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... A seminal HIIT study described an intervention compromising of 4 minutes training sessions consisting of 7 to 8 repetitions of 20 second "work" intervals on a cycle ergometer at an approximate intensity of 170% peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ) separated by 10 second "rest" intervals (Tabata et al., 1996). This protocol later became popularly known as the "Tabata protocol" (Viana et al., 2019). In that study of young physically-active men, after 6 weeks of training in this manner 5 times per week, an ~13% improvement in aerobic fitness measured by VO 2peak was observed, which was similar to that achieved by 30 minutes of steady-state aerobic exercise training per session in the comparator group (Tabata et al., 1996). ...
... Reducing the barriers to exercise by way of location-flexible, time-efficient, equipment-free workouts using bodyweight exercise-based HIIT may provide greater opportunity for exercise in certain populations (Machado et al., 2019), but the efficacy of this style of exercise training requires further investigation, especially in the context of improving body composition. Generally, HIIT interventions have limited effects on fat mass compared to non-exercise control groups (Sultana et al., 2019), but a recent review of the Tabata protocol noted a lack of investigations of whether this protocol can improve body composition in overweight or obese individuals (Viana et al., 2019). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8 week bodyweight exercise-based HIIT intervention on body composition (LBM and fat mass), and blood-based markers of metabolic health in overweight and obese, sedentary young adult men. ...
... The present study did not, however, observe any change in fat mass in response to BWHIIT. A recent review specifically examining studies of the Tabata protocol concluded that the use of this approach to promote weight loss is not substantiated (Viana et al., 2019). Moreover, a meta-analysis of studies that have measured fat mass found there to be no overall effect of HIIT interventions on fat mass compared to non-exercise control groups (Sultana et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose: The effects of 8 weeks of bodyweight exercise-based, high-intensity interval training (BWHIIT) on body composition and blood-based markers of metabolic health were investigated in overweight and obese, sedentary young men. Methods: In a parallel group, PRE-POST design, n = 30 men (age, 25.7 ± 4.3 y; body mass index, 27.7 ± 2.1 kg m−2; 26.1 ± 5.2% body fat) were randomized to BWHIIT (n = 20) or a control group (CON; n = 10). BWHIIT consisted of supervised, group-based training sessions (~30 minutes) performed 3 times weekly. Each session consisted of 6 high-intensity bodyweight-based exercises, with each exercise being performed for 4 minutes in the manner of 8 sets of 20 seconds of exercise, 10 seconds of rest. Prior to commencing training (PRE), and 36 h after the final training session (POST), an overnight fasted blood sample was drawn, and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Eighteen participants completed the intervention (CON, n = 9; BWHIIT, n = 9). Results: Lean body mass (LBM) was increased at POST in BWHIIT compared to CON (P = .011, η2p = .359), with the mean (95% confidence limits) increase in LBM from PRE to POST within BWHIIT being 1.23 (0.55, 1.92) kg. Body mass and fat mass were unchanged in both groups from PRE to POST. BWHIIT had no effect on serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, NEFA, hsCRP, or glucose. Conclusion: Eight weeks of bodyweight exercise-based high intensity interval training by overweight and obese sedentary young men increased LBM by ~2%, but fat mass and blood-based markers of metabolic health were unchanged.
... The Tabata protocol represents a unique form of SIT originally prescribed as 7-8 repeated bouts of cycling at a target intensity of 170% of peak oxygen uptake (V O 2max ) interspersed with 10 s rest periods (Tabata et al. 1996;Viana et al. 2019a;Tabata 2019). Much like other variations of HIIT and (or) SIT, we (Scribbans et al. 2014;Bonafiglia et al. 2016) and others (Tabata et al. 1996;Foster et al. 2015;Viana et al. 2019a) have demonstrated similar training adaptations using the Tabata protocol in comparison with traditional forms of prolonged continuous exercise such as MICT or VICT. ...
... The Tabata protocol represents a unique form of SIT originally prescribed as 7-8 repeated bouts of cycling at a target intensity of 170% of peak oxygen uptake (V O 2max ) interspersed with 10 s rest periods (Tabata et al. 1996;Viana et al. 2019a;Tabata 2019). Much like other variations of HIIT and (or) SIT, we (Scribbans et al. 2014;Bonafiglia et al. 2016) and others (Tabata et al. 1996;Foster et al. 2015;Viana et al. 2019a) have demonstrated similar training adaptations using the Tabata protocol in comparison with traditional forms of prolonged continuous exercise such as MICT or VICT. Although the attainment of the specific target intensity (i.e., 170% V O 2max ) in Tabata requires the use of specialized laboratory equipment, we have also previously demonstrated that a variation of this protocol using whole-body exercises is sufficient to augment cardiorespiratory fitness and indices of muscular endurance in recreationally active females (McRae et al. 2012). ...
Article
Young adults (52 females, 16 males; age = 21 ± 3 years; V̇O 2peak : 41 ± 6 mL/(kg·min)) were randomized into 3 groups: (i) no-exercise control (CTL; n = 15), (ii) Tabata (n = 27), or (iii) vigorous-intensity continuous training (VICT; n = 26) groups for a 4-week supervised training period (4 sessions/week). V̇O 2peak , time-to-fatigue (TTF), 5 km time-trial performance (TT), and muscular endurance were assessed at baseline, post-training (POST), and 2-month follow-up (FU). Response confidence intervals (CI) were used to classify individuals as likely responders (R; CI > 0). Both exercise interventions increased TTF and TT at POST (both p < 0.01), but these benefits were maintained at FU after VICT only (p < 0.01). Push-up performance was increased at POST and FU (both p < 0.01) after Tabata. VICT resulted in a greater proportion of TTF R versus both groups at POST (CTL: 1/15; VICT: 19/26; Tabata: 9/27) and versus Tabata at FU (3/15; 13/26; 4/27). VICT also had a greater proportion of TT R versus CTL at POST (2/15; 17/26; 10/27). Tabata had a greater proportion of R for maximum push-up repetitions versus both groups at POST (3/15; 6/26; 18/27) and versus CTL at FU (2/15; 10/26; 18/27). Collectively, VICT appears to be more effective for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, whereas whole-body Tabata confers larger improvements in push-up performance following short-term training. Novelty: Vigorous-intensity continuous training elicits larger improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness versus whole-body Tabata. Individual response profiles parallel group-level changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance.
... El método Tabata consiste en realizar 4 minutos de entrenamiento en el que se alterna 20 segundos de ejercicio en bicicleta estática a una intensidad que corresponde al 170% de VO2max con 10 segundos de descanso total, para una realización de 7-8 series. Aunque, debido a las dificultades presentadas por los sujetos en la realización de este protocolo, otros investigadores han logrado excelentes resultados y mayor adherencia con una intensidad alrededor del 115% del VO2max (Viana et al., 2018). En el estudio de Gillen et al. (2016) el protocolo del HIIT fue de 3 por 20 segundos, es decir, 20 segundos de ejercicio de alta intensidad y 2 min de baja intensidad y se restringió el número de series a 3-4. ...
