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Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy

  • University of Lisbon, Pharmacy School

Abstract and Figures

The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa) water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties, namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of physico-chemical composition and in terms of in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications.
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Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with
Anti-Aging Efficacy
Joana Marto 1ID ,Ângela Neves 1, Lídia Maria Gonçalves 1ID , Pedro Pinto 1,2,
Cristina Almeida 1ID and Sandra Simões 1, *
1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa,
Avenida Professor Gama Pinto, 1649-038 Lisboa, Portugal; (J.M.); (Â.N.); (L.M.G.); (P.P.) (C.A.)
2PhD Trials, Rua das Murtas, nº1B, 1º-1700-309 Lisboa, Portugal
*Correspondence:; Tel.: +351-217-500-769
Received: 1 March 2018; Accepted: 19 March 2018; Published: 1 April 2018
The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa) water is
a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However,
no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design
and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties,
namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of
physico-chemical composition and in terms of
in vitro
biological antioxidant activity and elastase
inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was
subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were
evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice
water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented
in vitro
antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was
biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be
thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications.
Keywords: rice water; anti-aging; topical application; hydrogel; skincare; waste-into-value
1. Introduction
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a fundamental food for almost half of the world’s population, supplying nearly
all the daily calories especially in Asia. Rice water retained after soaking or boiling rice is commonly
consumed but, in general, rice water is discarded in many food preparation procedures worldwide.
Rice bran oil is well known for its contents of antioxidant-rich components such as ferulic
acid, gamma-oryzanol and phytic acid and has been used in the cosmetic industry [
] and also in
the management of skin diseases [
]. Rice bran oil and rice bran extracts have been used in the
free form and nanoencapsulated for protection against UVB-radiation injuries [
], for skin disease
treatment [
]. Additionally, rice bran bioactive compounds have been found to exert anti-aging
activity [
] and to be efficient in the treatment of alopecia [
]. Nevertheless, rice water skin benefits
are supported by scarce scientific studies and there is a lack of scientific literature unveiling the skin
effects largely claimed by cosmetic manufacturers. The empiric use of rice water as a bath component,
especially among Asian women, became a tradition with a lack of scientific evidence.
The major component in rice grains, starch, is recommended to be added to bath water for the
treatment of atopic dermatitis or skin diseases associated with pruritus [
]. Starch is a biodegradable
polymer with safe application in the pharmaceutical industry [
] and it was demonstrated that glucose and
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26; doi:10.3390/cosmetics5020026
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 2 of 12
mannose residues from polysaccharides could reduce inflammatory activity
in vivo
In a recent study
a formulation composed of starch-based nanocapsules incorporating an anti-inflammatory agent was
tested in a mouse model of cutaneous inflammation and it was possible to observe the synergistic action of
starch on the anti-inflammatory activity of the formulation [13].
In the last years, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent skin aging has increased.
In parallel, there is an increasing concern regarding products from natural origin, if possible,
from organic
farming in cosmetic products. Rice water is a natural, economic and simple ingredient
that can be incorporated into skincare products. It can be obtained from different types of rice present
in the human diet and also from rice residues resulting from the rice industry, as a way to transform it
into an added-value product.
The main aim of this study was thus to develop a semi-solid dosage form incorporating rice water
and to test such formulation on human skin to evaluate its biological and sensory effects. To carry
out this proposal, rice water was prepared, physico-chemically characterized and tested
in vitro
antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects. In this study paddy rice, with peel, was used to produce the
rice water, in order to maintain all the rice components. The rice water presenting the best antioxidant
activity was incorporated in a hydrogel formulation with very few ingredients in order to incorporate
almost 96% of the rice water in the composition. After the characterization of the hydrogel, biological
and sensory effects and the safety of the formulation were evaluated in vivo, in human volunteers.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials
Paddy rice, guadiagran variety, (batch n. 0539) was a gift from “Casa Agricola Quinta das Barracas
da Rainha” (Coruche, Portugal). Purified water was obtained by reverse osmosis and electrodeionization
(Millipore, Elix 3, Darmstadt, Germany) being afterwards filtered (pore 0.22
m). LecigelTM (sodium
acrylates copolymer and lecithin) and Dermosoft
OMP (methylpropanediol, caprylyl glycol and
phenylpropanol) were obtained from Dr. Straetmans (Hamburg, Germany). Ascorbic acid and MTT
(3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl- 2H-tetrazolium bromide) were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis,
MO, USA). 2
-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2-DCFDA) was obtained from Life Technologies
(Paisley, UK). Spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT were from CLS
(Eppelheim, Germany). Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was prepared according the requirements of Portuguese
Pharmacopoeia 9.0. Human Neutrophil Elastase (HNE) was purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).
The conductivity standards (84, 147, 1413 and 12,880
S/cm, 25
C) were supplied by Reagecon (Shannon,
Co. Clare, Ireland). The pH standards (pH 4, pH 7, pH 6 and pH 9) were supplied by Crison (Barcelona,
Spain). All other reagents were of analytical grade and were used without further purification.
2.2. Rice Water Preparation by Three Different Procedures
Water prepared by the boiling process (RWB):
400 g of paddy rice whole grains were boiled in
1 L
of deionized water for 30 min. Rice water was filtered through cotton gaze and frozen at
until used.
Water prepared with the intact grain (RWM):
400 g of paddy rice whole grains were mixed with
1 L of deionized and left to shake, at room temperature, for 24 h. Rice water was then filtered through
cotton gaze and frozen at 30 C until used.
Water prepared with the crushed grain (RWS):
400 g of paddy rice grains were grinded into
smaller pieces using a kitchen robot, for 10 s, mixed with 1 L of deionized water and left to shake,
at room temperature
, for 24 h. Rice water was then filtered through cotton gaze and frozen at
until used.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 3 of 12
2.3. Rice Water Characterization
2.3.1. Physical Characterization
The pH was determined using a combined glass electrode from Crison GLP 21 pH meter
(Barcelona, Spain), with automatic temperature compensation. The conductivity was measured using
the CyberScan CON 200 Conductivity meter (Eutech Instruments, Ayer Rajah Crescent, Singapore).
