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Procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism: A meta-analysis of main, mediating, and moderating effects


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As results of researchers’ examination of the relationship between perfectionism and procrastination have often been inconsistent, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. Results indicated that perfectionistic strivings were negatively linked to procrastination, whereas perfectionistic concerns were positively linked to procrastination. Gender, and the measures of perfectionism and procrastination were found to moderate the relationship between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. We found that self-efficacy played a mediating role in the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and procrastination. Our findings fill a gap in the literature and provide confirmatory evidence that the temporal motivational theory can be applied to gain further understanding of the perfectionism–procrastination relationship. © 2018 Scientific Journal Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
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Hefei University of Technology
Xuancheng Vocational and Technical College
Hefei University of Technology
As results of researchers’ examination of the relationship between perfectionism and pro-
crastination have often been inconsistent, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship
between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. Results indicated that perfec-
tionistic strivings were negatively linked to procrastination, whereas perfectionistic concerns
were positively linked to procrastination. Gender, and the measures of perfectionism and
procrastination were found to moderate the relationship between procrastination and multi-
dimensional perfectionism. We found that self-efficacy played a mediating role in the
relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and procrastination. Our findings fill a gap
in the literature and provide confirmatory evidence that the temporal motivational theory can
be applied to gain further understanding of the perfectionism–procrastination relationship.
Keywords: multidimensional perfectionism, procrastination, self-efficacy, temporal
motivational theory, meta-analysis.
Procrastination is a prototypical motivational phenomenon, and is defined as
a functional delay or tendency to rush (Chu & Choi, 2005; Steel, 2007; Steel
& König, 2006). Procrastination has become prevalent throughout the world
© 2018 Scientific Journal Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Yu Xie, Student Working Office, Xuancheng Campus, Hefei University of Technology; Jiyu Yang,
Radio and Television University Working Department, Xuancheng Vocational and Technical College;
Faxiang Chen, Student Working Office, Xuancheng Campus, Hefei University of Technology.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jiyu Yang, Radio and Television
University Working Department, Xuancheng Vocational and Technical College, 698 Xunhua Road,
Xuancheng 242000, People’s Republic of China. Email:
in recent years (Ozer, O’Callaghan, Bokszczanin, Ederer, & Essau, 2014),
and is a significant problem in academia, with findings in studies on procras-
tination showing that between 70% and 95% of students procrastinate (Klassen,
Krawchuk, & Rajani, 2008), and 50% of students procrastinate problematically
and consistently (Steel, 2007). In addition, procrastination is very prevalent
among working adults, with findings showing that approximately 20% of adults
procrastinate in their daily lives generally (Hammer & Ferrari, 2002).
Procrastination is harmful to the procrastinator and it occurs in behavioral and
emotional dimensions (Fee & Tangney, 2000; Kiamarsi & Abolghasemi, 2014).
Previous researchers have examined the correlation between procrastination and
individual performance, and found that procrastinators have poorer performance
than others (Steel, Brothen, & Wambach, 2001). For example, students who
put off a task or assignment tend to obtain a low grade (Kim & Seo, 2015).
Procrastination is also common in a variety of other fields such as medicine (e.g.,
delay in medical treatment) and commerce (e.g., postponement of tax declaration
resulting in errors leading to overpayment of taxes; see, e.g., Holland, 2001).
Previous researchers have linked procrastination to negative emotions such as
depression, anxiety, and frustration (Wolters, 2003). For example, students who
procrastinate are more likely than their peers to feel stressed and anxious at the
end of a course (Assur, 2003).
Psychology researchers have explored the causes and correlations of procras-
tination, and have produced models to elucidate the potential influencing factors
in procrastination (Dietz, Hofer, & Fries, 2007; Ozer et al., 2014; Seo, 2008).
However, the researchers failed to present the full picture of procrastination
in these models until Steel and König (2006) used expectancy theory (Vroom,
1964), need theory of motivation (Murray, 1938), cumulative prospect theory
(Tversky & Kahneman, 1992), and picoeconomics to propose their temporal
motivational theory (TMT), which is an integrative motivational model. In
regard to TMT, Steel further enhanced understanding of procrastination when he
established a nomological web of procrastination. Namely, although the causes of
procrastination vary, personality traits play a considerable role in its occurrence,
and Steel (2007) suggested in his meta-analysis that conscientiousness is a strong
predictor of procrastination.
Perfectionism is broadly defined as a personality trait characterized by individuals
having exceedingly high standards for themselves, with accompanying tendencies
of extreme self-critical evaluation (Flett & Hewitt, 2002; Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990; Hewitt & Flett, 1991). Perfectionists have irrational beliefs
about the need for them to be perfect, and they rarely feel satisfaction. Previous
findings have shown that there is a close correlation between perfectionism and
procrastination (e.g., Stöber & Joormann, 2001). However, empirical results have
been contradictory in regard to the perfectionism–procrastination relationship.
