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The Role and Importance of Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development of the Countries



Energy, which is needed for every aspect of life, plays a key role for the development of the countries. Countries need to use energy efficiently to be advantageous in the global competition and ensure the sustainable development. Countries using the energy efficiently succeed economically and have leading the field in the competition. The purpose of this study is to put forward to the role and importance of energy efficiency for the sustainable development of the countries. In this study, energy efficiency has been examined conceptually considering the studies in the literature and the role and importance of energy efficiency has been emphasized for the sustainable development of the countries. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.
The Role and Importance of Energy Efciency
for Sustainable Development of the Countries
Serap Pelin Türkoğlu
and Pınar Sezin Öztürk Kardoğan
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and
Administrative Sciences, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Gazi University,
Ankara, Turkey
Abstract. Energy, which is needed for every aspect of life, plays a key role for
the development of the countries. Countries need to use energy efciently to be
advantageous in the global competition and ensure the sustainable development.
Countries using the energy efciently succeed economically and have leading
the eld in the competition. The purpose of this study is to put forward to the
role and importance of energy efciency for the sustainable development of the
countries. In this study, energy efciency has been examined conceptually
considering the studies in the literature and the role and importance of energy
efciency has been emphasized for the sustainable development of the countries.
Keywords: Energy Efciency Sustainable development
1 Introduction
Energy has been an important element for human development and economic growth.
Providing sufcient and affordable energy is required to increase human welfare and
living standards. Energy should be considered as an important factor in terms of
economic development; since the energy is used as an input in most of the production
processes. Energy consumption increases in parallel with economic growth and
development. In this way, energy need should be met sufciently and economically.
In the last 50 years, there have been important developments. Living standards
have increased and people have been living longer and healthier. Science and tech-
nology increased welfare of society considerably. Energy resources of Middle East,
which are abundant and cheap, have especially contributed to these developments.
Sufcient global energy resources have importance both for the world and the countries
individually in terms of sustainable development, running of the economy and welfare
of the society. Thus, consistent use of energy is going to be possible and the energy will
be secured [6].
Industrialised countries have been using the energy more efciently since 1973.
Following the oil shock of the 1970s, these countries have made policies to increase
energy efciency in all the sectors of their economies. These policies have contributed
to the decrease in the energy intensity. In addition to that, most of the industrialised
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018
S. Fırat et al. (eds.), Proceedings of 3rd International Sustainable
Buildings Symposium (ISBS 2017), Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 7,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-64349-6_5
countries have intensied their energy efciency works as a part of their own strategies
in order to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions [5].
In the second part of this study, energy efciency has been discussed conceptually.
In the third part, the role and importance of energy efciency in the sustainable
development have been explained. In the conclusion part, the study has been
2 Conceptual Framework of Energy Efciency
Energy is one of the primary elements which are needed for social and economic
development. Energy is a means to achieve the goals such as health, high level of living
standards, sustainable economy and a clean environment [7].
Energy resources of the countries are one of the main factors indicating their
development and leadership position in the rivalry. Therefore, efcient use of energy
becomes more of an issue for the countries. Energy efciency is identied as the
efciency scaling the relation between energy inputs and outputs by means of com-
parison [2].
Patterson [15] explained that energy efciency means obtaining the same product
and service using less energy. Galvin [3] identied energy efciency with the help of
monetary and physical indicators. According to Galvin [3], the ratio between energy
input and energy output as monetary value is considered as monetary indicators.
Energy input per gross domestic product is an example of this. The ratio between
energy input and physical output states physical indicators. Amount of aluminium that
is produced or how many kilometres you drive your car in the highway is an example
of physical indicators.
Ganda and Ngwakwe [4] states that energy efciency means the policies, tech-
nologies and strategies to solve the problems of residential, commercial and national
energy use reducing the nancial cost and minimizing greenhouse gas emission which
causes global warming.
During the oil shock of 1973, measuring the energy efciency has been an
important part of the energy strategy, especially for those lacking energy. With sharp
increase in the world oil prices, many countries have been aware of the need for the
understanding of the methods for efcient energy consumption and increasing the
energy efciency. As from late 1980s, because of the increasing worries about the fact
that fossil fuels cause global warming, improving the energy efciency in order to
reduce greenhouse gas emission has been an important issue for the countries [1].
