Article

“We're not in the business of housing:” Environmental gentrification and the nonprofitization of green infrastructure projects

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Environmental gentrification, or the influx of wealthy residents to historically disenfranchised neighborhoods due to new green spaces, is an increasingly common phenomenon around the globe. In particular, investments in large green infrastructure projects (LGIPs) such as New York's High Line have contributed to displacing longterm low-income residents. Many consider environmental gentrification to be an important environmental justice issue, but most of this research has focused on distributional justice; that is, quantifying whether LGIPs have indeed contributed to gentrifying neighborhoods around them. Limited work has focused on procedural justice in the context of environmental gentrification, or how planning processes can shape project outcomes. This is a particularly critical oversight because many LGIP planning processes are led by nonprofits, a governance model that has already raised important equity concerns in the context of planning and maintenance of smaller neighborhood parks. Yet less is known about the impacts of park nonprofits leading LGIPs. To address these gaps, we study the planning process of the 606, a rails-to-trails project located in Chicago, U.S. that contributed to environmental gentrification. Through interviews with key actors and a review of planning documents, we find that although delegation of leadership to park nonprofits has some benefits, a number of drawbacks also arise that might make gentrification a more likely outcome, namely the fragmentation of efforts to develop economically viable LGIPs while also preserving affordable housing. These findings suggest the need for cross-sectoral municipal planning efforts and for building more robust coalitions comprised of parks and housing nonprofits.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This privatized green space substitutes public green space and can thus be associated with new inequities. Other researchers raise concerns about gentrification (Rigolon and Németh, 2018;Sanchez and Reames, 2019). In their study of tree planting in Canadian cities, Duinker et al. (2015: 7387) argue that, even when city planning incorporates tree planting and park development in lower-income areas (disadvantaged, underprivileged) to rectify social injustice, it also increases the desirability of these areas and thus contributes to the gentrification and displacement of the original residents. ...
... In addition, high-density areas are related to justice issues in some studies (n = 4) and to downtown areas in others (n = 5). In a few cases (n = 3), injustices are localized along linear elements related to ageing infrastructure including cap parks on freeways (Houston and Zuñiga, 2019), railways (Rigolon and Németh, 2018), and the former Berlin Wall (Kowarik, 2019). For some studies (n = 6), justice issues are linked to vulnerability to flooding (Garcia-Cuerva et al., 2018;Li et al., 2020), combined sewer overflow (Heckert and Rosan, 2016), or downstream location (La Rosa and Pappalardo, 2020;William et al., 2017). ...
... Studies that show justice issues in poor minority neighborhoods and downtown areas tend to be located in the Global North, such as the US and Canada (e.g., Mandarano and Meenar, 2017;Shokry et al., 2020) and Europe (e.g., Baró et al., 2019;Li et al., 2020;Rall et al., 2019). Similarly, the studies that find justice issues along aging infrastructure or amenities, or vulnerable areas to flooding, are located in the Global North (e.g., Kowarik, 2019;Rigolon and Németh, 2018). In contrast, all of the studies that focus on marginalized communities are located in the Global South (Adegun, 2017;Anguelovski et al., 2019;Singh, 2018). ...
Article
Many cities are turning to greening efforts to increase resilience, but such efforts often favor privileged groups, thereby resulting in injustices. In this systematic review, we analyze 71 place-based studies of green infrastructure (GI) justice in cities worldwide. We draw from environmental justice scholarship, as well as climate and water justice literature to assess the state-of-the-art knowledge of urban GI justice. We examine the way GI is researched to improve our understanding of the types of injustices that exist in GI planning, siting, and implementation, providing rich insights into why injustices exist and pathways to address GI injustice. We find that research on GI justice in cities is growing and expanding its scope in terms of both the types of justice issues analyzed, and the groups of people excluded from the benefits of GI. We find that GI injustice stems from a history of unequal investment and non-participatory decision-making processes, where the unequal distribution of GI is only the “tip of the iceberg”. To address GI injustice around distribution, cities would have to offset a decades-long lack of investment and inclusivity in decision-making processes. Pathways to achieve GI justice point to assessing unbalanced power structures, directing continuous funding to community engagement programs and greening efforts, leveraging existing infrastructure through the multifunctionality of GI, and dedicating funding mechanisms for safety and maintenance. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research is needed to integrate the different dimensions of GI that are tailored to the community on the ground, and to monitor progress toward justice.
... The first by contributing to further disinvestment in green space, particularly in low-income communities of color where private resources for green space are less present (Holifield and Williams, 2014;Perkins, 2013). The second by facilitating green gentrification through the cancellation of dissenting voices to park projects in the name of the universal benefits of green space (procedural inequity) (Fernandez et al., 2021;Mullenbach et al., 2021;Rigolon and Németh, 2018). ...
... The "universally good" narrative describes green spaces as amenities that benefit all members of a community equally and unconditionally, following the aphorism a rising tide lifts all boats (Angelo, 2019;Fernandez et al., 2021;Garcia-Lamarca et al., 2021;Mullenbach, 2022;Mullenbach et al., 2021;Pérez del Pulgar et al., 2020;Rigolon and Németh, 2018). This dominant narrativepushed by the media, elected officials, and the business communityfocuses primarily on green space as a tool to boost economic development, as part of a "green growth machine" that seeks to use environmental sustainability to maximize profit (Angelo, 2019;Garcia-Lamarca et al., 2021;Gould and Lewis, 2017;Mullenbach et al., 2021). ...
... This dominant narrativepushed by the media, elected officials, and the business communityfocuses primarily on green space as a tool to boost economic development, as part of a "green growth machine" that seeks to use environmental sustainability to maximize profit (Angelo, 2019;Garcia-Lamarca et al., 2021;Gould and Lewis, 2017;Mullenbach et al., 2021). The "universally good" narrative is often seen in the context of growing or gentrifying cities and neighborhoods, and the large projects justified through this narrative generally involve public-private partnerships (Mullenbach et al., 2021;Rigolon and Németh, 2018). In this narrative, green space is seen as a neutral, technocratic tool to achieve better cities and neighborhoods (Gould and Lewis, 2017), wherein white advocates "greensplain" the benefits of parks to people of color, following a "naively colorblind environmentalism" (Fernandez et al., 2021, p. 16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Policy advocacy to address socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in access to urban green space (e.g., parks) in the U.S. and elsewhere are often stymied by two dominant narratives on green space reinforced by politicians, business leaders, and mainstream media. The first argues that green space is “nice to have” but not necessary, and the second frames green space as “universally good” for economic development. In this paper, we study counter-narratives to push for equitable green space policy relying on qualitative research with 30 U.S. policy advocates about their experiences with green space equity work. We find that counter-narratives to the “nice to have” narrative could frame green space as essential, multifunctional, and resilient infrastructure. Also, counter-narratives to the “universally good” narrative could describe green space as a setting for equitable development, cultural representation and inclusiveness, and healing for people of color. Further, counter-narratives should be tailored to specific policy campaigns by targeting audiences, seizing historical opportunities (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic), and centering the stories of disadvantaged people. These findings can be interpreted through the lens of structural racism and can provide pathways forward for advocates seeking to achieve green space equity through policy change and power building.
... For instance, the city of Chicago, Illinois (USA) selected the Trust for Public Land, a nonprofit focused on creating more urban parks in the United States, to lead the development of The 606 greenway, a multiuse trail connecting wealthy White neighborhoods to lower-income Latinx neighborhoods. Relying on a park-based nonprofit to facilitate and direct a new park development likely assisted in the rapid gentrification of nearby neighborhoods (Rigolon & Németh, 2018), fueling tensions within the community . Many park-based nonprofits are interested in increasing green space access, not necessarily protecting vulnerable renters or securing affordable housing-thus perpetuating colonial practices of creating nature only for certain people. ...
... Another solution is the creation of formal interdepartmental partnerships within municipal governments to avoid siloing effects, and to prevent business groups from being able to plan and monopolize urban greening based on their values and priorities (Madden, 2010;Rigolon & Németh, 2018). These partnerships would allow for more holistic and inclusive planning that recognizes diverse perspectives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Productive discourse regarding the role of racism and colonialism in conservation is growing but still limited. Inadequate recognition of these powerful forces has significantly impeded socially just conservation efforts. This paper integrates multiple disciplinary perspectives to discuss historical conservation practices in the United States and abroad to reveal challenges with moving beyond traditional approaches to conservation that perpetuate systemic racism and colonialism. Using urban greening (e.g., tree planting) in the United States as an example, we show how these challenges manifest as White ideals of nature, power disparities, and displacement and exclusion. We then put forth an agenda for antiracist, anticolonial urban conservation and urban greening. This agenda uses the tripartite environmental justice framework (i.e., distributional, recognition, and procedural justice) as a starting point, integrating and adapting more critical views of contemporary environmental justice to highlight specific policies and practices that can be applied to many conservation problems.
... In contrast to other studies in free-market, capitalist societies, Hangzhou is characterized by public land ownership and rational-comprehensive urban planning (National People's Congress Legal Work Committee, 1998). We employ CCAas way to quantify eco-gentrification, since much of the literature to date has been dominated by qualitative case studies (e.g., Rigolon and Németh, 2018;Curran and Hamilton, 2012;Pearsall, 2012). Moreover, CCA is an alternative to multiple linear regression analyses (e.g., Anguelovski et al., 2018;Luz et al., 2019), where only one gentrification index is typically designated the dependent variable. ...
... Larger scale urban greening projects are increasingly regarded as an unwelcome category of land use by low-income residents and ethno-racial minori ties (Anguelovski, 2016) (see Table 2). Urban greening projects that ignore residents' concerns, views, aspirations and/or preferences may constitute a type of procedural injustice (Rigolon and Németh, 2018). Overall, the net effects of green gentrification exacerbate socio-spatial disparities of urban greenspace distribution in cities, a situation warranting closer attention (Byrne, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban green spaces can improve residents’ health and well-being. However, international research shows that urban greening can produce gentrification effects. A dilemma for planners is determining whether the scale of greening or the characteristics of green spaces is driving gentrification. In this article, Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and field investigations are used to assess the potential gentrification effects of a new public green space in the urban central area of Hangzhou, China. Hangzhou is one of China’s ‘garden cities’, but rapid urbanization and climate change are increasing urban heat-island impacts, requiring large-scale urban greening. The two-stage CCA not only confirms the green gentrification phenomenon within the study area but suggests that large green spaces appear to foster gentrification due to their functional benefits, favorable policy support, elaborate embellishments, and strict management and maintenance regimes. Appropriate policy responses may include using a ‘just green enough’ approach: whereby distributed smaller green spaces, with less stringent maintenance could resolve the green gentrification paradox.