Some findings show that perfectionism is negatively related to procrastination
(Bong, Hwang, Noh, & Kim, 2014; Tian & Deng, 2011), whereas others show
there is a positive correlation (Brownlow & Reasinger, 2000; Burns, Dittmann,
Nguyen, & Mitchelson, 2000; Flett, Blankstein, Hewitt, & Koledin, 1992).
Meta-analyses could be performed to fill this gap in the literature through
aggregation of the resulting values and estimation of the strength of correlations.
However, previous meta-analysis results are inconsistent in terms of the
correlation between perfectionism and procrastination. Van Eerde (2003)
conducted a meta-analysis on procrastination and found that perfectionism was
a major cause of procrastination, although the effect size was small. However,
Steel’s (2007) meta-analysis results indicated that the correlation between
perfectionism and procrastination was nonsignificant, leading him to conclude
that perfectionism does not contribute to procrastination. There are two possible
reasons for the inconsistent results: The first of these is that Van Eerde did
not differentiate between multidimensional constructs when he explored the
relationship between perfectionism and procrastination; the second possibility is
that Steel combined self-perfectionism and other perfectionism dimensions into
one variable and combined social perfectionism, self-consciousness, evaluation
anxiety, and fear of failure into another variable. Thus, Steel likely distorted the
perfectionism–procrastination relationship.
Researchers have tended to subscribe to the belief that perfectionism has
multiple dimensions. Since Frost and colleagues (1990) developed the Frost
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), a number of other measures
have been proposed to assess multidimensional perfectionism. Stoeber and
Otto (2006) classified perfectionism into two dimensions: perfectionistic
strivings, defined as a form of positive perfectionism that includes high personal
performance standards and a self-oriented striving for perfection, and perfec-
tionistic concerns, defined as a form of negative perfectionism that includes
feelings of discrepancy between expectations and results, doubts about actions,
and concern over mistakes and conforming to socially prescribed perfectionism.
The approach of differentiating these two dimensions of perfectionism has been
supported by factor analysis (Bieling, Israeli, & Antony, 2004), and has been
adopted by researchers to examine perfectionism. For example, Hill and Curran
(2016) conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between multidi-
mensional perfectionism and burnout by adopting this approach to differentiate
types of perfectionism.
Researchers have found that perfectionistic strivings and concerns are
useful predictors of some psychological variables (Stoeber, 2011; Stoeber &
Otto, 2006). For example, perfectionistic strivings are correlated with positive
psychological outcomes, such as achievement motivation and positive affect
(Hill, Stoeber, Brown, & Appleton, 2014; Stoeber & Otto, 2006). Perfectionistic
concerns play a significant role as a vulnerability factor for a number of negative
psychological outcomes, such as negative affect, depression, and avoidant coping
(Dunkley, Sanislow, Grilo, & McGlashan, 2006; Dunkley, Zuroff, & Blankstein,
2003; Stoeber & Childs, 2010). As procrastination is considered a motivational
problem, we hypothesized that perfectionistic strivings would be negatively
linked to procrastination, and perfectionistic concerns would be positively linked
to procrastination. Thus, our first aim in the meta-analysis was to evaluate
the strength of the correlation between procrastination and multidimensional
We reasoned that it would also be necessary to explore several potential
moderating effects in the correlation between procrastination and multidi-
mensional perfectionism. Therefore, this exploration was our second aim in the
meta-analysis. Age might be a possible moderator as researchers have shown
that age was negatively related to both perfectionism and procrastination (Landa
& Bybee, 2007; Van Eerde, 2003), with younger people being more likely than
those in older age groups to be perfectionistic and to procrastinate. Gender might
also have an impact on perfectionism and procrastination. Stoeber and Stoeber
(2009) found that although men were more often perfectionistic than women in
some domains of perfectionism, in perfectionism overall, correlation scores were
not significant in the relationship between perfectionism and gender. In addition,
although Sepehrian and Lotf (2011) found a significant difference in procras-
tination according to gender, Steel (2007) reported a weak relationship between
gender and procrastination. Van Eerde (2003) found that men were marginally
more likely to procrastinate than women.
Our final aim in the meta-analysis was to test the mediating role of self-efficacy
in the relationship between procrastination and self-oriented perfectionism. It
has been found that self-efficacy has a significant impact on procrastination
(Haycock, McCarthy, & Skay, 1998). Self-efficacy is individuals’ belief that they
can accomplish a particular task using their own skills (Bandura, 1997). High
self-efficacy individuals tend to use more regulatory strategies than other people
and display a greater capacity to persist, whereas low self-efficacy individuals
are more likely than high self-efficacy individuals to avoid tasks (Bandura,
1997). Sirois (2004) found that low self-efficacy individuals reported more
procrastination behavior than did high self-efficacy individuals. Flett, Hewitt,
Blankstein, and Mosher (1995) suggested that perfectionism and procrastination
reflected personal efficacy. Seo (2008) proposed a model to test the mediating
role of self-efficacy in the correlation between perfectionism and procrastination.
