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The Relationship Between Drivers’ Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability During Monotonous Daytime Driving


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A lack of task workload can lead to drivers’ cognitive fatigue and vigilance decrement during a prolonged drive. This study examined the effects of speed variability on driving fatigue in a monotonous drive. Twenty-one participants participated in a 60-min simulated driving task. All participants’ cognitive fatigue was assessed using psychological and physiological measurements. Results showed that among all participants, variability of vehicle speed was negatively correlated with sleepiness and hypo-vigilance during the driving task. Further, drivers in the large variability group reported less sleepiness, less fatigue, and more vigilance than those in the small variability group did during the driving task. These drivers also presented a smaller electroencephalogram spectral index (𝜃+α)/β during the task, where 𝜃, α, and β are the power spectra of three different frequency bands: theta (𝜃, 4∼8 Hz), alpha (α, 8∼13 Hz), and beta (β, 13∼30 Hz). Our findings suggested that the larger variability of speed within the speed limit may have a deterrent effect on drivers’ cognitive fatigue.
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fpsyg-09-00459 March 30, 2018 Time: 16:18 # 1
published: 04 April 2018
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00459
Edited by:
Philippe Peigneux,
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Reviewed by:
Lino Nobili,
Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Italy
Fabienne Collette,
University of Liège, Belgium
Ruosong Chang
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Performance Science,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Psychology
Received: 13 October 2017
Accepted: 19 March 2018
Published: 04 April 2018
Ma J, Gu J, Jia H, Yao Z and
Chang R (2018) The Relationship
Between Drivers’ Cognitive Fatigue
and Speed Variability During
Monotonous Daytime Driving.
Front. Psychol. 9:459.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00459
The Relationship Between Drivers’
Cognitive Fatigue and Speed
Variability During Monotonous
Daytime Driving
Jinfei Ma1, Jiaqi Gu1, Huibin Jia2, Zhuye Yao1and Ruosong Chang1*
1School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China, 2Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning
Science, Ministry of Education, Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
A lack of task workload can lead to drivers’ cognitive fatigue and vigilance decrement
during a prolonged drive. This study examined the effects of speed variability on
driving fatigue in a monotonous drive. Twenty-one participants participated in a 60-
min simulated driving task. All participants’ cognitive fatigue was assessed using
psychological and physiological measurements. Results showed that among all
participants, variability of vehicle speed was negatively correlated with sleepiness and
hypo-vigilance during the driving task. Further, drivers in the large variability group
reported less sleepiness, less fatigue, and more vigilance than those in the small
variability group did during the driving task. These drivers also presented a smaller
electroencephalogram spectral index (θ+α)/βduring the task, where θ,α, and βare the
power spectra of three different frequency bands: theta (θ, 48 Hz), alpha (α, 813 Hz),
and beta (β, 1330 Hz). Our findings suggested that the larger variability of speed within
the speed limit may have a deterrent effect on drivers’ cognitive fatigue.
Keywords: cognitive fatigue, vigilance, speed variability, self-regulation, simulated driving, fatigue
Over 1.2 million people are killed in the traffic accidents each year around the world, with millions
of people suffering from severe injuries and living with long-term adverse health consequences
(World Health Organization, 2015). Hypo-vigilance and fatigue have been regarded as the
significant contributors for road accidents. Empirical studies have reported that approximately
16–23% of car crashes on the highways in southwest and midland England and 21.9% in Italy were
caused by sleepiness or fatigue (Horne and Reyner, 1995;Garbarino et al., 2001). Albeit precise
contributors of these factors have not yet been determined in crashes, researchers have reached a
consensus that fatigue represents one major road safety hazard. Therefore, it is urgent to develop
effective coping strategies for management of driver fatigue.
Driving is considered a vigilant task, in which the driver needs to maintain a high level of
alertness. May and Baldwin (2009) suggested that drivers’ cognitive fatigue could be either caused
by circadian rhythm and sleep disturbance (i.e., sleep-related fatigue) or caused by cognitive
overload or underload (i.e., task-related fatigue). For task-related fatigue, cognitive overload
commonly is induced by high task demands requiring sustained attention; however, prolonged
driving that offsets driver workload can benefit such form of task-related fatigue. In contrast,
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
cognitive underload is induced by continuous and monotonous
driving conditions, which require an increased task novelty and
demand to reduce this form of task-related fatigue (Hancock and
Warm, 1989;Thiffault and Bergeron, 2003;Saxby et al., 2013).
Besides, a previous study has concluded that fatigue induced by
cognitive underload would impair a driver’s engagement more
rather than that induced by cognitive overload (Saxby et al.,
2008). Once the demands of driving become more familiar and
monotonous, the driver is more vulnerable to reach an underload
state. According to the theory of attentional resource shrinkage
(Young and Stanton, 2002), an underload state could keep the
arousal at a low level, and lead to vigilance decrements as well
as poor driving performance. Thus, a monotonous prolonged
drive requires more attentional resources that cause driver
vigilance. On the other hand, Hockey’s compensatory control
model (Hockey, 1997) proposed that we constantly regulated our
effort based on the relative importance of goals we had, and
changes in mental effort were representative of task difficulty.
Therefore, a monotonous driving task represents reduced task
effort, causing boredom and fatigue.
Further, a study found that drivers’ speed variability became
larger when the monotonous drive lasted for over 80 min
(Gershon et al., 2009). They attributed this phenomenon to the
driver’s speed control capability becoming worse in the state of
cognitive fatigue. However, the task-capability interface model
suggested that the choice of vehicle speed could be influenced by
the driver’s cognitive workload (Fuller, 2005). Drivers changed
their speed maybe in order to adjust the task difficulty actively
and increase their arousal levels. In this study, we investigated
the effect of drivers’ variability of vehicle speed (within the speed
limit) on their cognitive fatigue. Currently, neurophysiological
approaches, like electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye tracking,
are widely employed for evaluating driving cognitive fatigue
(Borghini et al., 2014). Literature has proved that EEG and pupil
diameter can be used as a physiological index for monitoring
the level of drivers’ vigilance (Makeig and Jung, 1995;Jap et al.,
2009;Zhao et al., 2012;Heeman et al., 2013;Pfleging et al.,
2016). In particular, the fluctuations in certain EEG band power
are sensitive to the vigilance level (Zhao et al., 2012). For
example, increased EEG alpha power may indicate the vigilance
decrement (Lal and Craig, 2002). Therefore, we employed the
psychophysiological methods (e.g., subjective fatigue state, EEG
index, and eye movements) to measure driver’s cognitive fatigue
during a prolonged simulator-driving task.