... Despite the multiple co-benefits of urban greening, the deployment of a green city agenda has been demonstrated to increasingly contribute to green or environmental gentrification, a significant environmental justice issue with considerable impacts on securing affordable and stable housing for socially vulnerable groups (Immergluck and Balan 2018, Rigolon and Németh 2018, Rice et al. 2020. Urban greening has been connected to distributive (fairness of outcomes), procedural (perceptions of processes that lead to outcomes), and interactional (understood as the perceived degree one is treated with dignity and respect according to identities and needs during the processes) inequities due to real estate speculation, socio-cultural exclusion in new greened areas, as well as siloed and reactive approaches to green planning Connolly 2021, Garcia-Lamarca et al. 2021). ...
... parks, gardens, greenways, green roofs, restored waterfronts, and climate resident infrastructure) (Dooling 2009, Gould andLewis 2016). Green amenities are intended to offer ecological and climate benefits while improving quality of life, health, and well-being for those who have access to or are exposed to these spaces (Margarita et al. 2015, Rigolon and Németh 2018, Triguero-Mas et al. 2020, Argüelles et al. 2021. Despite those expected widespread benefits, the development of new green amenities may act as a catalyst for unintended (and sometimes also intended) impacts such as increased housing values and prices hence harnessing new attractiveness and profit as well as good health, but only for residents of higher socio-economic class (Cole et al. 2019, Black and Richards 2020, Bockarjova et al. 2020, Rice et al. 2020. ...
Article
Green or environmental gentrification has been shown to be directly related to residential physical and socio-cultural displacement and insecure housing conditions among socially or racially underprivileged residents, with clear related health impacts. In this context, those vulnerable groups become unable to benefit from the social, well-being, and overall health benefits of green amenities. To date, despite increasing gentrification and related civic concerns, cities in North America and Europe are still slow to respond. Siloed and reactive planning approaches to (re)development and greening generally do not include housing security and affordability provisions in ways that would be strategic and equity-driven. In this Commentary, we call for further research on the mix of policies and tools that posit multi-sectoral and de-siloed greening agendas in coordination with affordable and stable housing. We open the discussion on four justice-driven policies and tools presented in the Policy Tools for Urban Green Justice (BCNUEJ 2021) report that derives from research conducted in 40 cities, analyzing 480 interviews with key neighborhood stakeholders across Europe and North America. We also call for research that identifies how urban policy developments and anti-gentrification and anti-displacement strategies can be combined with inclusive greening tools to build healthy, green cities for all.
... Urban renewal oriented by environmental improvement can bring ecological, social, and economic benefits [3] . However, under the leadership of "urban green growth machine coalitions" [4] , the government incorporates environmental justice initiatives into economic development opportunities. Most of the environmental improvement projects are implemented by developers oriented by economic interests, ignoring the social and economic vulnerability of original residents. ...
... Environmental gentrification is an environmental justice issue, Environmental justice not only includes distributional justice, also should rely on procedural justice. In addition, these processes should entails interactional justice [4] . ...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of the post-industrial era, environmental improvements and sustainable initiatives that lack sufficient attention to the social justice aspects of environmental changes generates environmental gentrification. The purpose of this paper is to systematically explore the frontiers of gentrification research and the knowledge base of environmental gentrification. Therefore, based on Web of Science Core Collection Database, this paper analysed the progress and hotpots of environmental gentrification using CiteSpace, identified keywords relevant to environmental gentrification and their frequency of co-occurrence using the function of keyword co-occurrence analysis, recognized top ten clusters using the function of cluster analysis. Environmental gentrification is the frontier on gentrification research, which knowledge base and hotpots research should arouse our attention. This paper can help readers to understand the status quo and development trend of environmental gentrification better, recognize defect in the development of environmental gentrification, and provide a promising direction for future research.
... Procedural justice refers to the notion that communities are given an adequate and fair say in policies and procedures directly associated with planning, integration, and trajectory (Low, 2013;Whyte, 2011). In the neoliberal climate of many urban areas, policy makers often team with private investors to develop new greenspaces without consulting racially marginalized communities or considering equity issues, such as residential displacement or community gentrification (Gould & Lewis, 2016;Rigolon & Németh, 2018). Given that park development and distribution has become highly dependent on private funding, policy decisions, including those that spur gentrification, often favor affluent, White residents because of their profitability in the marketplace (Caputo, 2014). ...
... Although there is no ending to the story, research has shed light on similar communities where racially marginalized residents have advocated for UGS, only to be displaced from their neighborhood due to environmental gentrification (e.g., Rigolon et al., 2020;Rigolon & Németh, 2018). We crafted the narrative not to tell the story of gentrification, but to highlight the subtle, mundane, and often unacknowledged acts by institutions and individuals that serve to create environmental injustices (Walker, 2009;Young, 1990). ...
Article
While urban greenspaces play an important role in shaping the cultural and social dimensions of cities, these spaces are also inherently political, often serving to perpetuate the exclusion and subordination of racially marginalized populations. Drawing upon critical race theory, the purpose of this research is to use narratives to highlight how race, structural racism, White privilege, and power continue to shape environmental injustices in the urban landscape. By sharing these stories, we illustrate how (a) environmental injustices stemming from structural and overt racism are often positioned as ordinary experiences, (b) the racialized state continues to foster environmental injustices in Latinx communities, and (c) how techniques of what we refer to as “greensplaining” are deployed by environmentalists and conservationists as further justification for White privilege, racialized marginalization, and processes of gentrification.
... This can unfortunately, in places, lead to a greenwashing of strategic or locally defined objectives. The greening of North American cities to promote greenest city brands are examples of this that may lead to gentrification (Rigolon and Németh, 2018;Nesbitt et al., 2019). It is therefore essential to unpack the political, financial and socio-cultural values embedded within discussions of regeneration if we are to appreciate its utility as a long-term promoter of sustainable development (Couch et al., 2003). ...
... However, a further consideration is needed to assess the potential disservices associated with GI investment. This can take the form of displacement as a result of gentrification and structural changes in local economic conditions (Nesbitt et al., 2018;Rigolon and Németh, 2018), a shift in emphasis on local environmental conditions that fail to meet local needs, i.e., of specific ethnic communities or age groups (CABE Space, 2005;Cleary et al., 2019), and the installation of specific forms of GI that lead to health inequalities or which promote antisocial behavior (Jennings et al., 2019;Roman et al., 2020). All investment in GI therefore needs to be cognizant of the benefits and disservices that may develop because of landscape change. ...
Article
Full-text available
The alignment of Green Infrastructure (GI) planning principles with urban regeneration mandates can have a significant impact on the long-term socioeconomic and ecological functionality of an area. As a mechanism to address landscape dereliction GI has been promoted as offering a suite of options to revitalize denuded spaces. This can take many forms including tree planting, waterfront redevelopment, the regeneration of former industrial sites, and a rethinking of spaces to make them more ecologically diverse. However, the successes seen in GI-led regeneration need to be considered in terms of the geographical, political, and socioeconomic context. The following provides a review of regeneration projects that have integrated GI into development principles, examining whether these have led to positive change. Through a reflection on the scale, focus and location of these projects we discuss the factors that have shaped investment before identifying key factors that influence the inclusion of GI in regeneration works. The paper concludes that we have a growing catalogue of projects that can be used as a "green print" to align GI with regeneration to successfully delivery landscape rehabilitation and socioeconomic revitalization.
... Plans should outline steps to ensure residents feel comfortable participating in city governance. In fact, research suggests that procedural justice is critical in order to avoid harm (cultural, social, and economic) (Finewood et al., 2019;O'Brien et al., 2017;Rigolon & Németh, 2018). This can be done via resident steering communities, closely partnering with local non-profits and activist organizations rooted in the neighborhoods of interest and delivering on city support for the outlined needs or priorities of residents. ...
... green gentrification) through proactive planning and policies. For example, displacement is a predictable outcome that can be addressed (Rigolon & Németh, 2018). Finally, we call for planners, geographers, and other social scientists to further examine justice in GI planning decisions, and what the long-term impacts are to the communities where GI is placed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green infrastructure (GI) has become a panacea for cities working to enhance sustainability and resilience. While the rationale for GI primarily focuses on its multifunctionality (e.g. delivering multiple ecosystem services to local communities), uncertainties remain around how, for whom, and to what extent GI delivers these services. Additionally, many scholars increasingly recognize potential disservices of GI, including gentrification associated with new GI developments. Building on a novel dataset of 119 planning documents from 19 U.S. cities, we utilize insights from literature on justice in urban planning to examine the justice implications of criteria used in the siting of GI projects. We analyze the GI siting criteria described in city plans and how they explicitly or implicitly engage environmental justice. We find that justice is rarely explicitly discussed, yet the dominant technical siting criteria that focus on stormwater and economic considerations have justice implications. We conclude with recommendations for centering justice in GI spatial planning. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Historically, community development has been characterized by a holistic approach to community wellbeing, integrating economic, social, and environmental concerns. As such, community development can be effective at addressing a wide range of gentrification's consequences Rigolon & Németh, 2018). For macro social workers, both the processes and outcomes of community development matter: At best, community development increases resident power and self-determination while also improving the quality of life in a given area. ...
... In areas with existing community development organizations, residents may find that staff are operating in silos (Rigolon & Németh, 2018), and programs are not as nimble as residents wish when confronting emerging neighborhood needs. In the United States, community development is often associated with a community development corporation (CDC), a particular form of non-governmental organization that is increasingly focused on affordable housing development (Sites et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gentrification can be understood as the process through which geographical areas become increasingly exclusive, which disproportionately harms people living in poverty and people of color, as well as the elderly, families, and youth. As such, this article argues that macro social work practitioners should view gentrification as a key concern. Thus, to help guide macro interventions, the article begins by first defining gentrification and describing ways to measure it, while emphasizing its difference from revitalization. Second, the article explores causes of gentrification, including its relationship to systemic racism. Third, the article explores the consequences of gentrification on individuals’ and communities’ well-being, considering how these consequences can influence macro practice. Finally, the article provides insight into ways that macro practitioners can strategically with others to prevent gentrification, mitigate its harms, and proactively support community well-being in areas threatened by gentrification.