The test result indicated that self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between
academic procrastination and self-oriented perfectionism, which is an indicator
of perfectionistic strivings.
Literature Search
We conducted a literature search using the databases PsycINFO, PubMed,
Academic Search Complete, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and
Theses. We used the search terms “perfection,” “perfectionist,” “perfectionism,” or
“perfectionistic,” combined with “procrastination,” “procrastinate,” “postpone,”
or “delay.” We conducted the search on 14 September 2016. The publication
years were limited to 1990 to 2016, because the first article in which the concept
of multidimensional perfectionism was introduced was published in 1990. We
located 126 articles in this search, and added three articles by reviewing the
reference lists of these articles and existing meta-analyses. We also contacted the
corresponding authors of the articles by email, and requested their unpublished
data on the relationship between perfectionism and procrastination. However,
after 4 weeks, we had received a response from only one author, who provided
one additional data set that had been presented at a conference.
We selected only studies that met the following criteria: The studies must (a) be
quantitative, (b) measure perfectionism using a multidimensional perfectionism
scale, (c) use a measure of procrastination, (d) use a general or domain-
specific self-efficacy scale where relevant, (e) be written in English, and (f)
report a correlation coefficient between procrastination and multidimensional
perfectionism or provide sufficient statistics to perform conversion into a
correlation coefficient. Of the studies that met these criteria, 21 were included
in a correlational meta-analysis and two were included in a mediation model in
the meta-analysis.
Study Coding
We coded each study as follows: (a) authors and year; (b) number, (c)
mean age, and (d) male/female percentage, for participants; (e) measurement
of perfectionism, (f) measurement of procrastination, (g) measurement of
self-efficacy, for measurements; (h) indicators of perfectionistic strivings, (i)
indicators of perfectionistic concerns, for indicators; (j) bivariate correlations
between perfectionism and procrastination, and (k) correlation matrices of
self-oriented perfectionism, self-efficacy, and procrastination where relevant.
Indicators of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns were selected
based on previous perfectionism studies (Stoeber, 2011; Stoeber & Otto, 2006).
Specifically, we included the indicator labeled personal standards in the FMPS,
self-oriented perfectionism from Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) Multidimensional
Perfectionism Scale (HMPS), and high standards from the Almost Perfect
Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), as
indicators of perfectionistic strivings. We selected concern over mistakes and
doubts about actions from the FMPS, socially prescribed perfectionism from
the HMPS, and discrepancy from the APS-R, as indicators of perfectionistic
concerns. Two of the authors of this study independently coded the information
from the selected studies. Any disagreement was resolved by consensus.
Data Analysis
We conducted meta-analyses using the metafor (Viechtbauer, 2010) and
metaSEM (Cheung, 2015) packages with the R statistical computing environment.
We used a Hedges/Olkin-type random effects model to compute the mean
correlation between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism (Hedges
& Olkin, 1985; Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). In terms of heterogeneity, subgrouping
and metaregression were conducted to explore moderators. We used a two-stage
structural equation modeling (TSSEM) method to assess the mediation model
(Cheung & Chan, 2005, 2009). The pooled correlation matrix and its asymptotic
covariance matrix were estimated in Stage 1, and then the proposed model
was fitted in Stage 2. To test the homogeneity of the correlation matrices, we
calculated model fit statistics including chi square (2), degrees of freedom
(df), comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of approximation
(RMSEA). In regard to the mediation model, statistics concerning both the
direct and indirect paths, as well as the Sobel, Aroian, and Goodman tests, were
Relationship Between Procrastination and Multidimensional Perfectionism
In the 21 studies included in the meta-analysis, there were 14,604 participants
from 56 samples (sample size range = 77 to 524 participants, mean age range
= 13.00 to 30.28 years, female percentage range = 47.90% to 78.41%). We
calculated sample sizes (k), number of participants (N), mean weighted effect
sizes (r), 95% confidence intervals (CI), heterogeneity statistics (Q), and
Rosenthal’s fail-safe N, using a random-effects model. A negatively significant
mean-weighted correlation of r = -.136 (z = -4.785, p < .001, 95% CI [-0.192,
-0.081], Q = 92.329; p < .001, fail-safe N = 893) was found for the correlation
between procrastination and perfectionistic strivings, and a positively significant
mean-weighted correlation of r = .200 (z = 7.986, p < .001, 95% CI [0.151,
0.249], Q = 269.471; p < .001, fail-safe N = 5,016) was found for the correlation
between procrastination and perfectionistic concerns.
Moderation Analysis
Age. To examine age as a potential moderator, we performed metaregression.