Countries need to follow various policies on the basis of sector in order to improve
their energy efciencies. Policies of some sector are as follow [12]:
New buildings can be 70% more efcient using insulated windows, modern gas
furnaces and more efcient air conditioners. It is possible to save energy with the
help of localized heating, heat pumps and solar energy. With advanced lighting
system, it is possible to save cost at a rate between 30 and 60%.
When it comes to residences, there have been improvements in fridges, water
heaters and dish washers. It is possible to make energy savings with the techno-
logical improvements in this eld.
54 S.P. Türkoğlu and P.S.Ö. Kardoğan
Energy demand in the industry and CO
emission can be halted improving the
efciencies of engines, pumps and boilers and heating systems, energy recovery in
the process of production, recycling the material that is used and using the materials
more efciently.
In the transportation sector, efciency of the gasoline-powered and diesel-powered
vehicles can be improved with turbine turbocharger, fuel injection, improved
electronic methods, more compact engines, hybrid cars and advanced diesel
3 Ensuring Sustainable Development for the Countries
via Using Energy Efciently
Sustainable development, according to the denition of United Nations World Com-
mission on Environment and Development in 1987, has been stated as meeting the
needs of todays society not jeopardizing the needs of the future generations [17].
Sustainable development is a general term which identies the development of coun-
tries considering economic, social and environmental factors. Efcient energy use has
some economic, social and environmental aspects. Therefore, energy efciency has an
important role for ensuring sustainable development.
It is a need for the sustainable developments of the countries to obtain the energy
resources easily and at a reasonable cost in the long term. To ensure sustainable
development, countries need to use energy with maximum benet and minimum
environmental damage [16].
Energy need has been increased worldwide with high population growth rate,
technological developments and increasing living standards. Limited reserves and
increasing prices of the fossil resources have leaded the countries to take measures in
order to protect themselves from a possible energy crisis. Energy sector provides input
for the other sectors of the economy. For this reason, stable and consistent energy
policy is a must for sustainable development [9].
Because of the worries about high energy prices, global warming and sustainable
development, energy efciency has been an important of the energy strategy in many
countries. Increasing the energy efciency is the cheapest, fastest and the most
environmental-friendly way of meeting an important part of energy need. Improved
energy efciency reduces the need for investment in the energy demand [12].
Increasing the energy sufciency is important from various policy perspectives.
Saving from the energy obtained from the fossil fuels is an important target for the
countries to prevent the running out of fossil fuels in the near future. Improvement of the
energy efciency is also going to increase energy security of the countries. Especially,
reduction of the energy use is a must to prevent the worsening of the environmental
quality. Minimizing the costs is another aim to ensure energy efciency. In terms of cost
efciency, it is important to reduce energy use in the period of high energy prices and
use other inputs instead of energy at the same time [10].
Energy is crucial for the countries to ensure their sustainable development. Some of
the policy measures to support sustainable development are as follows [6,8,11]:
The Role and Importance of Energy Efciency for Sustainable 55
Increasing the energy efciency in the industry, construction and transportation
Reducing the use less efcient coal-red power plants and forbidding their
Increasing the investment to the renewable energy,
Phasing out the subventions in the consumption of the fossil fuels,
Reducing the methane emission in the production of oil and gas,
Distributing sufcient and reasonable priced energy resources to the regions where
there is no energy service,
Encouraging energy efciency,
Providing widely use of advance energy technologies,
Placing importance on activities of research and development on improving new
and advanced energy technologies,
Encouraging the use environment friendly energy resources such as renewable
energy resources,
Empowering the regulations on energy,
Reecting the environmental cost of energy use and consumption to the energy,
prices as much as it is possible and necessary,
Contribution of the free and open trade to the energy market and security,
Ability of the energy systems to response to the urgent situations in quick and
exible way,
Improving international cooperation and connections.
If todays demographic, economic, social and technological trends arent strong and
balanced by new government policies, there are signicant difculties in the long-term
sustainability of the global energy system. Developments in energy saving in OECD
countries accelerated with increases in energy prices in the 1970s [11]. OECD countries
have taken an important step in energy conservation and environmental issues with the
policies they apply in the energy eld. Energy policies for OECD countries may differ
Energy efciency policies in Turkey increase energy security to benet from
growing economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Turkey has established a
comprehensive, strategic and legal framework to promote energy efciency. The
energy efciency law in Turkey has a wide coverage area, including related regulations.