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Alguna vez considerada un problema de salud solo de los Estados Unidos de Norte América (EUA) y de algunos países industrializados occidentales, la obesidad se ha convertido en un importante contribuyente de la carga de morbi-mortalidad a nivel planetario. La adiposidad excesiva es un factor de riesgo importante para la agregación de otras enfermedades como la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), enfermedades cardiovasculares y algunos tipos de cánceres. El aumento en la prevalencia de la obesidad y sus comorbilidades ha sido en gran medida impulsado por la liberalización del comercio mundial, el crecimiento económico y la rápida urbanización, que continúan impulsando cambios dramáticos en la alimentación y estilos de vida que conllevan a un balance energético positivo, es decir, cuando la ingesta calórica de un individuo excede su gasto energético, conduciendo a un aumento progresivo de peso. Aunque la globalización claramente ha conducido a mejoras sustanciales en la calidad de vida, la seguridad alimentaria, y a una reducción en el nivel de pobreza en muchos países, las consecuencias no deseadas de estos cambios han llevado a un mayor consumo de bebidas azucaradas y alimentos de bajo valor nutritivo y alta densidad energética. En combinación con la reducción en los patrones de actividad física, estos factores están impulsando hacia un escenario mundial de obesidad, en el que los costos directos e indirectos son cuantiosos, tanto en términos de gasto para los sistemas de salud como en la calidad de vida de los pacientes y sus familiares, lo que subraya la importancia de implementar estrategias de prevención. Por ejemplo, solo en los EUA, los costos médicos atribuibles a la obesidad se estimaron en US $ 147 mil millones por año en 2008. Los países de bajos y medianos ingresos (PMBI) actualmente soportan una gran parte de la carga económica de la obesidad y se prevé que esto siga ocurriendo en las próximas décadas , de forma que los costos relacionados con el tratamiento de la obesidad y sus diversas comorbilidades serán particularmente perjudiciales para la salud pública y la economía de los PMBI, pues tienen recursos limitados y sus infraestructuras no son suficientes para gestionar el aumento de las tasas de estas enfermedades junto con la carga coexistente de la desnutrición y las enfermedades infecciosas. En este contexto, las personas con bajos ingresos que viven en un PMBI altamente urbanizado, como por ejemplo Brasil o la India , tienen un mayor riesgo de obesidad que las personas ricas en el mismo país debido al acceso generalizado a alimentos económicas con altadensidad energética y baja calidad nutricional acompañado de un estilo de vida sedentario. En las últimas cuatro décadas hemos pasado de un mundo en el que la prevalencia de bajo peso era más del doble que la obesidad a una en la que hay más personas obesas que con bajo peso excepto en África subsahariana y algunas regiones de Asia. El porcentaje de incremento del índice de masa corporal (IMC) desde el año 2000 ha sido más lento en los países de altos ingresos, donde la adiposidad se convirtió en un problema de salud pública en esta época. Sin embargo, debido a que el aumento del IMC se ha acelerado en algunas otras regiones, como en Latinoamérica, algunos países europeos, en China y en Oceanía, el aumento global en el IMC no se ha no ha disminuido. Si las tendencias posteriores al 2000 continúan, no se alcanzará el objetivo mundial de detener el aumento de la obesidad, por lo que la obesidad mórbida podría superar al bajo peso -en mujeres- para el año 2025. Es probable que los cambios necesarios para revertir esta epidemia requiera intervenciones sostenidas y numerosas recomendaciones de políticas de la comunidad internacional, habitantes, gobiernos y organizaciones que se enfocan en la dieta, el estilo de vida y los factores de riesgo ambientales, el efecto de la globalización en las tendencias mundiales de la prevalencia de la obesidad a través de cambios en los factores de nivel macro, los cuales influyen en los comportamientos individuales (micro nivel). En nuestra opinión, debe prestarse especial consideración a grupos étnicos como el de los hispanos debido a que existen diferencias culturales que pueden afectar la prevalencia de obesidad de diferentes maneras. Por ejemplo, la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de los EUA ha demostrado que existen variaciones étnicas de esta enfermedad en relación a su comportamiento, los factores de riesgo, demografía y los determinantes sociales entre los diferentes grupos dehispanos. Este hecho ha sido confirmado por múltiples estudios realizados en México, Brasil, Colombia, Venezuela y Chile, en los cuales se ha observado un alarmante incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad y cuyas variantes regionales pueden enmascarse en bajo una supuesta agrupación pan-étnica que podría afectar las intervenciones nclínicas y de población específicas que impacten en la reducción y prevenciónde la obesidad.
... To increase VO 2 max, it is generally recommended to perform periods of exercise at high levels of VO 2 max (above 90 %) (Rønnestad et al., 2015;Thevenet et al., 2007). It should be noted that running at the same relative intensity as cycling, results in greater oxygen consumption (Viana et al., 2019). Consequently, it was unclear whether various aerobic and strength HIIT-R, high-intensity interval training running group; HIIT-F, high-intensity interval training functional group; Ƞ 2 p, effect size partial ƞ squared; VO 2 max, maximal oxygen uptake; HRmax, maximal heart rate (VO 2 max test); BLAmax, maximal blood lactate concentration; RPEmax, maximal ratings of perceived exertion (BORG); VO 2 VT1, oxygen uptake at the first ventilatory threshold; HR VT1, heart rate at the first ventilatory threshold; VT1 % of VO 2 max, percentage of the first ventilatory threshold on the maximal oxygen uptake; VO 2 VT2, oxygen uptake at the second ventilatory threshold; HR VT2, heart rate at the second ventilatory threshold; VT2 % of VO 2 max, percentage of the second ventilator threshold on the maximal oxygen uptake; FFM, fat free mass; FM, fat mass; MM, muscle mass; *significant within-group change from pre-to post-training (p ≤ 0.05). ...
Article
The purpose of the study was to assess if high-intensity interval training (HIIT) using functional exercises is as effective as traditional running HIIT in improving maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and muscular endurance. Fifteen healthy, moderately trained female (n = 11) and male (n= 4) participants (age 25.6 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either running HIIT (HIIT-R; n = 8, 6 females, 2 males) or functional HIIT (HIIT-F; n = 7, 5 females, 2 males). Over a four-week period, both groups performed 14 exercise sessions of either HIIT-R or, HIIT-F consisting of 3-4 sets of low-volume HIIT (8x 20 s, 10 s rest; set rest: 5 min). Training heart rate (HR) data were collected throughout all training sessions. Mean and peak HR during the training sessions were significantly different (p = 0.018 and p = 0.022, respectively) between training groups, with HIIT-F eliciting lower HR responses than the HIIT-R. However, despite these differences in exercise HR, VO2max improved similarly (~13% for the HIIT-R versus ~11% for the HIIT-F, p=0.300). Muscular endurance (burpees and toes to bar) significantly improved (p =0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively) independent of training modality. These findings suggest that classic running HIIT and functional HIIT both improve VO2max and affect muscular endurance to the same extent despite a lower cardiovascular strain in the functional protocol.
... HIIT is an effective training method to improve physical strength, and several studies have investigated the effects of Tabata training based on high-intensity exercise [19,28,29]. These training methods have been documented as viable for adolescents and adults [20,30]. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of online physical education classes, using Tabata training, on middle school students’ physical fitness. Fifty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to either the asynchronous online class group (AOCG, n = 24, age: 15.8 ± 0.4 years) or the synchronous online class group (SOCG, n = 24 age: 15.9 ± 0.3 years). The online physical education class lasted two days per week for 10 weeks. Recorded video lectures were conducted for the AOCG, and Tabata training for the SOCG, as real-time lecture methods. Baseline and post-online physical education class measures included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, balance, and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The results showed that the synchronous online physical education class had a positive effect on the improvement of muscle mass, ankle strength (dorsiflexion), hip strength (abduction, flexion, extension, and external rotation), knee strength (extension and flexion), and balance (Y-balance test) in adolescents. These findings suggest that the physical fitness of adolescents can be sufficiently improved through appropriate online physical education class methods. Further research should focus on developing and evaluating different types of exercises for synchronous online physical education classes as a precautionary measure for the second wave of COVID-19.
... In the current study, we controlled for the same intervention intensity and duration and found that surprisingly, there was no significant difference in terms of the changes in VO 2 max between the HIIT-R and HIIT-F groups. It is worth noting that running showed higher oxygen consumption for the same intensity compared to other modalities [65]. Our findings were partially in line with a previous study [66] that indicated no significant differences in VO 2 max promotion between high-intensity cycling and HIFT. ...
High-intensity interval running (HIIT-R) and high-intensity functional training (HIFT) are two forms of HIIT exercise that are commonly used. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of HIFT on aerobic capacity and body composition when compared to HIIT-R in females. Twenty healthy, untrained female university students (age 20.5 ± 0.7 year) were randomly assigned to a 12-week HIIT-R or HIFT intervention. The HIIT-R group involved a 30 s maximal shuttle run with a 30 s recovery period, whereas the HIFT involved multiple functional exercises with a 2:1 work-active recovery ratio. Body composition, VO2max, and muscle performance were measured before and post intervention. As a result, HIIT-R and HIIT-F stimulated similar improvements in VO2max (17.1% ± 5.6% and 12.7% ± 6.7%, respectively, p > 0.05). Only the HIIT-F group revealed significant improvements in muscle performance (sit-ups, 16.5% ± 3.1%, standing broad jump 5.1% ± 2.2%, p < 0.05). Body fat percentage decreased (17.1% ± 7.4% and 12.6% ± 5.1%, respectively, p < 0.05) in both HIIT-R and HIIT-F with no between-group differences. We concluded that HIFT was equally effective in promoting body composition and aerobic fitness compared to HIIT-R. HIFT resulted in improved muscle performance, whereas the HIIT-R protocol demonstrated no gains.
... HIIT with the use of cycle ergometer is considered a safe method of training. In previous studies, various training modes of, such as cycling, running, aquatic treadmill running, jump rope, swimming and kettlebell training, have been attempted [10]. The results showed that the stress on the anterior cruciate ligament was lower during cycling exercise [11,12]. ...
Preprint
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on VO2max in university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20-s exercise with a 10-s passive rest between each sets. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2 max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed 9 sessions of HIICT during 3-week. The total work-load and achievement rate of the work load calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre and post-training. After 3-week of training, no significant differences in the total work-load and achievement rate of the work load were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre to post training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not training variable affecting effect of VO2max.
... Numerous studies suggest other intensity domains to be of interest [7,45]. Indeed, HIIT performed within the severe and extreme intensity domains has gained popularity over the last years, notably through the contribution of Tabata [46,47], Gibala [48][49][50][51], and Seiler [52,53]. Moreover, a cycling race can be seen as a complex, stochastic form of HIIT, composed of inevitable supramaximal efforts. ...
Article
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High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a time-efficient training method suggested to improve health and fitness for the clinical population, healthy subjects, and athletes. Many parameters can impact the difficulty of HIIT sessions. This study aims to highlight and explain, through logical deductions, some limitations of the Skiba and Coggan models, widely used to prescribe HIIT sessions in cycling. We simulated 6198 different HIIT training sessions leading to exhaustion, according to the Skiba and Coggan-Modified (modification of the Coggan model with the introduction of an exhaustion criterion) models, for three fictitious athlete profiles (Time-Trialist, All-Rounder, Sprinter). The simulation revealed impossible sessions (i.e., requiring athletes to surpass their maximal power output over the exercise interval duration), characterized by a few short exercise intervals, performed in the severe and extreme intensity domains, alternating with long recovery bouts. The fraction of impossible sessions depends on the athlete profile and ranges between 4.4 and 22.9% for the Skiba model and 0.6 and 3.2% for the Coggan-Modified model. For practitioners using these HIIT models, this study highlights the importance of understanding these models’ inherent limitations and mathematical assumptions to draw adequate conclusions from their use to prescribe HIIT sessions.