The results (QModel = 3.651, p > .05; QModel = 2.467, p > .05) suggested that the age
of participants did not significantly affect the correlation between procrastination
and multidimensional perfectionism.
Table 1. The Effects of Moderators on the Relationship Between Perfectionism and Procrastination
Qb k Mean r 95% confidence Qb k Mean r 95% confidence
interval interval
Lower Upper Lower Upper
limit limit limit limit
Perfectionistic strivings Perfectionistic concerns
Perfectionism measures 23.966*** 83.282***
HMPS 12 -.232 -0.383 -0.080 3 0.199 0.128 0.270
FMPS 7 -.133 -0.229 -0.037 16 0.164 0.100 0.228
APS-R 3 -.112 -0.192 -0.033 15 0.387 0.243 0.530
Procrastination measures 23.074** 81.051***
TPS 5 -.092 -0.210 0.025 12 0.278 0.203 0.353
PASS 10 -.174 -0.259 -0.089 14 0.135 0.065 0.206
GPS 4 -.122 -0.264 0.019 5 0.179 0.054 0.304
AIP 1 .010 -0.309 0.329 1 0.239 0.036 0.443
API 2 -.136 -0.340 0.069 2 0.140 -0.174 0.454
Note. HMPS = Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, FMPS = Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, APS-R = Almost Perfect Scale-Revised,
TPS = Tuckman Procrastination Scale, PASS = Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, GPS = General Procrastination Scale, AIP = Adult Inventory of
Procrastination, API = Aitken Procrastination Inventory. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001.
Gender. We performed metaregression to evaluate gender as a moderator.
The result (QModel = 2.289, p > .05) indicated that gender was not a significant
moderator in the correlation between procrastination and perfectionistic strivings,
but the result (QModel = 4.964, p < .05) indicated that gender was a significant
moderator in the correlation between procrastination and perfectionistic concerns.
Perfectionism measures. We included the FMPS, HMPS, and APS-R scores
in the meta-analysis. As shown in Table 1, subgrouping results (Qb = 23.966, df =
2, p < .001; Qb = 83.282, df = 2, p < .001) suggested that the three perfectionism
measures yielded results showing a significant effect of the measure in the
relationship between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. The
correlation between procrastination and perfectionistic strivings as measured by
the HMPS was significantly higher than when either of the other two measures
was used, whereas the correlation between procrastination and perfectionistic
concerns as measured by the APS-R was significantly higher than when either of
the two other measures was used.
Procrastination measures. We included five procrastination measures in the
meta-analysis: Adult Inventory of Procrastination (McCown & Johnson, 1989),
Aitken Procrastination Inventory (API; Aitken, 1982), General Procrastination
Scale (Lay, 1986), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS; Solomon
& Rothblum, 1984), and Tuckman Procrastination Scale (TPS; Tuckman, 1991).
As shown in Table 1, subgrouping results (Qb = 23.966, df = 2, p < .001; Qb
= 83.282, df = 2, p < .001) suggested that the actual procrastination measure
used significantly affected the correlation between procrastination and multidi-
mensional perfectionism. According to the 95% CI results, only one correlation
with the PASS was significant in the group of indicators of perfectionistic
strivings, whereas four measures resulted in significant correlations in the group
of indicators of perfectionistic concerns, with only the correlation with the API
being nonsignificant. In particular, when the TPS was used, the correlation
between procrastination and perfectionistic concerns was significantly higher
than when any of the other measures were used.
Mediation Analysis
A mediation model was proposed to examine self-efficacy as a mediator, using
the pooled correlation matrices from every relevant study (see Figure 1). In Stage
1, we calculated model fit statistics to test the homogeneity of the correlation
matrices. As the value of fit indices (2 = 7.158, df = 3, CFI = .984, RMSEA =
.076) suggested a rejection of the heterogeneity hypothesis, we conducted the
analysis with a fixed-effects TSSEM. In Stage 2, we compared a set of alternative
models. The results indicated that the mediation model demonstrated the best fit
(2 = 0.00, df = 0, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = .00). Sobel, Aroian, and Goodman tests
were conducted to test the significance of the indirect effect from self-oriented
perfectionism to procrastination through self-efficacy, and the results were
statistically significant (Sobel test = -7.694, p < .01; Aroian test = -7.681, p < .01;
Goodman test = -7.707, p < .01).
Self-oriented perfectionism Procrastination
.362 -.515
Figure 1. Path model of the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between pro-
crastination and self-oriented perfectionism. N = 483.
Our findings about the relationship between procrastination and multidi-
mensional perfectionism are not consistent with two previous meta-analyses
(i.e., Steel, 2007; Van Eerde, 2003). The main reason for this is the application
of the methodology. Namely, we assessed the strength of the correlation
between perfectionism and procrastination from a multidimensional perspective.
