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HABITATS AND UTILIZATIONS OF Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE : LOCAL PERCEPTION OF FOUR ETHNIC GROUPS FROM BENIN (WEST AFRICA)

Authors:
  • Université Nationale d'Agriculture
  • National University of Agriculture, Republic of Benin

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this study is to assess the local knowledge on the habitats and uses of Lippia multiflora in Benin. A total of 180 households distributed in four ethnic groups in the Sudano-Guinean (Mahi, Bariba and Peulh) and the Sudanian zones (Boo and Peulh) in Benin were surveyed. The perception of the local population on the habitats and use of the species was assessed. Pearson Chi-square Test was used to test the independency of the use of the species according to the ethnic groups. Correspondence Analysis was used to assess the relationship between the organs used and the ethnic groups. Results revealed that L. multiflora was mentioned abundant in fallow and savanna. The use value of the species was 0.65 for food, 0.50 for medicine versus 0.03 for handicraft. Mahi ethnic group used mainly the leaves of the plant species for health care, while Boo and Peulh used mainly the inflorescences as food (sauce, soup and tea). Bariba ethnic group used the stems for handicraft. Diseases treated by the species were stomach ache, fever, malaria, toothache, high blood pressure, wound, physical weakness of baby, itch, reduced lactation activity after birth and diverse attacks. Valorization programs can then be based on those utilizations according to ethnic groups in Benin.
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Agronomie Africaine 29 (2) : 111 - 120 (2017)
111
Habitats and utilizations of Lippia multiflora Moldenke
HABITATS AND UTILIZATIONS OF Lippia multiflora
MOLDENKE : LOCAL PERCEPTION OF FOUR ETHNIC
GROUPS FROM BENIN (WEST AFRICA)
J. A. ATANASSO1, F. J. CHADARE2, 4, E. A. PADONOU1, 3, E. AHOUANSINKPO1, K. KOURA1, T.
HOUEHANOU1, A. E. ASSOGBADJO1*, R. GLELE KAK5, B. SINSIN1
1Laboratory of Apply Ecology Sciences, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, (UAC/FSA/
LEA) 05 BP 1752, Cotonou, Benin.
2Ecole des Sciences et Techniques de Conservation et de Transformation des Produits Agricoles, Université Nationale
d’Agriculture (UNA/ESTCTPA), Benin.
3School of Forestry and Wood Ingeniery, National University of Agriculture, BP 95 Kétou, Benin.
4Laboratoire de Science des Aliments, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC/FSA/
LSA), Benin.
5Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Laboratory of Biomathematic and Forest Estimation,
(UAC/FSA/LABEF) 05 BP 1752, Cotonou, Benin.
*Corresponding author: assogbadjo@gmail.com ; phone: +229 95055975
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to assess the local knowledge on the habitats and uses of Lippia multiflora in
Benin. A total of 180 households distributed in four ethnic groups in the Sudano-Guinean (Mahi, Bariba and
Peulh) and the Sudanian zones (Boo and Peulh) in Benin were surveyed. The perception of the local
population on the habitats and use of the species was assessed. Pearson Chi-square Test was used to
test the independency of the use of the species according to the ethnic groups. Correspondence Analysis
was used to assess the relationship between the organs used and the ethnic groups. Results revealed that
L. multiflora was mentioned abundant in fallow and savanna. The use value of the species was 0.65 for
food, 0.50 for medicine versus 0.03 for handicraft. Mahi ethnic group used mainly the leaves of the plant
species for health care, while Boo and Peulh used mainly the inflorescences as food (sauce, soup and tea).
Bariba ethnic group used the stems for handicraft. Diseases treated by the species were stomach ache,
fever, malaria, toothache, high blood pressure, wound, physical weakness of baby, itch, reduced lactation
activity after birth and diverse attacks. Valorization programs can then be based on those utilizations
according to ethnic groups in Benin.
Key words : Lippia multiflora, local knowledge, food and medicinal uses, biogeographic zones in Benin,
ethnic groups.