These areas include: increasing and supporting energy efciency, setting up energy
efciency consulting companies, establishing energy management systems, promoting
energy efciency investments, increasing energy efciency in transport and buildings,
preventing the sale of inefcient devices and raising awareness.
Luxembourg implemented energy performance regulations in 2008 for residential
buildings and in 2011 for non-residential buildings. These regulations establish a
methodology to calculate energy performance of buildings, to determine minimum
energy requirements for new buildings, extensions and renewed elements of existing
buildings. Luxembourg is promoting the energy efciency of buildings with the
introduction of energy performance certicates.
New ZealandsSmart Warming Programaims to increase the number of hot, dry
and energy-efcient homes to protect patient health and prevent loss of productivity.
56 S.P. Türkoğlu and P.S.Ö. Kardoğan
The rst New Zealand Energy Strategyand the second 5-year New Zealand Energy
Efciency and Conservation Strategywere published in October 2007. However, after
the National Party government was elected in 2008, both of these documents were
audited. The purpose of doing this is to present a clearer link between energy policies
and economic growth.
The program of energy saving targets for energy suppliers is a central component of
Irelands energy efciency policy. The rst National Energy Efciency Action Plan
identied potential energy saving programs targeting energy suppliers in 2009.
The Green Dealinitiated in the United Kingdom in January 2013 is the program
of the British government to help increase energy efciency in homes and businesses.
This program saves on energy bills and makes improvements on the cost side possible.
Electricity Market Reformis the most important and radical change for the UK
electricity market. This reform includes regulations that make low carbon production
investments attractive and provide safe, affordable electricity supply for the UK.
Norway supports the increase of oil production in order to achieve long-term goals
in energy eld. It also uses oil and gas in a protable way, the management of energy
resources is based on comprehensive knowledge and facts, and the energy management
framework is designed to be sensitive to health, safety and environmental issues.
USA is consistently publishing the Climate Action Planto reduce national and
international greenhouse gas emissions. There are three main pillars of this plan: to reduce
carbon pollution in USA, to prepare USA for the effects of climate change, and to pioneer
the international struggle to combat global climate change and prepare for the effects of
climate change. The plan is designed to reduce emissions by 17% below the 2005 level by
2020. In addition, USA regularly updates national and international reports.
Sweden is working to build a vehicle eet that does not use fossil fuels until 2030,
and the energy is taxed at a high rate. The Swedish tax system supports the purchase of
environmentally friendly vehicles through tax exemption during the rst 5 years. This
incentive is reinforced by an extra subsidy for super environmentally friendlycars
that emit less than 50 g of CO
per kilometer of hybrid and electric vehicles. To
promote alternative fuels in Sweden, high-mix renewable fuel mixture into gasoline
and motor is subject to full tax exemption.
Canada is defeating procedures to regulate projects for the development of natural
resources. In 1997, Canada created a building law that sets new buildings and sets a
minimum level for energy performance in their design. The Canadian National Energy
Law for Buildings, which assessed the minimum energy performance level of
buildings over three oors in 2011, entered into force. This law covers heating,
ventilation, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, electric power motor systems and
equipments for buildings.
Japan is working to improve energy efciency through its energy efcient econ-
omy. The Japanese government has laid down the law on the rational use of energy in
May 2013. The rst step in this regulation is to improve the thermal insulation per-
formance of homes and buildings. In this context, the use of energy-saving isolators
and windows is helping to reduce the energy consumption associated with air condi-
tioning and water heating. In the second step of the scheme, the introduction of
technologies such as smart meters, energy management systems and accumulators are
encouraged to reduce energy demand.
The Role and Importance of Energy Efciency for Sustainable 57
Italy is eyeing the natural gas market mechanisms and infrastructure to keep rising
gas prices under control. In Italy, research projects based on the system approach of
interest to the national electricity system and applied research are being developed.
These activities aim to improve the performance of the system in terms of economy,
security and environment and to renew.