This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee
of Liaoning Normal University in December 2016. Participants
were recruited via flyers distributed in the local taxi companies
in Dalian, China, from December 2016 to January 2017. We
approached 31 professional drivers by phone. Eventually, 21
healthy male participants (mean age: 40.1 years, age range:
29–47 years), who are licensed drivers, were recruited. All
participants reported having a full license for an average of
15.8 years, driving more than 100,000 km in a typical year, and
having no prior experiences of driving in a simulator. Participants
were instructed to go to bed no later than10 P.M. before the
experiment, and to get up around 7 A.M. on the experimental
day. The experiment started at 9 A.M. It was also ensured that
all participants refrained from consuming caffeine or alcohol in
the morning of their visits. Participants who had not had enough
sleep (e.g., less than 8 h) were ruled out from the experiment.
All participants gave their written informed consents before the
experiment and were offered a monetary compensation of 100
RMB at the end of the study.
This experiment took place in a soundproof lab of the university.
When arrived at the laboratory, participants were given a full
instruction of the experiment by the experimenter and a trial
drive in the simulator. Then, they were connected to the EEG
and eye tracker monitors for the recording of physiological
data and completed a 60-min driving task. Before and after the
driving simulation task, participants were required to complete
the questionnaires to assess their subjective fatigue state. In
addition, each participant’s vigilance level was evaluated by the
vigilance measurement at the end of the driving task.
In order to create the monotonous task, participants were
instructed to follow the former vehicle (without overtaking)
and to keep the minimum following distance at 100 m. The
lead vehicle traveled at a constant speed of 70 km/h and could
stop randomly during the experiment. Therefore, participants
were required to maintain a safe distance for preventing a rear-
end collision. During the experiment, the average driving speed
among all participants was 72 km/h, which was consistent with
that of the lead vehicle.
Subjective Measures
Perceived fatigue induced by the driving task was assessed using
the Chinese version of Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory
(SOFI-C) with a 0–10 numerical response scale (Åhsberg et al.,
1997), which has a good validity and reliability in China (Lin
et al., 2012). The questionnaire consists of 25 questions describing
five dimensions: physical discomfort, physical exertion, lack
of energy, lack of motivation, and sleepiness. In addition, a
retrospective assessment of the driver’s vigilance level with a 1–
9 numerical rating scale was used (Table 1). This measurement
consists of four items, which modify the Karolinska Sleepiness
Scale (KSS) (Åkerstedt and Gillberg, 1990), inattention (ATT),
and monotony (MON) (Schmidt et al., 2009), to assess each
participant’s vigilance level, including the aspects of boredom,
sleepiness, inattention, and monotony with regard to the whole
Performance Measures
A fixed-based car driving simulator (QJ-3A1; Beijing Sunheart
Simulation Technology, Co., Ltd.) was employed in this study.
The road scene of the driving simulator used in the experiment
was set as a monotonous highway condition, as shown in
Figure 1. The driving scenario was a two-lane closed track,
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
TABLE 1 | Measurement of the drivers’ vigilance level.
Concerning the period of the whole drive
1. . .how would you describe your predominant state?
Extremely alert Alert Neither alert nor sleepy Sleepy, but no difficulty
remaining awake
Extremely sleepy,
fighting sleep
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2. . .how attentively have you been driving?
Extremely attentively Attentively Neither attentively nor inattentively Inattentively Extremely inattentively
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3. . .how did you perceive the drive?
Extremely varied Varied Neither varied nor monotonous Monotonous Extremely monotonous
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4. . .how did you feel about the driving task?
Extremely interesting Interesting Neither interesting nor boring Boring Extremely boring
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
5.25 km long, with 10 curves. Driving performance measures
including standard deviation (SD) of lane position, mean and SD
of speed, and car following distance were recorded during the
whole driving task.
Considering that the adaptation period to the driving
simulator was about 15.4 min in the curved-road scenarios
and about 12.1 min in the straight road scenarios (Ronen
and Yair, 2013), we defined the first 15 min of the driving
FIGURE 1 | The road scene of the driving simulator.
test as the adaptation period. Therefore, the whole driving
test session (considered as the dependent variable) was split
into three segments with 15 min per segment: segment 1,
segment 2, and segment 3. Each participant was required to
drive three runs per segment under the experimental road
Eye Movement Measures
Eye movement data were recorded using the head-mounted Tobii
Glasses II eye tracking system (Tobii, Sweden), which allowed
free movement of the head. The sample frequency of the eye
tracker was 50 Hz with a 82×52recording visual angle.
EEG Measures
Eelectroencephalogram signals were recorded continuously
using a portable 63-channel ‘eego amplifier’ EEG system
(eegoTMmylab, ANT B.V., Netherlands) with an extended 10–20
system layout. The sensor net was aligned with respect to three
anatomical landmarks including two pre-auricular points and the
nasion. Impedances were kept below 10 k, and the sampling
rate was 1000 Hz. The electrode CPz was used as the reference,
whereas, the electrode AFz was used as the ground.
Data Analysis
Eye Movement Data Preprocessing
Eye movement measures involved three indices: pupil diameter
(unit: mm) and horizontal and vertical positions of each gaze
(unit: pixels). The positions of each gaze were rotations around
the horizontal axis and the vertical axis.