RESUME
HABITATS ET UTILISATIONS DE Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE : PERCEPTION LOCALE DE
QUATRE GROUPES ETHNIQUES AU BENIN (AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST)
La présente étude vise à identifier les habitats et les utilisations de Lippia multiflora sur la base des
connaissances ethnobotaniques des populations locales. Une enquête a été menée auprès de 180
ménages appartenant à quatre groupes ethniques dans la zone soudano-guinéenne (Mahi, Bariba et
Peulh) et dans la zone soudanienne (Boo et Peulh) au Bénin. Les résultats ont montré que L. multiflora
est abondante dans les jachères et les savanes. La valeur d’usage alimentaire de l’espèce est de 0,65,
celle médicinale est de 0,50 contre 0,03 pour l’artisanat. Les Mahi utilisent principalement les feuilles
pour la santé, tandis que les Boo et les Peulh utilisent principalement les inflorescences comme aliments
(sauce, soupes et thé). Les Bariba sont les seuls à utiliser les tiges à des fins artisanales. Les maladies
traitées par l’espèce sont les maux de ventre, la fièvre et le paludisme, les maux de dents, l’hypertension,
les blessures, la faiblesse physique chez le nouveau-né, les démangeaisons, la faible montée lactée
après accouchement et les diverses crises. Des programmes de valorisation doivent être à présent
Agronomie Africaine 29 (2) : 111 - 120(2017)
112 ATANASSO J. A. et al
conçus et basés sur ces divers usages selon les groupes ethniques.
Mots clés : Lippia multiflora, connaissances locales, usages alimentaire et médicinale, zones
biogéographiques du Bénin, groupes ethniques.
INTRODUCTION
Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) play a
major role for local people and significantly
contribute to their subsistence needs (foods and
health) or come as additional source of income
and job (FAO, 2013). The NTFPs constitute a
biological base of worldwide food security and
means of subsistence (Loumeto, 2010). Among
them, Lippia multiflora Moldenke through its
organs plays an important role for local
population. L. multiflora is a woody shrub that
belongs to Verbenaceae family. Its maximal
height is 4m (Akoegninou et al., 2006). It
regenerates by stump occasioning several
stems growth per stump. Stems are subglabres
or getting scattered hairs. Stems are clear brown
; more or less smooth, yellow to greenish fibrous
slices. Branches are angular and downy, green
to crimson or yellowish. The leaves, green bluish,
have a stronger camphor odor at bruising. The
leaves superior face is smooth with little visible
nervations. The apex is very obtuse (Akoegninou
et al., 2006 ; Bornet et al., 2008). The
inflorescences are stacked by several whorls of
glomerules (0.5-1 cm) composed by whitish
flowers (Bornet et al., 2008). The plant flowers
and fructifies from December to February
(Akoegninou et al., 2006 ; Bornet et al., 2008).
L. multiflora naturally spreads in Sudano-guinean
and Sudanians savannas in West Africa
(Akoegninou et al., 2006 ; Oussou et al., 2008).
It can also grow in Guinean savannas (Bornet et
al., 2008). It is a wild spontaneous species of
fallows (Foumier et al., 2001 ; Konan et al.,
2010) and savannas often viewed on talus,
generally on battleship or gritty soils. L. multiflora
is annually disturbed by fire but always
regenerates by stump roots (Akoegninou et al.,
2006). L. multiflora is important for the local
people because of its multiple food and medicinal
properties (Loumeto, 2010 ; Adou et al., 2011 ;
Alui et al., 2011 ; Etou-Ossibi et al., 2012 ;
Diomandé et al., 2014). The decoction and
aqueous extract of the leaves contain an
essential oil used against affections (Adjanohoun
et al., 2002 ; Avlessi et al., 2005 ; Alui et al.,
2009, 2011 ; Adou et al., 2011, 2012 ; Etou-
Ossibi et al., 2012 ; Kunle et al., 2012). The
essential oil from the leaves has insecticide,
larvicide, fungicide and bactericide actions
(Oladimeji et al., 2000 ; Moses et al., 2009 ;
Bassole et al., 2010 ; Niamketchi et al., 2016 ;
Konan et al., 2016). The leaves of L. multiflora
are widely sold on market in Côte d’Ivoire and
also exported in others countries in Africa and
Europe (N’guessan et al., 2010). The use varies
from one ethnic group to another even in the
same county. However, limited researches
focused on the medicinal use of the decoction
and essential oil of the leaves in Benin
(Adjanohoun et al., 2002 ; Avlessi et al., 2005) ;
while knowledge on the habitat and ethnic
specific ethnobotanical (food, medicinal, and
cultural) importance on the organs of L. multiflora
are lacking. Addressing these gaps of knowledge
will help to set up sustainable management and
use of the species also according to socio-
cultural groups. Thus, the present study aims
to assess the knowledge of local communities
on the habitat of the species and the use of its
different organs according to the ethnic groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
STUDY AREA
The study was carried out in the Sudano-Guinean
and Sudanian zones of Benin (Figure 1), where
the species is widely spread (Akoegninou et al.,
2006). The survey was conducted in the district
of Savalou and Tchaourou in the Sudano-
Guinean zone and the district of Segbana in the
Sudanian zone (Figure 1).
