ArticlePDF Available

Personality Traits and Negotiation Style Effects on Negotiators' Perceptions in a Web-Based Negotiation



This article investigates the relationship between the prior knowledge of someone's personality traits and negotiation styles in negotiations supported by web-based negotiation support system (NSS) and the negotiator's perception of the usefulness of NSS, ease of use of communication mechanisms, and outcome satisfaction. A distributive negotiation problem between dyads was proposed for participants. The dyadic analyses were performed using the actor-partner interdependence model. As a result, the analyses found significant effects of prior knowledge of information about personality traits and negotiation styles on the negotiator's perception (actor effects) of the usefulness and ease of use of communication mechanisms, and an indirect effect on outcome satisfaction. Significant effects were also found in the relationship between the opponents' perceptions (partner effects) on ease of use of communication mechanisms and prior knowledge about personality traits and negotiation styles, as well as their effects on outcome satisfaction.
DOI: 10.4018/JOEUC.2018040101
Volume 30 • Issue 2 • April-June 2018
Copyright © 2018, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
Jadielson Alves de Moura, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
Ana Paula Cabral Seixas Costa, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
This article investigates the relationship between the prior knowledge of someone’s personality traits
and negotiation styles in negotiations supported by web-based negotiation support system (NSS) and
the negotiator’s perception of the usefulness of NSS, ease of use of communication mechanisms, and
outcome satisfaction. A distributive negotiation problem between dyads was proposed for participants.
The dyadic analyses were performed using the actor-partner interdependence model. As a result,
the analyses found significant effects of prior knowledge of information about personality traits and
negotiation styles on the negotiator’s perception (actor effects) of the usefulness and ease of use of
communication mechanisms, and an indirect effect on outcome satisfaction. Significant effects were
also found in the relationship between the opponents’ perceptions (partner effects) on ease of use of
communication mechanisms and prior knowledge about personality traits and negotiation styles, as
well as their effects on outcome satisfaction.
Communication Mechanisms, Negotiation, Negotiation Style, Negotiators’ Perceptions, Outcome Satisfaction,
Personality Traits, Usefulness System, Web-Based Negotiation Support System
Negotiation is a fundamental form of social interaction in which people mutually allocate scarce
resources (Thompson & Hastie, 1990). Specifically, electronic negotiation is an interactive
communication and decision-making process between at least two individuals using an electronic
system (Bichler et al., 2003; Schoop et al., 2014). The evolution of electronic system concepts has
led to a new approach of the online negotiation tool known as the negotiation support system (NSS),
which provides support of the whole negotiation process based on the virtual environment (Jelassi &
Foroughi, 1989). If the NSS uses the Internet as the electronic medium to support the negotiation, it
is referring to the Web-based NSS or e-negotiation (Kersten & Noronha, 1999; Bichler et al., 2003).
The NSS focuses on conflict resolution support between two or more parties who require an
interactive communication channel to support negotiation processes (Turel & Yuan, 2007; Dannenmann
& Schoop, 2010). Currently, in a business context, most online negotiations are performed without
face-to-face contact, which may prevent hostility and avoid suspicion (Carnevale & Probst, 1997).
However, it does not provide any information about the negotiator’s characteristics or individual
differences, such as personality traits (Yiu & Lee, 2011) and negotiation style (Mintu-Wimsatt, 2002;
Volume 30 • Issue 2 • April-June 2018
Ogilvie & Kidder, 2008). This kind of information may be relevant to negotiators during negotiation
processes and can influence outcomes (Barry & Friedman, 1998).
Although early studies suggested that individual differences play a minimal role on negotiation
outcomes (Thompson, 1990; Lewicki et al., 1993; Pruitt & Carnevale, 1993), recent studies have
discussed the role of individual differences in negotiations, such as personality traits and negotiation
styles. Sharma et al. (2013) stated that personality traits demonstrate predictive validity over multiple
outcome measures. In addition, Elfenbein et al. (2008) showed the influence of traits on people’s
feelings in negotiations. These and other studies (Elfenbein, 2015; Curhan et al., 2006) argue that
individual differences are an important topic to researchers, educators, organizations, and the public.
Although this topic is relevant, few studies have addressed these issues in the negotiation area.