... Researchers contend that environmental gentrification is not always an unintended consequence of regulatory processes and procedures. Rather, city governments, private funders, real estate developers, and political, economic, and cultural elites work together in coalitions that exploit underserved neighborhoods with low property values to deliberately establish "neighborhood revitalization projects" that attract higher-income, primeage, environmentally-minded professionals [27]. This collaboration in neoliberal urbanism satisfies the needs of public agencies and private developers through increased property tax revenues and substantial price premiums at the cost of social equity. ...
... Climate change is set to reshape future population distributions, triggering large-scale migrations away from affected areas and disproportionately escalating existing hardships faced by low-socioeconomic status populations [55][56][57]. Amid an unraveling climate crisis, a lack of consideration for affordable housing in urban reform, renewal, revitalization, and redevelopment plans endangers the health and wellbeing of the working class and low-income households who are essential to a functioning economy [27]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on green-certified buildings has often been focused on the benefits of green standards, such as energy efficiency, smart growth, resource conservation, and health protection. Recent studies suggest the adoption of a reductionist sustainability planning language can turn green-certified houses into luxury goods, attracting White, prime-age, college-educated households with some pro-environmental attitudes who replace existing long-term, lower-income residents in core urban areas. While many factors may work together in driving neighborhood change and gentrification in cities, the question this study aims to address is to what extent the supply of green-certified units can affect neighborhood change and gentrification? We use Central Virginia's Multiple Listing Service (MLS) housing market transactions data and the U.S. Census Bureau's socioeconomic data to present the differential effect of new construction of market-rate, green-certified units in a natural experiment using difference-indifferences estimates. We find that neighborhoods that include new, green-certified units have experienced a statistically significant increase in population, supporting new construction and positively affecting house prices. We also detect some negative effects on minorities and minority owners, but these effects have not yet reached statistical significance. This study finds strong evidence of green housing providing the conditions that make areas ripe for gentrification, but more studies should follow up to better measure and generalize this finding.
... The Atlanta Belt Line provides one striking example of a greenway project that has quickly transformed vacant properties and distorted real estate markets in surrounding neighborhoods, quickly driving displacement [49]. According to Rigolon and Nemeth, this has also occurred in Chicago in the vicinity of the 303, also known as the Bloomingdale Trail, a greenway project that connected working-class communities on the northwest side of the city by transforming an old abandoned rail line into an accessible multi-use trail [50]. Like Kowarik, they focus on the planning process in evaluating the outcomes of the trail development, and find that the expansion in green space access brought unanticipated consequences in terms of market-driven displacement as the 303's popularity surged. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vacant, abandoned or unproductive land parcels, sometimes called “wastelands”, offer opportunities to create new green spaces in cities. Such spaces may be utilized to add to the stock of urban nature, expand recreational green space, promote real estate or commercial development, or simply remain undefined. These various trajectories have significant implications for population health, ecosystem services and real estate values. However, they may also contribute to inequitable outcomes. Are disadvantaged communities, which may be paradoxically rich in wastelands, more advantaged when green space redevelopment occurs, or are they more at risk of green gentrification and associated displacement? To address this question, we first review some of the literature relative to wastelands, especially as they relate to processes of urban change such as depopulation, land use planning, regrowth and gentrification. We utilize historical redlining maps, the Detroit Master Plan and projected land use scenarios from the Detroit Future City (DFC) Strategic Framework Plan to identify areas of vulnerability or possibility within walking distance of the proposed Joe Louis Greenway (JLG). Finally, we consider how wastelands situated along the JLG may be reframed as flexible opportunity spaces, their potential leveraged to advance environmental justice, economic opportunity, and social equity, especially as the City of Detroit takes socioeconomic and racial equity as a key orienting principle—an alternative to green gentrification that we call green reparations.
... Siloing, or the tendency for sectors of government and activism to not interact, is a common challenge in urban governance 28 . This is arguably especially pronounced in the housing and environmental sectors in US cities, and we heard from housing and environmental professionals and activists that they struggled to elevate the crucial intersections of the two in their respective work. ...
... designed environment and human well-being. For example, it is well documented that the addition of greenspace to cities in the U.S., Europe, and China has been associated with gentrification processes that exclude vulnerable populations and contribute to housing affordability problems in dense urban areas (Bryson, 2013;Dooling, 2009;Rigolon & Németh, 2018;Rutt & Gulsrud, 2016;Wolch et al., 2014). If scientists collaboratively participate in expansions of urban greenspace through collaborative experiments, design, or planning projects with local municipalities, they bear some moral responsibility for the impacts of those projects on marginalized communities. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is increasingly common for plant scientists and urban planning and design professionals to collaborate on interdisciplinary teams that integrate scientific experiments into public and social urban spaces. However, neither the procedural ethics that govern scientific experimentation, nor the professional ethics of urban design and planning practice, fully account for the possible impacts of urban ecological experiments on local residents and communities. Scientists that participate in design and planning teams act as decision‐makers, and must expand their domain of ethical consideration accordingly. Conversely, practitioners who engage in ecological experiments take on the moral responsibilities inherent in generation of knowledge. To avoid potential harm to human and non‐human inhabitants of cities while maintaining scientific and professional integrity in research and practice, an integrated ethical framework is needed for urban ecological planning and design. While there are many ethical and procedural guidelines for scientists who wish to inform decision‐making and public policy, urban ecologists are increasingly embedded in planning and design teams to integrate scientific measurements and experiments into urban landscapes. These scientists are not just informing decision‐making – they are themselves acting as decision‐makers. As such, researchers take on additional moral obligations beyond scientific procedural ethics when designing and conducting ecological design and planning experiments. We describe the growing field of urban ecological design and planning and present a framework for expanding the ethical considerations of socioecological researchers and urban practitioners who collaborate on interdisciplinary teams. Drawing on existing ethical frameworks from a range of disciplines, we outline possible ways in which ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners should expand the traditional ethical considerations of their work to ensure that urban residents, communities, and non‐human entities are not harmed as researchers and practitioners carry out their individual obligations to clients, municipalities, and scientific practice. We present an integrated framework to aid in the development of ethical codes for research, practice, and education in integrated urban ecology, socioenvironmental sciences, and design and planning. It is increasingly common for plant scientists and urban planning and design professionals to collaborate on interdisciplinary teams that integrate scientific experiments into public and social urban spaces. However, neither the procedural ethics that govern scientific experimentation, nor the professional ethics of urban design and planning practice, fully account for the possible impacts of urban ecological experiments on local residents and communities. Scientists that participate in design and planning teams act as decision‐makers, and must expand their domain of ethical consideration accordingly. Conversely, practitioners who engage in ecological experiments take on the moral responsibilities inherent in generation of knowledge. To avoid potential harm to human and non‐human inhabitants of cities while maintaining scientific and professional integrity in research and practice, an integrated ethical framework is needed for urban ecological planning and design.
... According to Rigolon and Nemeth (2018), environmental gentrification, or the influx of wealthy residents to historically deprived neighbourhoods due to new green infrastructure, is an increasingly common phenomenon around the globe with investments in large green infrastructure projects, such as New York High Line, have contributed to displacing long-term low-income residents. Therefore, many consider environmental gentrification to be an important environmental justice issue that definitely warrants further research, as the increase in the desirability of a greener urban environment is likely to include gentrification as one of the less desirable outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: As sustainability is quickly becoming a predominant concept at the heart of the 21st century living and thinking, as well as planning for the near future, it has become obvious that financial viability is one of its core determinants. The aim of this paper has been to study the prospects of greater implementation of green infrastructure (GI) and especially green roofs (GR) in Croatia. Methodology: Theoretical framework is based on the relevant literature review, which has been conducted using qualitative methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, induction and deduction. The empirical part of the study has been conducted as a survey amongst the civil engineering students, using questionnaire as the survey instrument. Results: The theoretical part of the research identified the relevance of costs in GI implementation and its social and economic effects, circularity principles and EU funding options. Empirical findings indicate that the majority of Millennials from the sample find the implementation of GI to be financially demanding. Moreover, they are largely unaware of the availability of EU funding for such purpose and find the frugality aspect of green roof implementation very important. Conclusion: It is acknowledged that financial viability is inevitable when considering the implementation of GI. The level of environmental awareness among Croatian Millennials is satisfactory. However, considering they were not sufficiently aware of the EU funding available for this purpose, there is a need to raise awareness among this population segment, as they are future decision-makers.
... In Korea, the main focus was on the level of user satisfaction [84][85][86] and the economic value [87,88] that green areas and parks can provide to residential and living environments. Overseas, research was conducted on human health and well-being [89][90][91][92], public health [93][94][95], and equity using green infrastructure [96][97][98] provided by green infrastructure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Government-level ESG (environmental, social, and governance) institutionalization and active ESG activation in the private sector are being discussed for the first time this year in Korea, spurred by increased national interest since the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the declaration of a carbon-neutral society by 2050, and ESG discussion in many fields is spreading rapidly. In addition, global awareness of the crisis caused by environmental pollution and natural disasters has highlighted the importance of green infrastructure (GI) as a new conceptual alternative to improve public value. Based on sustainability, which is a common goal of ESG and green infrastructure, this study aimed to examine the research targets and techniques of green infrastructure from the perspective of ESG. This study selected and analyzed 98 domestic and international academic journal papers published over the past 10 years in the Web of Science academic journal database literature collection. Focusing on the research subjects, the focus on green infrastructure, and research keywords, we examined the aspects of the green infrastructure plan that have been focused on from the ESG perspective and compared domestic and international research trends. In addition, implications for how each research topic is connected to the concept of ESG according to its function and purpose were derived. By examining the domestic and international research trends of green infrastructure from the ESG perspective, we identified the need for a wider range of research on the diversity and relationship between humans and the ecological environment; policies and systems; and technical research that does not focus only on a specific field. In this regard, we intend to increase the contribution to ESG management in the public sector through the establishment of green infrastructure plans and policies in the future, as they account for a large portion of public capital.
