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GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF ANGELFISH, PTEROPHYLLUM SCALARE FED WITH DIFFERENT LIVE WORM DIETS

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Diet forms the major input and one among the factors that controls growth of any organism under controlled conditions. Feeding the young ones with live feeds are essential for better growth and coloration. An experiment was set up to record the effect of differenent worm diets in the growth of Angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare), a most accepted species of ornamental fish globally. Growth in terms of morphometric measurements was assessed for angel fishes grown in aquarium glass tanks of standard size fed different worm diet ingredients. Tubifex worms, vermicompost worms, bloodworms and formulated feed as control were administered for experimental fishes for a period of 90 days and growth in terms of total length, standard length(cm) and weight(gm) were assessed in 30 days interval. Analysis of variance (One Way ANOVA) showed vermicompost worm group performed significantly (P<0.001) well in growth of angelfish and regression analysis resulted a good relationship between growth and the period of growth for all treatments.
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Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries
116
© Department of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, University of Kerala
Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries | Vol. 5 | 2017 | pp. 116-122
ISSN 2321–340X
GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF ANGELFISH,
PTEROPHYLLUM SCALARE FED WITH
DIFFERENT LIVE WORM DIETS
Jayalekshmi, J.N., Kurian Mathew Abraham and
Sobhanakumar, K.*
Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries,
University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 581, Kerala
*Email: dgmaqua@yahoo.com
Abstract: Diet forms the major input and one among the factors that controls growth of any organism under controlled
conditions. Feeding the young ones with live feeds are essential for better growth and coloration. An experiment was
set up to record the effect of differenent worm diets in the growth of Angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare), a most accepted
species of ornamental fish globally. Growth in terms of morphometric measurements was assessed for angel fishes
grown in aquarium glass tanks of standard size fed different worm diet ingredients. Tubifex worms, vermicompost
worms, bloodworms and formulated feed as control were administered for experimental fishes for a period of 90 days
and growth in terms of total length, standard length(cm) and weight(gm) were assessed in 30 days interval. Analysis of
variance (One Way ANOVA) showed vermicompost worm group performed significantly (P<0.001) well in growth of
angelfish and regression analysis resulted a good relationship between growth and the period of growth for all treatments.
Keywords: Worm Diet, tubifex, bloodworm, vermicompost worm, growth, aquarium, Angel fish.
INTRODUCTION
Aquarium fish trade is a rapidly growing global
industry (Andrews, 1992) and it forms livelihood of
many people in many countries including India
(Anon, 2011). A significant factor that governs any
aquaculture venture including ornamental fish trade
is its nutrition and food, among which natural and/
or live foods are likely to stimulate feeding response
and natural growth (Dey, 1996). Natural foods are
not offered or practiced in large scale commercial
units due to lack of bulk availability, non-production
of commercial live food and even if such live foods
are available, it will be high priced like that of
Artemia, which results in non-profitability of the unit.
A lot of researches are progressing to find out the
judicious usage of locally available natural live feeds
especially in the form of live animals/plants/single
cell protein without causing much destruction to the
biodiversity.
Among aquarium fishes, angel fish is a good old and
most preferred fish by aquarium hobbyists and a lot
of studies have been reported on various aspects
including its nutrition, biology and growth (Schultz,
1967; Blom and Dabrowski, 2000; Gracia-Ulloa and
Gomez Romero, 2005; Cacho, 2006; Rodrigues and
Fernandes, 2006; Ortega-Salas et al., 2009; Amin
Farahi et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2016; Eagderi et al.,
2017). The social isolation, aggression and behaviour
of angelfish were described by Gomez-Laplaza
(1993). Although angel fish accepts artificial diets,
it results in poor performance, especially in growth,
colouration and survival rates (Ali et al., 2016).