The turbidimetry was determined using the TN 100 Infra-Red Turbidimeter (Eutech Instruments,
Ayer Rajah Crescent, Singapore).
2.3.2. Dry Residue Assay
Five millilitres of sample were weighted to a porcelain capsule with 25 g of treated sea sand
(granulometry: 0.25 a 0.35 mm). The capsule and its contents, including a small glass rod, were dried
in the oven at 102
C for 2 h. Then the capsule and its contents were cooled in the desiccator
to room temperature and weighted again. After drying the systems in the oven, for one more hour,
it was cooled
in the desiccator and weighted again. The process was carried out with successive
dryings at the same temperature, followed by cooling in the desiccator, until two successive weighings
did not differ more than 0.5 mg.
2.3.3. Carbohydrates Determination by Phenol Sulphuric Acid Method
Carbohydrates determination was performed according to the methods published elsewhere [
Concentrated sulphuric acid (5 mL) was rapidly added to a solution of 1 mL of sample/standard and
1 mL of 5% (w/v) phenol was then added. Because the reaction is exothermic, the test tubes were
cooled to room temperature before spectrophometric readings. The change of the colour’s solution
was measured in the region of the visible and it was proportional to the amount of sugars present in
the sample. The absorbance was measured at 490 nm against purified water as reagent blank using
a spectrophotometer HITACHI U-2000 (Tokyo, Japan). A calibration curve ranging from 6 mg/L to
60 mg/L of glucose was used.
2.3.4. Total Protein by Kjeldahl Method
An amount of 20 mL of rice water, the catalyst tablet (copper catalyst) and the antifoam agent
(silicon) were introduced into a Kjeldahl digestion flask [
]. Twenty millilitres of concentrated sulfuric
acid (
20 = 1.84 g/cm
98%) were carefully added. The Kjeldahl digestion flask was placed on the
heating device (digestion apparatus, Selecta, Barcelona, Spain) and heated at 400
C for 45 min until
the liquid was completely clear (characteristic emerald green colour).
The content of the Kjeldahl digestion flask was cooled to room temperature and 50 mL of purified
water were added. The Kjeldahl flask was mixed and placed on the Kjeltec System 1002 Distilling
unit (Tecator, Apeldoorn, Nederland). Eighty millilitres of 40% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution were
added to the Kjeldahl tube and the distillation started and took place until approximately 150 mL of
the distillate were collected. The distillate was collected on 50 mL of 4% (w/v) boric acid solution with
4 drops of Kjeldahl indicator. The distillate was titrated with 0.1 N sulphuric acid. The end point was
given by the passage from green to violet. Phenylalanine was used as a mineralization control.
2.3.5. Analysis of Fat by Rose Gottlieb Method
For this analysis, the Rose Gottlieb method was used [
]. An amount of 15 mL of rice water was
placed into a decantation ampoule and weighted. An amount of 2 mL of ammonium hydroxide (25%
(w/w) was added and mixed, then 10 mL of 96% (v/v) ethyl alcohol were added and mixed thoroughly.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 4 of 12
Twenty millilitres of ethyl ether were added and stirred vigorously for 1 min and 25 mL of petroleum
ether were added and the mixture was stirred gently for 30 s. The mixture was left standing until clear
separation of the ethereal from aqueous layers. Two further extractions of the aqueous phase were
done as before but using only 15 mL of ethyl ether and 15 mL of petroleum ether and always keeping
the ethereal phase in the same flask. The contents of the flask were evaporated on a rotary evaporator
C) and the flask was dried in an oven at 105
C for successive periods of 1 h until two successive
weighings did not differ more than 0.5 mg.
2.3.6. Total Phenolic Compounds by Folin–Ciocalteu Method
Total phenolic compounds were measured in rice waters samples by the Folin–Ciocalteu method.
Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was prepared according the requirements of Portuguese Pharmacopoeia 9.0.
Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (1 mL) was added to an aliquot (3 mL) of the target rice water diluted to
25 mL. The solution was shaken vigorously and allowed to stand for three min. Sodium carbonate
solution (4 mL) was added and the sample again was shaken and allowed to stand for thirty minutes.
The absorbance
was measured at 760 nm by UV/VIS Spectrophotometer (Hitachi U-2000, Tokyo,
Japan). A blank was also performed. The pyrogallol was used as reference standard of phenolic
content. The calibration curve for pyrogallol was found to be linear in the range of 0.5 to 8 mg/L.
The coefficient
of determination (r
) of 0.998 indicates the good linearity between the concentration
and absorbance. The method was validated for precision and accuracy by duplicate determinations
and standard controls.
2.3.7. In Vitro Studies
Cell Viability
The cytotoxicity of rice water was evaluated using general cell viability endpoint MTT reduction
and it was performed according to a previous reported work [
]. Cell viability was assessed after 24 h
of incubation of a spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT (CLS, Eppelheim,
Germany) with different dilutions (up to 1:100) of rice water. HaCaT cells were seeded in sterile
flat-bottom 96-well tissue culture plates (Greiner, Kremsmünster, Austria), in RPMI 1640 culture
medium (Life Technologies, Paisley, UK), supplemented with 10% Fetal serum bovine, 100 units of
penicillin G (sodium salt) and 100
g of streptomycin sulfate and 2 mM L-glutamine (Life Technologies,
Paisley, UK), at a cell density of 2
cells/mL, 100
L/well. Cells were incubated at 37
C and 5%
. Negative control was the culture medium and positive control sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)
at 1 mg/mL. After the time of exposition, the MTT assay was performed. Medium was replaced by
medium containing 0.25 mg/mL MTT. The cells were incubated again for 3 h. Afterwards,
the medium
was removed and the intracellular formazan crystals were solubilized and extracted with 100
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). After 15 min in continuous stirring at room temperature, the absorbance
was measured at 570 nm in FLUOstar Omega BMGLabtech Microplate Reader (FLUOstar BMGLabtech,
Offenburg, Germany).