EEG Data Preprocessing
Electroencephalogram data were pre-processed using EEGLAB
(Delorme and Makeig, 2004), an open source toolbox running
in the MATLAB (v.2010a; The MathWorks, Inc., United States)
environment, and in-house MATLAB functions. Continuous
EEG data were band-pass filtered between 0.5 and 30 Hz and the
sampling rate decreased to 250 Hz. EEG data were referenced
to the average of both mastoids (M1, M2). EEG data were
removed 30 s before and after a braking action, due to the huge
movement of the participant. Data portions contaminated by eye
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
movements, electromyography, or any other non-physiological
artifacts were corrected using the Independent Component
Analysis algorithm (Makeig et al., 1997;Jung et al., 2001). Then
the pre-processed continuous EEG data were segmented into
dozens of epochs, with an epoch length of 2000 ms. EEG epochs
contaminated by strong muscle artifacts or with amplitude
values exceeding ±100 µV at any electrode were manually
To ensure the ecological validity of our experiment, this study
did not strictly control participants’ head movements during the
task. Therefore, participants having poor quality of EEG data
(<80% good data) would be excluded. As a result, all datasets
were available for the power spectral analysis.
EEG Power Spectrum Estimation
For each participant, the segmented EEG epochs were subjected
to the power spectral density analysis by fast Fourier transforms
(50% Hamming window) and were exported for analysis in
a frequency resolution of 0.5 Hz (range: 0.5–30 Hz). The
power spectrum of each frequency point was averaged over
the epochs. Then the power spectrum of four frequency bands
was computed as the mean value within each frequency limit:
delta (δ, 0.54 Hz), theta (θ, 48 Hz), alpha (α, 813 Hz),
and beta (β, 1330 Hz) waves. Previous research suggested that
the increased EEG algorithm (θ+α)/βwas an effective indicator
for detecting drivers’ fatigue (Jap et al., 2009). Therefore, this
ratio was chosen as a factor that assessed drivers’ fatigue
According to the scalp topography of each band power,
the largest power of delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands were
consistently shown in the frontal, central, and parietal lobes
during the whole driving task, and the power of each band was
distributed symmetrically on bilateral hemispheres. Meanwhile,
the artifact in the frontal lobe was larger than that in other
scalp regions, as shown in Figure 2. Therefore, this study chose
data from C1, C2, CP1, CP2, P1, and P2 electrodes for further
statistical analysis.
Statistical Analysis
In this study, Pearson’s correlation analysis was employed
to investigate correlations between changes of subjective
fatigue (i.e., post-task–pre-task), vigilance level, EEG data,
driving performance, and eye movement data. Thereafter,
all participants were divided into two groups, according
to the participant’s driving speed variability. The average
speed variability among all participants was 19.67 km/h
(SD = 2.36 km/h). Eventually, there were 11 participants in the
small speed variability group (speed variability = 17.63 km/h),
whereas there were 10 participants in the large speed variability
group (speed variability = 21.40 km/h). This study adopted
the student’s independent-samples t-test to analyze the
group differences of the subjective fatigue and the drivers’
FIGURE 2 | Electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra for frequencies between 0.5 and 30 Hz during the driving task. Scalp topographies are displayed at the
greatest power of delta (0.54 Hz), theta (48 Hz), alpha (813 Hz), and beta (1330 Hz) bands for the adaption period, segment 1, segment 2, and segment 3.
The delta, theta, and alpha band power shows a positive maximum over the fronto-central electrodes and a negative maximum over bilateral parietal electrodes in
each segment, whereas the beta band power shows a positive maximum over the frontal electrodes and a negative maximum over bilateral parietal electrodes.
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
vigilance level. Driving performance, eye movement, and
EEG data were analyzed using a 2 (speed variability) ×3
(driving session) repeated-measures analysis of variance
(ANOVA). In order to reduce the risk of a type one error
in multiple comparisons, Bonferroni-Šidák’s adjustments of
p-values were applied. A 95% confidence level was employed
throughout. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS
18.0 statistical analysis package (p0.05; SPSS, Inc., Armonk,
NY, United States).
Correlations Between Variables
Table 2 shows correlations between all measures among all
participants. Among all participants, variability of speed (i.e.,
average of SD of speed during the whole drive) was significantly
negatively correlated with sleepiness [r(19) = 0.50, p<0.05],
and vigilance level [r(19) = 0.53, p<0.05]. Results suggested
that participants with greater speed variability reported to be
less sleepy and more vigilant after the monotonous driving
task. Among all participants, the pupil diameter (during
segment 3) was significantly negatively correlated with sleepiness
[r(19) = 0.62, p<0.01], total fatigue [SOFI; r(19) = 0.46,
p<0.05], and vigilance level [r(19) = 0.45, p<0.05]. Results
indicated that participants having larger pupil diameters during
segment 3 of the driving task reported to be less sleepy, less
tired, and more vigilant. Among all participants, the EEG index
(during segment 3) was significantly positively correlated with
total fatigue [r(19) = 0.55, p<0.05], lack of energy [r(19) = 0.58,
p<0.01], lack of motivation [r(19) = 0.48, p<0.05], and
sleepiness [r(19) = 0.58, p<0.01]. Results indicated that
participants showing greater EEG activities reported to have less
energy and less driving motivation and to be more tired and more
sleepy after a prolonged drive.
Subjective Measures
Among all participants, significant differences were found in
all five dimensions and the total scale of the SOFI (p<0.05),
where the pre-task scores were significantly lower than the
post-task ones. For the group difference analysis, the student’s
independent-samples t-test showed that there were no significant
differences in pre-task scores on each dimension and neither on
the total scale of the SOFI between two groups with different
speed variabilities (p>0.05; Table 3). The student’s independent-
samples t-test, by assessing the changes (i.e., post-task–pre-task)
on each dimension and on the total scale of the SOFI, showed
that they were of statistical significance between groups when
looking at sleepiness [t(19) = 2.10; p= 0.05; η2= 0.188] as
well as of marginal significance in total fatigue [t(19) = 1.89;
p= 0.07; η2= 0.159]. To be specific, participants with large
variability of vehicle speed had smaller changes in sleepiness
and total fatigue than those with small variability of vehicle
speed. Besides, there were significant differences between groups
in vigilance level [t(19) = 2.32; p<0.05; η2= 0.221] after
a prolonged drive, indicating that the large speed variability
group was more vigilant during a monotonous drive. However,
there were no statistically significant group differences in lack
of energy, physical exertion, physical discomfort, and lack of
motivation (p>0.05).