... The distribution of GI also varies due to the specificities of urban form, historical decision-making, perceived need and, in a number of cases, demographic diversity [69,70]. Furthermore, due to higher densities, urban areas have less significant proportions of GI (m 2 or overall proportion (%) of greenspace) compared to suburban or rural areas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Covid-19 changed the way many people viewed and interacted with the natural environment. In the UK, a series of national lockdowns limited the number of places that individuals could use to support their mental and physical health. Parks, gardens, canals and other ”green infrastructure” (GI) resources remained open and were repositioned as “essential infrastructure” supporting well-being. However, the quality, functionality and location of GI in urban areas illustrated a disparity in distribution that meant that in many cases communities with higher ethnic diversity, lower income and greater health inequality suffered from insufficient access. This paper provides commentary on these issues, reflecting on how planners, urban designers and environmental organizations are positioning GI in decision-making to address inequality. Through a discussion of access and quality in an era of austerity funding, this paper proposes potential pathways to equitable environmental planning that address historical and contemporary disenfranchisement with the natural environment in urban areas.
... This poses a challenge for the densification of cities and puts pressure on preserving and promoting the natural environment as much as possible in densely populated areas. Thus, recent studies on urban greening have pointed out the environmental justice and importance of small-scale solutions, as they enable access to nature in cities more widely than large-scale and more concentrated urban green projects, while most likely being easier to implement [12,13]. point cloud data, focusing on the local scale. ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of ensuring the adequacy of urban ecosystem services and green infrastructure has been widely highlighted in multidisciplinary research. Meanwhile, the consolidation of cities has been a dominant trend in urban development and has led to the development and implementation of the green factor tool in cities such as Berlin, Melbourne, and Helsinki. In this study, elements of the green factor tool were monitored with laser-scanned and photogrammetrically derived point cloud datasets encompassing a yard in Espoo, Finland. The results show that with the support of 3D point clouds, it is possible to support the monitoring of the local green infrastructure, including elements of smaller size in green areas and yards. However, point clouds generated by distinct means have differing abilities in conveying information on green elements, and canopy covers, for example, might hinder these abilities. Additionally, some green factor elements are more promising for 3D measurement-based monitoring than others, such as those with clear geometrical form. The results encourage the involvement of 3D measuring technologies for monitoring local urban green infrastructure (UGI), also of small scale.
... Yhdysvaltalaiset tutkijat suosittavat, että samalla kun tehdään panostuksia ympäristöön, pitäisi lisätä kohtuuhintaista asumista (Maantay & Maroko 2018;Rigolon ym. 2019;Rigolon & Németh 2018;Rigolon & Németh 2020). Kohtuuhintaista asumista voi kuitenkin olla vaikea lisätä enää sitten, kun kiinteistöjen hinnat ovat lähteneet nousuun. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kaupungistuminen jatkuu ja kaupunkimaisen elämäntyylin suosio kasvaa edelleen. Taloudellisten kasvuvaatimusten lisäksi kaupungit yrittävät nyt pikaisesti vastata kestävän kehityksen vaatimuksiin. Käynnissä on kaupunkien kestävyysmurros, jota tehdään erilaisten kestävyystoimien avulla. Käyttämättömäksi jääneitä teollisuusalueita puhdistetaan ja muutetaan asuin- ja liikekäyttöön, puistoja ja viheralueita rakennetaan teollisen infrastruktuurin tilalle, kiinteistöihin tehdään energiaremontteja ja alueita valmistellaan kohtaamaan ilmastonmuutoksen seuraukset. Kaupunkien kestävyystoimet nostavat asumisen hintaa ja houkuttelevat hyvätuloisia ihmisiä ydinkaupunkiin palveluiden, liikenneyhteyksien ja puistojen äärelle. Tässä kirjallisuuskatsauksessa tarkastelen ekogentrifikaatiota. Tutkimuskirjallisuuden pohjalta tekemäni määritelmän mukaan ekogentrifikaatio on symbolisten ja/tai materiaalisten ekologisten toimien avulla tahallisesti tai tahattomasti tuotettua alueen asukasrakenteen sosioekonomista muutosta varakkaiden alueeksi. Etsin tutkimuskirjallisuudesta vastausta kysymykseen, miten kaupunkien kestävyysmurros mahdollisesti vaikuttaa alueelliseen erilaistumiseen. Kysyn kirjallisuudelta, millaisia muotoja ekogentrifikaatiolla on, miten kestävyysmurros vaikuttaa alueellisen erilaistumisen dynamiikkaan ja mitä asialle pitäisi tehdä. Vastaavaa keskustelua ei olla Suomessa vielä juuri käyty. Tutkimus tuo lisää tietoa kestävyysmurroksen toisinaan yllättävistäkin sosiaalisista seurauksista. Ekohyvinvointivaltion kehittämisessä näihin tulee kiinnittää huomiota, mikä edellyttää empiirisen tutkimuksen kohdistamista kaupunkien kestävyystoimien moninaisiin vaikutuksiin.
... The term "green gentrification" refers to the displacement of low income residents and neighborhood businesses caused by increases in housing prices and influxes of wealthy and often white residents that often accompanies greening projects implemented to serve longtime residents in low-income neighborhoods (Rigolon and Christensen, 2000;Rigolon and Németh, 2018;Chen et al., 2021). Greening projects contribute to a broader environmental agenda (i.e., densification, mixed uses, green infrastructure and walkability) focused on sustainable urban forms and human wellbeing (Haase et al. 2017). ...
... Further, nonprofit provision might have unintended consequence. For example, nonprofits supporting urban greening projects might facilitate environmental gentrification due to rise in property values due to new green spaces (Rigolon and Németh 2018). ...
... Stakeholder engagement that reaches "hard-to-reach" and underrepresented communities is particularly important to avoid unintended consequences of NNBF. For example, there are now several high-profile examples of "green gentrification," such as East Boston Greenway (Anguelovski and Connolly 2021), Chicago's 606 rails-to-trails (Rigolon and Németh 2018), and New York High Line (Wolch et al., 2014). These projects led to rapid commercial and property development, escalating property values and eventual displacement of vulnerable community members. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal communities around the world are facing increased coastal flooding and shoreline erosion from factors such as sea-level rise and unsustainable development practices. Coastal engineers and managers often rely on gray infrastructure such as seawalls, levees and breakwaters, but are increasingly seeking to incorporate more sustainable natural and nature-based features (NNBF). While coastal restoration projects have been happening for decades, NNBF projects go above and beyond coastal restoration. They seek to provide communities with coastal protection from storms, erosion, and/or flooding while also providing some of the other natural benefits that restored habitats provide. Yet there remain many unknowns about how to design and implement these projects. This study examines three innovative coastal resilience projects that use NNBF approaches to improve coastal community resilience to flooding while providing a host of other benefits: 1) Living Breakwaters in New York Harbor; 2) the Coastal Texas Protection and Restoration Study; and 3) the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay. We synthesize findings from these case studies to report areas of progress and illustrate remaining challenges. All three case studies began with innovative project funding and framing that enabled expansion beyond a sole focus on flood risk reduction to include multiple functions and benefits. Each project involved stakeholder engagement and incorporated feedback into the design process. In the Texas case study this dramatically shifted one part of the project design from a more traditional, gray approach to a more natural hybrid solution. We also identified common challenges related to permitting and funding, which often arise as a consequence of uncertainties in performance and long-term sustainability for diverse NNBF approaches. The Living Breakwaters project is helping to address these uncertainties by using detailed computational and physical modeling and a variety of experimental morphologies to help facilitate learning while monitoring future performance. This paper informs and improves future sustainable coastal resilience projects by learning from these past innovations, highlighting the need for integrated and robust monitoring plans for projects after implementation, and emphasizing the critical role of stakeholder engagement.
... Globally, efforts to rapidly expand land protection could directly affect the livelihoods of more than a billion people, creating risks for community harms as well as potential opportunities (Alix-Garcia et al 2018, Naidoo et al 2019, Schleicher et al 2019, Zafra-Calvo et al 2019. Past conservation efforts have often actively and passively dispossessed marginalized people through displacement, loss of traditional user rights, environmental gentrification, exclusionary zoning and redevelopment that does not meet community priorities (Spence 1999, Heckert and Mennis 2012, Lang and Rothenberg 2017, Rigolon and Németh 2018, Anguelovski et al 2019, Carmichael and McDonough 2019. ...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial funding is being allocated to new land protection and access to protected open space for marginalized communities is a crucial concern. Using New England as a study area, we show striking disparities in the distribution of protected open space across multiple dimensions of social marginalization. Using a quartile-based approach within states, we find that communities in the lowest income quartile have just 52% as much nearby protected land as those in the most affluent quartile. Similarly, communities with the highest proportions of people of color have just 47% as much protected land as those in the lowest quartile. These disparities persist across both public and private protected land, within urban, exurban and rural communities, for different sized buffers around communities, and across time. To help address these disparities in future conservation plans, we develop a screening tool to identify and map communities with high social marginalization and low nearby protected open space within each state. We then show that areas prioritized according to these environmental justice criteria are substantially different from areas prioritized according to conventional conservation criteria. This demonstrates how incorporating environmental justice criteria in conservation prioritization processes could shift patterns of future land protection. Our work provides methods that can be used broadly across regions to inform conservation efforts.
... These risks can be mitigated in the planning, implementation and management of infrastructure. In the case of New York's High Line, changes in the planning process could have led to a different outcome: it highlights the need for cross-sectoral municipal planning efforts and for building more robust coalitions; in this case, it is between parks and housing organisations (Rigolon and N emeth, 2018). Linking these actors together could have ensured the project remains affordable, bridging environmental and economic goals, thus avoiding gentrification. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the article is to present some preliminary findings and discussions points from a symposium on Public Outdoor Spaces and COVID-19 organised in Wageningen, The Netherlands, in June 2021. Design/methodology/approach The article argues for a salutogenic perspective on infrastructure planning and design, dealing with the interplay between the ideas and practices of infrastructure planning and design and the outcomes of those ideas and practices for health. Findings Within that perspective, the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis is seen as an opportunity to revive the importance of infrastructure in promoting health and well-being. Originality/value The salutogenic approach adds a much-needed new perspective on infrastructure planning and design, and also involves challenges both in research and practice, for the application of holistic principles to the design of new environments.