This opens a wide range of possibilities for new studies devoted to investigating the role of individual
differences (e.g., personality traits and negotiation styles) in a negotiation context, specifically in online
negotiation. Based on this research need, this study proposes a new investigation of the relationship
between prior knowledge of personality traits and negotiation styles and the negotiator’s perceptions
of negotiations supported by a web-based NSS. These perceptions are related to the usefulness of
NSS, ease of use of communication mechanisms, and outcome satisfaction. Furthermore, this study
also investigates the mutual influences between negotiators during a negotiation and their effects on
the negotiators’ perceptions.
Moreover, this study aims to show a new perspective of the individual differences (i.e., personality
traits and negotiation styles) in the negotiation process supported by the NSS. Specifically, the role
of previous knowledge of personality traits and negotiation styles on the negotiator’s perceptions in
negotiations that are supported by a web-based NSS are explored. In addition, it considers the mutual
influences that exist in the negotiation process.
Online negotiations are based on electronic systems and using a web environment to promote a
communication channel among negotiators in real time, anywhere in the world. This communication
channel provides informational tools to enable the offer/counteroffer formulation and exchange, often
asynchronously, between two or more parties to reach an agreement (Bichler et al., 2003). Usually,
this process does not include face-to-face interaction between the negotiators during the negotiation
process, which reduces verbal, social, and behavioral cues (Jelassi & Foroughi, 1989). The lack of
face-to-face interaction makes it difficult for individuals to directly observe and monitor each other’s
behavior (Hill et al., 2009). This is the main criticism of negotiations supported by online tools such
as NSS.
Usually, the NSS environment not provides multimedia resources for negotiators, such as audio
and video, to minimize the lack of face-to-face communication. Thus, it can hinder comprehension
of the other characteristics in the negotiation process. Early studies (Pruitt & Carnevale, 1993; Neale
& Bazerman, 1992) have shown that comprehending individual characteristics (i.e., personality traits
and negotiation style) plays an important role during the negotiation process. Therefore, it’s important
to understand and measure the personality and individual differences in order to collect information
to make an accurate judgment of the negotiation situation (Thompson, 1990).
In early research, Barry and Friedman (1998) conducted two studies to examine the role of
individual differences in negotiations, and they concluded that the relative impact of individual
characteristics occurs during the negotiation. Along this line, Korobkin (2000) stated that to reach
a beneficial agreement requires not only a plethora of analytical and communication skills, but also
the ability to deploy them in different ways, depending on the context of the negotiation and the
personality of the opposite party. It can affect the negotiator’s perception during and at the end of
17 more pages are available in the full version of this
document, which may be purchased using the "Add to Cart"
button on the product's webpage:
This title is available in InfoSci-Technology Adoption, Ethics,
and Human Computer Interaction eJournal Collection,
InfoSci-Management Science and Organizational Research
eJournal Collection, InfoSci-Journals, InfoSci-Journal
Disciplines Business, Administration, and Management,
InfoSci-Journal Disciplines Communications and Social
Science. Recommend this product to your librarian:
Related Content
Studying the Documentation of an API for Enterprise Service-Oriented
Brad A. Myers, Sae Young Jeong, Yingyu Xie, Jack Beaton, Jeff Stylos, Ralf Ehret,
Jan Karstens, Arkin Efeoglu and Daniela K. Busse (2012). End-User Computing,
Development, and Software Engineering: New Challenges (pp. 81-102).
An Empirical Study of Computer Self-Efficacy and the Technology
Acceptance Model in the Military: A Case of a U.S. Navy Combat Information
Yair Levy and Bruce D. Green (2009). Journal of Organizational and End User
Computing (pp. 1-23).
Learning from Patterns During Information Technology Configuration
Keith S. Horton and Rick G. Dewar (2007). Contemporary Issues in End User
Computing (pp. 273-291).
Comparison of the Features of Some CoP Software
Elayne Coakes (2008). End-User Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and
Applications (pp. 78-80).
... Most of the previous studies in developing countries especially in Tanzania mostly focused on mobile payment and mobile banking which are only parts of mobile marketing. In addition, research on the influence of perceived online negotiation (PON) on the telecommunications industry in developed countries as far as mobile marketing is concerned is scarce.Perceived online negotiation refers to the extent to which customers feelempowered and involved in online communication with the seller by bargaining on products and services (de Moura and Costa, 2018). According to Yuan (2003), both real-time interaction and document sharing are needed to facilitate online negotiation. ...