The Sudano-Guinean zone is characterized by
a sub humid climate with two seasons. One dry
season (November to March) and one rainy
season (April to October). The annual average
rainfall is 1164.31 mm. The average temperature
is 28.01 °C and the relative humidity is 62.7 %
(ASECNA, 2010). The soil is ferruginous in the
zone. The vegetation of this zone is characterized
by dry dense forests and gallery forests (Sinsin
et al., 2010).
In the Sudanian zone, the climate is semi-arid
with one rainy season and one dry season.
Annual average rainfall is 1039.05 mm, the
average temperature is 28.6 °C, and the relative
humidity is 55.23 % (ASECNA, 2010). The soil
in this zone is ferruginous. The vegetation is
Agronomie Africaine 29 (2) : 111 - 120 (2017)
113
Habitats and utilizations of Lippia multiflora Moldenke
widely dominated by continue Graminaceae
savanna (Andropogonae). Dry dense island
forests of Anogeissus leiocarpa and woodland
of Isoberlinia spp are noticed (Sinsin et al.,
2010).
The main ethnic groups in the study area are
Mahi and Bariba in the Sudano-Guinean zone ;
Boo in the Sudanian zone. Peulh is also one
important ethnic group present in the two
biogeographic zones. Mahi represented 11 %
of the population in the Sudano-Guinean zone
with agriculture, breeding, fishing, trade,
handicraft and transport as main activities.
Bariba constituted 24 % of the population in the
Sudano-Guinean zone with agriculture, breeding,
and traditional food processing as main activities.
Boo ethnic group constituted 51 % of the
population in the Sudanian zone with the same
main activities as Bariba. Peulh ethnic group
represented 14 % of the population in the
Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean zones. The
principal activity of this ethnic group is the
livestock breeding.
Figure 1 : Map of Benin showing the study area
Carte du Bénin montrant le milieu d’étude
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114 ATANASSO J. A. et al
DATA COLLECTION
Sampling
In each of the three localities, 30 persons were
randomly selected and asked if they know the
species and at least one of its use. The normal
approximation of the binomial distribution
(Dagnelie, 1998) was used to determine the
sample size (n).
where U1-α/2 is the value of the normal random
variable at probability value of 1-α/2. For a
probability value of 0.975 (or α = 0.05), U1-α/2
1.96 ; p (0.33 to 0.96) is the proportion of
informants who know at least one use of the
species ; d is the margin error of the estimation
of any parameter to be computed from the
survey. A value of 8 % was considered. A total
of 180 households detailed as 19 for Mahi ethnic
group in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 92 for Boo
ethnic group in the Sudanian zone, 43 and 26
respectively for Bariba and Peulh ethnic groups
spread on the three surveyed localities were then
randomly selected and surveyed in both
biogeographic zones.
Survey
Data were collected using semi-structured
questionnaires. The head of each household
was interviewed when an elderly individual was
not found. The interviews were conducted in the
local lan guages with translations when
necessary. Questions were mainly related to :
(a) the habitat of Lippia multiflora and local
perception on its abundance, (b) local name
(according to the respondent’s language) of the
species and (c) parts of the plant harvested and
their respective uses according to the ethnic
groups.
DATA ANALYSIS
The frequencies of citation of the different habitats
according to the ethnic groups were computed
to evaluate the local population perception on
the predominant habitats of the species. The
frequencies of citation of the diseases treated
by L. multiflora in the study area were also
computed using Excel and Minitab. The use
value of the species (UVs) was calculated
according to the simplified formula of Phillips
and Gentry (1993).
where UVs is the total use value of the species
but named categorical use value when many
uses were concerned (Thomas, 2008), Uis is the
number of uses of the species mentioned by
informant i and ns is the total number of
informants. Three categories of uses (food,
medicine and cultural) were considered in this
study for the calculation of the use value. The
total use value corresponds to the sum of use
values per category (UV food, UV medicine and
UV cultural). Pearson Chi-square Test was used
to analyze the independency of the use values
of the species regarding the different ethnic
groups. Correspondence Analysis (CA) was
used to describe the relationship between the
species’ organs harvested for the different uses
by the ethnic groups. All the analyses were
performed using SAS software (SAS, 2008).