... A key consideration is how GI programs aimed at enhancing the adoption of GI features in private spaces drive environmental inequity. Not only are GI features, such as street and yard trees, rain gardens, and bioswales, unevenly distributed in the socio-demographic landscape of cities (Greene et al., 2011;Kardan et al., 2015;Locke and Grove, 2016;Bratman et al., 2019), but adding these features in disadvantaged urban areas-meaning low-income, low-education areas with more minority populations-may enhance inequity by, for example, raising housing prices (Rigolon and Németh, 2018). GI outreach programs usually conduct their work where it is easiest, not just in terms of existing GI infrastructure or available space, but also in terms of social barriers to GI adoption, such as focusing on high-income neighbourhoods with relatively homogenous white, older, and highly educated populations (Locke and Grove, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Green infrastructure (GI) features in private residential outdoor space play a key role in expanding GI networks in cities and provide multiple co-benefits to people. However, little is known about residents’ intended behavior concerning GI in private spaces. Resident homeowners in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) voluntarily participated in an anonymous postal survey (n=533) containing questions related to likelihood to install additional GI features in their private outdoor space; experiences with this space, such as types of uses; and environmental concerns and knowledge. We describe the association between these factors and people’s intention to install GI in private residential outdoor space. Factors such as environmental concerns and knowledge did not influence likelihood to install GI. However, experiences with private residential outdoor space, such as nature uses of this space, level of self-maintenance of this space, and previously installed GI features, were significant influences on the likelihood to install GI. These findings have important implications for managing GI initiatives and the adoption of GI in private residential spaces, such as orienting communication materials around uses of and experiences with outdoor space, having programs that generate direct experiences with GI features, and considering environmental equity in such programs.
... Multiple theories and frameworks have been adapted from related fields and applied to green gentrification. The urban growth machine (Molotch, 1976) has been re-envisioned as a "green growth machine" promoting green economic growth that will purportedly benefit everyone through trickle-down effects (Glennie, 2020;Loughran, 2014;Lang and Rothenberg, 2017;Mullenbach et al., 2021;Rigolon and Németh, 2018). The "sustainability fix" (While et al., 2004) describing how environmental objectives are selectively integrated into urban planning as a means of encouraging capital accumulation (Curran and Hamilton, 2012;Goodling et al., 2015;Montgomery, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic literature review identifies and critiques methodological trends in green gentrification research (focusing on studies of vegetative greening) and provides suggestions for advancing this field. Findings reveal (1) research has largely focused on U.S. case studies; (2) early work employed qualitative methods but quantitative analyses have become more common; (3) little attention has been paid to the influence of greening characteristics/functions and non-greening factors on gentrification; (4) the mechanisms through which greening leads to gentrification are not well understood, particularly on the demand side; and (5) despite being the main concern of green gentrification, displacement has not been well-documented.
... The interstitial spaces of urban sprawl present different environmental values that are also discussed regarding their ideological meanings while supporting narratives of climate change (Matthews et al. 2015), environmental justice (Ambrey et al. 2017), the right to the city ( Rigolon, Németh 2018), and health and social wellbeing (Tzoulas et al. 2007). As such, they serve as a conceptual basis for the creation of institutions and programmes worldwide 'in which nature can be called to support other more dominant (or 'harder') political discourses' such as 'ecological modernisation' (Thomas, Littlewood 2010: 212). ...
Article
Urban sprawl in Latin America is described as one of the major problems of ‘the growth machine’. As a reaction, most planning policies are based on anti-sprawl narratives, while in practice, urban sprawl has been thoroughly consolidated by all tiers of government. In this paper – and using the capital city of Chile, Santiago, as a case study – we challenge these anti-sprawl politics in light of the emerging environmental values and associated meanings of the interstitial spaces resulting from land fragmentation in contexts of urban sprawl. Looking at the interstitial spaces that lie between developments becomes relevant in understanding urban sprawl, considering that significant attention has been paid to the impact of the built-up space that defines the urban character of cities and their governance arrangements. We propose that looking at Santiago’s urban sprawl from the interstitial spaces may contribute to the creation of more sustainable sprawling landscapes and inspire modernisations beyond anti-sprawl policies. Finally, it is suggested that a more sustainable urban development of city regions might include the environmental values of suburban interstices and consider them as assets for the creation of more comprehensive planning and policy responses to urban sprawl.
Article
This article seeks to expand scholarly conceptions of green gentrification by emphasizing the complex and contradictory connections between nonhumans and humans as critical for understanding neighborhood change. Drawing from posthumanist scholarship, as well as literature on urban political ecology, urban greening, gentrification and “just green enough,” this article argues that to understand green amenities not only as sites of injustice, but rather as dynamic sites of injustice and resistance, requires disaggregating amenities from traditional conceptions of green gentrification. In doing so, it is possible to analyze the complex agencies of greenspace itself as connected to pluralized forms of (in)justice associated with race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and class. To illustrate this, I use a more-than-human framework to reconceptualize three existing “just green enough” case studies of (1) riverfront development, (2) urban linear parks, and (3) community gardens to show how injustice and resistance are not only broad-based, but unique to amenity and place. The aim of this review is to offer new ways of understanding and analyzing the dialectic of injustice and resistance associated with green gentrification.
Article
Recent research has shown that spending in urban green spaces including parks has fostered gentrification, a process known as green gentrification. But could ongoing gentrification and gentrification risk also precede local spending on new or existing parks? Focusing on the City of Los Angeles, we investigate whether park investment generated through developer fees in 2016-2018 went disproportionately to neighborhoods undergoing gentrification or at risk to gentrify. Logistic regression models show that park spending occurred disproportionately in tracts with traits of ongoing gentrification, some characteristics of gentrification risk, and higher educational attainment. Also, areas with higher proportions of Black and Asian residents saw fewer park investments. As cities around the world increasingly rely on developer fees to fund public amenities, planners and policymakers should develop strategies to ensure such investments do not accelerate existing gentrification and displacement of the most marginalized.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report examines the risk of displacement from sea level rise and the secondary risk of inland displacement in low-income communities on higher ground in Florida. Through mapping, policy analysis, and interviews, we identify key at risk areas for both types of displacement, assess policies in place to slow coastal displacement and stabilize inland neighborhoods, and identify future pathways and existing tensions with planners, community advocates, and public managers in Miami-Dade, Pinellas, and Duval counties.
Article
News media have the power to influence public opinion and economic growth. News coverage of landmark urban parks may influence public support of such parks, potentially increasing economic growth. However, some landmark urban parks have been associated with gentrification and displacement. News media may implicitly support local economic growth to the detriment of vulnerable residents through uncritical, positive coverage of park projects. However, the nature of press coverage of landmark urban parks has been scantly studied. This study analyzed news coverage of three landmark urban parks to understand how news media portray such parks and the voices they represent, using comparative thematic analysis. We found both broad support of parks, contributing to a societal master narrative of parks as a universal good, and some critique. Altogether, positive press coverage outweighed criticism. Uncritical promotion of parks could result in continued creation of landmark parks that threaten to facilitate gentrification and displacement.
Article
In 2011 the St. Louis Metropolitan Sewer District developed a geographically bifurcated gray and green approach addressing aging sanitary and stormwater infrastructure in the region. This approach maps tightly to the region’s persistent patterns of racial segregation allocating green infrastructure to areas of North St. Louis which is majority Black and where significant disinvestment has taken place. While green infrastructure often is hailed as a more equitable way to address urban flooding, a crucial question remains as to how urban greening strategies grapple with persistent urban inequities. This article examines the relationship between geographically uneven infrastructural investments and persistent urban inequities. Drawing on six months of ethnographic and archival fieldwork on St. Louis’s wastewater redevelopment project, I argue that racial capitalism must be incorporated as a framework through which to analyze the equity dimensions of infrastructure redevelopment projects. I found that rather than contend with path dependencies of structural racism, St. Louis’s approach to wastewater redevelopment relies on geographies of racial capitalism to save costs, subjecting marginalized communities to cost-saving approaches with no measures or plans to measure benefits beyond stormwater retention.
Article
A number of recent studies have examined the socioeconomic functions and side effects of environmental amenity in urban development. In this study, an urban green space is viewed as both a positive and negative environmental externality because it could be a potential contributor to gentrification. Employing the difference-in-differences method at the public use microdata areas and census-tract level, this study examines the effects of new green space characteristics on multiple gentrification indicators in New York City. Unlike previous studies, we examine the causal inference of multiple green space types and characteristics on gentrification indicators jointly, estimating a relatively short- and mid-term gentrification effect in a homogeneous institutional and geographical setting. The empirical results indicate that newly added green spaces potentially foster gentrification, influencing the replacement of the poor with wealthier inhabitants; more importantly, the gentrification effects differ depending on the type and characteristics of green spaces. A strong green gentrification effect has been observed in passive, natural and medium-sized green spaces. Taking these short-term and local-level gentrification effects of green space characteristics into consideration allows for more inclusive development and equitable outcomes.
Article
This paper explores the impact of urban parks on real estate prices making use of a hedonic price approach. Focusing on Brisbane, Australia, as a case study site, we use spatial hedonic models to analyse housing sales data across 15,000 sales transactions to investigate the effects of parks on nearby housing prices, paying attention to park typology and classification. Our findings indicate that recreational and sport parks are differently associated with price variations. The study also examines a specific and significant inner-city park currently undergoing a major redevelopment—namely Victoria Park. Our analysis of the Victoria Park site seeks to quantify the value uplift, that is, the future increase in property prices as a result of the transformation of the current private golf course in this location into a new publicly accessible parkland. This study’s property economics modelling analysis indicates the conversion of Victoria Park from a golf course to public parkland will increase property prices by an average of 3% for properties located within 750 metres of the park. The article concludes with a discussion of value capture opportunities that these findings present as well as challenges of green gentrification for this and similar urban renewal projects and possible policy responses.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak (in early 2020) has dictated significant changes in society and territories by anticipating trends, changing priorities, and creating challenges, which are manifested in the territories. These are influenced by the levels of economic, cultural, and social restructuring, in the measures implemented by public administration or in attempts to redefine strategies for tourism destinations. This paper examines the perceptions and behaviors of tourists before and during COVID-19 in the municipality of Porto, the main area of the Porto Metropolitan Area, in Portugal. Research was based on the application of a questionnaire survey, probing the sensitivity of tourists to the crisis in the decision-making of daily routines, as well as future travel plans in the presence of a serious health concern. A total of 417 surveys were collected in the summers of 2019 and 2020. In addition to descriptive statistics, this paper also includes the results of the analysis of explanatory factors, being a reference for future studies. There were significant changes in the use of public space and the way tourist visits are handled, namely: (i) the concentration of visiting time (shorter visit than usual in certain tourist profiles); (ii) spatially limited visiting areas; and (iii) the ability to attract standard tourists from certain countries where tighter lockdown rules were imposed. Main implications of this study are reflected in the challenges that are imposed on the local agenda, where traditional problems are added to the responsibilities in crisis management and the ability to establish a third order of intervention in tourism.