... For six weeks, the participants performed 7-8 bouts of 20 second cycling intervals at 170% of VO2 max with 10 seconds of rest between sets. Due to difficulties in reproducing the protocol in day-to-day training, different modified Tabata-based protocols were summarized under the title "Tabata-like protocols" [12]. The use of those protocols was found to be effective in well-trained athletes [13,14] in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle [15,16], as well as in top-level athletes [17,18]. ...
Article
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The present study examined the effects of a functional high-intensity suspension training (FunctionalHIIT) on resting blood pressure, psychological well-being as well as on upper body and core strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in moderately trained participants. Twenty healthy, moderately trained adults (10 males and 10 females; age: 36.2 ± 11.1 years, BMI: 23.9 ± 3.7) were randomly assigned to a FunctionalHIIT training group or passive control group (CON). FunctionalHIIT performed 16 sessions (2× week for eight weeks, 30 min per session), whereas CON maintained their habitual lifestyle using a physical activity log. Before and after FunctionalHIIT intervention, resting blood pressure and quality of life (short version of the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF)) were assessed. Furthermore, maximum-repetition (leg press, chest press, pulldown, back extension) and trunk muscle strength (Bourban test) as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (Vameval test), were measured before and after the intervention. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and WHOQOL-BREF did not change significantly but both showed moderate training-induced effects (0.62 < standardized mean difference (SMD) < 0.82). Significant improvements in the FunctionalHIIT group were evident on leg press (p < 0.01), chest press (p < 0.05), and left side Bourban test (p < 0.05). Cardiorespiratory fitness did not reveal any time effects or time × group interactions. The present study revealed that eight weeks of FunctionalHIIT represents a potent stimulus to improve health-related parameters in young adults, whereas FunctionalHIIT was not sufficient to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.
... HIIT with the use of a cycle ergometer is considered a safe method of training, and cadence may be a training variable that affects the chronic effect of VO 2max . In previous studies, various training modes, such as cycling, running, aquatic treadmill running, jump rope, swimming, and kettlebell training, have been attempted [10]. Results showed that the stress on the anterior cruciate ligament was lower during cycling exercise [11,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on the VO2max of university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). The HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20 s exercise with a 10 s passive rest between each set. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed nine sessions of HIICT during a 3-week period. The total workload and achievement rate of the workload calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre- and post-training. After 3 weeks of training, no significant differences in the total workload and the achievement rate of the workload were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre- to post-training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not a training variable affecting the effect of VO2max.
... Se planteó la siguiente distribución de la clase: 5 minutos de calentamiento en agua, 10 minutos de ejercicios preparatorios para el trabajo intenso, 20 minutos de trabajo interválico y 5 minutos vuelta a la calma. El método estuvo basado en el entrenamiento tipo Tabata (Viana et al., 2018;Fortner et al., 2014). ...
... Se planteó la siguiente distribución de la clase: 5 minutos de calentamiento en agua, 10 minutos de ejercicios preparatorios para el trabajo intenso, 20 minutos de trabajo interválico y 5 minutos vuelta a la calma. El método estuvo basado en el entrenamiento tipo Tabata (Viana et al., 2018;Fortner et al., 2014). ...
... El método Tabata consiste en realizar 4 minutos de entrenamiento en el que se alterna 20 segundos de ejercicio en bicicleta estática a una intensidad que corresponde al 170% de VO2max con 10 segundos de descanso total, para una realización de 7-8 series. Aunque, debido a las dificultades presentadas por los sujetos en la realización de este protocolo, otros investigadores han logrado excelentes resultados y mayor adherencia con una intensidad alrededor del 115% del VO2max (Viana et al., 2018). En el estudio de Gillen et al. (2016) el protocolo del HIIT fue de 3 por 20 segundos, es decir, 20 segundos de ejercicio de alta intensidad y 2 min de baja intensidad y se restringió el número de series a 3-4. ...
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Más de mil millones de personas tienen sobrepeso y se espera que ese número aumente sustancialmente en la próxima década. ¿Cómo podemos vivir más allá de la novena década mientras somos obesos? ¿Cómo podemos permanecer sanos hasta nuestro último aliento? Durante los últimos 20 años, los investigadores han buscado de forma ardua los principios que permitan acercarnos a una cura para la obesidad. Sin embargo, hasta hoy no existe un medicamento mágico, ninguna vacuna que pueda evitar la epidemia de obesidad que amenaza ya a todo planeta, pues la obesidad se considera una enfermedad compleja y multifactorial. Su tratamiento, por lo tanto, también debe ser multimodal y adaptado para satisfacer las necesidades de cada paciente. En este sentido, aspectos básicos en obesidad presenta capítulos con aspectos vitales de esta enfermedad como la actividad física, bioquímica y metabolismo, inmunología, repercusiones de la obesidad sobre la biología vascular y factores dietéticos, todo desde un punto de vista multidisciplinario.
... Se planteó la siguiente distribución de la clase: 5 minutos de calentamiento en agua, 10 minutos de ejercicios preparatorios para el trabajo intenso, 20 minutos de trabajo interválico y 5 minutos vuelta a la calma. El método estuvo basado en el entrenamiento tipo Tabata (Viana et al., 2018;Fortner et al., 2014). ...
... Tabata protocol has been used with many different variations that been shown to produce similar physiological adaptations in comparison to traditional aerobic training, but in a time-efficient manner [41]. Among these variations, and noteworthy to the scope of this article, we can highlight the use of body-weight exercises, also called calisthenics (e.g., jumping jacks, mountain climbers, burpees, squats and thrusts) [67,69]. ...
Article
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Aerobic exercise is traditionally recommended to improve general health and prevent many non-communicable diseases. However, the measures adopted to control the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak culminated with closing of exercise facilities and fitness centers and, as a primary consequence, impaired aerobic exercise practice. This contributed to an increase in risk factors associated with physical inactivity such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, weight gain, and mental health problems. The scenario is worrisome, and it is important to propose alternatives for exercise practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interval training (IT) emerges as an exercise mode that might be feasible, low-cost, and potentially safe to be performed in many different places. IT consists of interspersing relative brief bouts of high-intensity exercise with recovery periods and promotes similar or greater health benefits when compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise. Among the different types of IT, sprint interval training and "Tabata protocols" might be particularly useful during social isolation. These protocols can be controlled and performed without the need of complex equipment and can be adapted to different places, including domestic environments. In this article, we present variations of IT as possible alternatives to cope physical inactivity during COVID-19 pandemics with a focus on its practical applications. The protocols suggested can be performed without the need of specialized equipment or facilities, in a time-efficient manner, and aiming to prevent detraining or even improve physical fitness and general health.
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For decades, high-intensity interval/intermittent exercise training methods have been used by elite athletes to improve their performance in sports. One of the most effective training methods, i.e., ‘Tabata training,’ is reviewed herein from the viewpoint of the energetics of exercise. The prior research describing the metabolic profile and effects of Tabata training is also summarized, with some historical anecdotes. © 2019, The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature.
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This study tested the hypothesis that a novel, gravity-induced blood flow restricted (BFR) aerobic exercise (AE) model will result in greater activation of the AMPK–PGC-1α pathway compared with work rate-matched non-BFR. Thirteen healthy males (age: 22.4 ± 3.0 years; peak oxygen uptake: 42.4 ± 7.3 mL/(kg·min)) completed two 30-min work rate-matched bouts of cycling performed with their legs below (CTL) and above their heart (BFR) at ∼2 weeks apart. Muscle biopsies were taken before, immediately, and 3 h after exercise. Blood was drawn before and immediately after exercise. Our novel gravity-induced BFR model led to less muscle oxygenation during BFR compared with CTL (O 2 Hb: p = 0.01; HHb: p < 0.01) and no difference in muscle activation (p = 0.53). Plasma epinephrine increased following both BFR and CTL (p < 0.01); however, only norepinephrine increased more following BFR (p < 0.01). PGC-1α messenger RNA (mRNA) increased more following BFR (∼6-fold) compared with CTL (∼4-fold; p = 0.036). VEGFA mRNA increased (p < 0.01) similarly following BFR and CTL (p = 0.21), and HIF-1α mRNA did not increase following either condition (p = 0.21). Phosphorylated acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) increased more following BFR (p < 0.035) whereas p-PKA substrates, p-p38 MAPK, and acetyl-p53 increased (p < 0.05) similarly following both conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusion, gravity-induced BFR is a viable BFR model that demonstrated an important role of AMPK signalling on augmenting PGC-1α mRNA. Novelty Gravity-induced BFR AE reduced muscle oxygenation without impacting muscle activation, advancing gravity-induced BFR as a simple, inexpensive BFR model. Gravity-induced BFR increased PGC-1α mRNA and ACC phosphorylation more than work rate-matched non-BFR AE. This is the first BFR AE study to concurrently measure blood catecholamines, muscle activation, and muscle oxygenation.