RESULTS
LOCAL PERCEPTION ON THE HABITAT OF
Lippia multiflora IN SUDANO GUINEAN AND
SUDANIAN ZONES IN BENIN
Four different types of habitat (fallow, savanna,
woodland, and plantation) were mentioned by
the informants (Figure 2). Among them, fallow
and savanna were the most important habitats
(68 to 95 % of citation) where the target species
spread well according to the four ethnic groups.
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115
Habitats and utilizations of Lippia multiflora Moldenke
USES OF Lippia multiflora ACCORDING TO
ETHNIC GROUPS
Different names were used by local populations
according to their ethnic group for L. Multiflora
(Table 1). These different names indicate
somehow the uses of the plant by local
populations. Indeed, while the name in « mahi »
indicates that the species is a good medicinal
plant, the name in Boo indicates its food value.
The use value of the species varied according to
the category considered. The food and medicine
use categories had the highest use values (0.65
and 0.50 respectively) ; while handicraft had the
lowest use value (0.03). In general, L. multiflora
had high use value (UVtotal = 1.18 1) which is
an expression of the importance of the species
for local populations. The Pearson Chi-square
test revealed that the uses were independent
from one ethnic group to another (Khi-2 value=5
and P=0.08). The main uses of the species’
plant parts (leaves and inflorescences) for food
purposes were for tea and soup. The most treated
diseases by the plant according to the local
perception were particularly : stomach ache (51
%), fever (16 %), malaria (13 %), wound (5 %),
physical weakness of baby (5 %), itch (4 %),
reduced lactation (3 %), toothache (1 %),
hypertension (1 %) and diverse attacks (1 %)
(Table 2).
Fallow Savanna Woodland Plantation
Frequency
FC Mahi
FC Bariba
FC Peulh
FC Boo
FC = Frequency of Citation
Figure 2 : Frequency of citation of the type of habitat within which L. multiflora occurs
Fréquence de citation des types d’habitats dans lesuqels on trouve L. multiflora
Table 1 : Names of L. multiflora according to different ethnic groups in sudano-guinan and sudanian
zones.
Noms de L. multiflora selon les différents groupes ethniques dans les deux zones
bio ographiques.
Ethnic groups Name in local language Meaning
Mahi Aklala (Eglatin) Instantaneous anti-malaria and anti-spasmodic
plant
Bariba Gueguessoko Heavy plant in appearance but light in reality
Peulh Nounougouelade Bush variety
Boo Towenandossinan Empty-handed hunter soup
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116 ATANASSO J. A. et al
Correspondence Analysis (CA) performed to
describe the relationship between ethnic groups
and the plant organs harvested for the different
uses revealed that the first two axes were highly
significant and explained 98.45 % of the total
information related to the variables considered
(the organs harvested and the ethnic groups,
Table 3). Considering axis 1, CA showed that
the ethnic group of Mahi was associated with
leaves while Peulh and Boo ethnic groups were
associated with inflorescences (Figure 3). In fact,
the ethnic group of Mahi used the leaves for
health care while the ethnic group of Boo and
Peulh used the inflorescences for soup
seasoning. Concerning the axis 2, Bariba ethnic
group was associated with the stems and roots
of the species (Figure 3). Indeed, only Bariba
ethnic group used the stems and the roots of
the plant for handicraft (powder for gun).