Speed Variability
For all participants, the one-way repeated measures ANOVA
(four driving segments: adaptive period and three driving
sessions) showed that there was no significant main effect
of driving segment [F(1,19)= 1.23, p>0.05; Table 4].
This result suggested that participants showed stable speed
variability during the whole driving task. After splitting all
participants into two groups (i.e., small vs. large speed variability),
the two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there
was a significant main effect of groups during the whole
task [F(1,18)= 20.92, p<0.001, η2= 0.538; Table 4]. The
main effect of the driving segment and its interaction with
the group were not statistically significant [F(1,18)= 1.25,
p>0.05]. Analysis of the SD of lane position, average of
speed, and car following distance showed no significances of
main effects or interactions between group and driving segment
TABLE 2 | Correlations for measurements of standard deviation of vehicle speed, each dimension and total scale of the SOFI (post–pre test scores), vigilance level
(post-test scores), EEG algorithm (θ+α)/β(segment 3), and pupil diameter (segment 3).
Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(1) SD of speed
(2) LOE 0.23
(3) PE 0.11 0.67∗∗
(4) PD 0.17 0.69∗∗ 0.82∗∗
(5) LOM 0.35 0.76∗∗ 0.530.74∗∗
(6) Sleepiness 0.500.68∗∗ 0.31 0.490.72∗∗
(7) SOFI 0.33 0.90∗∗ 0.77∗∗ 0.88∗∗ 0.90∗∗ 0.77∗∗
(8) Vigilance 0.530.59∗∗ 0.56∗∗ 0.460.500.60∗∗ 0.64∗∗
(9) Pupil diameter 0.27 0.38 0.30 0.27 0.34 0.62∗∗ 0.460.45
(10) EEG (θ+α)/β0.30 0.58∗∗ 0.23 0.41 0.480.58∗∗ 0.550.34 0.32
p<0.05; ∗∗ p<0.01. SD of speed, standard deviation of speed; LOE, lack of energy; PE, physical exertion; PD, physical discomfort; LOM, lack of motivation; SOFI,
Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory.
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
TABLE 3 | The descriptive data on the scale of SOFI and vigilance level (M±SD).
Small speed
variability group
(n= 11)
Large speed
variability group
(n= 10)
Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test
Lack of energy 1.24 ±1.88 4.18 ±2.47 0.26 ±0.75 1.98 ±2.49
Physical exertion 0.76 ±0.62 2.73 ±2.32 0.60 ±1.05 1.52 ±1.83
Physical discomfort 0.49 ±0.78 3.31 ±3.14 0.42 ±1.13 1.52 ±1.73
Lack of motivation 1.82 ±2.05 5.00 ±2.17 0.76 ±1.61 2.42 ±2.46
Sleepiness 1.62 ±2.50 4.89 ±2.56 0.68 ±1.23 1.86 ±1.54
SOFI 1.19 ±1.38 4.02 ±2.35 0.54 ±1.06 1.86 ±1.87
Vigilance 6.45 ±1.81 4.70 ±1.64
SOFI, Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory.
Physiological Measures
EEG Index
Our 2 ×3 experimental design used the variability of vehicle
speed (i.e., small vs. large speed variability group) as the
independent variable and driving segment (i.e., segment 1,
segment 2, and segment 3) as the dependent variable. As
shown in Figure 3, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA
on the EEG algorithm (θ+α)/βyielded a significant main
effect of the groups [F(1,19)= 4.79, p<0.05, η2= 0.201].
Results indicated that participants in the small speed variability
group had a greater EEG activity than those in the large
speed variability group. The main effect of driving segment
and interactions between group and driving segment were
not statistically significant (p>0.05). In addition, the
student’s independent-samples t-test showed that there
was no significant difference in EEG data between two
groups during the adaption period (p>0.05), suggesting
that participants in two different speed variability groups
had similar fatigue state at the beginning of the driving
Eye Movement Data
As shown in Figure 4, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA
on pupil diameter yielded the significant main effect of driving
segment [F(1,19)= 4.79, p<0.05, η2= 0.201], showing that
all participants’ pupil diameters became smaller as the driving
duration increased. However, the main effect of variability
of vehicle speed and its interactions with driving segment
were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In addition, the
Student’s independent-samples t-test showed that there was
no significant difference in the pupil diameter between two
groups during the adaption period (p>0.05). Horizontal and
vertical spread of attention showed no significance of main
effects or interactions between group and driving segment
In this study, the psychological and physiological data confirmed
that the 60-min prolonged monotonous driving task successfully
elicited driver’s cognitive fatigue, indicating an underload
state (Desmond and Hancock, 2001). In addition, drivers’
speed variability was associated with vigilance decrement and
cognitive fatigue. Specifically, drivers with large speed variability,
compared with those with small speed variability, had less
sleepiness, more vigilance, and a smaller EEG algorithm
Different from previous studies (Charlton and Starkey,
2011, 2013), we observed that the drivers’ speed variability
was not significantly different in different driving segments.
This may be due to the short driving period (1 h in
total), during which the drivers’ speed variability did not
decline significantly. Indeed, our study demonstrated stable
individual differences of driver’s speed variability, which
could last for the whole driving task. Thus, our results
confirmed that the driving speed preference varied among
Our study found that during the driving task, drivers with
smaller pupil diameter displayed less sleepiness, less fatigue,
and more vigilance, whereas, those with stronger EEG activities
had less energy, less driving motivation, and more fatigue.