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Background One of the most popular high-intensity interval exercises is the called “Tabata Protocol”. However, most investigations have limitations in describing the work intensity, and this fact appears to be due to the protocol unfeasibility. Furthermore, the physiological demands and energetic contribution during this kind of exercise remain unclear. Methods Eight physically active students (21.8 ± 3.7 years) and eight well-trained cycling athletes (27.8 ± 6.4 years) were enrolled. In the first visit, we collected descriptive data and the peak power output (PPO). On the next three visits, in random order, participants performed interval training with the same time structure (effort:rest 20s:10s) but using different intensities (115%, 130%, and 170% of PPO). We collected the number of sprints, power output, oxygen consumption, blood lactate, and heart rate. Results The analysis of variance for multivariate test (number of sprints, power output, blood lactate, peak heart rate and percentage of maximal heart rate) showed significant differences between groups ( F = 9.62; p = 0.001) and intensities ( F = 384.05; p < 0.001), with no interactions ( F = 0.94; p = 0.57). All three energetic contributions and intensities were different between protocols. The higher contribution was aerobic, followed by alactic and lactic. The aerobic contribution was higher at 115%PPO, while the alactic system showed higher contribution at 130%PPO. In conclusion, the aerobic system was predominant in the three exercise protocols, and we observed a higher contribution at lower intensities.
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The novel pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a global public health emergency, seems to be having a major impact on physical activity (PA) behaviors. Older adults are at high risk of death from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Health authorities around the world have been implementing preventive health measures, including quarantine and self-isolation, to mitigate the COVID-19 outbreak. This period is characterized by cessation of outdoor exercising. During this period of lockdown, PA has been one of the rare reasons for going out in some countries. To avoid the harmful effects of periods of exercise cessation, PA could be prescribed to older adults, which is of great importance for breaking their sedentary lifestyle and improving their immunity. The present review discusses the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in older adults. The importance of performing PA to reduce the harmful effects of COVID-19 pandemic is discussed, and useful recommendations on home-based exercise for the older adults to maintain their level of independence, physical and mental health as well as their wellbeing are provided.
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Work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) reportedly improves VO2max regardless of the combination of loads and cadences. However, the effect of work-matched HIICT with different combinations of loads and cadences on anaerobic work capacity is unknown. This study aims to investigate the effects of work-matched HIICT with different loads and cadences on Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) performance, which is an index of anaerobic work capacity. University athletes performed HIICT either with high-load / 60 rpm (HL60, n = 8) or low-load / 120 rpm (LL120, n = 8). HIICT consisted of eight sets of pedaling for 20 s with 10 s of passive rest between each set. Initial exercise intensity was set at 135% of VO2peak and decreased by 5% after every two sets. HIICT was performed for 18 sessions during the 6-week period. Pre and post the training period, peak power, peak rpm, average power, and time to reach peak power during WAnT and VO2peak were measured. According to two-way analysis of variance (time × group), the main effect of time was observed in VO2peak, peak power, peak rpm, and average power during WAnT (p < 0.05). However, time × group interaction was not observed for any indices (p > 0.05). Conversely, time × group interaction was observed in time to reach peak power during WAnT, and significantly shortened only in HL60 (p < 0.05). These results suggest the effectiveness of work-matched HIICT with high-load / low cadence on WAnT performance.
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This study examined the effects of 8-week combined plyometric exercise and high intensity running training (combined training) on the performance fitness in male U17 handball players. Participants were randomly divided between experimental (E; n = 15; age: 16.5 ± 0.4 years) and control (C; n = 13; age: 16.7 ± 0.3 years) groups. The E group performed combined training (4 workshops) twice a week over 8 weeks. Each session lasted approximately 35 min. The C maintained regular in-season training. Before and after the combined training, both groups underwent repeated sprint ability (RSA), sprint performance (5m, 10m, 20m and 30m), change of direction test (Modified change-of-direction T-test (T-half)), vertical jump (squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), counter-movement jump with aimed arms (CMJA)), horizontal jump (five-jump test (5JT)), strength (1-RM half squat), and 20-meter shuttle run. Group x time interaction showed significant increases on sprint performance ( p < 0.01, 8.6%; p < 0.001, 7.3%; p < 0.05, 6.9%; and p < 0.01, 8.9% over distances of 5m, 10m, 20m and 30m respectively) in E relative to C. The T-half also showed significant gains for E ( p < 0.05, 6.8%), as did vertical jumping ( p < 0.01, 32.7%; p < 0.001, 32.6% and p < 0.001, 23% for SJ, CMJ and CMJA respectively) and horizontal jumping ( p < 0.05, 13.3%) compared to C. Moreover, there were significant improvements of RSA and 20 m shuttle run in E compared to C. However, there were no significant differences in 1-RM half squat between groups. We conclude that the allocation of short periods of a combined training is effective in enhancing performance fitness and thus can be commended to male U17 Handball participants as a potentially useful component of their training.
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Background: CrossFit is a new strength and conditioning regimen involving short intense daily workouts called workouts of the day (WOD). This study assesses muscular fatigue levels induced by the three modalities of CrossFit WOD; gymnastics (G), metabolic conditioning (M) and weightlifting (W). Material and methods: 34 healthy subjects undertook three WOD (one per week): a G WOD consisting of completing the highest number of sets of 5 pull-ups, 10 push-ups and 15 air squats in 20 min; an M WOD, in which the maximum number of double skipping rope jumps was executed in 8 sets (20 s), resting (10 s) between sets; and finally, a W WOD in which the maximum number of power cleans was executed in 5 min, lifting a load equivalent to 40% of the individual’s 1RM. Before and after each WOD, blood lactate concentrations were measured. Also, before, during, and after each WOD, muscular fatigue was assessed in a countermovement jump test (CMJ). Results: Significant reductions were produced in the mechanical variables jump height, average power and maximum velocity in response to G; and in jump height, mean and peak power, maximum velocity and maximum force in response to W (P<0.01). However, in M, significant reductions in mechanical variables were observed between pre- and mid session (after sets 2, 4, 6 and 8), but not between pre- and post session. Conclusions: Muscular fatigue, reflected by reduced CMJ variables, was produced following the G and W sessions, while recovery of this fatigue was observed at the end of M, likely attributable to rest intervals allowing for the recovery of phosphocreatine stores. Our findings also suggest that the high intensity and volume of exercise in G and W WODs could lead to reduced
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The research article by Foster et al. (2015) aimed to compare high intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with steady state exercise and conclude that HIIT protocols are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. We would like to compliment the authors for the interesting work and findings, however, it is necessary to point out some relevant issues, especially regarding protocols configuration and interpretation of the results. Despite the worldwide popularity of Tabata's protocol, it is necessary to be more critical about its use and adaptation. Foster et al. (2015) cited Tabata et al. (1996) for the very brief, very high intensity interval training used in the study. However, they actually described a protocol similar to the one published by Tabata et al. (1997), which should be performed until exhaustion with only 5–6 bouts at 170% of the VO2max, and not 8 as used in the study. The original protocol, published in 1996, proposed 7–8 sprints at a constant load performed until the pedaling frequency dropped below 85 rpm. Load was incremented when the participants could perform more than 9 sets, and not only based on RPE decrements. The Meyer et al. (1990) interval training protocol used by Foster et al. (2015) also did not follow the original description. The original prescription was based on maximum heart rate (86 ± 3% of maximum), with 1-min intervals and an effort:pause ratio of 1:1, while the protocol described by Foster et al. (2015) was based on power output (PO), with 30-s intervals and an effort:pause ratio of 1:2. In our opinion, researchers should exercise caution when attempting to replicate previously used protocols, since deliberate changes to these original parameters used will most likely yield different results. In addition, the divergence between the used protocols from the protocols cited in the references may cause difficulties when replicating the study. Therefore, authors should be more meticulous in indicating these changes and their consequent limitations. Moreover, one of the major problems with HIIT studies is the wide range of training protocols utilized across studies, limiting more conclusive inferences. In this way the modification of existing protocols in subsequent studies does not contribute positively to increase our comprehension about HIIT prescription.
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The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement-and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30-meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts. Following familiarization with the exercises, KBS met twice weekly to perform swings using the Tabata interval (20s work, 10s rest, 8 rounds), stressing a rapid, explosive tempo. In contrast, the SDL group performed their Tabata stiff-legged deadlifts at a conventional resistance training tempo (2 seconds concentric, 2 seconds eccentric). Following eight weeks and greater than 95% training adherence, the SDL group only had a slightly greater average training volume (~3%) than KBS. No significant differences in pre-test values, or changes were noted in sprint performance from pre-to post-intervention in either group. An improvement in vertical jump performance was noted across groups. Potential explanations for the lack of sprint improvement compared to previous studies include differences between recreationally-active and athletic females, and low exercise volume (~46% of a comparable study with improvements in vertical jump). Future studies should seek to determine the appropriate volume and intensity for KBS components of sprint programming.
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Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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Aims: We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. Methods: Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6). SIT involved 3x20-second 'all-out' cycle sprints (~500W) interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W). Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W. Results: Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both). Insulin sensitivity index (CSI), determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002) and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10-4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013) (p<0.05). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001). The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99), CSI (p = 0.63) and CS (p = 0.97). Conclusions: Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment.