Table 2 : Food and medicinal importance of L. multiflora in the sudano-guinean and sudanian zones
in Benin
Importance alimentaire et médicinale de L. multiflora dans les zones soudano-guinéenne et
soudanienne au Bénin
Diseases Organs used Mode of
preparation
Mode of
treatment
Dose, posology
Stomach ache and
reduced lactation
Leaves Decoction Drink ¼ litre three times per day during 3 days
Leaves Decoction Drink ¼ litre three times per day during 3 days
Inflorescence Soup Food Regular consummation of soup until
recovery
Fever, malaria,
wound, and itch
Leaves Decoction Drink
and bath
¼ litre three three times per day during 3
days with regular bath until recovery
Physical weakness of
babies
Leaves Decoction Bath Regular bath for baby during 3 months
after childbirth
Toothache Leaves Decoction Drink
and bath
Regular bath for mouth until recovery
Hypertension and
diverse attacks
Leaves Decoction Drink ¼ litre three times per day during 3 days
until recovery
Table 3 : Contribution and representation of the variables on the two Correspondence Analysis axes
Contribution et représentation des variables sur les axes de l’Analyse Factorielle des
Correspondances
Variables Axe 1 Axe 2
Contribution Representation Contribution Representation
Mahi 0.32 0.81 0.24 0.17
Bariba 0.00 0.03 0.69 0.95
Peulh 0.03 0.66 0.00 0.03
Boo 0.62 0.96 0.05 0.02
Inflorescences 0.44 0.44 0.00 0.00
Leaves 0.53 0.53 0.00 0.00
Stems 0.01 0.01 0.50 0.88
Roots 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.89
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117
Habitats and utilizations of Lippia multiflora Moldenke
DISCUSSION
The present study revealed that L. multiflora is
well distributed in fallow and in savanna according
to local perception. This perception is confirmed
by the forest inventory done by Akoegninou et
al. (2006). The abundance of L. multiflora in fallow
and savanna is also in accordance with the
finding of Foumier et al. (2001) who reported that
the species is a post farming indicator. The
species need sun light in open land (fallow and
savanna) according to Konan et al. (2010). When
L. multiflora terminal and lateral buds are well
lighted in single-crop farming, the branch
development is very important (Konan et al.,
2010). The species is also adapted to fire
(Akoegninou et al., 2006) which is frequent in
fallow and savanna (Aubreville, 1957 ; Guillaumet
and Koechlin, 1971). According to Raunkiaer
(1905) mentioned by Aké Assi (1984) and Aman
Kadio (2004), L. multiflora is a nanophanerophyte
plant which develops well in savanna. The
presence of the species in savanna facilitates
access of the population to it, which justifies
the various knowledge of the population on the
target species. In fact, the different local names
given to the species by the different ethnic
groups in the two bioogeographic zones confirm
the variability in uses of the plant. For instance,
the name « towenandossinan » given to the
species by the ethnic group of Boo meaning
« empty-handed hunter soup » confirms why this
Figure 3 : Representation of the ethnic groups and the organs harvested for use on the two Correspondence
Analysis axes
Représentation des groupes ethniques et les organes prélevés pour usage dans le plan formé
par les deux axes de l’Analyse Factorielle des Correspondances.
Agronomie Africaine 29 (2) : 111 - 120(2017)
118 ATANASSO J. A. et al
ethnic group used more the inflorescences as
food. Mahi ethnic group named L. multiflora
« aklala » meaning instantaneous anti-malaria
and anti-spasmodic plant. This is supported by
the fact that this ethnic group uses particularly
its leaves for health care. Indeed, the plant local
names indicate its uses according to ethnic
groups. This is interesting since it already
provides orientation on the food, medicinal and
cultural importance of the species according to
ethnic groups. This is in accordance with the
findings of Ekissi (2014) who concluded that the
use of L. multiflora varies through different
localities and ethnic groups. Indeed, food and
traditional medicine habits are passed on from
generation to generation and remain attached
to ethnology and culture (Wahlqvist, 2007). The
same trend was observed for the use of baobab
foods products (Chadare et al., 2008), the use
of Parkia biglobosa (Koura et al., 2011), the use
of Tamarindus indica (Fandohan et al., 2010) in
Benin which vary from one ethnic group to
another. The diseases treated by L. multiflora
are stomach ache, fever, malaria, toothache, high
blood pressure, wound, button, itch and corporal
weakness of baby. These diseases were also
confirmed by Pascual et al. (2000), Abena et al.
(2001), Adjanonhoun et al. (2002), Avlessi et al.
(2005), Etou-Ossibi et al. (2012) and Bla et al.
(2015). Moreover, Fah et al. (2013) found in
Benin that, L. multiflora treats diabetes of
pregnant women either alone (14.29 %) or in
association with Catharanthus roseus and
Phyllanthus amarus (85.71 %). The users of L.
mu ltif lora orga ns get profit from 29-36
components with antioxidant activities (Avlessi
et al., 2005 ; Bassole et al., 2010).
Differences in use of this plant species would
lead to set up the domestication of the species
and valorization of the organs for the different
ethnic groups according to their habits and
culture. For example, the valorization of the
leaves would focus on the Mahi ethnic group,
while the Boo ethnic group would appreciate the
valorization of the inflorescences.
CONCLUSION
The present study revealed that L. multiflora was
perceived abundant in fallow and savanna of
sudano-guinean and sudanian zones of Benin.
Its uses varied between different ethnic groups
in the two considered biogeographic zones. The
species was more used for food and medicine.