In South Korea, in 2008, the government enacted the Basic Energy Lawin the
formulation and implementation of a national energy plan for every 5 years for a period
of 20 years. The goals of each plan are to: to promote the direction of future energy
policies, to identify medium and long-term strategies for safe energy sources, to expand
infrastructure to provide domestic energy, and to rationalize the use of energy for the
development of the national economy.
France intends to bring innovative energy projects to the market with its research
programs. Since 2010, the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management
has been responsible for investment programs for low carbon vehicles, intelligent
network projects, supporting the testing of renewable energies and green chemistry in
real conditions and demonstration premises. These programs are new tools designed to
support innovative green projects.
In agreement with the government in line with a framework established by Den-
mark, energy organizations are helping to provide cost-effective energy savings
throughout the economy. In 2020, 50% of electricity consumption from wind power is
one of Denmarks energy policy objectives. Renewable energy conversion by 2050 is
the long-term goal of Denmarks full conversion.
The use of hydropower as a renewable energy source is crucial for Austrias
electricity generation. The use of hydroelectric power in Austria contributes to the
provision of energy security and to the independence of electricity supply. With about
70% of the electricity generated from renewable energy sources, Austria is the country
with the highest share in the European Union.
Approximately 80% of Australias total energy consumption is generated by the
industry. The GovernmentsEnergy Efciency Opportunities Programaims to make
the industry more energy efcient. The participating enterprises in this program receive
nancial assistance of approximately 800 million Australian dollars per year.
The Czech Republic is updating its energy strategy, especially considering the
declining production of lignite. The Czech Republics energy policy aims to facilitate
the transformation of the Czech energy sector in order to produce sufcient electricity
and cost effectively meet the high supply standards.
In 2008, the government approved an Energy Efciency Action Planaimed at
reducing the use of fossil fuels by 20% by 2020 and growing electricity demand by 5%
between 2010 and 2020 in Switzerland. In addition, the Swiss government nances
R&D at energy efciency and promotes professional energy efciency training as well
as consultancy.
In Portugal, the Energy Efciency Program in Public Administrationis intended
to encourage efciency in the public sectors energy use, which is mandatory for the
central government and is optional for municipalities. Portugal improves the security of
natural gas supply with major investments (including the construction of a new
interconnection pipeline with Spain, increased underground storage capacity at Carriço,
and expansion of capacity at the Sines LNG Terminal).
58 S.P. Türkoğlu and P.S.Ö. Kardoğan
Energy security is one of the main features of the Polish energy policy. An
important aspect of Polands energy security policy is the diversication of fuel and
technology. The government supports the development of clean technologies and the
production of coal-based liquid and gaseous fuels. Poland is striving to reduce its
energy dependence on Russia and diversify its energy sources. Poland is focused on
maximizing the use of existing domestic energy resources.
Spain supplies a large amount of electricity from renewable sources. Until 2020,
about 40% of the electricity consumed in Spain will be from renewable sources. In the
rst half of 2013, about 48% of the electricity demand was supplied from renewable
Germany is increasing its knowledge and awareness in this area by issuing annual
reports on energy politics. Germanys energy targets include reducing greenhouse gas
emissions by 40% by 2020, at least 80% by 2050, and reducing primary energy con-
sumption by 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050. In Germany, the share of renewable energy
sources in energy consumption will increase by 30% by 2030 and by 60% by 2050.
According to the OECD [12], if governments fail to implement their policy in the
framework between the present and 2030, the following situations will be the case:
Energy consumption will increase by 53%,
emissions related to energy will increase by 55%,
The poor peoples of the world will continue to lack access to electricity, modern
cooking and heating services.
4 Conclusions
Considering that energy is a limited resource, it is important for countries to use the
minimum level and to obtain maximum economic output from the energy used. When
this process takes place, minimizing the harm to the people and the environment is also
considered as a matter to be paid attention to. Increasing energy efciency for countries
leads to reduced environmental pollution and increased competition.
Today, the local, regional and global negative effects of the traditional energy
production and consumption technologies on the people, environment and natural
resources have come to a serious state. In order to ensure the sustainable development
and protect natural balance, it is vital to provide energy from consistent, safe, cheap,
clean, good quality and domestic energy resources and use it efciently [14].