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Background The study aims to compare how work-to-rest ratio (W:R) influences insulin sensitivity (S i ) and inflammatory responses following one session of sprint interval training (SIT). Methods Thirteen men and two women completed a cross-over comparison of two SIT interventions—Tabata (TAB), 10 × 20-s sprints/10-s rest, and Wingate (WIN), 5 × 30-s sprints with 270-s rest. IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were assessed at baseline, immediately following, and 1 h after SIT, as well as prior to the 24-h post-exercise oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Results Participants were 23.8 (±3.5) years old and 180.0 (±10.2) cm tall, weighed 78.5 (13.0) kg, and had 16.9 (±6.5) % body fat, with a mean VO 2Peak of 42.0 (±7.9) ml kg −1 min −1 . There were no differences in total work (kJ) between TAB (64.7 ± 12.0) and WIN (68.0 ± 15.0). Mean (±95 % CI) S i 24 h changed −2.8 (−5.1, −0.5) from baseline after TAB and −3.9 (−6.9, −0.9) after WIN. Cytokines were measured in pg ml −1 and expressed as mean change (±95 % CI). IL-6 increased significantly immediately following SIT for TAB 0.70 (0.23, 1.17), and WIN 1.11 (0.60, 1.62), and remained elevated 1 h post SIT for TAB 1.10 (0.37, 1.83), and WIN 0.95 (0.26, 1.65). IL-10 showed a significant positive change immediately following exercise for TAB 1.53 (0.77, 2.29) and WIN 1.59 (0.58, 2.59). TNF-α also increased immediately both TAB 3.26 (1.57, 4.96) and WIN 3.05 (0.56, 5.54) and was directly proportional to IL-10 (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001). Conclusions W:R did not alter either the inflammatory or metabolic response following SIT nor does SIT improve 24-h S i , despite increased levels of IL-10.
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Williams, BM and Kraemer, RR. Comparison of cardiorespi-ratory and metabolic responses in kettlebell high-intensity interval training versus sprint interval cycling. J Strength Cond Res 29(12): 3317–3325, 2015—The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V _ O 2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (V E), caloric expenditure rate (kcal$min 21), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group 3 time interaction were found for V _ O 2 , RER, and TV, with V _ O 2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group 3 time interaction were found for f, V E , kcal$min 21 , and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.
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Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.
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Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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Purpose: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, non-clinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardio-metabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Methods: Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 y), identified as low-active by non-participation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT 'sets' which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20 s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10 s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each wk for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion, body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Results: Significant improvements were observed for VO2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Conclusion: Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.
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Abstract Background Studying relative anaerobic and aerobic metabolism contributions to total energy release during exercise may be valuable in understanding exercise energetic demands and the energetic adaptations that occur in response to acute or chronic exercise in obese adults. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity training (HIT) on relative anaerobic and aerobic contributions to total energy release and on peak power output during repeated supramaximal cycling exercises (SCE) in obese adults. Methods Twenty-four obese adults (body mass index = ± 33 kg.m−2) were randomized into a control group (n = 12) and an HIT group (n = 12). Accumulated oxygen deficits (ml.min−1) and anaerobic and aerobic contributions (%) were measured in all groups before and after training via repeated SCE. In addition, the peak power output performed during SCE was determined using the force-velocity test. Results Before HIT, anaerobic contributions to repeated SCE did not differ between the groups and decreased significantly during the third and fourth repetitions. After HIT, anaerobic contributions increased significantly in the HIT group (+11 %, p < 0.01) and were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01). Moreover, the peak power obtained during SCE increased significantly in the HIT group (+110 W.kg−1, p < 0.01) and correlated positively with increases in anaerobic contributions (r = 0.9, p < 0.01). Conclusions In obese adults, HIT increased anaerobic contributions to energy release which were associated with peak power enhancement in response to repeated SCE. Consequently, HIT may be an appropriate approach for improving energy contributions and muscle power among obese adults.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed two preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, three circuits of four exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4-minutes of recovery in between the first two sprints and 2.5-minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure rate (kcalmin), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group x time interaction were found for VO2, RER, and TV, with VO2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared to the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group x time interaction were found for f, VE, kcalmin, and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of the present study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC, and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.
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The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.
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This study examined the effects of an acute bout of brief, high-intensity interval exercise on off-task classroom behaviour in primary school students. A grade 4 class (n = 24) and a grade 2 class (n = 20) were exposed to either a no-activity break or an active break that consisted of "FUNtervals", a high-intensity interval protocol, on alternating days for 3 weeks. No-activity days consisted of a 10-min inactive break while FUNterval days consisted of a 4-min FUNterval completed within a 10-min break from regular class activities. Off-task behaviour was observed for 50 min after each no-activity/FUNterval break, with the amount of time students spent off-task (motor, passive, and verbal behaviour) being recorded. When comparing no-activity breaks with FUNtervals the grade 4 class demonstrated reductions in both passive (no activity = 29% ± 13% vs. FUNterval = 25% ± 13%, p < 0.05, effect size (ES) = 0.31) and motor (no activity = 31% ± 16% vs. FUNterval = 24% ± 13%, p < 0.01, ES = 0.48) off-task behaviour following FUNtervals. Similarly, in the grade 2 class, passive (no activity = 23% ± 14% vs. FUNterval = 14% ± 10%, p < 0.01, ES = 0.74), verbal (no activity = 8% ± 8% vs. FUNterval = 5% ± 5%, p < 0.05, ES = 0.45), and motor (no activity = 29% ± 17% vs. FUNterval = 14% ± 10%, p < 0.01, ES = 1.076) off-task behaviours were reduced following FUNtervals. In both classrooms the effects of physical activity were greatest in those students demonstrating the highest rates of off-task behaviour on no-activity days. These data demonstrate that very brief high-intensity bouts of exercise can improve off-task behaviour in grade 2 and 4 students, particularly in students with high rates of such behaviour.
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The present study examined the effect of concurrent exercise training and daily resveratrol (RSV) supplementation (150 mg) on training-induced adaptations following low-dose high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen recreationally active (∼22 years, ∼51 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) men were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the RSV or placebo group with both groups performing 4 weeks of HIIT 3 days per week. Before and after training, participants had a resting muscle biopsy taken, completed a peak oxygen uptake test, a Wingate test, and a submaximal exercise test. A main effect of training (p < 0.05) and interaction effect (p < 0.05) on peak aerobic power was observed; post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that a significant (p < 0.05) increase occurred in the placebo group only. Main effects of training (p < 0.05) were observed for both peak oxygen uptake (placebo - pretraining: 51.3 ± 1.8, post-training: 54.5 ± 1.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), effect size (ES) = 0.93; RSV - pretraining: 49.6 ± 2.2, post-training: 52.3 ± 2.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), ES = 0.50) and Wingate peak power (placebo: pretraining: 747 ± 39, post-training: 809 ± 31 W, ES = 0.84; RSV - pretraining: 679 ± 39, post-training: 691 ± 43 W, ES = 0.12). Fibre-type distribution was unchanged, while a main effect of training (p < 0.05) was observed for succinate dehydrogenase activity and glycogen content, but not α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity or intramuscular lipids in type I and IIA fibres. The fold change in PGC-1α, SIRT1, and SOD2 gene expression following training was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the RSV group than placebo. These results suggest that concurrent exercise training and RSV supplementation may alter the normal training response induced by low-volume HIIT.
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Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.
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We investigated the acute effects of cold water immersion (CWI) or passive recovery (PAS) on physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In a crossover design, 14 cyclists completed 2 HIIT sessions (HIIT1 and HIIT2) separated by 30 min. Between HIIT sessions, they stood in cold water (10 °C) up to their umbilicus, or at room temperature (27 °C) for 5 min. The natural logarithm of square-root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (ln rMSSD) was assessed pre- and post-HIIT1 and HIIT2. Stroke volume (SV), cardiac output ([Formula: see text]), O2 uptake ([Formula: see text]O2), total muscle hemoglobin (t Hb) and oxygenation of the vastus lateralis were recorded (using near infrared spectroscopy); heart rate, [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]O2 on-kinetics (i.e., mean response time, MRT), muscle de-oxygenation rate, and anaerobic contribution to exercise were calculated for HIIT1 and HIIT2. ln rMSSD was likely higher [between-trial difference (90 % confidence interval) [+13.2 % (3.3; 24.0)] after CWI compared with PAS. CWI also likely increased SV [+5.9 % (-0.1; 12.1)], possibly increased [Formula: see text] [+4.4 % (-1.0; 10.3)], possibly slowed [Formula: see text] MRT [+18.3 % (-4.1; 46.0)], very likely slowed [Formula: see text]O2 MRT [+16.5 % (5.8; 28.4)], and likely increased the anaerobic contribution to exercise [+9.7 % (-1.7; 22.5)]. CWI between HIIT slowed [Formula: see text]O2 on-kinetics, leading to increased anaerobic contribution during HIIT2. This detrimental effect of CWI was likely related to peripheral adjustments, because the slowing of [Formula: see text]O2 on-kinetics was twofold greater than that of central delivery of O2 (i.e., [Formula: see text]). CWI has detrimental effects on high-intensity aerobic exercise performance that persist for ≥45 min.