Among the ethnic groups, Mahi used more the
leaves of the plant species for health care while
Boo and Peuhl used more the inflorescences
for food. Bariba ethnic group used more the stems
for handicraft. Future researches on the
management and valorization of L. multiflora in
Benin are necessary to set up a sustainable
management and valorization of the species.
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... Among the Boo and Peulh peoples of Benin, L. multiflora is used in primary health care and as food (sauce, soup and tea). This plant is used in this region in the treatment of several diseases such as gastritis, fever, malaria, toothache, hypertension, injury, and physical weakness of the baby, itching and reduced lactation [19]. ...
Article
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Background: Lippia multiflora is a wild/spontaneous food plant with numerous pharmaco-therapeutic activities and rich in terpenic and phenolic bioactive compounds whose valorization as nutaceutical can help a better management of chronic diseases. Mini-review Article Colette et al.; SARJNP, 4(4): 35-48, 2021; Article no.SARJNP.71548 36 Objective: To make an inventory of the current knowledge on the plant in order to direct the future research in the hypothesis that this plant contains chemical groups which would act either individually or in synergy, in order to confer several properties to him of which the anti-sickle cell activity. Methodology: A non-exhaustive bibliographic search for articles published on the plant was conducted in several electronic databases (Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google scholar, SciELO, etc.) using as search strategy the following keywords: Lippia multiflora, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Results and discussion: It appears from this study that the chemical composition of the essential oil is variable within the species L. multiflora. These chemical varieties also called chemotypes are endowed with numerous pharmacological properties (antifree radical, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, hypotensive, antimalarial, antifungal activities, etc.). This plant also contains anti-sickle cell phytomarkers such as ursolic acid (a triterpene acid) and verbascoside (a phenolic compound). L. multiflora reduces oxidative stress by increasing the content of reduced glutathione (essential for the protection of erythrocytes) and nitric oxide (vasodilator effect). Conclusion and perspectives: The results of this literature review show that in addition to its numerous documented biological properties, L. multiflora also reduces oxidative stress by increasing the content of glutathione and nitric oxide and can thus relieve sickle cell disease. However, the anti-sickle cell activity of this plant species has not yet been scientifically validated although the plant is used in the treatment of anemia in Traditional Medicine. Therefore, it is desirable that a more thorough study be carried out on L. multiflora in order to determine the different chemotypes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and then to evaluate the anti-sickling, antihemolytic and anti-radical activities and the effect of these chemotypes on the osmotic fragility of sickle cell erythrocytes.
... In addition to their use as food spice, Z. zanthoxyloides and L. multiflora were also attributed stimulating effects on milk production in nursing women. This corroborates previous findings of Segnon and Achigan-Dako [70] and Atanasso et al. [71] who reported the same uses for Z. zanthoxyloides and L. multiflora respectively. ...
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Spices have always been used for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. In Benin, scientific research on spices is scarce, despite their importance in the local population’s daily needs. This study investigated the diversity of wild spices and documented the associated traditional knowledge that can be used for their valuation, domestication, and sustainable management in the Sudano-Guinean Zone of Benin. Data were collected during field expeditions using semi-structured interviews in ten localities across the three phytodistricts of the zone. Species richness and Shannon’s diversity index were estimated using species accumulation curves. Use report (UR), cultural importance, use value (UV) index, and informant consensus factor (Fic) were used to assess traditional knowledge on wild species, their local importance, and informants’ agreement among sociolinguistic groups. Priority wild spices were finally identified using an approach combining eight criteria (native status, economic value, ethnobotanical value, global distribution, national distribution, in-situ and ex-situ conservation status, legislation, and threats assessment) in four prioritization methods (point scoring procedure, point scoring procedure with weighting, compound ranking system, and binomial ranking system). A total of 14 species, belonging to 12 genera and 9 families, were inventoried. The most prominent families were Zingiberaceae (21.43%), Annonaceae (21.43%), and Rutaceae (14.29%). More than 200 specific uses were reported, with the Tchabè people holding the greatest level of knowledge (70 uses; UR = 5.70 ± 0.33). The culturally most important spices differed among sociolinguistic groups. Most of the informants agree on the use of the species among (Fic = 0.72–0.98) and across the considered use categories (Fic = 0.88–0.99). The highest UV were registered for Aframomum alboviolaceum (UV = 0.93), Lippia multiflora (UV = 0.76), and Aframomum angustifolium (UV = 0.18). Overall, people perceived wild spices as declining due to agriculture, grazing, and drought. Five species, A. alboviolaceum, L. multiflora, Monodora tenuifolia, Xylopia aethiopica, and Z. zanthoxyloides, were the most prioritized for conservation. This study provides information relevant for the implementation of conservation and domestication actions of wild spices in Benin. Priority species could be integrated into traditional agroforestry systems (e.g., home gardens). However, for this to be effective, further research should be undertaken on morphological and genetic diversity and propagation methods of priority wild spices.