It is important to monitor eco-friendly energy efciency policies for the economic
development and progress of countries. Sustainable economic development based on
energy efciency should form the basis of energy policies of countries. If countries
increase their economic activities by improving their environmental performance, they
can reach a good level of energy efciency. As long as the balance between economic
growth and energy consumption is balanced, the energy efciency of countries will
Energy efciency has become important for the countries to provide sustainable
development. Especially for reducing CO
emission and effects of the climate change,
energy efciency has a key role for the energy efciency.
The Role and Importance of Energy Efciency for Sustainable 59
Countries should know that they will not be able to succeed in rivalry and sus-
tainable development without being aware of the comprehending the efcient use of
energy. This study casts light upon the future studies in the eld of energy efciency for
the countries to ensure sustainable development explaining the role of energy
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60 S.P. Türkoğlu and P.S.Ö. Kardoğan
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... However, previous studies (Ganda, 2014;Türkoğlu andKardoğan, 2017 andChang, 2015) focused on economic growth and financial development as a determinant of energy efficiency. We argued that economic growth focuses on producing goods and services without considering the environmental consequences that expose the lapses of using economic growth as the determinant of energy efficiency. ...
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The European Union strives to create sustainable, low-carbon economies; therefore, energy policies of all member states should move towards renewable energy sources (RES). That concerns also the so-called new EU member states. These countries, on the one hand, are characterized by significant historical similarities in terms of post-communist legacy and adopted development strategies linked with the EU membership, and on the other hand, by significant social, economic and environmental differences resulting from different transformation and development paths and conditions. The question remains how the selected countries should cope with actions in the field of national energy transformations to confront the multiple challenges linked to assuring a significant level of sustainable development. In order to be successful, it is necessary to conduct an effective and rapid changes in the energy industry, which should be preceded by an analysis of the differentiation of countries in terms of their potentials. The results of such analyses should be helpful in selecting the most appropriate strategies for transformation of the described industry. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to assess the new EU member states for RES diversification and identify similar subgroups of countries using cluster analysis, taking into account the percentage share of individual renewable energy sources in total renewable energy production. This was done for the years 2010, 2015 and 2019 which should allow us to demonstrate the differences between them as a group and also reveal changes recorded over time for a single country. Ward’s method was used for the analysis. The presented approach to the analysis of energy production enabled the acquisition of new knowledge in this field and supported the assessment of the current state of RES. The results obtained can be used in countries of comparable specificity to undertake activities of similar nature in relation to internal energy production, technological development or common energy policy.
Energy efficiency can make energy access more affordable by reducing the electricity cost burden on households and businesses. Improving products’ energy efficiency helps reduce monthly energy bills— freeing up funds that can feed back into the economy, thus stimulating economic growth. To demonstrate these benefits, this paper conducts a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and a national impact analysis (NIA) for implementing an energy-efficiency standards and labeling (EESL) program for refrigeration products in Uganda. The CBA compares the costs versus the benefits of investing in energy-efficient products for consumers: It shows that the most cost-effective products have an efficiency level 35 % higher than baseline products sold on the market. By choosing these products, consumers save, on average, US$76 over the lifetime of the product. The NIA assesses the impact of an energy-efficiency standard set at that level and shows potential cumulative savings of US$595 million (2023–2040) for households and small businesses. These savings translate into additional purchasing power for households and investments for small businesses, leading to increased living standards and economic development. This paper describes the importance of implementing energy efficiency policies and programs in emerging economies where affordability of electricity hinders electricity access. This paper provides a rigorous approach of using CBA and NIA assessments to demonstrate the economic savings for the consumers and the nation to implement EESL programs for major electric equipment.
Conference Paper
A methane catcher is generally used to produce methane gas with cow dung as the main ingredient. The purpose of this research is to optimize the processing of cow dung utilizing biogas with a better method and capacity. The digester capacity is designed with a volume of 1000 L. In the process, the working system of this tool is employed to operate a reservoir (digester) containing cow dung and air, stirred using a mixer to mix evenly. Based on calculations and following the existing standards in the design of this methane catcher, it is concluded that the digester volume is 1000 liters and the waste volume capacity is 800 L. The advantage of this design lies in the availability to accommodate the dirt capacity having relatively large and a good level of safety.