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of work-to-rest-ratio manipulation on neuromuscular and metabolic responses during 2 high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) protocols to exhaustion. Since different exercise durations were expected, the authors hypothesized that the protocol registering a longer duration would have a more pronounced effect on neuromuscular responses, while the other would challenge the cardiopulmonary system more. Methods: Thirteen competitive cyclists (age 19 ± 2 y) performed a preliminary incremental test to identify their maximal power output and 2 intermittent protocols to exhaustion (40:20s and 30:30s) at a fixed work rate of 135%Pmax interspersed by passive recovery. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (including muscle-fiber conduction velocity), cardiopulmonary parameters, and blood lactate concentration [La-] were recorded. Results: Time to exhaustion and total work were significantly higher for the 30:30s (38 ± 13 min, 495 ± 161 kJ) than for the 40:20s (10 ± 3 min, 180 ± 51 kJ). No differences were found in sEMG parameters for the 2 protocols. Mean and peak values of VO2, heart rate, ventilatory parameters (except for the peak value of respiratory frequency), and [La-] were significantly higher in the 40:20s than in the 30:30s. Conclusions: These results do not support the hypothesis that a longer time spent at high intensity has a more pronounced effect on neuromuscular responses, as no differences in EMG parameters were found in the 2 HIT protocols. Regarding metabolic responses, while the 40:20s led to maximal values of VO2, [La-], and ventilatory parameters within a few minutes, the 30:30s allowed maintenance of moderately high values for a considerably longer period, especially for [La-] and ventilatory parameters.
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The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercising at different intensities over 7 weeks on components of physical fitness and CVD risk factors. Forty-seven boys and 10 girls, (16.4±0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate, high intensity, or a control group. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the intervention groups repeated the physical performance measures at the 4th week phase of the intervention. Following the intervention, significant improvements (P<0.05) in the high-intensity group were found in the 20 MSFT, agility, CMJ and 10 m sprint post-intervention. Participants in the moderate intensity group displayed significant improvements (P<0.05) in both the CMJ and 20 MSFT post-intervention. Body fat % significantly improved (P<0.01) in the moderate group only post-intervention. Interestingly, Systolic blood pressure significantly improved post-intervention (112±10 vs 106±11 mmHg) (P=0.017) in the high intensity group. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise over 7 weeks is a very time efficient means of improving important components of physical fitness in adolescents.
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This article examines the effects of brief, intense exercise in comparison with traditional endurance exercise on both novel and traditional markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in youth. Forty seven boys and ten girls (16.4 ± 0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate (MOD), high intensity (HIT), or a control group. The MOD group (12 boys, 4 girls) and HIT group (15 boys, 2 girls) performed three weekly exercise sessions over 7 weeks. Each session consisted of either four to six repeats of maximal sprint running within a 20 m area with 20-30 s recovery (HIT) or 20 min continuous running within a 20 m area at ∼70% maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max). Total exercise time commitment over the intervention was 420 min (MOD) and 63 min (HIT). Training volume was 85% lower for the HIT group. Total estimated energy expenditure was ∼907.2 kcal (HIT) and ∼4410 kcal (MOD). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.05) were found in systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness, and body mass index (BMI) postintervention (HIT). In the MOD group, significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvements were noted in aerobic fitness, percentage body fat (%BF), BMI, fibrinogen (Fg), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and insulin concentrations. These findings demonstrate that brief, intense exercise is a time efficient means for improving CVD risk factors in adolescents.
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This study consists of two training experiments using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. First, the effect of 6 wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (intensity: 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 60 min.d-1, 5 d.wk-1) on the anaerobic capacity (the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit) and VO2max was evaluated. After the training, the anaerobic capacity did not increase significantly (P > 0.10), while VO2max increased from 53 +/- 5 ml.kg-1 min-1 to 58 +/- 3 ml.kg-1.min-1 (P < 0.01) (mean +/- SD). Second, to quantify the effect of high-intensity intermittent training on energy release, seven subjects performed an intermittent training exercise 5 d.wk-1 for 6 wk. The exhaustive intermittent training consisted of seven to eight sets of 20-s exercise at an intensity of about 170% of VO2max with a 10-s rest between each bout. After the training period, VO2max increased by 7 ml.kg-1.min-1, while the anaerobic capacity increased by 28%. In conclusion, this study showed that moderate-intensity aerobic training that improves the maximal aerobic power does not change anaerobic capacity and that adequate high-intensity intermittent training may improve both anaerobic and aerobic energy supplying systems significantly, probably through imposing intensive stimuli on both systems.
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To evaluate the magnitude of the stress on the aerobic and the anaerobic energy release systems during high intensity bicycle training, two commonly used protocols (IE1 and IE2) were examined during bicycling. IE1 consisted of one set of 6-7 bouts of 20-s exercise at an intensity of approximately 170% of the subject's maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) with a 10-s rest between each bout. IE2 involved one set of 4-5 bouts of 30-s exercise at an intensity of approximately 200% of the subject's VO2max and a 2-min rest between each bout. The accumulated oxygen deficit of IE1 (69 +/- 8 ml.kg-1, mean +/- SD) was significantly higher than that of IE2 (46 +/- 12 ml.kg-1, N = 9, p < 0.01). The accumulated oxygen deficit of IE1 was not significantly different from the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (the anaerobic capacity) of the subjects (69 +/- 10 ml.kg-1), whereas the corresponding value for IE2 was less than the subjects' maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (P < 0.01). The peak oxygen uptake during the last 10 s of the IE1 (55 +/- 6 ml.kg-1.min-1) was not significantly less than the VO2max of the subjects (57 +/- 6 ml.kg-1.min-1). The peak oxygen uptake during the last 10 s of IE2 (47 +/- 8 ml.kg-1.min-1) was lower than the VO2max (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this study showed that intermittent exercise defined by the IE1 protocol may tax both the anaerobic and aerobic energy releasing systems almost maximally.
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The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity hypoxic training improves sea-level performances more than equivalent training in normoxia. Sixteen well-trained collegiate and Masters swimmers (10 women, 6 men) completed a 5-wk training program, consisting of three high-intensity training sessions in a flume and supplemental low- or moderate-intensity sessions in a pool each week. Subjects were matched for gender, performance level, and training history, and they were assigned to either hypoxic [Hypo; inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 15.3%, equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2,500 m] or normoxic (Norm; Fi(O(2)) = 20.9%) interval training in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. All pool training occurred under Norm conditions. The primary performance measures were 100- and 400-m freestyle time trials. Laboratory outcomes included maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)), anaerobic capacity (accumulated O(2) deficit), and swimming economy. Significant (P = 0.02 and <0.001 for 100- and 400-m trials, respectively) improvements were found in performance on both the 100- [Norm: -0.7 s (95% confidence limits: +0.2 to -1.7 s), -1.2%; Hypo: -0.8 s (95% confidence limits: -0.1 to -1.5 s), -1.1%] and 400-m freestyle [Norm: -3.6 s (-1.8 to -5.5 s), -1.2%; Hypo: -5.3 s (-2.3 to -8.3 s), -1.7%]. There was no significant difference between groups for either distance (ANOVA interaction, P = 0.91 and 0.36 for 100- and 400-m trials, respectively). Vo(2 max) was improved significantly (Norm: 0.16 +/- 0.23 l/min, 6.4 +/-8.1%; Hypo: 0.11 +/- 0.18 l/min, 4.2 +/- 7.0%). There was no significant difference between groups (P = 0.58). We conclude that 5 wk of high-intensity training in a flume improves sea-level swimming performances and Vo(2 max) in well-trained swimmers, with no additive effect of hypoxic training.
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Lactate and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was monitored in 6 male subjects training for and competing in a mixed martial arts event held in Butte, Montana, to determine 1) the metabolic demands of the sport and 2) the effectiveness of the prebout interval training programs chosen to help prepare the competitors for this event. The training lactate measurements ranged from 8.1 to 19.7 mmol.L, and the training RPE levels ranged from 15 to 19 on Borg's Category Scale of perceived exertion, the scores of which ranged from 6 to 20. The postbout lactate measurements ranged from 10.2 to 20.7 mmol.L, and the post-bout RPE measurements ranged from 13 to 19. Of the 4 subjects that had both training and postbout lactate measurements, 3 had obtained lactate levels during training that exceeded lactate levels immediately after the bout. This indicated that, when using lactate measurements as a benchmark, the conditioning training was effective for these 3 athletes. When we used RPE scores as a benchmark, the conditioning was effective for all 4 subjects because all subjects reached 18-19 during their training, which was at least as high as their reported post-bout RPE levels.
