend of use of mobile phones among students. Data has now started emerging with respect to the negative physical and psychological consequences of excessive use of mobile phones. New research has shown excessive use of mobile phones leading to development of symptoms suggestive of dependence syndrome. Aim: To study the prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence (MPD) in secondary school adolescents. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, observational study conducted in secondary section of English-medium schools at Navi Mumbai (India). Materials and Methods: Four hundred and fifteen students studying in 8th, 9th and 10th standards of schools at Navi Mumbai (India) having personal mobile phone were randomly included in the study. Participant information like age, gender, family type, phone type, duration of use per day and years of mobile phone usage was recorded. They were administered an MPD questionnaire based upon the dependence syndrome criteria as per ICD-10. According to their responses, participants who fulfilled three or more of the diagnostic criteria were rated as having MPD. Results: Mobile Phone Dependence was found in 31.33% of sample students. It was significantly associated with gender (p=0.003, OR=1.91, CI: 1.23-2.99), family type (p=0.0012), type of mobile phone used (p
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The purpose of this study was to analyze differences between preadolescents and adolescents on the use of technology and to test the contribution of using Internet and mobile phone, and circadian preference on sleep quality. We recruited a sample of 850 (364 males) preadolescents and adolescents. Self-report questionnaires about sleep schedule, sleep wake behavior problems, circadian preferences, and the use of technology (e.g., Internet and mobile phone) were administered. Students were asked to fill out the School Sleep Habits Survey, a self-report questionnaire on the use of technology, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ), and the Shorter Promis Questionnaire (SPQ). Adolescents reported more sleep problems, a tendency toward eveningness, and an increase of Internet and phone activities, as well as social network activities, while preadolescents were more involved in gaming console and television viewing. The regression analysis performed separately in the two age groups showed that sleep quality was affected by the circadian preference (eveningness) in both groups. Adolescents' bad sleep quality was consistently associated with the mobile phone use and number of devices in the bedroom, while in preadolescents, with Internet use and turning-off time. The evening circadian preference, mobile phone and Internet use, numbers of other activities after 9:00 p.m., late turning off time, and number of devices in the bedroom have different negative influence on sleep quality in preadolescents and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.
Objective: In 2010, American youth aged 8 to 18 spent an average of 7.5 hours daily using entertainment media, an increase of more than an hour compared with 2005. Increase in media use is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including decreased sleep time and increased tiredness, but little research has examined whether media use is associated with poorer sleep efficiency when the individual is actually asleep. Methods: This study assessed relations between adolescent media use and sleep efficiency. Fifty-five adolescents (mean age = 14.89 years; SD = 0.62; 53% African-American and 47% white) completed self-report measures concerning their media use. Sleep quality was measured by actigraphy for 1 week, and both sleep offset and sleep efficiency were extracted from actigraphy data. Results: Sleep efficiency was negatively correlated to daily time spent text messaging (r(52) = -0.29; p < .05), media use after bed (r(52) = -0.32; p < .05), and number of nighttime awakenings by mobile phones (r(52) = -0.33; p < .05). Decreased sleep efficiency was related to sleeping later in the morning, presumably to make up for lost sleep at night (r(52) = -0.33; p < .05). In a regression model, media use accounted for 30% of the variance in sleep efficiency (adjusted R = 0.30; F(6,44) = 3.74; p < .01). Conclusion: Media use after bed, awakenings by a mobile phone at night, and sleep offset associated with adolescents' sleep efficiency. Results support the incorporation of media use habits into adolescent sleep health education and sleep dysfunction interventions. Parental education about the effects of media use on sleep could also mitigate negative effects.
Background and aims: The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods: In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Results: The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. Conclusions: The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.
Objective: The objective was to conduct a scientifically rigorous update to the National Sleep Foundation's sleep duration recommendations. Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened an 18-member multidisciplinary expert panel, representing 12 stakeholder organizations, to evaluate scientific literature concerning sleep duration recommendations. We determined expert recommendations for sufficient sleep durations across the lifespan using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Results: The panel agreed that, for healthy individuals with normal sleep, the appropriate sleep duration for newborns is between 14 and 17 hours, infants between 12 and 15 hours, toddlers between 11 and 14 hours, preschoolers between 10 and 13 hours, and school-aged children between 9 and 11 hours. For teenagers, 8 to 10 hours was considered appropriate, 7 to 9 hours for young adults and adults, and 7 to 8 hours of sleep for older adults. Conclusions: Sufficient sleep duration requirements vary across the lifespan and from person to person. The recommendations reported here represent guidelines for healthy individuals and those not suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep durations outside the recommended range may be appropriate, but deviating far from the normal range is rare. Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being.