... In addition to their use as food spice, Z. zanthoxyloides and L. multiflora were also attributed stimulating effects on milk production in nursing women. This corroborates previous findings of Segnon and Achigan-Dako [70] and Atanasso et al. [71] who reported the same uses for Z. zanthoxyloides and L. multiflora respectively. ...
Poster
In recent decades, wild spices (WS) have been increasingly studied for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and their medicinal properties. In Benin, many spices used daily for medicine, food and ceremony are gathered from the wild. But so far, little attempt has been made for their domestication and cultivation. Consequently, many WS are being extinct due to overexploitation and habitat loss. This study investigated the diversity of the wild spices as well as it ecological drivers, and document the associated traditional knowledge for their valuation, sustainable management and conservation in the Sudano-Guinean zone of Benin. Data were collected during field expeditions and using semi-structured interviews in ten localities across three phytodistricts. Occurrence data were recorded in the field and from Global Biodiversity Information Facility database. Species richness and Shannon’s diversity index were estimated using species accumulation curves and based on presence-absence data obtained from semi-structured interviews. Species distribution and richness were then mapped, and their driving forces identified using conditional inference trees. Use-report and Cultural importance index were used along with a Generalized linear model to test for differences in traditional knowledge. Priority WS were identified using an approach combining eight criteria in four prioritization methods. Fourteen species, belonging to 12 genera and 9 families were inventoried. The most prominent families were Zingiberaceae (21.43%), Annonaceae (21.43%) and Rutaceae (14.29%). The species were unequally distributed and several spice-rich areas were identified. More than 200 specific uses were reported, with Tchabè people holding the greatest level of knowledge (70 uses; UR=5.70±0.33). The most culturally important spices differed among sociolinguistic groups. Overall, people perceived WS as declining due to agriculture, grazing and drought. Eight species were identified as of highest priority for conservation: Aframomum alboviolaceum, A. angustifolium, A. melegueta, Lippia multiflora, Monodora tenuifolia, Securidaca longipedunculata, Xylopia aethiopica and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. This study provides basic data to engage conservation and domestication actions for WS in Benin. Priority species could be integrated into home gardens and traditional agroforestry systems in particular for sustainable management. However, for this to be effective, further research should be engaged on morphological and genetic diversity, and propagation methods of those spices.
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The methods of cowpea storage using biopesticides, without risk to human health and the environment, could be an alternative in the fight against pests. The leaves of savanna tea (Lippia multiflora Moldenke) were tested for their antifungal properties, anti-pest infestations on stocks of cereals and legumes. Thus, the evolution of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) during the storage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) in PICS bags containing a biopesticide was studied. The risk of exposure associated with the consumption of cowpea was also studied. The results show the presence of total aflatoxins in 29.41% of the samples, with 8.82% of aflatoxin B1 at levels above the reference values. PICS bags ensure a longer shelf as control polypropylene bags. Adding Lipppia multiflora makes this even more effective conservation and allows the preservation of the health quality of cowpea to 8 months. The risk of aflatoxin exposure is lower when cowpeas stored in PICS bags with biopesticide that when stored in PICS bags without biopesticide or polypropylene bags. Keywords: Cowpea, aflatoxins daily intake, PICS bags, storage with biopesticides
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Maize protection without any risks for human health and environment concerns might be valued on alternative uses of pest control methods that do not only rely on synthetic insecticides. A combination of leaves derived from Lippia multiflora Moldenke and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. Benth were tested for their protective effect on the aflatoxins levels of maize cobs and grains stored in traditional and improved granaries in Côte d’Ivoire. Thus, 4 aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) were determined with high performance liquid chromatography according to the official method of AOAC. Results showed presence of afltatoxins in 58% of samples, and specifically aflatoxin B1 from half the samples, with rather higher levels than the reference values of the European Union. The levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 resulted from both maize cobs and grains treated with