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Handbook of Psychophysiology

... As all mental states have a physiologic substrate (Andreassi, 2007;Cacioppo et al., 2007), also the mental states associated with persuasion-related processes, are expectedly measurable in physiology. Earlier research indeed hinted at a link between persuasion-related processes and peripheral physiology 1 : Electrodermal and easily accessible in daily life with wearables (van Lier et al., 2020) and incorporable in Persuasive Technology applications. ...
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Persuasion aims at changing peoples’ motivations and/or behaviors. This study explores how and when physiology reflects persuasion processes and specifically whether individual differences in motivations and behaviors affect psychophysiologic reactions to persuasive information. Participants (N = 70) with medium or high meat consumption patterns watched a persuasive video advocating limited meat consumption, while their electrodermal and cardiovascular physiology was measured. Results indicated that the video increased participants’ moral beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and reduction intentions. This study also found an increase in physiologic arousal during the persuasive video and that people with motivations less aligned to the persuasion objective had more physiologic arousal. The findings encourage further psychophysiologic persuasion research, especially as these insights can potentially be used to personalize persuasive messages of behavior change applications. Persuasion consists of a diversity of mental processes that despite the efforts of many scholars are not fully understood. This explorative manuscript describes an important next step in using peripheral physiology to get information about persuasion‐related processes. It describes how and when people’s physiologic activity changes due to persuasion and what these changes might mean for the personalization of Persuasive Technologies.
... Furthermore, we found increased LL activity for disgust facial expressions, but no evidence of activity for fear presentation. There is some evidence that perception of disgust faces (Vrana, 1993;Lundquist and Dimberg, 1995;Cacioppo et al., 2007;Rymarczyk et al., 2016b), a disgusting picture related to contamination (Yartz and Hawk, 2002) or tasting an unpleasant substance (Chapman et al., 2009) leads to the specific contraction of the LL muscle. Moreover, it was shown that reaction of the LL muscle occurred not only for biological but also moral disgust, i.e., during violation of moral norms (Whitton et al., 2014). ...
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Real-life faces are dynamic by nature, particularly when expressing emotion. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays enhances facial mimicry and induces activation in widespread brain structures considered to be part of the mirror neuron system, a neuronal network linked to empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the relations among facial muscle responses, brain activity, and empathy traits while participants observed static and dynamic (videos) facial expressions of fear and disgust. During display presentation, blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal as well as muscle reactions of the corrugator supercilii and levator labii were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals (21 females). It was shown that both fear and disgust faces caused activity in the corrugator supercilii muscle, while perception of disgust produced facial activity additionally in the levator labii muscle, supporting a specific pattern of facial mimicry for these emotions. Moreover, individuals with higher, compared to individuals with lower, empathy traits showed greater activity in the corrugator supercilii and levator labii muscles; however, these responses were not differentiable between static and dynamic mode. Conversely, neuroimaging data revealed motion and emotional-related brain structures in response to dynamic rather than static stimuli among high empathy individuals. In line with this, there was a correlation between electromyography (EMG) responses and brain activity suggesting that the Mirror Neuron System, the anterior insula and the amygdala might constitute the neural correlates of automatic facial mimicry for fear and disgust. These results revealed that the dynamic property of (emotional) stimuli facilitates the emotional-related processing of facial expressions, especially among whose with high trait empathy.
... (in user manual emotiv software development kit). and quantification, combined with its sensitivity to the psychological reaction to states and processes (John Cacioppo, 2007). ...
Chapter
The increasing complexity of work activities associated with different environmental conditions, can lead to a situation of thermal stress. The study of the respective impact on workplace has been gaining an increasing importance. It is therefore essential to identify and monitorize variables to evaluate the performance under different environmental conditions. This paper attempts to define the parameters and respective measurement equipment to study mental fatigue in different conditions of temperature and humidity. For such purpose, a literature review was carried out about different topics according to appropriate key words. From the results, it was possible to identify the most relevant parameters and the best suitable equipment for their measurement. It is hoped that the results may contribute to increased research in this field of study.