The relative cell viability (%) compared to control cells was calculated for the MTT assay using
the following equation:
% cell viability =
Abs sample
Abs control ×100 (1)
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production Measurement
The capacity of rice water to reduce the ROS production was evaluated through a fluorimeter
technique that uses 2,7’ dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2-DCFDA) to quantify the intracellular
ROS production, according to the method described elsewhere [
]. Briefly, for this measurement,
HaCaT sub-confluent cells grown in 96-well plates, which were incubated for 30 min with 20
M of
H2-DCFDA in the dark, at 37
C, were used. Later, the medium was removed and fresh medium
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 5 of 12
was added to the cells before being exposed to different concentrations of extracts and ascorbic
acid for
1 h
. In the case of the hydrogen peroxide (H
) assay, H
in a final concentration
of 500
M was added simultaneously with the samples in study and it was used as a positive
once it induces
the intracellular ROS production in cells. For the UV assay, three UV-B
lamps (Sankyo Denki G8T5E, Kanagawa, Japan) with
a peak
emission at 312 nm were used as the
UV-B source,
and measured
312 radiometer equipped with a UV-B sensor (Vilber Lourmat,
Marne-la-Vallée France).
The cells
with the rice water were irradiated with a UV-B single dose of
26 mJ/cm2
for 15 min.
In each assay
ROS levels
were determined at 485 nm and 520 nm, as excitation
and emission wavelengths, respectively, using a florescence microplate reader (FLUOstar BMGLabtech,
Offenburg, Germany). Data collected from at least six replicates is expressed as percentage of reduction
of ROS.
Enzymatic Inhibition Assay
Fluorometric assays for the HNE inhibition activity were carried out in 200
L assay buffer
(0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5 at 25
C) containing 20
L of 0.17
M HNE (stock solution 1.7
M in 0.05 M
acetate buffer, pH 5.5), 155
L of assay buffer and 5
L of each concentration of tested inhibitors.
After 30 min
of incubation at 25
C, the reaction was initiated by the addition of 20
L of fluorogenic
substrate to a final concentration of 200
M (MeO-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-AMC, Merck, Darmstadt,
The Michaelis–Menten
constant (Km) of this substrate of HNE was previously determined
to be
185 µM
(data not shown). For all assays, saturated substrate concentration was used throughout
in order to obtain linear fluorescence curves. Controls were performed using enzyme alone, substrate
alone, enzyme with DMSO and a positive control (Sivelestat sodium salt hydrate, Sigma Aldrich
Quimica S.L., Lisbon, Portugal) [18].
2.3.8. Antimicrobial Activity
The antimicrobial activity was screened against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus
aureus ATCC 6538, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404 and Escherichia coli
ATCC 87394. The microorganism inoculum was prepared from 18 h broth culture and the suspension
was adjusted to a turbidity of 0.5 McFarland (~1.5
colony-forming units (cfu/mL). Then,
the Mueller–Hinton
agar (MHA) (Thermo Scientific
, Hampshire, UK) was poured into petri
dishes and inoculated with 100
L of the suspension containing ~1.5
cfu/mL of microorganisms.
Sterile paper discs (6 mm; Thermo Scientific
, Hampshire, UK) were loaded with 15
of rice waters. After incubation (37
C, 24 or 48 h), the mean of the inhibition zone diameters were
calculated. Each assay was performed in triplicate.
2.4. Rice Water Gel (RWG) Preparation
Based on the results obtained from several physico-chemical characterization assays, RWB was
selected for the preparation of the rice water gel (RWG). The composition of the RWG and the control gel
is presented in Table 1. Dermosoft
OMP (Evonik Dr. Straetmans GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was
firstly dispersed in the rice water and the gelling agent, Lecigel
(Lucas Meyer Cosmetics, Champlan,
France), was added and mixed with vigorous stirring to allow for the formation of
a hydrogel
A control
gel containing deionized water instead of rice water was also prepared to compare the results of
in vivo
performed studies.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 6 of 12
Table 1.
Qualitative and quantitative composition of the prepared rice water gel (RWG) and control
hydrogel (HG).
Quantitative Composition (%, w/w)
Composition RWG HG
Sodium acrylates copolymer and lecithin 12.0 2.0
Methylpropanediol, caprylyl glycol and phenylpropanol
22.0 2.0
Water prepared by the boiling process (RWB) 96.0 -
Deionized water - 96.0
2.5. Rice Water Gel Physico-Chemical Characterization
Macroscopic organoleptic characteristics of the gel (colour, odour and appearance) were analysed.
The pH was determined using a 713 pH meter from Metrohm (Filderstadt, Germany), at a temperature
of 20
C. The rheological profiles of RWG and control gel were evaluated at room temperature
using a Brookfield Rotation Viscosimeter
, RV DV-II, SSA with a spindle 07 (Brookfield Engineering
Laboratories, Middleborough, Massachusetts, USA). The shear rate [1/s] versus shear stress [Pa] plots
(flow curves) were obtained by submitting the samples to a shear rate sweep from 0.61 to 122/s up
and down. This means that the angular velocities varied from 0.5 rpm to 100 rpm and each one was
read after 30 s, and then reversed the velocity to the initial.
2.6. In Vivo Studies
2.6.1. Local Compatibility Tests on Human Skin (HRIPT)
The compatibility evaluation study was performed on RWG, using the Marzulli and Maibach
method [
]. Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) protocol, as described in detail elsewhere [
was performed to evaluate the RWG irritant capacity. This protocol was approved by the local Ethical
Committee and respected the Helsinki Declaration and the French Agency for the Safety of Health
Products regulations on performed HRIPT studies on cosmetic products. The study was conducted
under the supervision of a dermatologist who participated in the evaluation of irritation/allergic
reactions to the tested formulations.
2.6.2. Biological Effects of Rice Water Gel
Twelve healthy volunteers, aged between 21 and 46, were selected, and provided informed written
consent. The protocol was approved by the local Ethical Committee (Lisbon, Portugal). Volunteers
applied the RWG formulation on the forearm during 28 days and the results were compared with
a defined
control area (anatomically equivalent and without product). A placebo formulation (Control
Hydrogel-HG) was applied for the same period on the other forearm of the volunteers. The products
were applied in an amount of 2 mg/cm2.
The epidermal capacitance and skin surface lipids were evaluated with a Corneometer CM820
and a Sebumeter SM810 (C+K Electronics GmbH, Cologne, Germany), respectively, at day 0, 14 and 28.