biopesticides (from 0.06-0.53 µg/kg to 2.18-50.70 µg/kg) were significantly lower than those recorded with untreated maize of control granaries (ranging from 0.06-0.53 µg/kg to 12.48-346.15 µg/kg). In the treated maize, the aflatoxins levels increased slightly during 6 months of storage, while the untreated maize cobs were with significant increasing of the same toxins traits month after month. For each stage, aflatoxins levels of maize cobs and grains did not differ whether they are treated in traditional or improved granaries with both plant materials. The estimated risk of exposure in aflatoxins, specifically in total aflatoxins and AFB1, deriving with intakes of maize stored for 6 months are respectively 114.37±2.2 ng/kg body weight/day and 36.21±0.11 ng/kg body weight/day for the untreated granaries and 7.15±0.04 ng/kg body weight/day and 2.12±0.17 ng/kg body weight/day for the treated granaries. These levels are strongly higher than the maximal Reference Value (0.15 pg/kg body weight/day) tolerated for Toxicity exposure. Therefore, it’s necessary to sensitize, on a larger scale, actors of maize path, namely farmers, retailers, processers and consumers about such mycotoxins in maize products for providing health safety to Ivorian populations. Keywords— stored maize, biopesticides, traditional and improved granaries, intake of aflatoxins, health risk
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1 RESUME La présente étude a permis d'identifier les plantes à propriétés antidiabétiques vendues aux femmes enceintes à Cotonou et Abomey-Calavi. Il est revenu, de ces enquêtes, que les espèces les plus vendues par les herboristes pour le traitement du diabète chez les femmes enceintes sont : Catharanthus roseus L., Lippia multiflora Moldenke et Phyllanthus amarus Sch. et Th. Les recettes sont composées de plantes uniques (14,29%) ou d'association de deux à onze plantes (85,71%). Leurs coûts accessibles varient de 200 à 1000 Francs CFA. Les parties de plantes les plus utilisées sont la tige feuillée, la tige, la plante entière, l'écorce et la racine et les recettes sont préparées essentiellement par décoction et administrées exclusivement par voie orale. Ces résultats constituent la base d'études ultérieures visant à évaluer expérimentalement les potentialités de ces plantes. Cela permettra de mettre à la disposition des parturientes, de substances nouvelles d'origine endogène. An ethnobotanical study of plants used in the treatment of diabetes in pregnant women in Cotonou and Abomey-Calavi (Benin)
Article
Lippia multiflora Moldenke is a tropical to subtropical herbaceous aromatic plant widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, South and Central American countries. It has been traditionally used in various communities for different purposes ranging from therapeutic febrifuge in form of tea and fumigants to non-therapeutic drink for relaxation and sedation, and as well as condiments. Of most economic and scientific importance is the essential oil in the aerial part of the plant, the "lippia oil". The ther apeutic properties of the plant are largely attributed by researchers to the oil. This review is aimed at collating all the scientific data available on the oil and drawing attention to its chemical components, pharmacological activities and resources for industrial exploration and exploitation.
Article
L’objectif de cette étude était d’étudier les effets antihypertenseurs de l’extrait aqueux de Lippia multiflora ainsi que les effets de cet extrait sur quelques paramètres biochimiques chez le rat rendu hypertendu par le DOCA-sel. La méthode invasive chez le rat anesthésié à l’uréthane 15 % (1,5 g/kg, i.v.) a été utilisée pour mesurer la pression artérielle et la fréquence cardiaque (FC). Les rats recevant en plus du DOCA-sel l’extrait aqueux de Lippia multiflora (100 et 300 mg/kg, p.o.) ou le furosémide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) ont présenté des pressions artérielles systoliques (PAS) et des FC basses par rapport à celles des rats hypertendus DOCA-sel. L’extrait aqueux de Lippia multiflora s’oppose à l’augmentation de l’amplitude du complexe QRS induite par le DOCA-sel et provoque l’augmentation significative de la durée de l’intervalle RR. Sur le plan biochimique, l’extrait aqueux de Lippia multiflora (100 et 300 mg/kg, p.o.) s’oppose à l’hypertriglycéridémie et à l’hypercholestérolémie induites par le DOCA-sel chez le rat. Ces résultats suggèrent que l’extrait aqueux de Lippia multiflora présente induit des effets antihypertenseurs qui pourraient justifier l’utilisation traditionnelle de cette plante dans le traitement de l’hypertension artérielle (HTA).
Article
The essential oil of the leaves of Lippia multiflora collected in Benin was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-six components, representing 96.5% of oil were identified. The sample consisted mainly of monoterpenes. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (39.9%), sabinene (11.1%), linalool (10.9%) and α-terpineol (10%). The antioxidant and antiradical activities of the oil was found to be low comparatively to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).