It has been well-known that cognitive fatigue may induce
alterations of the EEG band power (Zhao et al., 2012). These
neurophysiological indicators supported the dynamic model of
stress and sustained attention, claiming that a monotonous drive
can induce an underload state (Hancock and Warm, 1989). Our
findings also reported that drivers with larger speed variability
were less sleepy and more vigilant during a monotonous drive.
Larger speed variability indicates a larger degree of changes
in driving speed, which requires more attentional resources
and increases mental workload. Additionally, driving behaviors,
like speed variability, are sensitive to a driver’s alertness state
(Ghosh et al., 2015). According to Hancock and Warm’s (1989)
theory, increasing the workload can help drivers maintain the
optimal arousal level. Therefore, our findings may suggest
that driving behaviors, in particular speed variability, may
have positive impacts on cognitive fatigue in an underload
Cognitive fatigue is considered to be associated with vigilance
decrement. In our study, the large speed variability group
reported less sleepiness and more vigilance, compared with the
TABLE 4 | Variability of vehicle speed in the adaptive period and three driving sessions (M±SD).
Adaption period Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3
All participants (n= 21) 20.06 ±2.79 18.89 ±3.43 19.14 ±2.20 18.84 ±3.97
Small speed variability group (n= 11) 18.45 ±2.76 17.00 ±3.44 18.27 ±2.23 16.82 ±3.35
Large speed variability group (n= 10) 22.02 ±1.06 21.20 ±1.48 20.20 ±1.71 21.31 ±3.29
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
FIGURE 3 | Comparisons of the EEG index between participants with small
vs. large variability of speed in three driving segments. Three 15-min driving
segments respectively correspond to segment 1, segment 2, and segment 3.
Small variability represents participants with small speed variability, whereas
large variability represents participants with large speed variability. Data from
small and large speed variability groups are marked in black and gray,
respectively. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means.
FIGURE 4 | Comparisons of the pupil diameter between participants with
small vs. large variability of speed in three driving segments. Three 15-min
driving segments respectively correspond to segment 1, segment 2, and
segment 3. Small variability represents participants with small speed variability,
whereas large variability represents participants with large speed variability.
Data from small and large speed variability groups are marked in black and
gray, respectively. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means.
group with small speed variability. Psychological results further
supported that drivers with large speed variability may keep
themselves in an optimal arousal level during a monotonous
drive, thereby reducing driving fatigue. Furthermore, our
neurophysiological data showed that drivers who had a large
variability of vehicle speed showed a significantly smaller EEG
algorithm (θ+α)/βduring driving segments than those with
small speed variability. Several EEG studies have concluded the
different roles of the EEG power band in the evaluation of
cognitive fatigue (Okogbaa et al., 1994;Lal and Craig, 2002;
Zhao et al., 2012). In driving duration, increased alpha activity
implies decreased attention, whereas increased theta activity
signals the onset of sleep. In contrast, decreased beta activity
indicates the decrement of cortical arousal level. The EEG
algorithm (θ+α)/βis considered as one of the most effective
physiological indices to measure the driving fatigue. The smaller
EEG algorithm (θ+α)/βis, the less fatigue the driver has
(Jap et al., 2009). Therefore, the large speed variability group
with smaller EEG algorithm (θ+α)/βmay have less cognitive
fatigue. This further proved the suggestion of the dynamic
model (Hancock and Warm, 1989): in an underload condition,
increasing workload, for example regulating speed variability, can
help maintain vigilance and resist cognitive fatigue. Meanwhile,
our results also implied that drivers could maintain vigilance
through manipulating driving behaviors rather than employing
extra cognitive tasks. For example, drivers can spontaneously
regulate their vehicle speed variability to increase vigilance.
According to Hockey’s (1997) compensatory control model, a
driver’s self-regulation of vehicle speed is initiatively based on
the task difficulty and the workload. Experienced drivers are able
to control the resources of cognition and attention, which help
them maintain optimal performance using the speed adjustment
strategy. Our study indicated that drivers who used better speed
adjustment strategies had lower levels of subjective and physical
Consistent with the previous study, our study found that
the pupil diameter of participants gradually became smaller, as
they became more sleepy and less vigilant during the driving
task, indicating that participants’ fatigue states were deepened
(Heitmann et al., 2001). However, there were no significant
group differences in pupil diameter. The possible reason may
be that drivers with larger variability of vehicle speed had more
workload of processing visual information, thereby increasing the
contractility of pupil diameter that resisted their fatigue.
The present study indicated that among the drivers, some
preferred larger variability of vehicle speed, whereas others
preferred the smaller one during a prolonged drive. However,
drivers with large variability of vehicle speed had less sleepiness,
less fatigue, and more vigilance in the driving task. These
results were consistent with the dynamic model of stress and
sustained attention, indicating that drivers with larger speed
fluctuation could increase workload that helps them maintain
the optimal arousal level in monotonous highway conditions.
Physiological data also proved that drivers with large variability
of vehicle speed had a smaller EEG algorithm (θ+α)/β. These
results proposed that manipulating driving behaviors, like speed
variability, could have a positive effect on coping with driving
fatigue and maintaining vigilance in the underload condition.
Future studies need to combine drivers’ individual differences,
road conditions, and the difficulty of driving tasks with the
self-regulation strategy to further validate the effect of driving
behaviors on cognitive fatigue.
This study was carried out in accordance with the
recommendations of the ethical review committee of Liaoning
Normal University with written informed consent from all
Frontiers in Psychology | 7April 2018 | Volume 9 | Article 459
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Ma et al. Cognitive Fatigue and Speed Variability
subjects in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The
protocol was approved by the ethical review committee of
Liaoning Normal University.
JM and RC conceived and designed the experiments, and
wrote the manuscript. JM and JG were involved in the
data collection. JM and HJ were involved in the data
analysis. RC and ZY made critical comments and revised the
This study was funded by 2016 Liaoning Doctor Scientific
Research Initiation Foundation Program (201601242) and
Liaoning Education Department Humanistic Society Scientific
Research Program (W201683617).