Measurements were performed under standardized conditions, at room temperature according to the
Good Clinical Practices rules [20].
2.6.3. Rice Water Gel Sensory Analysis
A sensory analysis was conducted according to ISO 11136:2014, using a panel of 12 volunteers.
The panel
was questioned to scale characteristics of the RWG. Each volunteer answered a few questions
about the RWG sensory attributes, such as texture (consistency and stickiness), skin feel during
application (ease of application, spreadability and oiliness), skin feeling after application (hydration,
softness of the skin and freshness). Responses were given on a scale from 1 to 5. Sensory parameters
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 7 of 12
were evaluated by a small amount of each formulation applied between the fingertips and rubbed into
the skin.
2.7. Statistical Analysis
Each value is the average of three different experiments
standard deviation, except when
referred within the text. Statistical analysis was assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
using the Sigma Plot 11.0 software
(Systat Software GmbH, 11.0, Erkrath, Germany). The differences
were considered statistically significant when p< 0.05.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Preparation and Characterization of Rice Water
In this work, we prepared and characterized a liquid generally named as Rice Water that could be
obtained by different methods but always involves the contact of water with rice grains.
The preparation
is empirically obtained in different regions of the globe and with different health purposes. In order to
investigate which method would lead to a rice water with higher capacity of reducing the ROS production,
three types of rice water were prepared: one was obtained by boiling the whole rice grain, another one
by stirring the water in contact with crushed rice grains, and another one by stirring the water in contact
with intact rice grain. After preparing the rice water, we observed higher turbidity for water prepared by
the boiling process (RWB) and with the crushed grain (RWS) than for the water prepared with the intact
grain (RWM). On the other hand, the water obtained from the crushed rice was milkier than the rice water
obtained by boiling the rice. These observations were proven by the conductivity and turbidimetry assays,
which results are present in Table 2.
Table 2.
Physical characterization results of water prepared by the boiling process (RWB), water prepared
with the crushed grain (RWS) and water prepared with the intact grain (RWM).
Parameters RWB RWS RWM
pH at 20 C 6.8 5.4 6.0
Conductivity (µs/cm 25 C) 947 1654 492
Turbidimetry (TNU) 91 283 100
Dry Residue (%) 0.45 2.59 0.10
The pH values obtained are adequate to be incorporated in a formulation for skin application
(Table 2). The dry residue results (Table 2) showed that the water obtained from crushed rice presented
more solids in suspension that were not removed by the filtration process through cotton gaze.
3.2. Evaluation of Rice Water In Vitro Anti-Aging Properties
The total phenol contents of the rice waters are 3.33
0.36, 3.15
0.41 and 0.23
0.01 mg/L for
RWS, RWB and RWM, respectively. The total polyphenol content of rice waters was higher for RWS
and RWB than for RWM, due to the water production method used.
Rice has been extensively studied due to the great quantity of bioactive compounds, due to the
beneficial effects of these compounds on human skin, namely their antioxidant and other biological
activities, such as enzyme inhibition. According to literature, cooking processes reduce only the
average content of total phenolics in the pigmented rice; on the other hand, in non-pigmented rice,
total phenolics compounds were not significantly affected by cooking, which is our case [21].
Phenolic compounds may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms, including free radical
scavenging and inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as tyrosinase and elastase [
]. Thus,
we further
tested the rice water capacity of reducing intracellular generation of ROS induced both by a chemical
compound (H
) or by UV light, assessed
in vitro
in human keratinocytes. The percentage of
reduction of ROS by RWB is approximately 80% for both methods comparable to the values obtained
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 8 of 12
for the positive control, ascorbic acid (Figure 1). All tested rice water samples presented a positive
reduction, the RWM being the one presenting a lower effect.
Figure 1.
Reactive Oxygen Species reduction after exposure to H
and UVB radiation of HaCaT
cells, containing rice water samples and ascorbic acid. The data are expressed as the mean of at least
6 replicate experiments
standard deviation. Significance: (*) p< 0.05 versus positive control cells
(ascorbic acid).
This antioxidant activity might be due to the transference to the water of several phenolic compounds
identified in rice, tocopherols, tocotrienols and
-oryzanol [
]. These results are also in accordance with
the phenolic content in rice water samples obtained in this study.
Very high anti-elastase activities were exhibited by RWB and RWS, which inhibited over 89.0 and
57.9% of enzyme activity respectively. A relatively moderate anti-elastase activity was exhibited by
RWM (24.2%).
In the MTT assay, the viable cells with active metabolism are capable of converting the MTT into
a purple compound, the formazan, while the dead cells are incapable of converting it,
which allows
for the differentiation between the viable and dead cells. RWS, RWB and RWM showed a cell viability
higher than 50%, while SDS showed 8.6% and the medium 100%. Hence, all rice waters can be
considered as non-irritant. However, the HaCaT cell lines are more sensitive than skin, since skin has
a functional barrier that prevents the total absorption of these compounds when applied to the skin.
The rate-limiting barrier to the absorption of topical cosmetics is the stratum corneum, due to its length,
which comprehends the number of cell layers, the thickness, the cell size and the difficulty of this
pathway that the substances have to cross.
These assays were determinant for the selection of rice water to be further incorporated into
a hydrogel
. Considering the results, RWB was chosen to be the main ingredient of the gel composition.
The amount of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids were determined for RWB and the results
obtained were 0.20%, 0.14% and 0.013%, respectively. These results may reflect the fact that we have
used paddy rice for the rice water preparation as the rice pericarp prevents the release of the rice grain
(white rice) components into the water. In addition, the content of insoluble phenolic compounds is
significantly higher in brown rice than in white rice, a fact which also can prevent the release of rice
components to the water [23].
We evaluated also the antimicrobial activity of rice waters prepared. None of them presented
antibacterial or antifungal activity. However, according to other research studies, boiled rice water
and soaked rice water showed antimicrobial and antifungal activity, due to zinc and selenium content
present in these types of rice waters [24].