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Tabata (TAB) training, consisting of eight cycles of 20 seconds of maximal exercise followed by 10 seconds of rest, is time-efficient, with aerobic and anaerobic benefit. This study investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic demands of a TAB versus traditional (TRAD) resistance protocol with the kettlebell swing. Fourteen young (18–25y), non-obese (BMI 25.7±0.8 kg/m²) participants reported on three occasions. All testing incorporated measurements of HR, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate accumulation. Each participant completed Tabata kettlebell swings (male- 8kg, female- 4.5kg; 8 intervals; 20s maximal repetitions, 10s rest). On a subsequent visit (TRAD), the total swings from the TAB protocol were evenly divided into 4 sets, with 90s rest between sets. Outcome measures were compared using paired t-tests. The TAB was completed more quickly than the TRAD protocol (240.0±0.0 v. 521.5±3.3 sec, P<0.01), at a higher perceived exertion (Borg RPE; 15.1±0.7 v. 11.7±0.9, P<0.01). The TAB elicited a higher average VO2 value (33.1±1.5 v. 27.2±1.6 ml/kg/min, P<0.01), percent of VO2peak achieved (71.0±0.3 v. 58.4±0.3%, P<0.01), maximal HR (162.4±4.6 v. 145.6±4.8 bpm, P<0.01), and post-exercise blood lactate concentration (6.4±1.1 v. 3.7±0.5 mmol/L, P<0.01). Conclusion The kettlebell swing demonstrated significantly greater cardiovascular and metabolic responses within a TAB vs. TRAD framework. Appropriate screening and risk stratification are advised before implementing kettlebell swings.
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of concurrent sprint interval and resistance training (CST) vs. resistance training (RT) on measures of strength, power, and aerobic fitness in recreationally active females. Twenty-eight females (20.3 ± 1.7 years; 63.0 ± 9.1; 51.1 ± 7.1 one repetition max back squat (kg); 35.4 ± 4.1 ml·kg·min VO2max) were recruited to complete an 11-week training program. Participants were matched-pair assigned to CST or RT cohorts following preliminary testing which consisted of 1 repetition max back squat, maximal isometric squat, anaerobic power evaluations, and maximal oxygen consumption. All subjects trained 3 d⋅wk with sprint interval training occurring at least 4 h following resistance training in the CST cohort. Both CST and RT resulted in significant improvements (p < 0.05) in one repetition max back squat (37.5 ± 7.8; 40.0 ± 9.6 kg), maximal isometric force (55.7 ± 51.3; 53.7 ± 36.7 kg), average peak anaerobic power testing (7.4 ± 6.2; 7.6 ± 6.4 %), and zero incline treadmill velocity resulting in maximal oxygen consumption (1.8 ± 0.6; 0.8 ± 0.6 km⋅h) . Only zero incline treadmill velocity demonstrated a group by time interaction with a greater improvement following CST (p < 0.01). Rate of force development was not altered in either group. Results provide no evidence of interference to the adaptive process by CST. Coaches desiring improvements in strength, power, and endurance may want to evaluate how sprint / high intensity interval training might supplement programs already in place.
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Background The scientific interest in high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has greatly increased during recent years. Objective The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of HIIT interventions on cardio-metabolic risk factors and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese youth, in comparison with other forms of exercise. Data sources A computerized search was made using seven databases. Study eligibility criteria The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of HIIT interventions on cardio-metabolic and/or aerobic capacity in pediatric obesity (6–17 years old). Participants and interventions Nine studies using HIIT interventions were selected (n = 274). Study appraisal and synthesis methods Standarized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The DerSimonian–Laird approach was used. Results HIIT interventions (4–12 week duration) produced larger decreases in systolic blood pressure (SMD = 0.39; −3.63 mmHg) and greater increases in maximum oxygen uptake (SMD = 0.59; 1.92 ml/kg/min) than other forms of exercise. Also, type of comparison exercise group and duration of study were moderators. Conclusions HIIT could be considered a more effective and time-efficient intervention for improving blood pressure and aerobic capacity levels in obese youth in comparison to other types of exercise.
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Many sports require short duration (~5-7 s) maximal or near-maximal sprints to be regularly repeated over an extended period of time (70-120 min). Performance tests of repeated sprint ability (RSA) are not well established despite their specificity for measuring the fitness of team sport players. Therefore, sprint cycling (6 x 6 s efforts, departing every 30 s) and running (6 x 40 m efforts, departing every 30 s) RSA tests were developed and initially trialled for reliability in amateur male team sport players. Test-retest correlations were significant (p < 0.01) for the absolute RSA test scores, (i.e., total work done (cycling, n = 16; r = 0.973) and total time taken (running, n = 15; r = 0.942) for six efforts), and also for the relative RSA test score, (i.e., the percentage decrement (% Dec.) recorded over six efforts (cycling, r = 0.875; running, r = 0.745)). Repeat scores for individual repetitions within tests were also highly correlated (r = 0.81-0.97) for each mode of exercise, and produced low technical error of measurement scores (cycling: 2.5-4.0%; running: 1.0-1.7%). Therefore, both the cycling and running RSA tests were found to have suitable test-retest reliability. The degree of association between the two modes of RSA test was then assessed in male field hockey players (n = 15). The best single cycling effort (kJ or J.kg1 work done in 6 s) was not significantly correlated with the best running effort (best 40 m time). The absolute RSA test scores (Total kJ or J.kg1 work done versus Total Time) were only correlated when the cycling score was expressed per kg of body mass (r = -0.684, p < 0.01). The relative test scores (% Dec. on each test) were moderately associated (r = 0.622, p < 0.02). Therefore, exercise mode appears to be a determining factor in best single effort and absolute RSA test scores, but less so in relative test performance. The degree of fatigue demonstrated within team sport players over repeated sprint efforts may be similar when either cycling or running efforts are performed. General comments about the testing and scoring of sprint RSA are made.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various non-hypertrophic exercise stimuli on satellite cell (SC) pool activity in human skeletal muscle. Previously untrained males and females (males: 29±9yr; females: 29±2yr, n=7 each) completed six weeks of very low volume high intensity sprint interval training (SIT-1). In a separate study, recreationally active males (n=16) and females (n=3) completed 6 weeks of either traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICT) (n=9: 21±4yr) or low volume sprint interval training (SIT-2) (n=10: 21±2yr). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis pre- and post-training. The fibre type specific SC response to training was determined as was the activity of the SC pool using immunofluorescent microscopy of muscle cross sections. Training did not induce hypertrophy as assessed by muscle cross sectional area (CSA) nor did the SC pool expand in any group. However, there was an increase in the number of active SC following each intervention. Specifically, the number of activated (Pax7+/MyoD+, p≤.05) and differentiating (Pax7-/MyoD+, p≤.05) SC increased following each training intervention. Here we report evidence of activated and cycling SC that may or may not be contributing to exercise-induced adaptation while the SC pool remains constant following three non-hypertrophic exercise training protocols. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
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This study assessed how accurately professional swimmers can interpret instructions to swim “slow,” “moderate,” and “fast.” 8 distance swimmers (6 males, 2 females; M age = 19 yr., SD = 3) and 8 sprint swimmers (7 males, 1 female; M age = 18 yr., SD = 1) performed an all-out 50-m crawl stroke and three sets of 8 × 50-m crawl stroke trials interpreting the coach's instruction to swim at slow, moderate, and fast paces. No differences were detected between groups in absolute speed. Nevertheless, distance and sprint swimmers significantly differed in speed normalized to their own 50-m all-out speed (effect sizes = 6.72, 6.20, 1.35 for slow, moderate, and fast, respectively), stroke frequency (effect sizes = 0.81, 1.12, 1.54, respectively), and blood lactate concentration (effect sizes = 0.99, 2.56, 1.70, respectively). Read More: http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/27.29.PMS.118k23w0?prevSearch=%5BContrib%3A+invernizzi%5D&searchHistoryKey=
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Rebold, MJ, Kobak, MS, and Otterstetter, R. The influence of a Tabata interval-training program using an aquatic underwater treadmill on various performance variables. J Strength Cond Res 27(12): 3419-3425, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aquatic treadmill running (ATM) Tabata interval-training program on various performance variables including body fat percentage, force production, flexibility, and anaerobic power. Totally, 25 participants (17 males and 8 females) were randomized into either a control group (CON), which only completed Pre- and Posttesting, or exercise group (EX), which took part in the 8-week ATM Tabata interval-training program. Pre- and Posttesting consisted of the following measurements: body fat percentage, flexibility, force production, and anaerobic power. The Tabata interval-training program consisted of sprinting on an ATM at 7.5 miles⋅h and with the front jets turned on at 80, 85, 90, and 95% progressively increasing throughout the 8 weeks. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of time (F = 236.13; p < 0.001) and group by time interaction (F = 1.95; p = 0.02). Paired-samples t-test revealed a significant difference in the CON group from Pre- to Posttesting for mean power from the Wingate test (t = -2.20; p = 0.05) and a significant difference in the EX group for right leg goniometry (t = -2.34; p = 0.04) and mean power from the Wingate test (t = -2.81; p = 0.02). These results are favorable because it demonstrates that participants who engage in an ATM Tabata interval-training program can elicit a strong enough stimulus to improve flexibility and anaerobic power in terms of mean power while decreasing musculoskeletal impact placed on the ligaments, joints, and tendons.
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Exercise has been noted in some, but not all, studies to elicit an oxidative stress. The discrepancy in findings may be related to differences in exercise intensity across protocols, as well as to differences in training status of participants. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise-trained men after three different bouts of exercise of varying intensity and duration, as well as a nonexercise condition. On different days, men (n = 12, 21-35 yr) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 min at 70% HR reserve) and cycle sprints (five 60-s sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing and ten 15-s sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 min after exercise and analyzed for malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). As indicators of antioxidant status, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. No differences were noted in malondialdehyde, H2O2, advanced oxidation protein product, or NOx between conditions or across time (P > 0.05). Antioxidant capacity was generally highest at 30 and 60 min after exercise and lowest at 0 min after exercise. In trained men, and considering the limitations of the current design (e.g., inclusion of selected oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers measured in blood only), strenuous bouts of exercise do not result in a significant increase in blood oxidative stress during the 1-h postexercise period. These findings may be related to attenuation in reactive oxygen species production as an adaptation to chronic exercise training and/or a protective effect of the antioxidant system in response to acute strenuous exercise.