Article
With urban greening projects increasingly sparking conflicts with environmental and social activists, rail-to-park transformations reveal how ideas of modernity in urban planning enable the perfect “green growth machine.” Here, trains and connectivity—powerful symbols of Modernity in the 19th and 20th centuries—are interlaced with greening and sustainability, motives of the current progress paradigm, and planning orthodoxy. Through a political economy and political ecology lens, we analyze the material and symbolic assembly of two recent railway transformations—Valencia Parc Central and the Atlanta Beltline—and their associated parks. We examine the actual process under which parks are created (parks as a tangible, material object, as infrastructure) and how such a process is entangled in social, political, and economic dynamics that also shape adjacent gentrification. We argue that gentrification is implicit, yet necessary, in the process of park making. Such a process and its embedded politics shape the role that parks have in their neighborhoods and their cities, and what it is expected from them socially, politically, and financially. The conflicts arising from the park making illustrate the two speeds working within 21st century cities: the fast, modern, outward-looking competitive model and the inward-looking, caring more for local revitalization and residents’ welfare.
Article
Philanthropic foundations have assumed more significant roles in city governance through traditional grantmaking to NPOs, funding governmental services, and becoming more active in crafting and implementing community interventions. This raises important questions related to governance, political agency, and democracy. Through case studies of targeted interventions in two Pittsburgh neighborhoods, this study examines the extent to which foundation activism altered institutional environments, fostered political agency, and altered city policies towards urban revitalization. The cases show that by altering institutional environments, foundation activism provided political agency for marginalized populations. However, agency related mainly to foundation resources. While city policymaking was affected in important ways, the communities were unable to dramatically influence the government’s allocation of UR resources. Outcomes are contingent upon supportive contextual factors, disposition and actions of foundation personnel, and beset by challenges endemic to community development. The findings call for both optimism and caution for those who hope for greater community voice via philanthropic activism.
Article
Urban greening is increasingly suggested as a means of supporting the health and well-being of urban populations. Given positive relationships between vegetation and academic performance, urban greening could support scholastic achievement, enhancing future success in life. These relationships may vary among social and environmental contexts, however, suggesting greening benefits populations unequally. We investigated relationships between vegetation and academic achievement as indicated by high school graduation rates across social and environmental contexts in the continental US, assessing this variation and the potential for urban vegetation to support academic attainment. We categorized 1,333 public high schools based on the socioeconomic and environmental attributes of their attendance areas using k-means clustering. We identified variation in relationships between vegetation and graduation rate based on socioeconomic status (SES) and estimated conditional mean rates by environmental category using multilevel beta regression. We found significant variation in the relationship between school graduation rate and vegetation among vegetation types and socio-economic contexts. Graduation rates were lower in high-intensity (i.e., more extensively built), low tree-cover settings and higher in lower-intensity (i.e., less extensively built), high tree-cover or agricultural settings. Agricultural vegetation associated positively with graduation rate broadly, while non-forest vegetation exhibited negative relationships for low-SES, majority Black schools. Tree canopy exhibited positive relationships that were stronger for high-SES schools and low-SES, majority Latino/a schools. These results highlight the importance of social and environmental context in mediating relationships between vegetation and academic achievement and the need to consider these disparities in supporting academic success through urban vegetation management.
Article
Climate change is a hazard risk amplifier and contributes to changing precipitation and temperature patterns that alter an area’s risk profile. Existing infrastructure is often ill-equipped to absorb shocks associated with increased hazard frequency and severity, but active measures to implement holistic resilience plans are rare and often limited in scope. As climate change progresses, climate change-induced migration is becoming more frequent and likely, with probable changes to regionally specific needs for resilient infrastructure. People relocating to areas with actual or perceived lower risk is expected to add demand for built infrastructure and change governance needs as receiving communities grow. Anticipating demand growth can enable proactive rather than reactive investment. Here we analyze the impact of anticipated climate migration patterns on community growth in the United States (US), leveraging the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios dataset to illustratively evaluate how domestic migration might alter regional patterns for a particularly salient target of infrastructure planning: ‘tipping points’ where towns become cities and experience qualitative changes in infrastructural and governance complexity. Projected 2010–2100 town-to-city rapid urbanization patterns are different from historical (1950–2010) patterns in the US, notably shifting from the Southwest (including California) to the Southern Plains (including Texas). Climate change is expected to shift this pattern north and east, contributing to land use change and new demand for civil infrastructure in places where past development strategies might not be regionally appropriate. Urban futures are not predetermined: this illustrative analysis highlights that despite deep uncertainty, sufficient information about climate change, migration patterns, and generalizable best practices for infrastructural development exists to support proactive planning for migration. Proactive and regionally appropriate investment in civil infrastructure in regions expected to attract climate migration can facilitate resilience, sustainability, and justice under climate change, emphasizing safe, sufficient, and equitable infrastructure.
Thesis
Environmental gentrification research has tracked how neighborhoods have changed over time in relation to either the transformation of a former brownfield site or the addition to a new environmental amenity like a park or greenway (Becerra, 2013; Pearsall, 2010). Additionally, the literature has built upon these findings to ask questions about the entire process of environmental gentrification (Angluevoski, 2016; Checker, 2011) and employed qualitative methods alongside a temporospatial analysis. This paper analyzes green gentrification in the Gentilly neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana. New Orleans is threatened by a combination of high levels of air and water pollution from years of environmental racism, rising sea levels from human-induced climate change, and sinking land from both human and geological forces. Green gentrification is the process of displacement through rising home value and associated costs (such as increased insurance, tax rates, and rising mortgages) when the neighborhood receives environmental goods and benefits that were not present formerly. Through closely examining the Gentilly Resilience District, a federally funded and city-implemented water management project in its beginning stages, this research has shown that the planning process has not been inclusive of the Gentilly residents who will be directly affected or impacted by the twelve different green infrastructure projects being implemented in Gentilly. According to the New Orleans City Government, the purpose of the Gentilly Resilience District is to “reduce flood risk, slow land subsidence, and encourage neighborhood revitalization.” The city of New Orleans was awarded more than $141 million through the National Disaster Resilience Competition (NDRC) to implement elements of the Gentilly Resilience District proposal. In the summer of 2018, while a majority of the fieldwork was being completed for the thesis, participant observation and stakeholder interviews were conducted in order to understand how the voices of residents of Gentilly were or were not included in the planning of this new resilience district. Through examining the responses to survey and interview questions, this thesis also assesses whether or not consensual politics and procedural justice of the planning of the Gentilly Resilience District will impact the gentrification of Gentilly.
Article
This study asks whether deficiencies in transportation are associated with disproportionate policing in Chicago using the case of cycling. I examine how the number of bicycle citations issued per street segment are influenced by the availability of bicycle facilities and street characteristics, controlling for crash incidence, police presence, and neighborhood characteristics. Tickets were issued 8 times more often per capita in majority Black tracts and 3 times more often in majority Latino tracts compared to majority white tracts. More tickets were issued on major streets, but up to 85% fewer were issued when those streets had bike facilities, which were less prevalent in Black and Latino neighborhoods. Tickets were not associated with bicycle injury-crashes and inversely associated with vehicle injury-crashes. Infrastructure inequities compound the effects of racially-biased policing in the context of transportation safety strategies. Remedies include the removal of traffic enforcement from safe systems strategies and equitable investment in cycling.
Article
As cities strive to protect vulnerable residents from climate risks and impacts, recent studies have identified a challenging link between these measures and gentrification processes that reconfigure, but do not necessarily eliminate, climate insecurities. Green resilient infrastructure (GRI) may especially increase the vulnerability of lower income communities of color to gentrification, an issue that remains underexplored. Drawing on the forerunner green city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as our case study, this article adopts a novel intersectional approach to assess overlapping and interdependent factors in generating vulnerability and resilience using spatial quantitative data and qualitative interviews with community-based organizers, nonprofits, and municipal stakeholders. More specifically, this article develops a new methodology to assess vulnerability to future climate gentrification and contributes to debates on the role of urban development, housing, and sustainability practices in climate justice dynamics. It also informs strategies that can reduce social and racial inequities in the context of climate adaptation planning.
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of green marketing adoption on non-profitable organizations’ performance in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach A structured questionnaire was developed to collect the needed data and test the developed hypotheses to investigate the impact of green marketing adoption on non-profitable organizations’ performance. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 183 respondents in non-profitable organizations operating in Jordan. Findings The findings indicate that the extent of green marketing adoption by profitable organizations in Jordan is relatively moderate. They also confirm that the corporate performance of non-profitable organizations is positively associated with the extent of adoption of green marketing dimensions, particularly environmental and social responsibility aspects. Originality/value Reviewing the existing literature revealed that similar studies had not previously been undertaken in Jordan as a developing country.
Article
Public urban parks are valued community amenities and an integral part of an environmentally just society. Given increasing concerns of gentrification associated with urban parks, this paper critically analyzed the discourse of urban park development to understand its main message, rhetorical devices, and potential to affect praxis. I find current discourse surrounding park development overstates the ability of public urban parks to reverse trends in social stratification while understating the possible downsides to urban park development. The discourse of ‘parks-as-social-healers’ is produced by urbanists with significant sociopolitical power in their respective fields who use three distinct discursive tools to enhance the discourse's utility and efficacy. Using the power and influence of wealthy foundations to back up their claims, this discourse exerts hegemonic influence on urban public space development. Downplaying gentrification and exaggerating social benefits—hallmarks of this discourse—can lead to environmental injustices, potentially exacerbating park access disparities.