In contrast, Van Eerde (2003) regarded perfectionism as a unidimensional
construct, and Steel (2007), by combining self-consciousness, evaluation anxiety,
social perfectionism, and fear of failure into one variable, may have distorted
the perfectionism–procrastination relationship. However, Ozer et al.’s (2014)
findings that personal standards of perfectionism were negatively correlated with
procrastination, whereas the perfectionistic concerns indicator of doubts about
actions was positively correlated with procrastination, are consistent with our
findings in the meta-analysis.
Despite the nonsignificant correlation that Steel (2007) reported between
perfectionism and procrastination, the TMT (Steel & König, 2006) can provide
an explanation for our findings. As individuals with high perfectionistic
strivings set themselves high standards, put a high value on their tasks, and
have expectations of great results, they tend to finish tasks on time (Bong et
al., 2014). In contrast, individuals with high perfectionistic concerns worry
about their mistakes, have doubts regarding their actions, have feelings of
discrepancy between expectations and results, avoid disapproval by others, and
excessively fear failure, may be more prone to delaying tasks. Our results provide
evidence that the TMT can account for the link between perfectionism and
We found that gender was a significant moderator in the relationship between
procrastination and perfectionistic concerns. Male participants with high perfec-
tionistic concerns were more likely than women to procrastinate, although the
influence of gender was very weak. Each measure of perfection and procras-
tination moderated the correlation between perfectionism and procrastination.
Although the different measures were designed to evaluate the same variable, the
conceptualizations were not same. For example, the APS-R does not conceptually
map on to the HMPS or the FMPS. Therefore, each measure moderated the
correlation between perfectionism and procrastination to a different degree.
Our results indicated that self-efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship
between procrastination and self-oriented perfectionism. Expectancy theory,
which is a fundamental theory in TMT, is very similar to self-efficacy theory
(Bandura & Locke, 2003; Steel & König, 2006; Vancouver, Thompson, &
Williams, 2001). High self-oriented perfectionism individuals tend to set
themselves high standards and expect a lot from themselves, which may result
in them having the self-confidence to complete tasks on time (Seo, 2008). In
other words, they have high self-efficacy, which is less likely to be found in
procrastinators. Our findings augment the evidence supporting the theoretical
framework for TMT.
Our results support the mediation model proposed by Seo (2008), who explored
self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between academic procrastination
and self-oriented perfectionism. In the mediation model in our meta-analysis, not
only was self-oriented perfectionism an indicator of perfectionistic strivings, but
also of other indicators such as high standards. We excluded Seo’s study from
our meta-analysis because there were insufficient data to calculate the correlation
coefficient. As Seo separated self-oriented perfectionism into two parcels,
academic procrastination into two areas, and self-efficacy into three dimensions,
this would have led to a very large inflation of effect sizes. Specifically, Seo
reported four correlations between self-oriented perfectionism and academic
procrastination and 12 correlation matrices of perfectionism, procrastination,
and self-efficacy. As we tested only two correlation matrices for mediation
in our meta-analysis, such a large inflation could not have been accepted. We
were unable to test indicators of perfectionistic strivings other than self-oriented
perfectionism in the mediation model, because there were insufficient data
according to the criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis.
Previous researchers have identified explanatory factors other than the
mediating role of self-efficacy. For example, in the education domain, several
potential mediators of perfectionism and academic procrastination, such as
psychological capital, test anxiety, and achievement motivation, have been
identified (Hashemi & Latifian, 2014; Hicks & Yao, 2015; Tian & Deng, 2011).
Chen (2014) also found that coping has a significant mediating role in the
perfectionism–procrastination relationship.
As, to our knowledge, ours was the first review of the relationship between
procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism, our meta-analysis has
played an important role in filling a gap in the literature. However, despite the
mediators that we identified in our meta-analysis, we believe that there are still
many factors that have not been identified. Therefore, more studies are needed
in which researchers shed light on the mechanisms underlying the relationship
between perfectionism and procrastination by identifying additional factors in
this relationship.
There are two limitations in this study. First, we examined multidimensional
perfectionism, in which perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns were
higher-order dimensions. As we selected the indicators of these two dimensions,
some other indicators of perfectionism were lost. We acknowledge that different
measurements have been adopted in other studies. Second, only a relatively
small number of studies have been conducted in which the mediation model
has been tested. Specifically, correlations were reported among self-oriented
perfectionism, procrastination, and self-efficacy in only two studies. Therefore,
the results of our mediation model may be reversed in future findings.
In conclusion, we provided evidence in our meta-analysis to suggest that per-
fectionistic strivings are negatively linked to procrastination, and, in contrast,
the link between perfectionistic concerns and procrastination is positive. In
addition, gender, perfectionism measures, and procrastination measures are
moderators in the relationship between perfectionism and procrastination. The
results of our mediation model are consistent with previous ones, indicating that
self-efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between procrastination
and self-oriented perfectionism.