Recently Espitia-Manrique et al. (2017) reported the
growth and body composition of angel fish. Several
experimental trials are conducted to find out the
efficacy of different protein and vitamin diet to angel
fish (Blom and Dabrowski, 2000; Rodriguez and
Fernandez, 2006). Effect of feeding frequency on
growth, survival rate and reproductive performance
of angel fish was reported by Kasiri et al. (2011;
2012). Ali et al. (2016) reported impact of formulated
feed with different protein sources on growth and
Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries 117
survival of angel fish. Nekoubin et al. (2012) studied
the effect of symbiotic materials on growth, survival
and reproduction of angel fish. Gad Degani and
Yehuda (1996) reported effect of different plant/
animal origin diets, artemia diet and mosquito larvae
diet on reproduction of angel fish. Effect of different
feed types including Daphnia diet was tested in angel
fish by Bahadir et al. (2009). Even though there were
studies on nutrition and growth, live feed effect on
growth of angel fish was not yet reported. The present
study was undertaken to evaluate different type of
live worm diets to the growth performance of
ornamental fish, Pterophyllum scalare.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental Fish
The angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (family
Cichlidae) was selected for the study due to its
adaptability, acceptance of wide food spectrum, its
economic, ornamental value and availability. 10-15
day old, healthy, uniform sized (0.94+0.21cm;
0.85+0.24 mg) and disease/parasite free fishes were
collectd from the local aquarists and transported to
the wet laboratory without much distarbance in
oxygen filled bags.
Experimental Diet
Diverse and variety of natural and live feed materials
were selected, which were locally available. Tubifex
worms (Tubifex tubifex), vermicompost worm
(Eudrillus eugeniae) and blood worms (Chironomus
clacalis) were selected as experimental diet along
with formulated research feed as control diet. The
crude proximate composition of different diet
compiled from secondary data is provided in Table
1. Formulated feed was prepared at laboratory by
steam cooking the dough by mixing required
quantities of rice flour, groundnut oil cake, tapioca
powder and rice bran to form about 30% standard
protien pelleted feed.
Experimental Setup
After acclimatization to the laboratory conditions,
fishes were transferred to experimental glass tanks
(60×30×30cm) with 30L water capacity filled with
de-chlorinated water. 10 pre-measured (total and
standard length: cm and weight: mg) angel fishes
were introduced in to each experimental tank
including control tank. The fishes were fed at 5% of
its total pooled body weight with respective feed and
the unfed along with faeces if any was removed after
two hours of feeding at morning and evening. The
experiment was continued for 90 days, during which
length (total: TL and standard: SL; cm) and wet body
weight (Wt; gm) measurements were recorded at
every 30th day using a digital caliper and electronic
balance respectively with 0.001 accuracy. 25% of
the water was replaced/exchanged per week for all
tanks and the entire experimental system was run in
triplicate.
Statistical Analyses
Data from the experiment was entered into a personal
computer and expressed in terms of mean and
standard deviation (+SD) and statistical analyses
were done using ‘R’ software. Length and weight
measurements per 30 day till termination of the
experiment for different treatment were compared
using Analysis of variance (Two Way ANOVA).
Similarly the growth per month for each treatment
was also analyzed with ANOVA and post-hoc
comparisons using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR)
test to identify the best treatment (Zar, 1984). The
growth in terms of total length and weight of angel
fish was expressed as a regression model against days
of observation after natural logarithmic (ln)
transformation.
Table 1. Crude proximate composition (%) of experimental diets
Tubifex worm 42.80 5.11 7.79 3.04 41.55
Vermicompost worm 42.20 7.71 10.23 2.56 38.18
Blood worm 41.80 9.72 12.34 2.90 34.00
Formulated Feed 36.00 4.41 3.10 3.00 56.36
Experimental Crude Fat Ash Crude Moisture
Feed Protein (%) (%) Fibre (%)
(%) (%)
Jayalekshmi et al.
Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries
118
RESULTS
Growth response of P. scalare to different natural
worm diets along with a control formulated feed was
recorded in every 30th day up to 90 day and growth
was assessed in terms of total length (TL), standard
length (SL) and weight (Wt). The data obtained were
statistically tested for its treatment and observation
period difference and the results are presented in
tables and graphs.