We appreciate Mrs. Lirong Xia from Shanghai Psytech Electronic
Technology, Co., Ltd., for her help and technical support.
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Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare that the research was
conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could
be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Copyright © 2018 Ma, Gu, Jia, Yao and Chang. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the
original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original
publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these
Frontiers in Psychology | 9April 2018 | Volume 9 | Article 459
... The driving mode and driving conditions were the between-subject variables. Taking into account the stage and accumulation of fatigue, EEG and detection response tasks were divided into six stages 25 : Stages 1-6 correspond to data acquired from the first 0-10 min, 10-20 min, 20-30 min, 30-40 min, 40-50 min, and 50-60 min, respectively. The six stages of driving were the within-subject variables. ...
... Previous studies indicated that EEG algorithm alphas showed larger increases as fatigue increased 10 . The power of alpha bands were the largest in parietal lobe and the power of each band was distributed symmetrically between the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere 25 . Therefore, this study selected the P3, Pz, P4 electrode data to implement the difference tests. ...
... Data analysis. According to previous studies 25 , the present data (subjective reports, DRT performance, and alpha power) were subjected to 2 (driving mode: autopilot and manual driving) × 2 (driving condition: monotonous and engaging conditions) × 6 (stage 1-6) three-factor repeated measurement analysis. ...
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With the continuous improvement of automated vehicles, researchers have found that automated driving is more likely to cause passive fatigue. To explore the impact of automation and scenario complexity on the passive fatigue of a driver, we collected electroencephalography (EEG), detection-response task (DRT) performance, and the subjective report scores of 48 drivers. We found that in automated driving under monotonic conditions, after 40 min, the alpha power of the driver’s EEG indicators increased significantly, the accuracy of the detection reaction task decreased, and the reaction time became slower. The receiver characteristic curve was used to calculate the critical threshold of the alpha power during passive fatigue. The determination of the threshold further clarifies the occurrence time and physiological characteristics of passive fatigue and improves the passive fatigue theory.
... Often labeled as the gold standard, EEG has been used in many investigations to understand the progressions of fatigue associated with prolonged driving (Craig et al., 2012;Jap et al., 2009;Ma et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2018). A report by Jap et al. (2009) described the various EEG parameters used to characterize fatigue, including the EEG waves (or ) and their corresponding power ratio parameters. ...
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Fatigue resulting from driving has been the subject of interest in many studies, particularly due to its pertinent role in road traffic crashes. Fatigue can be evaluated by certain indicators, such as changes in neural activity. The objective of this study was to characterize fatigue associated with prolonged simulated driving by employing electroencephalography. Fourteen male participants were recruited and asked to drive a simulator for five hours in the morning. All participants had two resting conditions the night prior to the experiment (sufficient sleep or partial sleep deprivation). Subjective responses clearly demonstrated an increase in fatigue as a function of driving duration. Data from brain wave activities, however, did not present clear, consistent changes as fatigue progressed. These findings suggest that theta waves can be used as manifestations of fatigue and temporal waves as the selected cortical area of concern.
... Drowsy driving was reported to be one of the major causes (22.5%) of traffic accidents in Korea and can be considered equally harmful as drunk driving [22]. In addition, driving fatigue and daytime sleepiness are critical predictors of drowsy driving by occupational drivers [16,23], and increase driving risks among them [9,16,24,25]. Fatigue is a comprehensive indicator that reflects physical exertion, emotional distress, and physiological impairment [26]. ...
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Background Commercial vehicle accidents are the leading cause of occupational fatalities and an increased risk of traffic accidents is associated with excessive fatigue, other health problems as well as poor sleep during work. This study explores individual and occupational factors associated with different levels of daytime sleepiness and identifies their association with driving risk among occupational drivers working at construction sites. Methods This cross-sectional and correlational study adopted a self-reported questionnaire of Korean construction drivers ( N = 492). The data were collected from October 2018 to February 2019 using a battery of six validated instruments about participants’ sociodemographic, health-related, and occupational characteristics. One-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were conducted using IBM SPSS WIN/VER 25.0, with a two-tailed alpha of .05. Results Based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, “moderate” (31.7%) and “severe” (10.2%) daytime sleepiness groups were identified. There were significant differences in break time, driving fatigue, depressive symptom, subjective sleep quality, physical and mental health, and driving risk among the three groups (all p -values < .001). Driving fatigue (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 1.08, 1.17), depressive symptoms (aOR = 0.91, 0.98), subjective sleep quality (aOR = 1.18 in moderate only), and driving over the speed limit (aOR = 1.43, 2.25) were significant factors for determining “moderate” and “severe” daytime sleepiness groups, respectively. Conclusion A significant number of construction drivers experience excessive daytime sleepiness; thus it is important to reduce the negative impact of driving fatigue and other factors on daytime sleepiness. Our study findings suggest that occupational health care providers should pay attention to development and implementation of health management interventions to reduce driving fatigue that incorporate the drivers’ physical, mental, and occupational factors. Professional organizations need to establish internal regulations and public policies to promote health and safety among occupational drivers who specifically work at construction sites.
... The danger of falling asleep while driving is certainly greater in conditions of mental underload (e.g. Kaduk, Roberts, & Stanton, 2021;Ma, Gu, Jia, Yao, & Chang, 2018), and drivers may also succumb to mindwandering (inner-directed thought distracts drivers from the ongoing situation on the road, e.g., Walker & Trick, 2018;Yanko & Spalek, 2013a, 2013b. Both can compromise driving performance, leading to collisions or making it more likely that the driver is assigned blame for the collision (e.g., World Health Organization [WHO], 2015; Galéra et al., 2012, respectively). ...