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... Studies have revealed that 70% of students procrastinate at some point [3], and 50% procrastinate consistently and problematically [5], approximately 20% of adults procrastinate in general in their everyday lives [6]. Therefore, procrastination seems to cause more problems for students than for the general adult population [7]. ...
... Perfectionism is defined as having excessively high standards of performance and a self-critical tendency accompanied by pursuing flawlessness [3]. Over the decades, many previous studies have found significant correlations between perfectionism and AP [2,3,6,8], and the relationship with AP is either negative or positive depending on the dimension of perfectionism. A metaanalysis by Sirois et al. [2] denoted that perfectionistic concerns have a positive association with procrastination, whereas perfectionistic strivings have a negative association with procrastination. ...
... Especially, medical students who are wellorganized and strive to achieve high personal standards are less likely to procrastinate when preparing for exams, writing papers, and completing reading assignments. These findings are consistent with multiple other studies that verified the relationship between SOP among college students and AP [2,4,6]. ...
Purpose: Based on the logic that self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) is one of the most well-established predictors of academic procrastination (AP), we predicted that fear of failure (FF) would mediate the association between SOP and AP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of FF on the influence of SOP on AP in medical students. Methods: A total of 156 undergraduate medical students completed a battery of questionnaires. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional data obtained through an offline survey. The self-report questionnaires assessed demographics and psychological scales, including the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory, and Aitken Procrastination Inventory. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlations analysis, and multiple regression analyses using IBM SPSS ver. 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA). Results: SOP had a direct negative influence on AP (β=-0.420, p<0.001). Also, SOP had a significant indirect effect on AP through FF (β=0.0393; 95% confidence interval, 0.040-0.0936). These results indicated that the FF partially mediates the relationship between SOP and AP. Conclusion: Although SOP among medical students might play an adaptive role to lessen AP, in cases FF gets higher, SOP could have opposing effects via the mediating effect of FF, leading to an actual increase in AP. Attempts to deal with the FF among medical students should be made for better academic achievements.
... They suggested that cognitive behavioral therapy reduced procrastination more strongly than the other types of interventions. Another meta-analysis suggested that self-efficacy even mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and procrastination [18]. The two meta-analysis studies emphasized that self-efficacy and self-regulation are the most common predictors of AP behavior; self-efficacy, or in our context, ESE, represents one's perception of themselves, while self-regulation represents their choice to procrastinate, based on the ESE. ...
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span lang="EN-US">Most studies tend to report that academic procrastination (AP) was caused by students’ internal factors, such as educational self-efficacy, perfectionism, fear of failure, expectancy value belief (perception of the task value), or classroom engagement. Nevertheless, some studies in the past have reported that students’ perception of their educators’ expectancy has significantly predicted their educational efficacy, fear of failure, and perception of the task value. Therefore, we hypothesized that students’ perception of educators’ expectancy predicted the students’ AP, fully mediated by educational self-efficacy, moderated by the expectancy value belief. The data was collected from 361 purposively recruited students from universities in Indonesia and Malaysia who completed the scales of perceived lecturers’ expectancy (PLE), educational self-efficacy (ESE), and expectancy value belief (EVB) and procrastination assessment scale-students (APSS). The data was analyzed by using AMOS-SEM and it was suggested that PLE significantly predicted ESE and APSS. Nevertheless, ESE was not a significant predictor of APSS; therefore, no mediation occurs. Furthermore, the link between PLE and APSS is significantly moderated by the EVB. In other words, lecturers might have played some active role, albeit indirect, in pushing students toward academic procrastination. Further implications, limitations, and suggestions are discussed.</span
... There are studies which support the finding that females have greater academic procrastination than males (Demirci et al., 2015;Uzun Ozer et al., 2009), and other studies which suggest that, in fact, males have a higher procrastination level than females (Mandap, 2016). Moreover, gender was found to be a moderator in relationships between academic self-efficacy and procrastination (Liu et al., 2018), or procrastination and perfectionistic concerns (Xie et al., 2018), but there is, again, no consensus for one over the other. That means that for female university students, the predictive role of problematic smartphone use over academic procrastination depends on their level of psychological flexibility. ...
Research has revealed that problematic smartphone use is a cause of procrastination. This study investigated the predictive role of problematic smartphone use on procrastination with consideration of the mediating effect of psychological flexibility. The moderating role of gender in the frequency of checking smartphones was also tested in this mediational model. Of total, 471 undergraduate students (369 female, 102 male) with a mean age of 20.65 participated in the study. The study was conducted face to face in classroom settings, and the results of the analysis revealed that psychological flexibility indeed affected the relationship between problematic smart phone use and procrastination. In addition, moderated mediation analysis suggested that female university students were significantly impacted. Finally, it was observed that psychological flexibility played a significant role amongst the female university students surveyed in the relationship between problematic smart phone use and procrastination.