Length
Total length (cm) of the fishes statistically treated to
compare between treatment and between days of
observation for growth increment and the results are
given in table 2. At 0 day of observation all treatments
were similar without significant difference (P>0.05)
between treatments. But all other days of observation
showed significant difference between treatments
with high degree of significance with maximum
difference at 90 day of observation. Maximum total
length was registered at termination of experiment
in Tubifex treatment (2.30 + 0.38) followed by control
treatment. Total lengths in vermicompost worms and
bloodworm treatments were not performed well
compared to control treatment and least growth was
registered in blood worm group. All treatment showed
significant difference between days of observation
including the control treatment. The percentage
increment in total length with respect to control
treatment is given in figure 1.
Standard length (cm) of the fishes were also measured
at 30 day interval and statistically treated to compare
between treatment and between days of observation
for growth increment and the results are given in
table 3. Similar to total length, standard length at 0
day of observation of all treatments were similar
without significant difference between treatments.
But all other days of observation showed significant
difference between treatments with high degree of
significance with maximum difference at 90 day of
observation. Maximum standard length was
registered at termination of experiment in Tubifex
treatment (2.06 + 0.40) followed by control treatment.
Total length in vermicompost and blood worm
treatment were registered poor standard length
increment than control treatment and blood worm
group showed least standard length growth among
the tested ones. All treatment showed significant
difference between days of observation including the
control treatment. The percentage increment in
standard length with respect to control treatment is
given in figure 2.
Weight
Weight of the fishes were also measured at 30 day
interval and statistically analysed to compare between
treatments and between days of observation for
growth increment and the results are given in table
4. Weight at 0 day of observation of all treatments
was similar without significant difference between
treatments. But all other days of observation showed
significant difference between treatments with high
degree of significance with maximum difference at
90 day of observation. Maximum weight was
registered at termination of experiment in Tubifex
treatment (2.46 + 0.56) followed by formulated feed
(control) treatment. Weight in bloodworm treatment
was registered least weight increment and
comparable with vermicompost worm treatment. All
treatment showed significant difference between days
Table 2. Analysis of variance (Two Way ANOVA) of total length (cm) of
angelfish comparing different diet treatments and days of observation
0 Day 0.94a0.21 0.94a0.23 0.92a0.35 0.95a0.25 1.778
30 Day 1.29a0.15 1.25a0.17 1.28a0.3 1.47b0.19 8.056**
60 Day 1.72ab 0.29 2.13c0.42 1.56a0.44 1.77b0.19 55.507***
90 Day 2.01b0.3 2.30bc 0.38 1.85a0.41 1.98ab 0.21 254.013***
F value 28.182*** 573.913*** 6.283** 2.235*
Control Tubifex Blood Vermicompost
Observation Worm Worm Worm F value
Mean + SD Mean + SD Mean + SD Mean + SD
* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; a, b, c: Means with same superscript within each row do not differ each other (DMR Test)
Growth performance of Pterophyllum scalare fed with different live worm diets
Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries 119
Table 3. Analysis of variance (Two Way ANOVA) of standard length (cm) of angelfish
comparing different diet treatments and days of observation
* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; a, b, c, d, e: Means with same superscript within each row do not differ each other (DMR Test)
0 Day 0.61a0.23 0.55a0.2 0.69a0.41 0.64a0.29 1.045
30 Day 1.05a0.15 1.09b0.22 0.95d0.39 1.06b0.23 8.699**
60 Day 1.27b0.3 1.58bc 0.46 1.02b0.46 1.43b0.2 56.362***
90 Day 1.70b0.32 2.06d0.4 1.55c0.46 1.67ab 0.22 242.781***
F value 71.582*** 695.373*** 7.209** 27.233***
Control Tubifex Blood Vermicompost
Observation Worm Worm Worm F value
Mean + SD Mean + SD Mean + SD Mean + SD
Table 4. Analysis of variance (Two Way ANOVA) of weight (gm) of angelfish
comparing different diet treatments and days of observation
0 Day 0.85a0.24 0.99ab 0.25 0.94a0.27 0.78a0.11 1.761
30 Day 1.05a0.36 1.27b0.29 1.01a0.26 1.06b0.14 9.904**
60 Day 1.34b0.31 1.75c0.24 1.11ab 0.28 1.37c0.24 13.302**
90 Day 1.83b0.43 2.46d0.56 1.42b0.52 1.79d0.35 32.076***
F value 35.930*** 92.845*** 2.973* 23.673***
Control Tubifex Blood Vermicompost
Observation Worm Worm Worm F value
Mean + SD Mean + SD Mean + SD Mean + SD
* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; a, b, c, d: Means with same superscript within each row do not differ each other (DMR Test)
Fig. 1. Percentage increment in total length of
Angel fish fed different worm diets Fig. 2. Percentage increment in standard length of
Angel fish fed different worm diets
Fig. 3. Percentage increment in weight of
Angel fish fed different worm diets Fig. 4. Regression between total length and growth period
of angel fish in different treatments
Jayalekshmi et al.
Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries
120
Fig. 5. Regression between weight and growth
period of angel fish in different treatments
of observation including the control treatment. The
percentage increment in total length with respect to
control treatment is given in figure 3.
Regression Analysis
Regression analysis was employed to model the
relationship between length and weight increment
with days of observation. Regression analysis was
performed on total length and weight against days
of observation for each treatment separately as each
treatment has shown individual growth performance.
Tubifex group showed significantly good relationship
with high slope value for day-weight relationship,
which was followed by control group. Bloodworm
group showed least b values in regression analysis.
With respect to day-total length relationship, again
tubifex group showed significant ‘b’ value but the
least values were registered for bloodworm group.
The control group showed better growth with respect
to total length than other few groups. All the groups
showed good growth pattern in laboratory conditions
in response to different feeding diets. The regression
graphs and regression equations for total length and
weight are given in figures 4 and 5 respectively.
DISCUSSION
In this study three diverse natural live worm feeds
has been tested such as tubifex worms, vermicompost
worm and bloodworms for their growth response of
P. scalare, the angel fish along with control
formulated research diet with 30% protein. Previous
studies for many of these feeds were not reported
except few like tubifex and formulated diet. All feeds
under trial gave good growth response in terms of
weight gain except blood worms and vermicompost
worm diets . Tubifex treatment resulted maximum
(P<0.001) growth followed by control treatment than
other worm treatment under trial. Since water quality
parameters (pH 7.2 - 7.8; Temperature 27.0±1.0°C
and Dissolved oxygen > 4.0 mg/L) were stable and
optimum for the angel fish (Axelrod et al., 1997)
maintained throughout the experiment, and diets
were given at same daily ration and readily consumed
by fish, it is suggested that overall results in this study
were influenced mainly by the nutritional quality of
the tested diets only. The nutritional value of one
food for a species is related to the degree of
correspondence between biochemical composition
and nutritional requirements of that species, hence
some growth parameters like length showed better
increment in control diet than the feeds under trial.
Several studies reported growth and biological
performance of angel fish fed formulated diet. Schultz
(1967) reported the growth and reproductive
performance by different feeds in freshwater angelfish
(Pterophyllum scalare). Effect of different feed types
on growth and feed conversion ratio of angel fish
was reported by Bahadir et al. (2009). Gad Degani
and Yehuda (1996) tested mosquito larvae, turkey
heart meal and soybean based protein diet on
reproduction and larval rearing of angel fish and
reported mosquito larvae and turkey heart diets
resulted better performance on reproduction. A
comprehensive report on dietary protein and energy
requirement of juvenile angel fish was reported by
Zuanon et al. (2009). Nekoubin et al. (2012) reported
effects of symbiotic material on growth performance,
survival and reproduction of angel fish and reported
the superior effect of symbiotic material, Biomar on
growth and reproduction in angelfish. Ali et al.,
(2016) reported impact of formulated diets on the
growth and survival of angel fish. Recently, effect of
feeding frequency on growth performance and
survival ratio was reported in angelfish by Kasiri et
al. (2011) and recommended that four meals per day
and two meals per day gave best results and
conversion efficiency ratio. Hence in the present
study, different diets were offered two times per day,
which might be optimum for growth in controlled
conditions.