Sustainable development is development that aims to improve the quality of life for all people around the world, both current and future generations. The focus and alignment of researchers on the theme of sustainable development is highly expected, as evidenced by publications in reputable journals, included in educational journals such as Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education (EJMSTE). The purpose of this Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was to review and compare investigations of researches on articles published by EJMSTE so that they are expected to have significant contributions to the topic of sustainable development. This SLR adopts five-step guidelines. The study standards that meet the requirements are, as follows: (i) the data used are from the 2005-2021 publication year; (ii) articles published in English; (iii) full paper can be accessed; and (iv) related to the theme of “sustainable” theme; and (v) only the type of research report articles. It can be concluded that EJMSTE is a pro-sustainable development journal. EJMSTE publishes 22 articles related to the theme of “sustainable”. The most frequently used keywords are sustainable development and sustainability. Dominant authors were from Taiwan and China. We succeeded in formulating four important contributions made by articles published in EJMSTE related to sustainable themes, namely: (i) the urgency of science education in supporting sustainability, ESD, and SDGs funds; (ii) the need for curriculum reform and strengthening the competence of teachers in educational institutions, which are oriented towards sustainability and environmental literacy; (iii) the urgency of using technology that supports sustainability and ESD; and (iv) the urgency of energy efficiency, green marketing, green life cycle, and sustainable tourism to support sustainability. In addition, there are 22 useful educational resources that can be used as references/best practices, which can be implemented at the primary school to higher education levels. © 2022 by the authors; licensee Modestum. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
In this theoretical study, quantum chemical analysis of five novel non-fullerene donor molecules designed from recently reported highly efficient (11.5%) donor molecule P2TBR, containing non-fused ring central thiophene-benzene-thiophene core, 2-D benzodithiophene donors, and end capped 3-methylrhodanine acceptors, has been performed to evaluate the photovoltaic parameters and their application in organic solar cells. These donor molecules consist of centrally introduced acrylonitrile acceptors in between thiophene-benzene-thiophene core of P2TBR, namely M1. Compounds M2-M5 were designed from M1 containing ZOPTAN core, through peripheral acceptor group modification by 2-methylenemalononitrile (M2), methyl 2-cyanoacrylate (M3), 2-(5,6-difluoro-2-methylene-3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-1-ylidene) malononitrile (M4), and 2-(3-methyl-5-methylene-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene) malononitrile (M5). DFT and TD-DFT simulations of all molecules including reference were carried out using MPW1PW91 functional in conjunction with 6-31G (d, p) basis set. Optoelectronic properties, exciton dynamics, electron density distribution pattern, and charge mobility were further analyzed by absorption spectra, TDM plots, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis, and calculation of reorganization energies, respectively. Results reveal that central addition and end capped modification of acceptors in designed molecules proved to be effective strategy to finely tune the electronic and optical characteristics. Amongst all designed molecules, M4 exhibited improved opto-electronic parameters such as highest maximum absorption (695 nm) in chloroform, least band gap (2.24 eV), lowest values of λh (0.0034 eV), and λe (0.0054 eV) and lowermost binding energy (0.46 eV), because of mutual effect of extended pi-conjugation and significant electron pulling nature of terminal acceptors. Moreover, higher dipole moment, lower values of hole reorganization energy, and improved Voc of designed molecules than reference (R) make them efficient donors to enhance PCE of photovoltaic materials.
End of poverty, the number one Sustainable Development Goal, focuses on ending all kinds of poverty all over the world. The elimination of all forms of poverty continues to be the biggest problem facing humanity today. The most important problems that have been encountered since the beginning of the energy use are the increasing risk of deterioration of energy supply, energy production and energy poverty. The problem of energy poverty among them is widely mentioned in the literature. In general, the studies on the subject focus on how the problem is defined worldwide, its size, its consequences, the obstacles to the elimination of the problem and some solution opportunities. The term “energy poverty” can refer to two different socio-economic issues, depending on the geographical scope of its application: energy affordability in higher income and developed states; inadequate access to “modern” energy services in most low income or developing countries”. Poor people pay a high price for the energy they use, either in cash or by labor. In addition, poor households spend more on energy than wealthy people, not only because their income is much smaller, but also because the fuels and equipment they use are much less efficient than modern fuels and equipment. No country has been able to diminish energy poverty to a great extent without increasing energy use. Decreasing the global inequality in energy is key to reducing income, gender and an inequality in other dimensions such as rural/urban income gaps. From this perspective, the importance of the relationship between energy poverty and sustainable development will be discussed by making comparisons by taking the country cases into consideration in the context of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The regional understanding of these concepts will also be discussed in this context.