Driving while carrying out another (secondary) task interferes with performance, though the degree of interference may vary between tasks and individual drivers. In this study, we focused on two potentially interrelated individual difference variables that may play a role in determining dual-task interference: working memory capacity and the driver’s experience with the relevant secondary task. We used a driving simulator to measure interference, comparing single-task performance (driving alone) with driving performance during three secondary tasks: conversing on a handsfree cellphone, texting, and selecting a song on a touchscreen Mp3 player. Drivers also rated the difficulty of driving while carrying out each secondary task. For the individual difference variables, working memory was measured using the Operation Span test (OSPAN), and experience was assessed in terms of self-reported daily driving exposure and exposure to the relevant secondary tasks (frequency, duration). Overall, we found evidence of dual-task interference, though interference varied between tasks; the texting and Mp3 tasks produced significantly more interference than handsfree cellphone conversation. For the texting and Mp3 song selection tasks, interference was apparent in terms of increased steering variability, but for the Mp3 task there was also compensatory slowing, with drivers slowing down while carrying out the task. OSPAN performance and daily driving exposure were both covariates in predicting the amount of dual-task interference. However, our results suggest that in all but two cases, both involving the texting task, the effects of the OSPAN and the driving and secondary task exposure variables were independent rather than interrelated.
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As self-driving vehicles become more common, there is a need for precise measurement and definition of when and in what ways a driver can use a mobile phone in autonomous driving mode, for how long it can be used, the complexity of the call content, and the accumulated psychological load. This study uses a 2 (driving mode) * 2 (call content complexity) * 6 (driving phase) three-factor mixed experimental design to investigate the effect of these factors on the driver's psychological load by measuring the driver's performance on peripheral visual detection tasks, pupil diameter, and EEG components in various brain regions in the alpha band. The results showed that drivers' mental load levels converge between manual and automatic driving modes as the duration of driving increases, regardless of the level of complexity of the mobile phone conversation. This suggests that mobile phone conversations can also disrupt the driver's cognitive resource balance in automatic driving mode, as it increases mental load while also impairing the normal functioning of brain functions such as cognitive control, problem solving, and judgment, thereby compromising driving safety.
La fatigue cognitive apparait lorsque nous exerçons un effort mental prolongé. Cet état est défini comme un processus graduel et cumulatif qui est associé à une réticence à l'effort, une efficacité et une vigilance réduite ainsi qu’à des performances mentales altérées. La fatigue cognitive est reconnue par les institutions du domaine aéronautique comme une source d’erreur humaine et est à l’origine de plusieurs accidents et incidents graves. Malgré le grand nombre d’études menées, ses causes et ses effets, notamment sur les capacités d’adaptations, ne sont pas toujours clairement établies. Au cours de cette thèse, nous avons essayé d’apporter des éclaircissements en manipulant la fatigue cognitive au cours de tâche de laboratoire et en évaluant son impact sur le contrôle cognitif à l’aide de mesures de l’activité électrique cérébrale et musculaire. Nos résultats ont contribué à mieux identifier les mécanismes impactés par la fatigue cognitive sur plusieurs aspects du contrôle cognitif, c’est-à-dire le contrôle de l’action et la flexibilité cognitive, ainsi que ses corrélats cérébraux. Nos expériences ont globalement permis d’ajouter des résultats en accord avec les théories motivationnelles de la fatigue cognitive.
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Zusammenfassung Welche Effekte würde ein allgemeines Tempolimit auf deutschen Autobahnen mit sich bringen? Stefan Bauernschuster und Christian Traxler versuchen, sich dieser oft emotional diskutierten Frage empirisch zu nähern. Die Autoren stoßen dabei rasch an Grenzen: Die Datenlage ist dürftig und kausale Evidenz ist rar. Gleichwohl skizzieren sie in ihrem Beitrag auf Basis der vorhandenen Daten und der internationalen Literatur eine Einschätzung, wie sich die Einführung eines Tempolimits 130 unter anderem auf Verkehrssicherheit, Emissionen und Zeitverluste auswirkt. Vieles spricht dafür, dass der Nutzen eines Tempolimits die möglichen Kosten übersteigt. Die Autoren rufen zu einer Stärkung der evidenzbasierten Verkehrspolitik auf.
Background Cognitive fatigue (CF) is a human response to stimulation and stress and is a common comorbidity in many medical conditions that can result in serious consequences; however, studying CF under controlled conditions is difficult. Immersive virtual reality provides an experimental environment that enables the precise measurement of the response of an individual to complex stimuli in a controlled environment. Objective We aim to examine the development of an immersive virtual shopping experience to measure subjective and objective indicators of CF induced by instrumental activities of daily living. Methods We will recruit 84 healthy participants (aged 18-75 years) for a 2-phase study. Phase 1 is a user experience study for testing the software functionality, user interface, and realism of the virtual shopping environment. Phase 2 uses a 3-arm randomized controlled trial to determine the effect that the immersive environment has on fatigue. Participants will be randomized into 1 of 3 conditions exploring fatigue response during a typical human activity (grocery shopping). The level of cognitive and emotional challenges will change during each activity. The primary outcome of phase 1 is the experience of user interface difficulties. The primary outcome of phase 2 is self-reported CF. The core secondary phase 2 outcomes include subjective cognitive load, change in task performance behavior, and eye tracking. Phase 2 uses within-subject repeated measures analysis of variance to compare pre- and postfatigue measures under 3 conditions (control, cognitive challenge, and emotional challenge). Results This study was approved by the scientific review committee of the National Institute of Nursing Research and was identified as an exempt study by the institutional review board of the National Institutes of Health. Data collection will begin in spring 2021. Conclusions Immersive virtual reality may be a useful research platform for simulating the induction of CF associated with the cognitive and emotional challenges of instrumental activities of daily living. Trial Registration NCT04883359; International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/28073
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The present study investigated the effects of active fatigue (e.g., elevated distress) and passive fatigue (e.g., decreased task engagement) on driving performance. The study used similar manipulations developed by Saxby et al. (2007), which were shown to induce active and passive fatigue states. 168 undergraduates participated. There were 3 conditions (active, passive, control) and 2 durations (10, 30 minutes). The active condition used simulated wind gusts to increase the required number of steering and acceleration changes, while the passive condition was fully automated. In the control condition, drivers were in full control of steering and acceleration. Data confirmed that, over time, passive fatigue is expressed as decreasing task engagement. Furthermore, drivers in the passive condition had slower response times to an unexpected event and were more likely to crash than those in the active and control conditions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Study objective To evaluate the contributing role of sleepiness in Italian highway vehicle accidents during the time span 1993–1997. Design We analyzed separately the hourly distribution of accidents ascribed by police officers univocally to sleepiness and the rest. Patients N/A Interventions N/A Measurements Using a polynomial regression, we evaluated the relation between accidents (whether sleep-ascribed or not) and sleepiness as derived from a 24-hour sleep propensity curve. The relation between sleep-influenced and non-sleep influenced accidents was analysed using a linear regression Results The rate of non-sleep ascribed accidents is closely related with sleep propensity and bears a strong similarity with the pattern of sleep-ascribed accidents. A close relationship between the curves of non-sleep ascribed accidents and sleep-ascribed accidents is confirmed. The regression coefficient, which can be seen as the ratio between the quota of accidents that can be considered as sleep affected and those actually ascribed to sleepiness, results in a value of 5.83. Considering that the rate of sleep ascribed accidents is 3.2%, we can calculate the quota of sleep influenced accidents out of those not officially ascribed to sleepiness as 18.7% reaching an estimate of accidents related in some way to sleepiness equal to 21.9%. Conclusions Our indirect estimate of sleep influenced accidents approaches data reported by other European countries and highlights the importance of sleepiness as a direct and/or contributing factor in vehicle accident rates.