Tubifex worms form excellent food for wild as well
Growth performance of Pterophyllum scalare fed with different live worm diets
Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries 121
as cultured fish species, which is a locally available
fish feed ingredient. The advantages of tubifexin the
diet of ornamental fish have been demonstrated by
several authors (Amin Farahi et al, 2010; Kasiri et
al., 2011). The present study supports with the results
obtained in fantail guppy and other ornamental
species. The latest studies showed that live feeds have
various effects on growth performance of fish. In the
present study also, tubifex diet registered first position
in growth performance of angel fish. Kasiri et al.
(2011) studied effect of three natural feeds such as
Tubifex, earthworm and Gammarus on reproductive
behavior of Angel fish including growth and survival.
Vermicompost worms are highly nutritious feed for
the fishes. In the present study, vermicompost worm
showed significant low growth rate (P < 0.05) than
control diet. Moreover, vermicompost worm diet
resulted in poor length increment in angel fishes.
This may be due to poor digestibility of vermicompost
worm by fishes caused by thick cutaneous as well as
mucilaginous covering of the worms. Amin Farahi
et al. (2010) reported similar results in P. scalare.
Earthworm diets resulted poor growth performance
than commercial extruder diet. But better survival
and larval characteristics were obtained, when
administered with earthworm mixed with extruder
diet. Effect of earthworm diets were also reported in
other fish species by Stafford and Tacon (1988) and
Kruger et al. (2001). Blood worms showed the
poorest growth among the tested diets, which also
may be due to poor digestibility of fishes and thick
mucilaginous covering of blood worms. More studies
are warranted for growth performance of different
species of fishes using blood worms as blood worms
forms a good live feed, which are easy to collect and
culture.
The growth pattern of angelfish in natural conditions
and early developmental stages are modeled by
Eagderi et al. (2017). The growth pattern explained
by regression model between weight with days of
observation in each treatment were supporting the
grwoth pattern in each treatment and a good linear
relationship with high slope (b) value was obtained
for tubifex treatment followed by control treatment.
Since as suggested by Eagderi et al. (2017), P. scalare
follows an extreme allometric pattern, length-day
relationship may not hold good in all conditions
which again proved by this study, as poor
relationships with low ‘b’ values were obtained for
length-day regression analysis.
Out of four feeds tested, highly significant growth
rate (P < 0.001) was registered in fish fed with tubifex
worm diet and other groups like vermicompost worm
and blood worm diets registered poor growth
performance than control diet with 30% protein.
Considering economic viability and ease of
availability, tubifex can be recommended for feeding
of angel fish in mass production centers for its
production, grow-out and growth performance. In
addition to its growth promoting properties, tubifex
can be cultured easily in lab condition and its mass
culture is possible. Collection of tubifex can be done
from running water bodies especially in urban and
rural channels or rivulets throughout the year without
much expenditure. Its collection and or culture
generates another employment opportunity as live
feed production centers, which again can be regarded
as a cottage industry especially for women
empowerment along villages that practice ornamental
fish culture.
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Growth performance of Pterophyllum scalare fed with different live worm diets
... A study was conducted to determine suitable feed for 30-days old larvae by Ahmed et al. (2016) who obtained the best growth in larvae fed on Tubifex with lower SGR (3.6%) among the treatments with other live foods and commercial feed. While Artemia and Tubifex have been proved to be the best diets for the early stages of numerous teleosts ( Jayalekshmi et al., 2017), use of these live feeds in catfish hatcheries is not economically feasible. In addition to high cost, the nutritional values of live feeds can also vary depending on the season of collection, environment, and life stages (Bray and Lawrence, 1992). ...
... Since fish's continuously grows throughout life, this pattern is repeated each year. The outer edge of carefully distanced circuli is generally considered the end of growth for that year, and this point is termed as the year mark or annulus [6]. A fish's age can be determined by counting the number of annuli or year marks [7]. ...
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... Adaptation of Abraham, 2017;Cacho et al., 1999;Ribeiro et al. 2007;Takahashi et al., 2010;Vidal Jr. 2007;*Veras et al.,2016. The post-larva phase appears around two to four days after hatching. ...
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