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 9 of 12
3.3. Preparation and Characterization of Rice Water Hydrogel
Semisolid dosage forms, such as a hydrogel, promote the consistency and the adhesiveness and
could be more suitable for topical application than the liquid ones. The rice water presenting the best
antioxidant and anti-elastase activity (RWB) was incorporated into a hydrogel formulation with very
few ingredients in order to incorporate almost 96% of rice water into the composition.
After preparing the RWB hydrogel and the control hydrogel, both odour and transparency were
consistent with the ingredients used. The hydrogel with rice water had a yellowish colour compared
to the control hydrogel, whitish in colour.
The pH values of both formulations prepared ranged between 5.4 and 5.9, meaning they are all
pH compatible with skin.
The hydrogel containing rice water also appeared to be more fluid than the control hydrogel.
This might
be due to the presence of phospholipids which results in low viscosity pastes and with
lower transmittance power [
]. The hydrogel also had a homogeneous appearance and an appropriate
consistency, but was easy to spread over a surface.
The rheology of the rice water hydrogel was studied since it is an important parameter in the
development of a semisolid formulation for topical application as it determines the spreadability.
The rice
water hydrogel appeared to have pseudoplastic and thixotropic flow, as shown in Figure 2.
In addition, the results presented in Figure 2prove that the hydrogel containing rice water is less
viscous than the control hydrogel, which is in agreement with that previously described. The results
also indicate that the rice water hydrogel has a rheological profile adequate for topical application.
Figure 2. Rheograms of the rice water hydrogel (RWG) and the control hydrogel (HG).
3.4. Biological Effects and Cosmetic Properties of Rice Water Hydrogel
During the HRIPT study, in the initial 3 weeks contact and even after the final challenge contact,
no reactions or skin sensitization/irritation were observed. Therefore, the repeated application of the
product did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers’ skin. The formulation presented very good
skin compatibility and absence of allergenic potential.
The skin is often exposed to physical and chemical agents which may affect the skin barrier.
Corneometry is a technology that is used to measure the hydration of the outer layer of the epidermis
(stratum corneum). Volunteers applied the Rice Water Gel (Test) formulation on the forearm during
28 days and the results were compared with a defined control area. A placebo formulation (HG)
was applied for the same period on the other forearm of the volunteers. Results (Figure 3) showed,
at day 28
, a 10% increase of hydration in the area where the rice water hydrogel was applied, relative
to day 14; however, there is no statistically significant difference between day 14 and day 28.
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 10 of 12
Figure 3.
Skin hydration values (Arbitrary Units, AU) in terms of capacitance during 28 days. Control area:
forearm without any formulation application; Placebo: hydrogel; Test: Rice Water Gel (RWG).
Sebometry is a method employed for quantifying the fat content of the skin. Sebometry was measured
in the same tested area and the results were zero at day 1, 14 and 28 for all volunteers, which means that
rice water hydrogel did not significantly increase skin surface lipids compared to the control.
The cosmetic properties of the rice water hydrogel were assessed using a simple sensory survey,
in which 12 volunteers participated. The questions focused on the basic characteristics evaluated by
volunteers, during and after application (texture, skin feel, among others). Results showed that rice
water hydrogel met consumer appeal and acceptance requirements (Figure 4). Rice water gel presents
the highest score for spreadability, ease of application and stickiness, with a low score for the fragrance
and oiliness. Hydration and freshness have also high scores. These observations are in agreement with
the results obtained so far in corneometry and sebometry.
Figure 4. Sensory analysis of the rice water hydrogel.
4. Conclusions
In this work, we produced rice water by different methods. The rice water obtained after boiling
the rice presented
in vitro
biological antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid and
remarkable elastase inhibition activity. Its incorporation into a hydrogel formulation has led to the
development of a semisolid dosage form suitable for topical application and with adequate cosmetic
properties. It would be very important to identify the component or the class of compounds responsible
for the antioxidant activity. Another important evaluation would be how such antioxidant activity
Cosmetics 2018,5, 26 11 of 12
could be used to supplement skin antioxidant capacity. Rice water should be thus considered as
an anti-aging ingredient to be used in skincare products.
We thank Ana Neves and Casa Agricola Quinta das Barracas da Rainha for providing the
paddy rice samples.
Author Contributions:
Joana Marto and Sandra Simões conceived and designed the experiments; Joana Marto
was responsible for the evaluation of antioxidant activity; Ângela Neves prepared rice water and made the sensory
analysis evaluation; Lídia Maria Gonçalves evaluated elastase activity; Pedro Pinto was responsible for biological
evaluation (HRIPT); Cristina Almeida performed physico-chemical characterization of rice water; Sandra Simões
prepared rice water and rice water gel and was responsible for rice water characterization. All authors contributed
to the manuscript preparation.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with the content of this article.
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2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
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(CC BY) license (
... Unbeknownst to most households, rice water contains numerous vitamins and minerals. With its natural content, rice water has been applied and infused to different fields, such as in cosmetics formulation (Marto et al., 2018), hair treatment (Inamasu et al., 2010), and skin treatment (Morse, 2019). ...
... Water reuse, or commonly known as water recycling or water reclamation, is the act of recovering water from a variety of sources and utilizing it after for beneficial purposes such as potable water supplies, replenishment of groundwater, industrial processes, environmental restoration, and agriculture and irrigation (Basic Information about Water Reuse, 2022). With rice water commonly regarded as a food processing waste (Marto, 2018), or generally, a waste product commonly discarded in households, recycling and utilizing this water produced when cooking rice is a great practice of water conservation. ...
... Another study conducted by Marto, et. al. (2018) showed that rice water contains anti-aging properties which can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. ...
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Rice water has been widely produced in households as a result of cooking rice. Oftentimes, rice water is discarded, wasting water from which the existing issue of water scarcity is still prevalent in several countries. This paper aims to describe the effect of using rice water as a watering agent, thereby recycling and reusing water. Twenty in tnine plant samples were observed and collected data from. One-way ANOVA analysis on the plant samples data was performed. The analysis showed a significant difference between the means of the treatments’ absolute growth rate (AGR) with rice water treatment having the highest average AGR (p = 0.018). Samples’ observations comparison were done still with rice water, having the highest fresh and dry weight, and height. These results indicate that usage of rice water on plants has the greatest growth performance when compared to the two treatments, tap and distilled water. Hence, rice water on plants is a good and effective choice to use when watering plants.