... puts off tasks that need to be done (Steel, 2010), may occur when a perfectionist cannot complete a task for fear it will not be perfect . Evaluative-concerns perfectionism and procrastination have been correlated in past research (Rice et al . , 2012;Smith et al . , 2017) . Personal-strivings perfectionism is associated with less procrastination (Xie et al . , 2018) . Stress, the feeling that one is unable to meet the demands of life, is correlated with evaluative-concerns perfectionism (Chang, 2006;Rice et al . , 2006), but maladaptive perfectionists often have more chronic stress (Richardson et al . , 2014) . Students with more positive-strivings perfectionism tend to use more adaptive coping str ...
Psychoeducational research differentiates adaptive and maladaptive forms of perfectionism. This study considers personal-strivings and evaluativeconcerns perfectionism in relation to procrastination, stress, anxiety, well-being, and academic achievement among students (n = 147) of all undergraduate levels and across disciplines, with honors representing a little over a quarter. While results show evaluative-concerns perfectionism to positively correlate to stress and anxiety and negatively correlate with well-being, no correlation is found relative to procrastination and GPA. Conversely, personal-strivings perfectionism negatively correlates with procrastination and stress and positively with well-being and GPA. Honors students show a higher degree of the more adaptive personal-strivings perfectionism than their undergraduate counterparts but do not differ in the maladaptive form. Data suggest that this is good news for honors students: they have more adaptive perfectionism and are in no more danger from its maladaptive type than other students.
... Socially prescribed perfectionism is positively related to AP for Korean 7th graders (Bong et al., 2014). Similarly, several meta-analytic studies indicate that PC was positively associated with procrastination (Steel, 2007;Xie et al., 2018). In contrast, epistemological beliefs (appropriate beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning) predicted low levels of AP. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of perfectionistic concerns (PC) on mobile phone addiction (MPA) and the mediating role of academic procrastination (AP), as well as the moderating role of causality orientations (autonomous/controlled/impersonal orientation). A cross-sectional sample of 625 Chinese college students (20.8% male, mean age = 20.47 years old) completed measures of PC, AP, causality orientations, and MPA. We analyzed the survey data using structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus 8.0. PC was positively related to MPA. In addition, AP partially mediated this association. The hypothesized moderating effect of autonomous orientation and controlled orientation was not supported. Impersonal orientation moderated the second stage of the mediating effect of AP on the PC–MPA link in that the mediating effect was positive when impersonal orientation was high, while the mediating effect was not significant when impersonal orientation was low. The findings confirm the importance of investigating how individual difference (i.e., PC) contributes to MPA. The implications of the findings for relieving MPA or preventing college students from developing MPA are also discussed deeply and thoroughly.
... Namun hanya sedikit yang melaksanakan penelitian hubungan antara locus of control dan perfeksionisme dengan prokrastinasi akademik. Penelitian (Xie, Yang, & Chen, 2018) menunjukkan bahwa usaha perfeksionis secara negatif terkait dengan penundaan, sedangkan kekhawatiran perfeksionis secara positif terkait dengan penundaan. Tiga dimensi perfeksionisme (kekhawatiran atas kesalahan, kritik orang tua, dan keraguan tentang tindakan) ditemukan berkorelasi positif dan signifikan dengan penundaan akademik dan dimensi organisasi berkorelasi negatif dan signifikan dengannya (Jadidi, Mohammadkhani, & Tajrishi, 2011). ...
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Locus of control dan perfeksionisme merupakan faktor yang mengakibatkan terjadinya prokrastinasi akademik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada hubungan locus of control dan perfeksionisme dengan prokrastinasi akademik pada mahasiswa. Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan korelasional dan jenis data kuantitatif, populasi penelitian sebanyak 266 mahasiswa dengan jumlah sampel 152 mahasiswa Akuntansi dan Pendidikan Akuntansi Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Teknik pengumpulan data meggunakan kuesioner lalu data dianalisis menggunakan statistik deskriptif, uji normalitas, uji linieritas, persamaan regresi berganda, uji f, uji t dan analisis koefisien determinasi dengan bantuan aplikasi SPSS versi 26. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu 1) Ada hubungan negatif antara locus of control dengan prokrastinasi akademik, 2) Tidak ada hubungan positif antara perfeksionisme dengan prokrastinasi akademik dan 3)Ada hubungan antara locus of control dan perfeksionisme secara bersama-sama dengan prokrastinasi akademik. Kesimpulannya semakin rendah tingkat locus of control dan semakin tinggi tingkat perfeksionisme yang dimiliki mahasiswa maka semakin tinggi tingkat prokrastinasi akademik pada mahasiswa, begitupun sebaliknya
The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism for academic procrastination in university students and the possible moderating role of different dimensions of academic hardiness. The total sample was consisted of 966 undergraduate students from various departments. They were asked to answer three self-reported questionnaires as regards their perfectionism, procrastination, and hardiness in academic settings. The results showed that adaptive perfectionism is a negative predictor of academic procrastination, while the maladaptive perfectionism is a positive predictor. Two of the three dimensions of academic hardiness, namely commitment and challenge, were found to be significant moderators of the relation between maladaptive perfectionism and academic procrastination, while control was a significant moderator of the relationship between adaptive perfectionism and students’ academic procrastination. The results indicate that finding the academic tasks as highly challenging and being highly committed to personal accomplishment seems to play a moderating role by leading to higher procrastination only for those who feel a high discrepancy between their personal standards and their accomplishments. Having, though, high personal standards and a high level of control seems to reduce academic procrastination.