Chapter
Healthy ecosystems are intricately connected to healthy communities and human well-being. Nature-based solutions (NBS) are an important tool for water security, while also providing additional human health, climate mitigation, and livelihood benefits that contribute to multiple Sustainable Development Goals. NBS also play out in landscapes of current and historical injustices. Without explicit consideration of equity and justice, NBS risk exacerbating inequities, rather than contributing to a more just society. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of attention to distributional, procedural, and recognitional equity in NBS and review examples of real-world NBS programs and strategies to improve equity and justice outcomes. Specifically, we discuss urban green infrastructure, payments for ecosystem services, and biocultural approaches to watershed management. We conclude with emerging best practices around equitable and just NBS for water.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents research on the distribution of economic benefits from brownfield cleanup and land development. There is growing concern that cleaning up blighted areas, including brownfields, can entrench inequality by disproportionately benefiting some demographic groups more than others. We look for evidence of disproportionate benefits by relating changes in move decisions to land use activity in Chicago using a heterogeneous sorting model. Our research produces two key insights: first, Black and Hispanic households benefit less than White households from brownfield cleanup and vacant land development. Second, owners appear to benefit more than renters from cleanup and development. Overall, these results provide evidence of differences associated with race and housing tenure in who benefits from local land use actions.
Article
Collective action is one strategy urban neighborhood residents use to address community issues. However, collective action dynamics in rapidly changing urban neighborhoods are not well understood. This study used photovoice to examine perspectives on collective action and neighborhood change among residents of an urban neighborhood experiencing redevelopment in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Residents indicated that place attachment motivated and reinforced participation in collective action efforts to address neighborhood issues and to reconstruct narratives that challenged place stigmatization. Findings suggest that residents have heterogeneous perspectives about neighborhood change and local development, and simultaneously balance desires for neighborhood improvement with concerns about displacement, gentrification, and equitable development.
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale, sustainable urban development projects can transform surrounding neighborhoods. Without precautionary policies, environmental amenities produced by these projects, such as parks, trails, walkability, and higher-density development, tend to result in higher land and housing costs. This will make it harder for a low- and moderate-income households to live near the projects, and neighborhoods are likely to become increasingly affluent. The Atlanta Beltline will ultimately connect 45 Atlanta neighborhoods via a 22-mile loop of trails, parks, and eventually a streetcar, all of which follow abandoned railroad tracks. This paper examines the effect of the Beltline on housing values within one half mile. From 2011 to 2015, depending on the segment of the Beltline, values rose between 17.9 percent and 26.6 percent more for homes within a half-mile of the Beltline than elsewhere. The implications for housing affordability and neighborhood change of projects like the Beltline, and associated policy questions, are addressed.
Article
Full-text available
To date, little is known about the extent to which the creation of municipal green spaces over an entire city addresses social or racial inequalities in the distribution of environmental amenities – or whether such an agenda creates contributes to green gentrification. In this study, we evaluate the effects of creating 18 green spaces in socially vulnerable neighborhoods of Barcelona during the 1990s and early 2000s. We examined the evolution over time of six socio-demographic gentrification indicators in the areas close to green spaces in comparison with the entire districts. Our results indicate that new parks in the old town and formerly industrialized neighborhoods seem to have experienced green gentrification. In contrast, most economically depressed areas and working-class neighborhoods with less desirable housing stock and more isolated from the city center gained vulnerable residents as they became greener, indicating a possible redistribution and greater concentration of vulnerable residents through the city.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to map the distribution pattern of gentrification, showing the adverse effect of urban parks. The study adopted the perspective that urban parks, which have thus far been featured in urban planning without much criticism, may actually bring about unintended effects. This study employed a theory of gentrification that has received increasing interest in urban sociology to investigate the other side of the gentrification phenomenon. We identified urban parks as the cause of the gentrification from the start, and verified and visualised the phenomenon in the case of the Gyeongui Line Forest Park. We determined that the area with the higher possibility of gentrification was that within 600 m of the park. Big data accumulated over the past decade were used to prepare a proactive, systematic procedure to address gentrification, which is materialising in diverse forms. Through this study, we contribute to debates on the environmental justice of urban parks. Small changes in urban space can strongly affect our healthy lifestyles and urban sustainability. From this perspective, our study's research process and its results could provide indications of how to structure and manage new urban planning projects in the future.
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes environmental gentrification (EG), or the exclusion, marginalization, and displacement of long-term residents associated with sustainability planning or green developments and amenities, such as smart growth, public park renovations, and healthy food stores. We consider how activists, communities, and urban planners address these unjust processes and outcomes associated with EG and how these strategies compare to those used by environmental justice (EJ) activists. Our evaluation of relevant literature indicates several similarities with EJ resistance tactics, including collective neighborhood action, community organizing, and direct tactics. We also identify several different strategies enabled by certain urban environmental conditions, such as leveraging environmental policies and taking an active role in neighborhood redevelopment planning processes, collaborating with 'gentrifiers,' and creating complementary policies to manage displacement and exclusion. Our analysis indicates a need for more research on how activists can better assert the social and political dimensions of sustainability and their right to the city, and how green and sustainable cities can achieve justice and equity.
Article
Full-text available
As marginalized neighborhoods benefit from cleanup and environmental amenities often brought by municipal sustainability planning, recent trends of land revaluation, investments, and gentrification are posing a conundrum and paradox for environmental justice (EJ) activists. In this article, I examine the progression of the urban EJ agenda—from fighting contamination to mobilizing for environmental goods and resisting environmental gentrification—and analyze how the EJ scholarship has reflected upon the complexification of this agenda. I argue that locally unwanted land uses can be reconceptualized from contamination sources to new green amenities because of the displacement they seem to trigger or accelerate.
Article
Full-text available
Neoliberal urban governances are now widely recognised as contingently manifest and constantly evolving social and institutional formations. Yet, there remains comparatively little empirical work on the place-specific complexities of urban neoliberalisation, and as variegated formations within the same city. Drawing on Chicago's Bronzeville and Pilsen neighbourhoods, we reveal the intra-urban contingency character of neoliberal urban governance. Both neighbourhood governances' in Bronzeville and Pilsen, we suggest, are constituted by similar yet different ensembles of developers, local officials and politically oriented community organisations, and redevelopment strategies. Second, we illuminate one dimension of this intra-urban contingency: the mutually constitutive and differentially unfolding relation between contestation and neoliberal governance. Finally, four inter-related variables are revealed as mediating factors within this relationship that account for why Bronzeville and Pilsen's governances have evolved in different ways: historical legacy, the dynamics between activist groups and pro-growth agents, economic circumstances and political orientation of contestation.
Article
Full-text available
In many cities, urban parks have emerged as an important environmental justice issue. Parks in predominantly lower-income and minority areas are frequently smaller, with fewer amenities, and they are often beset by neglect or problems with crime or perceptions of crime. As public funding for parks has declined, urban park systems are increasingly turning to volunteers and volunteer organizations to perform important functions. Consequently, the achievement and preservation of environmental justice may depend on ensuring that parks in neglected areas are served by active volunteers. We analyze the distribution of Friends of the Parks volunteer groups in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. We find that most parks in the County lack Friends groups, regardless of demographic characteristics in the surrounding neighborhood, and we find that parks in all parts of this highly segregated county have Friends groups. However, our findings indicate that Friends groups are more likely to remain active at larger parks more common within affluent, predominantly white neighborhoods, while Friends groups are more likely to become inactive at smaller parks more typical in inner-city communities. As public funding for parks continues to decline, we propose that an important environmental justice priority for urban parks systems will be to find ways to keep groups active and engaged at smaller inner-city parks.
Book
Full-text available
Environmental justice as studied in a variety of disciplines is most often associated with redressing disproportionate exposure to pollution, contamination, and toxic sites. In Neighborhood as Refuge, Isabelle Anguelovski takes a broader view of environmental justice, examining wide-ranging comprehensive efforts at neighborhood environmental revitalization that include parks, urban agriculture, fresh food markets, playgrounds, housing, and waste management. She investigates and compares three minority, low-income neighborhoods that organized to improve environmental quality and livability: Casc Antic, in Barcelona; Dudley, in the Roxbury section of Boston; and Cayo Hueso, in Havana. Despite the differing histories and political contexts of these three communities, Anguelovski finds similar patterns of activism. She shows that behind successful revitalization efforts is what she calls “bottom to bottom” networking, powered by broad coalitions of residents, community organizations, architects, artists, funders, political leaders, and at times environmental advocacy groups. Anguelovski also describes how, over time, environmental projects provide psychological benefits, serving as a way to heal a marginalized and environmentally traumatized urban neighborhood. They encourage a sense of rootedness and of attachment to place, creating safe havens that offer residents a space for recovery. They also help to bolster residents’ ability to deal with the negative dynamics of discrimination and provide spaces for broader political struggles including gentrification. Drawing on the cases of Barcelona, Boston, and Havana, Anguelovski presents a new holistic framework for understanding environmental justice action in cities, with the right to a healthy community environment at its core.
Article
Full-text available
In 2002, the year it was published, The Environmentalism of the Poor was one of the first books examining in a multidisciplinary perspective three parallel environmental movements around the world. Eleven years later, we re-examine these movements – the Cult of Wilderness, the Gospel of Eco-Efficiency and the Mantra of Environmental Justice, – focusing on the increased visibility of struggles representing Environmental Justice and The Environmentalism of the Poor. Even if they are often disconnected from an organizational standpoint, glocal manifestations of resistance have emerged since the 1990s. Today, environmental movements assert common values related to place, identity, and culture. Activists' concepts such as ecological debt, environmental justice, environmental liabilities, land grabbing, environmental gentrification, corporate accountability, climate justice, food sovereignty, or economic degrowth are the keywords of the networks of the global Environmental Justice movement. At the same time, such concepts support the rural and urban movements that remake place for marginalized groups, re-assert traditional practices, and protect territory from contamination, land appropriation, and real estate speculation. Some possibilities exist for cooperation between Environmental Justice and the other varieties of environmentalism. Here, comparative research can help unravel the use of valuation languages different from “green” economic growth or sustainable development.