... For example, the South Korean brand "Too Cool for School's Coconut Milky Mist" claims to have 87% coconut water (Lim, 2019). Two more promising options are "birch tree water", carrying amino acids, enzymes, and antioxidants beneficial for the skin, and "rice water", obtained from different types of rice or rice industry residues, and considered an anti-aging ingredient (Marto et al., 2018). ...
Freshwater is a precious natural resource becoming scarce due to the expanding population, pollution, urbanization and economic development, and climate change. Industry accounts for about 20% of all water withdrawals, and companies and consumers are increasingly concerned about the environmental impact of the goods they produce and consume, respectively. The cosmetics industry has intensely relied on water as a key element for the formulation and manufacture of its products. Water is needed at all stages of the cosmetic product life cycle: it is one of the main ingredients in a cosmetics formulation, it is required to grow raw materials and for heating and cooling processes, equipment cleaning, and packaging production, which leads to high consumption and significant impacts in pollution. To save water and assure its sustainability, several companies are showing their commitment to reducing the water footprint of their systems. This approach includes sourcing sustainable raw materials, developing waterless, fast rinse-off or non-rinse formulas, finding alternative water sources, optimizing manufacturing processes including the adoption of circular water management in their facilities, using biodegradable, recyclable and reusable packaging, and improving transport infrastructure. The companies must also carry out consumers' education on how to responsibly use and dispose of products. Besides all the benefits to the planet, waterless products offer many advantages to consumers as they tend to be more concentrated, have richer formulations, are lighter, economical, and longer-lasting. To evaluate the product's impact, set improvement goals, report progress to society, and contribute to business transparency and informed consumption choices by consumers, it is crucial to define sustainability metrics based on water footprint assessment and achieve proper certification. Although there is still much to achieve, the collaboration between businesses, governments, regulators and communities will improve water management globally and safeguard water resources. This work aims to unravel the role of water in the cosmetic industry and strategies that can be used in each stage of a cosmetic product life cycle (conception, production, packaging, distribution, consumer use and disposal) to promote the sustainable use of water in this sector. Additionally, it shows the efforts and initiatives of some companies to raise awareness in this regard, such as waterless products of different categories already available on the market, and the publicity and information campaigns to encourage a change in cosmetics consumption and production patterns.
... The photoprotective activity of crude extracts was inferred from the capacity of the extracts to reduce the production of ROS by 3T3 cells, following the method described by Marto et al. [66], with slight modifications. Firstly, 3T3 cells were incubated with nontoxic concentrations of extracts for 1 h, in the dark, at 37˚C. ...
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Marine fungi and, particularly, endophytic species have been recognised as one of the most prolific sources of structurally new and diverse bioactive secondary metabolites with multiple biotechnological applications. Despite the increasing number of bioprospecting studies, very few have already evaluated the cosmeceutical potential of marine fungal compounds. Thus, this study focused on a frequent seaweed in the Portuguese coast, Halopteris scoparia , to identify the endophytic marine fungi associated with this host, and assess their ability to biosynthesise secondary metabolites with antioxidative, enzymatic inhibitory (hyaluronidase, collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase), anti-inflammatory, photoprotective, and antimicrobial ( Cutibacterium acnes , Staphylococcus epidermidis and Malassezia furfur ) activities. The results revealed eight fungal taxa included in the Ascomycota, and in the most representative taxonomic classes in marine ecosystems ( Eurotiomycetes , Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes ). These fungi were reported for the first time in Portugal and in association with H . scoparia , as far as it is known. The screening analyses showed that most of these endophytic fungi were producers of compounds with relevant biological activities, though those biosynthesised by Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis and Aspergillus chevalieri proved to be the most promising ones for being further exploited by dermocosmetic industry. The chemical analysis of the crude extract from an isolate of A . chevalieri revealed the presence of two bioactive compounds, echinulin and neoechinulin A, which might explain the high antioxidant and UV photoprotective capacities exhibited by the extract. These noteworthy results emphasised the importance of screening the secondary metabolites produced by these marine endophytic fungal strains for other potential bioactivities, and the relevance of investing more efforts in understanding the ecology of halo/osmotolerant fungi.
Prediction models for major nutrients of rice were built using near-infrared (NIR) spectral data based on the artificial neural network (ANN). Scientific interpretation of the weight values was proposed and performed to understand the wavenumbers contributing to the prediction of nutrients. NIR spectra were acquired from 110 rice samples. Carbohydrate and moisture contents were predicted with values for the determination coefficient, relative root mean square error, range error ratio, and residual prediction deviation of 0.98, 0.11 %, 44, and 7.3, and 0.97, 0.80 %, 27, and 5.8, respectively. The results agreed well with ones reported in the previous studies and acquired by the conventional partial least squares (PLS)-variable importance in projection method. This study demonstrates that the combination of NIR and ANN is a powerful and accurate tool to monitor nutrients of rice and scientific interpretation of weights can be performed to overcome black box nature of the ANN.
Background: This study investigated the inhibitory efficiency of phenolic compounds content methyl vanillate, syringic acid and vanillic acid against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The phenolic compound contents of ten Thai colored rice cultivars were also determined, and the relationship between the inhibitory efficiency of colored rice extract with methyl vanillate, syringic acid and vanillic acid was evaluated. Results: The results revealed that the inhibition efficiency of methyl vanillate, syringic acid and vanillic acid was higher against α-glucosidase than against α-amylase. Inhibitory activity of vanillic acid against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was the highest with IC50 of 0.100 ± 0.01 and 0.130 ± 0.02 mM respectively. Docking study showed strong binding by three hydrogen bonds and four hydrogen bonds between vanillic acid with the amino acid in the binding site of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively. Inhibition modes of these phenolic compounds were defined as a mixed type inhibition against α-glucosidase. Highest phenolic compound contents of methyl vanillate, syringic acid and vanillic acid were obtained from methanol extracts of all rice cultivars. The methanol extracts of all colored rice cultivars such as Khao Leum Pua also showed the highest inhibition potential against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that these phenolic compound contents were closely related to the inhibition potential of colored rice extracts against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Conclusions: Our results suggest that rice, especially colored rice cultivars, has the source of phenolic compounds. Moreover, the phenolic compounds had the greatest source of natural inhibitor against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Most published studies on surgical and non-surgical cosmetic facial procedures focus on Caucasians. With increasing popularity and requests for medical aesthetic treatments from patients of various ethnicities, there is a need for aesthetic practitioners to broaden their understanding of anatomical differences, ideals of beauty and cultural differences among different ethnicities. With the East Asian diaspora numbering tens of millions and the continued development of that region, any aesthetic practitioner will likely need to treat an East Asian patient. East Asians are keen on surgical and non-surgical aesthetic treatments to enhance their beauty and seek treatments in Asia and abroad. There are many differences between Caucasians and East Asians, including the structural architecture of the face, attitudes and standards regarding beauty and patterns and rates of facial ageing. For an optimal consultation process, treatment planning and outcome, these fundamental differences should be understood by aesthetic practitioners.