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The synergistic stimulating effect of combined intake of carbohydrate and protein on plasma insulin concentration has been reported previously. However, it remains unclear whether the amount of protein ingested after exercise affects the concentrations of plasma insulin and amino acids. This study of trained men compared the effects of post-exercise co-ingestion of carbohydrate plus different amounts of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) with carbohydrate alone on (1) blood biochemical parameters of carbohydrate metabolism during the post-exercise phase, and (2) endurance performance. Eight trained men exercised continuously for 70 min. Immediately after exercise and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min later, the participants received supplements containing: (1) 17.5 g carbohydrate, (2) 3.0 g WPHs and 17.5 g carbohydrate (L-WPH), or (3) 8.0 g WPHs and 17.5 g carbohydrate (H-WPH). After a 2-h recovery period, the participants performed an endurance performance test. The concentrations of blood glucose were lower and plasma insulin significantly higher in the H-WPH trial compared with the carbohydrate trial. The concentrations of plasma amino acids were increased in a dose-dependent manner following ingestion of different amounts of WPHs with carbohydrate. Endurance performance was not significantly different between the three trials. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and H-WPH was more effective than ingestion of carbohydrate alone for stimulating insulin secretion and increasing the availability of plasma amino acids. These results suggest that plasma concentrations of amino acids during the recovery period are determined by the amount of dietary protein ingested, and that it is necessary to increase the concentration of plasma amino acids above a certain level to stimulate insulin secretion.
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To determine the effects of training with low muscle glycogen on exercise performance, substrate metabolism, and skeletal muscle adaptation. Fourteen well-trained cyclists were pair-matched and randomly assigned to HIGH- or LOW-glycogen training groups. Subjects performed nine aerobic training (AT; 90 min at 70% VO2max) and nine high-intensity interval training sessions (HIT; 8 × 5-min efforts, 1-min recovery) during a 3-wk period. HIGH trained once daily, alternating between AT on day 1 and HIT the following day, whereas LOW trained twice every second day, first performing AT and then, 1 h later, performing HIT. Pretraining and posttraining measures were a resting muscle biopsy, metabolic measures during steady-state cycling, and a time trial. Power output during HIT was 297 ± 8 W in LOW compared with 323 ± 9 W in HIGH (P < 0.05); however, time trial performance improved by ∼10% in both groups (P < 0.05). Fat oxidation during steady-state cycling increased after training in LOW (from 26 ± 2 to 34 ± 2 μmol·kg−¹·min−¹, P < 0.01). Plasma free fatty acid oxidation was similar before and after training in both groups, but muscle-derived triacylglycerol oxidation increased after training in LOW (from 16 ± 1 to 23 ± 1 μmol·kg−¹·min−¹, P < 0.05). Training with low muscle glycogen also increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase protein content (P < 0.01). Training with low muscle glycogen reduced training intensity and, in performance, was no more effective than training with high muscle glycogen. However, fat oxidation was increased after training with low muscle glycogen, which may have been due to the enhanced metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding a high-intensity intermittent session twice a week during a 7-week karate training (KT) on markers of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms in elite class karate athletes. Two groups were studied: a KT group (n=8, age 20.1+/-0.9 years, 70.0+/-8.8 kg) that followed traditional KT, and a group that followed combined traditional karate and a high-intensity intermittent training (HIT group, n=9, age 24.4+/-3.1 years, 67.0+/-7.8 kg). The subjects undertook a supramaximal exercise and a maximal oxygen uptake test before and after the training. Blood lactate, pH and plasma ammonia were determined at rest, immediately at the end of the supramaximal exercise and during the recovery period at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 min. After the training period, no changes occurred in the KT group. However, in the HIT group, the time to exhaustion, MAOD and in the maximal oxygen uptake test were significantly improved by 23.6%, 10.3% and 4.6%, respectively. A clear-cut discrepancy was observed in the time course of lactate and pH in the supramaximal test after the training in the HIT group. We observed a significantly higher peak for lactate and a lower extreme value for pH with a shorter delay of appearance. At the end of the test, the lactate concentration increased significantly (+53.7%) and pH declined significantly, when compared with the values obtained after the same test before the training period. Ammonia was not influenced. The addition of high-intensity intermittent sessions twice per week during the period of KT induced beneficial physiological adaptations in athletes, allowing improvement in the duration of intense physical exercise before a state of fatigue is reached.
The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of maximal treadmill and bicycle exercise on maximum oxygen uptake and blood flow in the lower extremity. Mean maximum oxygen uptake in maximal treadmill exercise was higher than that in bicycle exercise (p less than 0.001). Mean values and standard errors of blood flow measured immediately after maximal treadmill and bicycle exercise in the thigh were 39.1 +/- 4.0 and 44.2 +/- 2.8 ml/100 ml . min, the difference not being significant. However, a significant difference in blood flow in the calf measured immediately after both types of exercise was observed (p less than 0.001). Blood flow in the thigh immediately after bicycle exercise was significantly higher than that in the calf (p less than 0.001), whereas the difference between thigh and calf in treadmill exercise was small and statistically not significant. Leg blood flow, the average value of blood flow of the thigh and calf added together, was used as an index of blood flow in the lower extremity. It was found that the leg blood flow was significantly higher on the treadmill than with bicycle exercise (p less than 0.05). From these results, it is suggested that the lower maximum oxygen uptake observed during bicycle exercise as compared with treadmill exercise seems to be due to a lower blood flow in the lower limb.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine physiological strain and muscular performance responses of well trained athletes during two intermittent running exercise protocols at the velocity associated with VO2max. Ten national level middle-distance runners (VO2max 69.4+/-5.1; mean+/-SD) performed in random order two 28 min treadmill running exercises: 14 bouts of 60 s runs with 60 s rest (IR60) and 7 bouts of 120 s runs with 120 s rest between each run (IR120). During IR120 peak oxygen uptake (12%), peak heart rate (3%) and peak blood lactate (79%) were significantly higher than during IR60 (P< 0.001) and almost the same as in the VO2max test. In IR120 the relative aerobic energy release calculated on the basis of the accumulated oxygen deficit during the running bouts was significantly higher than in IR60 (81.5+/-2.7 vs. 70.2+/-2.6%, P<0.001) likewise the sum oxygen consumption during the 14 min running (P< 0.001), while during the 14 min recovery it was as much lower (P < 0.001). There were no changes either during or between the IR60 and IR120 protocols with regard to the muscular performance parameters, stride length or height of maximal vertical jumps. In conclusion, during intermittent running at the velocity associated with VO2max doubling the duration of work and rest bouts from 60 s to 120s increased the physiological strain of well trained athletes to the same level as at exhaustion in the VO2max test but the muscular performance variables were not influenced.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of acute moderate hypoxia and rest duration on performance and on the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) in high-intensity intermittent efforts. After preliminary tests, 2 groups of nonacclimatized men (resident at 690 m above sea level) carried out 3 randomized protocols of effort (EXP1, EXP2, and EXP5) on 3 different days. These tests were performed at acute moderate altitude (2,320 m) by the hypoxia group (H) and in normoxia by the normoxia group (N). During EXP1 the subjects ran a maximum of five 400-m sprints (90% intensity) on a treadmill, with a pause between efforts of 1 minute. In EXP2 and EXP5 the same protocol was repeated, increasing the rest period between sprints to 2 and 5 minutes, respectively. Lactate accumulation and exhaled gases were measured during the tests. Accumulated oxygen deficit was calculated for each sprint. The total AOD (SigmaAOD) for each type of protocol was determined to be the sum of the corresponding accumulated deficits. The AODs were influenced by the length of rest period (p < 0.05) but not by H. The increase in recovery time between sprints increased the SigmaAOD (7,843 +/- 4,435 vs. 7,137 +/- 2,117 ml; 11,013 +/- 4,616 vs. 9,931 +/- 2,731 ml; 12,611 +/- 4,594 vs. 12,907 +/- 3,085 ml for H and N in EXP1, EXP2, and EXP5, respectively). The AOD increased in value when the same sprint was compared from EXP1 to EXP5 (p < 0.05). The results obtained show that exposure to acute moderate altitude does not affect the anaerobic pathway contribution in intermittent high-intensity exercises. Performance during this type of repeated effort is not altered during acute exposure to moderate altitude, which should be taken into account when an acclimatizing period is not possible.
Low‐active male adolescents: a dose response to high‐intensity interval training
  • GRM Logan
  • N Harris
  • S Duncan
Logan GRM, Harris N, Duncan S, et al. Lowactive male adolescents: a dose response to high-intensity interval training. Med Sci Sports Exerc (2016); 48: 481-490.
Revisiting Tabata's protocol: does it even exist?
  • P Gentil
  • JPA Naves
  • RB Viana
Cycling and running tests of repeated sprint ability
  • Fitzsimmons