Drowsiness and fatigue of automobile drivers reduce the drivers’ abilities of vehicle control, natural reflex, recognition and perception. Such diminished vigilance level of drivers is observed at night driving or overdriving, causing accident and pose severe threat to mankind and society. Therefore it is very much necessary in this recent trend in automobile industry to incorporate driver assistance system that can detect drowsiness and fatigue of the drivers. This paper presents a nonintrusive prototype computer vision system for monitoring a driver’s vigilance in realtime. Eye tracking is one of the key technologies for future driver assistance systems since human eyes contain much information about the driver’s condition such as gaze, attention level, and fatigue level. One problem common to many eye tracking methods proposed so far is their sensitivity to lighting condition change. This tends to significantly limit their scope for automotive applications. This paper describes real time eye detection and tracking method that works under variable and realistic lighting conditions. It is based on a hardware system for the real-time acquisition of a driver’s images using IR illuminator and the software implementation for monitoring eye that can avoid the accidents.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept approach to estimating mental workload by measuring the user's pupil diameter under various controlled lighting conditions. Knowing the user's mental workload is desirable for many application scenarios, ranging from driving a car, to adaptive workplace setups. Typically, physiological sensors allow inferring mental workload, but these sensors might be rather uncomfortable to wear. Measuring pupil diameter through remote eye-tracking instead is an unobtrusive method. However, a practical eye-tracking-based system must also account for pupil changes due to variable lighting conditions. Based on the results of a study with tasks of varying mental demand and six different lighting conditions, we built a simple model that is able to infer the workload independently of the lighting condition in 75% of the tested conditions.
A crucial yet under researched component of most experimental protocols using a driving simulator is the accommodation or adaptation period prior to the initiation of experimental sessions. The most common techniques used for adaptation are driving for a predefined fixed time and/or using participants’ own subjective sensation of adaptation. The main goal of the present study was to explore whether roads of different complexity and demand (curved, urban and straight) require different adaptation time and to examine the relationship between participants’ subjective sensation of acclimation and objective driving performance measures. Forty-five experienced drivers, with no previous driving simulation experience participated. For each road type learning curves were calculated using five different driving performance measures. Subjective sensation of adaptation was estimated by a unique system utilizing a three step adaptation level model. Physiological measurements were collected to measure the physical demand and workload during the drive. Results indicated that roads with different characteristics require different time for adaptation. Specifically, the relatively demanding curved road required relatively longer adaptation times and showed the need for improvement in more performance measures in comparison to other two road types. Subjective estimations corresponded very closely with most performance measures in all road types but were under estimated for the more sensitive measures that required longer time for adaptation in each road type. It can be concluded that while sensation of adaptation can give a relatively good indication of adaptation for a variety of performance measures, it would be preferable if it is used in addition to multiple performance measures for an accurate assessment of the adaptation period necessary for each road type.
Conference Paper
We explore the feasibility of using pupil diameter to estimate how the cognitive load of the driver changes during a spoken dialogue task with a remote conversant. The conversants play a series of Taboo games, which do not follow a structured turn-taking nor initiative protocol. We contrast the driver's pupil diameter when the remote conversant begins speaking with the diameter right before the driver responds. Although we find a significant difference in pupil diameter for the first pair in each game, subsequent pairs show little difference. We speculate that this is due to the less structured nature of the task, where there are no set time boundaries on when the conversants work on the task. This suggests that spoken dialogue systems for in-car use might better manage the driver's cognitive load by using a more structured interaction, such as system-initiative dialogues.
This paper describes our research into the processes that govern driver attention and behavior in familiar, well-practiced situations. The experiment examined the effects of extended practice on inattention blindness and detection of changes to the driving environment in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Participants were paid to drive a simulated road regularly over 3 months of testing. A range of measures, including detection task performance and driving performance, were collected over the course of 20 sessions. Performance from a yoked Control Group who experienced the same road scenarios in a single session was also measured. The data showed changes in what drivers reported noticing indicative of inattention blindness, and declining ratings of mental demand suggesting that many participants were “driving without awareness”. Extended practice also resulted in increased sensitivity for detecting changes to road features associated with vehicle guidance and improved performance on an embedded vehicle detection task (detection of a specific vehicle type). The data provide new light on a “tandem model” of driver behavior that includes both explicit and implicit processes involved in driving performance. The findings also suggest reasons drivers are most likely to crash at locations very near their homes.