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Pigmented rice has attracted considerable attention due to its nutritional value, which is in large conferred by its abundant content of phenolic compounds, considerable micronutrient concentrations, as well as its higher resistant starch and thereby slower digestibility properties. A wide range of phenolic compounds identified in pigmented rice exhibit biological activities such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. Post-harvest processes significantly reduce the levels of these phytochemicals, but recent developments in processing methods have allowed greater retention of their contents. Pigmented rice has also been converted to different products for food preservation and to derive functional foods. Profiling a large set of pigmented rice cultivars will thus not only provide new insights into the phytochemical diversity of rice and the genes underlying the vast array of secondary metabolites present in this species but also provide information concerning their nutritional benefits, which will be instrumental in breeding healthier rice. The present review mainly focuses on the nutritional composition of pigmented rice and how it can impact human health alongside the effects of post-harvest processes and product development methods to retain the ambient level of phytochemicals in the final processed form in which it is consumed.
The food-processing industry generates large quantities of residues, which may represent sustainable and rich sources of bioactive compounds. The extraction of bioactives from industrial residues could be a good alternative for the valorization of this by-product with recognized biological actions. Conventional extraction methods consume large volumes of organic solvents, which are expensive, toxic, and hazardous. Traces of the extractants in the final product make it unsuitable for pharmaceutical or cosmetic uses. Several methods, considered “green” or “eco-friendly,” have been proposed because of the low contamination, nontoxic, and nonflammable characteristics of the techniques. This chapter reviews the use of bioactive-enriched extracts obtained by environmentally friendly processes with sufficient quality to be incorporated into nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic formulations, highlights the challenges regarding bioactive compounds’ chemical stability, and presents the more recent strategies to overcome the technological issues of extracted bioactive molecules. The new concepts for recovered bioactives application are discussed.
Spreadability is one of the most important physicochemical properties of cosmetic products, according to the consumer. Thus, it is fundamental to develop strategies with the aim to improve the knowledge and predict the behavior of alternatives to synthetic emollients. The main goal of this research article was to correlate different physicochemical attributes, namely spreading value, apparent viscosity, density, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value, acid value and melting range, with the spreading behavior of sustainable alternatives for petrolatum and dimethicone. The sensitivity and adequacy of each parameter were statistically analyzed, and the models were built by forward selection. The two adjusted and optimized models include viscosity and density as parameters and, in the petrolatum case, the model further includes the melting range, which was also validated as a significant predictor. Furthermore, it was also possible to compare the data obtained with the consumer's perception of the spreading behavior of the studied raw materials. A strong correlation was observed, suggesting that these tools mirror the consumer opinion. The application of these mathematical models is a valuable tool to assist the entire replacement process, which usually is a time-consuming procedure.
Rice is a source of bioactive compounds related to human health and has been used for both consumption and traditional medicine. The authors investigated the synergistic and additive effect of rice extract (RE) combined with five aromatic compounds against three enzymes: α-glucosidase, α-amylase and tyrosinase. RE was purified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and preparative TLC (PTLC) with different solvent systems. RE had higher α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity than the five aromatic compounds, while the five aromatic compounds had higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity than RE. The combination of RE/acarbose produced synergic inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, whereas RE showed additive inhibition of both enzymes when combined with aromatic compounds. The five aromatic compounds showed additive inhibition of tyrosinase when combined with RE. The combination of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol/vanillin/guaiacol produced synergistic inhibition of α-amylase while showing antagonism of α-glucosidase and tyrosinase. Interestingly, the RE produced additive inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and tyrosinase when combined with the 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol/vanillin/guaiacol combination. RE had rich bioactive compounds related to α-glucosidase, α-amylase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Volatile compounds, including 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, vanillin and guaiacol, enhanced the inhibitory activity of RE against α-glucosidase, α-amylase and tyrosinase activities.
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Rice water has been used for curing various ailments. The experiment was conducted to know the physico-chemical and cooking properties of six fine rice varieties. Length and breadth of the reported varieties ranges from 6-7.8mm and 4.5-5.5mm. The highest amylose (28%) was estimated in Gobindo bhog non-boiled rice followed by Sona Masori half boiled rice (24.2%) and lowest (18.6%) were Saffola arise active rice and Kerala rice. Alkali spreading value ranges from 3.0 to 3.9 of the tested varieties. Cooking time varied from 11min to 31min among the tested rice varieties. Elongation ratio of the fine rice varieties ranges from 1.5 to 2.4. Rice water of Kerala rice, Saffola arise active rice and full boiled rice had shown the significant zone of against diarrhoea causing bacteria. Overnight and 1 hr shocked rice water had shown the effective result against the dandruff causing fungi.