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This paper critically reviews the range of energy efficiency indicators that can be used, particularly at the policy level. Traditional thermodynamic indicators of energy efficiency were found to be of limited use, as they give insufficient attention to required end use services. The specific limitations and appropriate uses of physical-thermodynamic, economic-thermodynamic and pure economic indicators of energy efficiency are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the persistent methodological problems and issues which are encountered when attempting to operationalize all of the energy efficiency indicators. These include the role of value judgements in the construction of energy efficiency indicators, the energy quality problem, the boundary problem, the joint production problem and the question of isolating the underlying technical energy efficiency trend from the aggregate indicator.
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Energy efficiency improvement was an important phenomenon in the global energy balance over the past 30 years. Without energy efficiency improvements, the OECD nations would have used approximately 49% more energy than was actually consumed as of 1998. This paper first reviews energy intensity trends for the major OECD nations since 1973, considering how much of the overall reduction in E/GDP was due to energy efficiency improvement and how much was due to structural change. The bulk of the paper examines the energy efficiency policies and programs adopted in Japan, United States, and Western Europe, commenting on their effectiveness and energy savings impacts where possible. The paper also reviews the energy efficiency policies and programs adopted in California. This experience shows that well-designed policies can result in substantial energy savings, as demonstrated in the United States where nine specific policies and programs reduced primary energy use in 2002 by approximately 11%. Substantial energy savings also occurred in Japan, some European countries, and in the electricity sector in California.
Most energy policies principal objective is energy efficiency hence energy consumption is a cornerstone for sustainable growth and advancement. The main purpose of this current paper involves determining the role of energy efficiency on sustainable development. Thus, the paper adopts a conceptual approach by using current literature on energy efficiency in evaluating its purpose in sustainable growth. The paper finds that energy efficiency plays multiple roles towards sustainable economic development. For that reason, it contributes to carbon reduction which results in minimized climate change. It also results in employment creation thereby reducing poverty which enhances sustainable livelihoods. The paper also introduces an additional approach that support energy efficiency termed “energy efficient strategy for urban residential setting sustainability” which further enhances sustainable growth.
Recent legislation gives the regions and intercommunalities responsibility for the local governance of energy transition. On one hand intercommunalities are gradually being involved in the governance of energy companies; on the other hand, with the development of renewable energy sources, local and regional authorities are being encouraged to invest in energy production. They are also being encouraged to develop their action in the field of energy savings and distribution networks. The information provided by intelligent computers could clarify local policies. © Ecole nationale d'administration (ENA). Tous droits réservés pour tous pays.
Energy shortage is exacerbated by energy wastage and low efficiency, so energy efficiency has become a popular research topic. However, in most studies, the inputs and outputs of energy efficiency are selected through qualitative analysis and literature review, the rationality is not convincing. In this paper, the inputs and outputs of energy efficiency are calculated by EVA (Economic Value Added method). Number of employees in energy industry, energy consumption amount and energy services amount are chosen as the inputs while CO2 emissions per capita and industrial profit amount are chosen as the outputs. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and Malmquist index are applied to calculate the energy efficiencies of nine countries during 2008–2012. Each country has different reasons to explain the change of energy efficiency index and more flexible energy development plans should be implemented according to the changing reasons. Then the important influencing factors of energy efficiency are analyzed by Panel Regression Model. The results indicate that technology indices and management indices are the main factors of energy efficiency. Management indices' effect on energy efficiency index is occurred mainly through pure technical efficiency change index. Technology indices' effect on energy efficiency index is occurred mainly through technical progress change index.
This study approaches the measurement of energy use efficiency in the U.S. manufacturing sector from a production theoretic perspective. The method of Data Envelopment Analysis is utilized to analyze the energy efficiency for the aggregate manufacturing sector as well as for the six highest energy consuming 2-digit sectors for the period 1970–2001, and several alternative models are proposed. The new measures of energy efficiency suggested in this study do provide some additional insights and could be helpful if used alongside the traditional measure of energy efficiency based on energy intensity.