... Consumers in developing countries negotiate on most of the products they need to buy and use, and it is assumed that negotiation is an important element of buying (Gillisonet al. 2014). This calls for a need for mobile products in developing countries to have enough negotiation room that can reinforce adoption (de Moura and Costa, 2018 have visualized the effects of customer'sPerceived onlinenegotiation on the adoption of mobile marketing in developing countries.Therefore, the following hypothesis was formulated: H3a: Perceived online negotiation has a significant and positive influence on consumers' adoption of mobile marketing in the telecommunication industry ...
Full-text available
This study examines the factors influencing customer's adoption of mobile marketing in the telecommunications industry of Tanzania. It applied Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) as a major construct of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and extended it with the Perceived Online Negotiation (PON)construct in predicting the mobile marketing adoption in the Telecommunications industry of Tanzania. A survey strategy was employed in data collection, by administering structured questionnaires and collected data from five (5) municipalities in Dar es Salaam using multi-stage sampling on 406 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using multiple linear regression technique. Findings indicate that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have significant and positive influence on the adoption of mobile marketing. while perceived online negotiation (PON)does not influence the adoption of mobile marketing. With these findings, telecommunication companies should improve their business strategies by implementing user-friendly mobile marketing platforms and services that cater to customers' needs with minimal effort.
... The first element of effective negotiation is knowing one's negotiation style, how a party communicates in a situation (Ladegaard, 2011;De Moura and Costa, 2018). The negotiator has to fairly assess his strengths and weaknesses. ...
Full-text available
The adoption of international climate agreements requires thorough negotiation between parties. This study aims to analyse the inequities between developed and developing countries in climate negotiations. This was done through a scrutiny of the main stages of these negotiations from the Rio Conference to the advent of the Paris Agreement. Our analysis has shown pervasive inequities along the climate negotiations over time. The UNFCCC made a qualitative separation between developed and developing countries in the principle of common but differentiated responsibility. Furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol emphasized this with the commitment of developed countries to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5%. The Kyoto Protocol by introducing flexibility mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) contributed to increase inequalities. The Paris Agreement has increased inequity by requesting each country to submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs) even though the global emission of developing countries remains very low. The negotiation style of developing countries is mostly limited to compromise and accommodation to the desires of the powerful states, as is the case in most international cooperation. The reality of the climate change negotiations mirrors the inequalities between developed and developing nations.
Purpose ; The study aims to examine the impact of a negotiator’s profile (personality, gender, age and experience) on his perception of unethical negotiation tactics. Design/methodology/approach; A survey has been conducted among 220 middle manager employees and chief executive officers (CEOs) who are directly involved in the negotiation processes and activities for their organizations. A component factor analysis (CFA) was first performed. Then, a multiple regression analysis and ANOVA analysis were conducted to test the study hypotheses. Findings; The study suggests that negotiators with a high level of ‘openness to experience’ perceive the use of ‘traditional competitive bargaining’ and ‘inappropriate information gathering’ as ethical. However, ‘conscientious’ negotiators perceive the use of ‘misrepresentation of information’ and ‘inappropriate information gathering’ as unethical. In addition, negotiators with a high level of ‘agreeableness’ perceive the use of ‘misrepresentation of information’ as inappropriate. ‘Misrepresentation of information’ was perceived as more inappropriate for women than for men. Finally, older and highly experienced negotiators perceive ‘inappropriate information gathering’ as unethical more than younger and less experienced ones. Research limitations/implications The study measures perceptions rather than actual behavior. Practical implications The study findings could help firms to identify the more suitable profiles in terms of socio-demographic variables and also personality traits for positions related to negotiation with their stakeholders, especially for those with more long-term orientations. Social implications; Recognizing the potential of businesses to provide an important contribution to society and the large influence of business ethics in people’s everyday lives, including business managers’, trigger a better grasp of the factors that help alleviate unethical practices and that nurture a business culture embedded in an increasing demand for business ethics worldwide. Negotiators are not the exception. Hence, identifying which personality traits are likely to predispose negotiators to endorse unethical negotiation tactics may help shape training programs suitable to produce favorable inclinations to comply with ethical negotiations’ principles. This seems to be possible, on the face of the recent findings suggesting the likelihood of personality traits changes, following the implementation of some particular actions. Originality/value; To the best of our knowledge, this study is among the few that examine the impact of the negotiator’s personality traits and his socio-demographic variables on his perception of the appropriateness of negotiation tactics. This study is in line with calls to reconsider the role that personality plays in negotiation processes, ethical/unethical behavior and outcomes, after a long period of skepticism among scholars as to its significant impact.