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Natural biopolymers such as starch, chitosan and gelatin have found use in industries as diverse as food, textiles, cosmetics, plastics, adhesives, paper, and pharmaceuticals. The food industry uses these polymers as a thickening agent in snacks, meat products, fruit juices. They are also used in the manufacture of disposable items like fast food utensils and containers. From a pharmaceutical standpoint, these polymers have been extensively used in solid oral dosage forms, where they have been used as binders, diluents, disintegrant and matrixing agents. In recent times, nanotechnology has started to make significant advances in biomedical applications, including newer drug delivery techniques. There has therefore been considerable research into developing biocompatible, biodegradable submicron devices as drug delivery systems using natural polymers, this is because, they occur widely in nature, generally biocompatible, biodegradable, safe and non-immunogenic. There are reports of these polymers been made into colloidal particles that act as carriers for both large and small drug molecules, conferring on the drug molecules properties which enhance delivery actively or passively, thereby tuning them for use as controlled, ocular, transdermal or intranasal delivery systems. In more advanced areas of drug delivery, these polymers have also been tested for gene therapy and tissue engineering. This review examines the properties and recent applications of three (3) natural polymers; starch, chitosan and gelatin in nano-drug delivery. Keywords: Natural polymers; Nanotechnology; Drug delivery
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The fermentation of natural plants has a favorable effect on the functional and biological activities of living systems. These include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet aggregation activities. This is attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents, which show more potent biological activity. In our study, rice bran along with oriental medicinal plants (Angelicae gigantis, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps, and Camellia sinensis) was fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pichia deserticola (FRBE). We evaluated the effects of oral administration of FRBE on atopic dermatitis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. FRBE significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis and reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin E and the differential white blood cell count. In addition, it reduced skin thickness compared to that of atopic dermatitis-affected skin. FRBE treatment also reduced mast cell incorporation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The total cell number in dorsal skin tissue and the axillary lymph node increased following DNCB application, and this was normalized by FRBE treatment. Moreover, it decreased the levels of CD8(+) helper T cells and Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrated that FRBE significantly inhibited mRNA expression of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-5 and interleukin-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 in AD skin lesions. These results suggest that FRBE could be a valuable herbal remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
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We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO, extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope. Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients show an excessive amount of elastase in peripheral blood neutrophils due to an imbalance between this proteolytic enzyme and its endogenous inhibitors, the search for new human neutrophil elastase (HNE) inhibitors are required. The HNE is an attractive therapeutic target and inhibitors with new molecular architectures have been extensively investigated. In this context a promising novel synthetic human neutrophil elastase inhibitor (ER143) was associated to a starch-based nanoparticulate system (StNC) with improved pharmaceutical performance, using a quality by design approach to support product development and optimization. The resulting formulation was characterized in terms of and in vitro release, permeation and retention studies in newborn pig skin, using Franz diffusion cells revealing the StNC have the ability to control the drug release rate and contribute to a high skin retention and/or permeation profiles. The anti-inflammatory activity accessed in vivo using the croton oil-induced ear inflammation model in mice showed that erythema and edema were attenuated in 98% following local application. These observations suggest the association of ER143 to the StNC promotes a deeper skin penetration and retention, also confirming StNC as a potential topical delivery system.
Although rice bran consumption is reportedly has numerous beneficial effects on human health, the relationship between rice bran and the prevention of photoaging has not been investigated in detail. We sought to investigate whether consumption of rice bran supplement (RBS) can elicit preventive effects against UVB-induced photoaging in vivo. Dorsal skin sections of hairless mice were exposed to UVB over 16 weeks. RBS consumption suppressed UVB-induced wrinkle formation and inhibited the loss of water content and epidermal thickening in the mouse skin. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that repeated exposure to UVB upregulated matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, while consumption of RBS suppressed MMP-13 and COX-2 expression, as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These findings suggest that RBS could be a potential bioactive ingredient in nutricosmetics to inhibit wrinkle formation and water content loss via the suppression of COX-2 and MMP-13 expression.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Materials and methods: Jasmine rice panicle extract was standardized, and the level of phenolics present was determined. In vitro anti-aging, and extract activity towards melanogenesis was conducted in B16F10 melanoma cells, and antioxidant activity was assessed in human skin fibroblast cell cultures. Topical product creams containing the extract were developed, and skin irritation testing using a single application closed patch test method was done using 20 Thai volunteers. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy evaluation was undertaken in 24 volunteers over an 84day period, with the results monitored by Corneometer(®) CM 825, Cutometer(®) MPA 580, Mexameter(®) MX 18 and Visioscan(®) VC 98. Results: Jasmine rice panicle extract was shown to have a high content of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids, and was not cytotoxic to the cell lines used in this study. Cells treated with extract suppressed melanogenesis via tyrosinase and TRP-2 inhibitory effects, which protect the cell from oxidative stress at doses of 0.1mg/ml or lower. The jasmine rice panicle preparations (0.1-0.2%) were safe (MII = 0), and significantly (p < 0.05) increased skin hydration levels relative to the placebo. Skin lightening, and anti-wrinkle effects related to skin firmness and smoothness were observed, in addition to a reduction in skin wrinkling. Improvements in skin biophysics of both 0.1 and 0.2% extracts were showed to be comparable (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Jasmine rice panicle extract having high levels of phenolics shows cutaneous benefits as the basis for skin aging treatments, as indicated through in vitro cytotoxicity assessments and skin testing in human subjects.
Context: Based on its antioxidant activity, melatonin was recently found to have a protection effect against photocarcinogenesis. Objective: This work aimed to develop an innovative sunscreen formulation based on the Pickering emulsions concept, stabilized by physical UV filters, modified starch and natural oils associated to melatonin as a key strategy for prevention against UV-induced skin damage. Materials and methods: For this purpose, melatonin was incorporated in Pickering emulsions that were characterized using physicochemical, in vitro and in vivo testing. Physicochemical studies included physical and chemical stability by a thorough pharmaceutical control. The possible protective effects of melatonin against UV-induced cell damage in HaCaT cell lines were investigated in vitro. The safety assessment and the in vivo biological properties of the final formulations, including Human Repeat Insult Patch Test and sunscreen water resistance tests were also evaluated. Results and discussion: These studies demonstrated that melatonin sunscreen Pickering emulsion was beneficial and presented a powerful protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCat cells, including inhibition of apoptosis. The inclusion of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, green coffee oil and starch ensured a high SPF (50+) against UVA and UVB. Conclusion: The combination of melatonin, multifunctional solid particles and green coffee oil, contributed to achieve a stable, effective and innovative sunscreen with a meaningful synergistic protection against oxidative stress.