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The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between adult attachment dimensions and emotional response induced by the recall of potentially painful memories from childhood. A convenience sample of 100 women responded to an interview that focused on experiences with their caregivers during childhood, and a control interview, in counterbalanced order. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), as well as subjective distress measures were collected. Results from Generalized Linear Mixed Model indicated that individuals high in avoidance showed a pattern of SCL increase from baseline that persisted during rest phases regardless of the topic addressed. Attachment dimensions did not affect HR, neither alone nor interacting with the interviews content, whereas baseline resting vagal tone was the most important factor. No attachment dimensions effects were observed on subjective measures of emotion; the time-varying vagal tone during rest phases did not moderate their relationships. Limited evidence was observed in support of the hypothesis that attachment Avoidance and Anxiety are associated with distinct physiological regulation profiles during the recall of potentially painful childhood memories.
Chapter
The discipline of psychophysiology concerns the study of the link between psychological processes and somatic physiology, which is the interface between mind and body. The chapter discusses the basic psychophysiological mechanisms and methods of laboratory investigation, the concept of stress and its relationship with mental processes and body function, as well as the mechanisms behind the manifestations of psychosomatic symptomatology.
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From early in life, facial mimicry represents an important example of implicit non-verbal communication. Facial mimicry is conceived of as the automatic tendency to mimic another person's facial expressions and is thought to serve as a social glue among interaction partners. Although in adults mimicry has been shown to be moderated by the social context and one's needs to affiliate with others, evidence from behavioural mimicry studies suggest that 3-year-olds do not yet show sensitivity to social dynamics. Here, we examined whether attachment tendencies, as a proxy for interindividual differences in affiliation motivation, modulates facial mimicry in 3-year-olds. Resistant and avoidant insecure attachment tendencies are characterized by high and low affiliation motivation, respectively, and these were hypothesized to lead to either enhancement or suppression of mimicry. Additionally, we hypothesized that these effects will be moderated by inhibitory control skills. Facial mimicry of happy and sad expressions was recorded with electromyography (EMG), attachment tendencies were assessed with a parent-report questionnaire and inhibitory control with the gift delay task. The final sample consisted of 42 children, with overall scores suggesting secure attachment. Our findings revealed that 3-year-olds mimicked happy and sad facial expressions. Moreover, resistant tendencies predicted enhanced sad but not happy facial mimicry, whereas avoidant tendencies were not significantly related to mimicry. These effects were not moderated by inhibitory control skills. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence for the modulation of mimicry by attachment tendencies and their underlying motivation for affiliation in young children, specifically for negatively-valenced emotional expressions.
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Practitioners in many fields of human-computer interaction are now using physiological data to measure different aspects of user experience. The dynamic nature of physiological data offers a continuous window to the users and allows a better understanding of their experience while interacting with a system. However, in order to be truly informative, physiological signals need to be closely linked to users’ behaviors and interaction states. This paper presents an analysis method that provides a direct visual interpretation of users’ physiological signals when interacting with an interface. The proposed physiological heatmap tool uses eyetracking data along with physiological signals to identify regions where users are experiencing different emotional and cognitive states with a higher frequency. The method was evaluated in an experiment with 44 participants. Results show that physiological heatmaps are able to identify emotionally significant regions within an interface better than standard gaze heatmaps. Applications of the method to different fields of HCI research are also discussed.
Conference Paper
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Violence is a key element in video games and despite the extensive research in video game violence, there is still a debate on its psychophysiological effect. There is a lack of understanding on the elements of video game violence that influence aggression. The present pilot study examines the effect of blood and gore in a first-person shooter with participants playing in one of the two conditions, with or without blood and gore. To assess the effect of blood and gore, and thus violence, a number of elements were measured including physical arousal, individual differences, personality, and game experience. The results suggested that blood and gore had no effect on aggression-related associations and cognitive processes. The findings did suggest that previous game experience had a significant effect on increased physiological arousal when engaging in violent content featuring blood and gore. Furthermore, a personality trend emerged showing an effect on arousal and cognitive processes. As the study was preliminary, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn, however the findings warrant further investigation.
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A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring.
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