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to introduce a negotiation support system (NSS) with a theoretical modeling that considers the aspects of human personality and negotiator’s behavior to assist the decision-making of public managers and stakeholders in democratic bargaining processes and support social-efficient outcomes. Design/methodology/approach A game theoretical modeling of public participatory negotiations characterized by complete and perfect information is explored with the inclusion of personality aspects and negotiation styles. The importance of the negotiation knowledge disclosure in the sequential bargains of participative budgeting is highlighted by an experiment with 162 state-owned companies’ managers and graduate students to present the contribution of the system’s applicability. Findings A considerable number of Pareto-efficient deliberation agreements are obtained with few interactions when the negotiation strategies and the personality aspects of opponents and stakeholders are freely available (a symmetry in the public negotiation knowledge). In addition to the set of Pareto-efficient agreements, those with the best social outcome (i.e. that maximize the group satisfaction despite individual losses) are observed when the informational tool for personality and negotiation style inference is enabled. Originality/value Many scholars argue for Pareto-efficient allocation instead of equal divisions of resources within participative democracies and public governance. This work provides a new system with an empirical application and theoretical modeling which may support those arguments based on the nonverbal negotiation aspects.
Full-text available
The authors elaborate the complications and the opportunities inherent in the statistical analysis of small-group data. They begin by discussing nonindependence of group members’ scores and then consider standard methods for the analysis of small-group data and determine that these methods do not take into account this nonindependence. A new method is proposed that uses multilevel modeling and allows for negative nonindependence and mutual influence. Finally, the complications of interactions, different group sizes, and differential effects are considered. The authors strongly urge that the analysis model of data from small-group studies should mirror the psychological processes that generate those data.
Full-text available
This article discusses an extension to the Thomas–Kilmann conflict mode instrument (Thomas and Kilmann 1977) designed specifically for conflict situations in which strong negative emotional relationships are at play. The Thomas–Kilmann (TK) model is widely used to help participants (disputants and mediators) identify how two basic conflict characteristics interact to influence how stakeholders shape their actions with regard to their interests. Essentially the TK Model is built on the premise that the two salient conflict variables are the relative importance of the relationships at hand and the substantive issues being discussed. These variables are illustrated with a simple matrix that shows how each party will interact with the other based on the relative importance it places on these variables. Graphically illustrating where the behaviors fall on the matrix can explicate parties' behaviors to add a new perspective that may change the dynamic of the conflict.But the TK Model does not address scenarios in which individuals have very negative or destructive relationships, and sabotage, blocking, and exclusion are behavioral norms. Hence, we developed the Baumoel–Trippe (BT) Extension to the TK Model to address the highly negative and often identity-based conflicts that are often found in the world of family business. Accordingly, the BT Extension to the TK Model explores conflicts in which the relationships are not merely unimportant or uncooperative, but where they become negative to downright vengeful. There is so much at stake for family business stakeholders that the family relationships may become so adversarial that the very business and family harmony all parties value are at risk. With our extension of the TK Model, we seek to provide insight into how decisions might be made when stakeholders are in highly negative, conflictual relationships.
Full-text available
The commonsense notion that personal characteristics influence how effectively we negotiate has presented researchers with a mystery: Throughout the decades, scholars have concluded that there are few reliable findings to support it. In this article, I review existing research as well as new research in which my colleagues and I join a growing minority revisiting this nearly abandoned topic. The categories of individual differences previously studied include background characteristics, abilities, personality traits, motivations, and expectations and beliefs. Reviewing this work presents an optimistic conclusion: The strongest and most reliable predictors of negotiation performance are also the most open to personal change. Namely, positive expectations and comfort with negotiation consistently predict better performance. Another consistent finding is that abilities such as cognitive intelligence and creativity help for win-win agreements. Results suggest promise for a topic that is important to researchers, educators, organizations, and the public alike.