Background: Self-efficacy, or the beliefs learners hold about what they can do, develops largely from how learners perceive and interpret four main sources of information: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasions and physiological and affective states. Although the relationship between these sources and self-efficacy is well-established, less is known about the factors that may influence how early adolescent learners perceive and interpret information from these sources. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate how the predisposition of perfectionism might predict how learners perceive efficacy-relevant information in the domain of math. Methods: Using a correlational design, this study considered whether perfectionism was associated with how middle school students (N = 1683) perceive information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy. Participants completed a paper-based survey at two time points. Perfectionism was measured at Time 1. Self-efficacy and its sources were measured at Time 2. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to examine the relationship between factors. Results and conclusions: Students who held themselves to high standards (i.e., greater self-oriented perfectionism) reported higher levels of mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social messages and self-efficacy. Conversely, students who felt external pressure to be perfect (i.e., socially prescribed perfectionism) reported lower levels of mastery experiences, vicarious experiences and self-efficacy, as well as higher levels of negative physiological and affective states. The relationship between perfectionism and self-efficacy was partially mediated by students' perceptions of mastery. This study extends the current literature on the sources of math self-efficacy in early adolescence by showing how a predisposition like perfectionism is associated with how adolescent learners perceive and interpret efficacy-relevant information.
Maladaptive perfectionists with high perfectionistic standards and discrepancy are at risk for negative psychological outcomes. Among Asian international students, family perfectionism is an important concern due to cultural values concerning honoring familial expectations, conformity, and fulfilling obligations for scholastic achievement. This study examined 190 Asian international students in the United States that prescreened as having maladaptive perfectionism. Among them, hierarchical and k-means cluster analyses revealed three types of perfectionistic families: adaptive, maladaptive, and nonperfectionistic. A oneway analysis of variance revealed that participants from maladaptive families experienced higher depression, general anxiety, and suicidal ideation than those from adaptive or nonperfectionistic families. Those from maladaptive or nonperfectionistic families reported higher social anxiety, academic distress, eating concerns, and lower life satisfaction than those from adaptive families. These findings highlight the importance of maladaptive perfectionists’ family backgrounds in understanding Asian international student mental health. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.
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A meta-analysis of research examining the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism and burnout is provided. In doing so, relationships before and after controlling for the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism were examined along with whether relationships were moderated by domain (work, sport, or education). A literature search yielded 43 studies (N = 9,838) and 663 effect sizes. Meta-analysis using random-effects models revealed that perfectionistic strivings had small negative or non-significant relationships with overall burnout and symptoms of burnout. By contrast, perfectionistic concerns displayed medium-to-large and medium positive relationships with overall burnout and symptoms of burnout. After controlling for the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism, "pure" perfectionistic strivings displayed notably larger negative relationships. In terms of moderation, in some cases, perfectionistic strivings were less adaptive and perfectionistic concerns more maladaptive in the work domain. Future research should examine explanatory mechanisms, adopt longitudinal designs, and develop interventions to reduce perfectionistic concerns fueled burnout. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
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Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals.
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The aim of the present study was to determine of relationship of procrastination and self-efficacy with psychological vulnerability in students. The research sample consisted of 708 who were selected from among students of Islamic Azad University Ardabil Branch through the cluster random sampling method. To collect the data, Brief Psychological Symptoms Inventory, Procrastination Scale and Self-efficacy Scale were use. Data was analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses. The results showed that procrastination and self-efficacy are related to psychological vulnerability in students. The result of multiple regressions showed that procrastination and self-efficacy explained 40 percent of variance of psychological vulnerability in students. Results are support form role of these procrastination and self-efficacy in students. The results have important implications about prevention and counselling of students in the university. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Previous findings on the relationship between procrastination and academic performance are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of 33 relevant studies involving a total of 38,529 participants to synthesize these findings. This analysis revealed that procrastination was negatively correlated with academic performance; this relationship was influenced by the choice of measures or indicators. The use of self-report scales interfered with detection of a significant relationship between procrastination and academic performance. The demographic characteristics of participants in individual studies also affected the observed relationship. Implications of this meta-analysis are discussed.