Full-text available
The awareness of personal negotiation style is the most basic step allowing the negotiator to learn, develop and conduct successful negotiation processes. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is a correlation between the negotiation style as stated by the negotiator (the “SNS”) and the negotiation style in practice (the “INS”). The results of the study were unexpected: no correlation was found between what the participants stated and their in-practice negotiation style. An extreme expression of this discrepancy was found in the collaborating style that was chosen by half of the subjects as their stated negotiation style, while only 2.6 percent of the total sample was in-practice conducting negotiations in this style. Moreover, a stark contrast was found while the results in the INS indicate that competitive and accommodating styles are considered the preferred styles by the Israeli negotiator. This result is particularly interesting in light of the contradiction between the two styles.
Full-text available
According to a longstanding consensus among researchers, individual differences play a limited role in predicting negotiation outcomes. This consensus stemmed from an early narrative review based on limited data. Testing the validity of this consensus, a meta-analysis of negotiation studies revealed a significant role for a wide range of individual difference variables. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, and numerous personality traits demonstrated predictive validity over multiple outcome measures. Relevant criteria included individual economic value, joint economic value, and psychological subjective value for both the negotiator and counterpart. Each of the Big 5 personality traits predicted at least one outcome measure, with the exception of conscientiousness. Characteristics of research design moderated some associations. Field data showed stronger effects than did laboratory studies. The authors conclude that the irrelevance consensus was misguided, and consider implications for theory, education, and practice.
Although negotiation support systems (NSS) are gaining momentum in electronic commerce, few studies have investigated how causality promotes acceptance by users. Causality is the user's perceived causal absorption in and use of a system's "what-if ' and goal-seeking functions to determine the most robust negotiation strategies for a given problem. This study has three objectives: (1) to rigorously define the causality construct, (2) to identify the construct's antecedents, and (3) to learn how the construct applies to user acceptance of NSS. For this purpose, statistical tests were performed three times. The first test adopted 17 subjects for ease of test operation and selection of candidate items. The second test used 195 valid responses to finalize a construct of causality and analyze statistical validity. The third test garnered 480 responses to prove the hypothesized effects of causality on beliefs in salient technology, using a structural equation model (SEM) as an analytical tool. A survey of pertinent literature and a statistical analysis will prove that computer playfulness and personal innovativeness are effective determinants of causality, suggesting that causality can explain users' psychological processes when NSS are applied to problems.
Abstract In every context where the objective is matching needs of the users with fitting answers, the high-level performance becomes a requirement able to allow systems being useful and effective. The personalization may affect different moments of computer–humans interaction routing the users to the best answers to their needs. The most part of this complex elaboration is strictly related with the needs themselves and the residual is independent from it. It is what we may face by getting personality traits of the users. In this paper, we describe an approach that is able to get the personality of the users by inferring it from the social activities they do in order to drive them to the interactive processes they should prefer. This may happens in a wide set of situations, when they are deepened in a collaborative learning experience, in an information retrieval problem, in an e-commerce process or in a general searching activity. We defined a complete model to realize an adaptive system that may interoperate with information systems and that is able to instantiate for all the users the processes and the interfaces able to give them the best feeling and to the system the highest possible performance.
In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties must accept an offer to avoid a break off. As a break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept. When designing such conditions, one is faced with the acceptance dilemma: accepting the current offer may be suboptimal, as better offers may still be presented before time runs out. On the other hand, accepting too late may prevent an agreement from being reached, resulting in a break off with no gain for either party. Motivated by the challenges of bilateral negotiations between automated agents and by the results and insights of the automated negotiating agents competition (ANAC), we classify and compare state-of-the-art generic acceptance conditions. We perform extensive experiments to compare the performance of various acceptance conditions in combination with a broad range of bidding strategies and negotiation scenarios. Furthermore we propose new acceptance conditions and we demonstrate that they outperform the other conditions. We also provide insight into why some conditions work better than others and investigate correlations between the properties of the negotiation scenario and the efficacy of acceptance conditions.
Whilst much research has been conducted on decision support for electronic negotiations and some research has been done on communication support in this area, there is a lack of research on the interplay between these two elements of negotiations. The questions whether both are equally important, whether one effects the other, or whether they show counter-effects are important both for negotiation training (i.e. what should be the focus for becoming a good negotiator) and for system research (i.e. which system support elements need to be developed). The current paper presents results of a controlled laboratory experiment with negotiators that were provided with decision support and communication support and negotiators that had only communication support available. The impact of decision support on the communication process and on outcome dimensions as well as the impact of communication behaviour on the negotiation process and the qualitative dimensions of the outcome will be discussed.