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the growing inequality of public spaces in contemporary cities. In the era of neoliberal urbanism, stratified economic and cultural resources produce a spectrum of unevenly developed public parks, ranging from elite, privatized public spaces in wealthy districts to neglected parks in poor neighborhoods. Contemporary economic and cultural practices in public space are equally segmented, as privileged public spaces such as New York's High Line reflect the consumption habitus of the new urban middle class, while violence, disinvestment, and revanchist policing permeate public spaces on the urban periphery. Using New York's High Line as an archetypal neoliberal space, I trace its redevelopment from a decaying railroad viaduct to a celebrated public park. I argue that contemporary parks and public spaces are best analyzed on a continuum of privilege.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change may create risks that, without sufficient adaptation measures in place, endanger lives and damage natural, semi-natural and designed landscapes. This article explores the use of green infrastructure in climate change adaptation in London. A review of the current literature identifies how and where green infrastructure can deliver climate adaptation services and considers the benefits of taking a green infrastructure (or ecosystems services) approach to development. Selected examples are used to demonstrate how green infrastructure is being integrated into London's urban landscape. The article considers how existing mechanisms are facilitating the growth of green infrastructure in the capital and identifies three key focus areas for future research and policy. It concludes by suggesting that a more collaborative and imaginative approach to optimising the potential for green infrastructure benefits is needed.
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, environmental justice studies have examined the disproportionate burden suffered by marginalized populations in regards to contamination or resource extraction. However, to date little is known about how complex underlying goals shape community organization for long-term environmental quality in different cities around the world, and how concerns for health play out in projects such as park creation, gardens, or playground construction. Through an analysis of neighborhood mobilization around environmental projects in Boston, Barcelona, and Havana, I unravel common patterns of activism aimed at rebuilding community and remaking place, thereby addressing physical and psychological dimensions of environmental health.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we examine an attempt in Philadelphia in 2009 to alter a popular and longstanding city property tax abatement program by connecting it to LEED building standards. We argue that the attempt to change the property tax abatement was an attempt by an insurgent growth coalition – what we call a ‘green growth machine’ – to capture a greater proportion of the returns from land investment from the city’s traditional growth machine. LEED was an important tool in the green growth machine’s strategy, because the rating system has become a means by which growth machines have established green building as a component of the ideology of value free development. The attempt to alter the property tax abatement limited the extent to which LEED could be used as a tool in the construction of an ideology of value free development, which suggests both the limits to the power of that ideology, and how components of that ideology might be used to challenge a traditional growth machine.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the announcement effects on property values of a large, multipurpose development initiative in Atlanta, Georgia called the “Beltline” which has received substantial public attention. The project involves the redevelopment of an abandoned rail line that encircles the central area of Atlanta. The 6500-acre project will be funded by tax increment financing bonds and will include the development of light rail, greenspace and real estate projects. By examining home sales from 2000 to 2006, the paper identifies changes in price premiums for locations in various geographical buffers around the Beltline and compares the timing of such changes with coverage in the local newspaper. It is found that there are large increases in premiums for homes near the lower-income, southside parts of the Beltline TIF district between 2003 and 2005, which corresponds to the initial media coverage of the planning process. The findings suggest that planning for the Beltline induced substantial speculation and gentrification.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the distribution of parks in Baltimore, Maryland, as an environmental justice issue. In addition to established methods for measuring distribution of and access to parks, we employ a novel park service area approach that uses Thiessen polygons and dasymetric reapportioning of census data to measure potential park congestion as an equity outcome measure. We find that a higher proportion of African Americans have access to parks within walking distance, defined as 400 meters or less, than whites, but whites have access to more acreage of parks within walking distance than blacks. A needs-based assessment shows that areas with the highest need have the best access to parks but also have access to less acreage of parks compared to low-need areas. Park service areas that are predominantly black have higher park congestion than areas that are predominantly white, although differences are less apparent at the city level than at the metropolitan level. Following Iris Young and others, we argue that conceptions of justice must move beyond distributive justice and address the social and institutional mechanisms that generate inequities. For Baltimore, we examine how segregation ordinances, racial covenants, improvement associations, the Home Owners Loan Corporation, and the Parks and Recreation Board created separate black spaces historically underserved with parks. These mechanisms ultimately fueled middle-class flight and suburbanization and black inheritance of much of Baltimore's space, including its parks. If justice demands just distribution justly achieved, the present-day pattern of parks in Baltimore should be interpreted as environmental injustice.
Article
Full-text available
While calls for 'environmental justice' have grown recently, very little attention has been paid to exactly what the 'justice' of environmental justice refers to, particularly in the realm of social movement demands. Most understandings of environmental justice refer to the issue of equity, or the distribution of environmental ills and benefits. But defining environmental justice as equity is incomplete, as activists, communities, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) call for much more than just distribution. This essay examines how definitions beyond the distributive in these movements can help us develop conceptions of global environmental justice. The argument is that the justice demanded by global environmental justice is really threefold: equity in the distribution of environmental risk, recognition of the diversity of the participants and experiences in affected communities, and participation in the political processes which create and manage environmental policy. The existence of three different notions of justice in the movement, simultaneously, demonstrates the plausibility of a plural yet unified theory and practice of justice. The question I want to explore here starts off in a rather straightforward way: how can the demands of global movements for environmental justice, or movements that articulate environmental concerns in their arguments against certain forms of globalisation, help in developing a definition of 'environ-mental justice' at the global level? Defining environmental justice has been attempted by numerous academics in environmental political theory. But my argument here is that given movement demands, and the theoretical innovations of some social justice theorists, most theories of environmental justice are, to date, inadequate.
Article
Full-text available
In this symposium convened to celebrate the tenth anniversary of David Harvey's "Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference", it is fitting to re-visit key themes in that seminal work, including: (1) the mutual reciprocity between social and environmental changes; and (2) the contradictions that emerge from a dialectical analysis of these changes in urban spaces. In challenging scholars to explore the spatial dialectics associated with environmental and social changes, Harvey's political and intellectual project included demonstrating the dialectical linkages between notions of justice and nature in urban environments. My work responds to Harvey's challenge by documenting how the ideological constructions of "home", "homeless" and "public green space" produce and perpetuate injustices experienced materially and spatially in the daily lives of homeless people living in urban green spaces. Using Agamben's notion of bare life as my analytic framework, I explore two issues: (1) the disconnection between notions of home articulated by homeless people living in green spaces and the ideological constructions of homeless espoused by government and planning agencies; and (2) the tensions in urban green spaces resulting from homeless people who have opted to live there because all other options are not viable for them, and the ideological constructions of urban green spaces developed by the city parks department and housed citizens involved in planning for future green spaces in the city. I present the concept of "ecological gentrification", which I define as the implementation of an environmental planning agenda related to public green spaces that leads to the displacement or exclusion of the most economically vulnerable human population - homeless people - while espousing an environmental ethic. I conclude by advocating a robust pluralism of "home" and "public green spaces" as an initial movement towards renegotiating concepts of justice in urban areas. I present short- and long-term strategies for resisting the displacement, exclusion and expulsion of homeless individuals from public urban green spaces with the goal of improving their material and spatial lives, and argue that such strategies require a re-imagined practice of urban ecological planning that draws inspiration from Harvey's commitment to producing spaces of justice, nature and difference. Copyright (c) 2009 The Author. Journal Compilation (c) 2009 Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Article
Privately owned parks and public spaces (POPS) are increasingly common in New Urbanist (NU) communities. POPS raise concerns related to environmental privilege, equity, and inclusion; however, no investigation has fully analyzed whether POPS in NU communities cause these same concerns. This is particularly problematic because of NU’s recognition as a sustainable planning paradigm and because NU proponents seek to establish mixed-income and ethnically diverse communities. Thus, this study examines how these 3 concerns about POPS play out in NU developments. In addition, it analyzes how municipal policies and real estate processes contribute to establishing POPS in NU communities. We find that concerns about environmental privilege, equity, and inclusion are well founded, and that reliance on POPS provides significant advantages for developers, residents, and municipalities alike, mostly because of cost savings and notions of exclusivity.
Article
Greening cities, namely installing new parks, rooftop gardens or planting trees along the streets, undoubtedly contributes to an increase in wellbeing and enhances the attractiveness of open spaces in cities. At the same time, we observe an increasing use of greening strategies as ingredients of urban renewal, upgrading and urban revitalization as primarily market-driven endeavours targeting middle class and higher income groups sometimes at the expense of less privileged residents. This paper reflects on the current debate of the social effects of greening using selected examples. We discuss what trade-offs between social and ecological developments in cities mean for the future debate on greening cities and a socially balanced and inclusive way of developing our cities for various groups of urban dwellers. We conclude that current and future functions and features of greening cities have to be discussed more critically including a greater awareness of social impacts.
Article
In post-industrial cities throughout the world abandoned railroads, demolished freeways, disused canals, and other derelict industrial ruins are being transformed into ecologically inspired and aesthetically designed leisure, consumption, and tourist spaces based upon the principles of Landscape Urbanism and ideas about sustainable park design. New York City’s High Line is one example of this growing trend. Sustainable parks like the High Line claim to provide economic, ecological, and equity benefits associated with the 3 Es of sustainability. Our research on the development of New York City’s High Line suggests that while the High Line meets the economic piece of the sustainability triad with its promise of generating growth, its success in terms of the ecological dimension of sustainability is unclear. More troubling is the High Line’s neglect of the social equity component of the discourse of sustainability. Our work brings together several key arguments in the critical literature on urban sustainability to examine how structural constraints associated with creating post-industrial ecological spaces in a climate of neoliberal urbanization play out in the paradigmatic case of the High Line.
Article
This article reviews the growing environmental justice literature documenting access to urban parks across socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The extensive public health and sustainability benefits of parks, combined with the long history of discrimination against people of color in the United States and elsewhere, motivate an update of the literature on access to parks. Although a few reviews showed evidence of inequity in park provision, no previous review fully conceptualized and analyzed different components of access to parks. To address this gap, I conducted an analytical literature review focusing on three groups of parameters: park proximity, park acreage, and park quality. Based on a sample of 49 empirical studies mostly focusing on cities in developed countries, my review shows fairly inconclusive findings for park proximity, but striking inequities for park acreage and park quality. Low socioeconomic and ethnic minority people have access to fewer acres of parks, fewer acres of parks per person, and to parks with lower quality, maintenance, and safety than more privileged people. These demographic inequities often reflect geographical divides between inner-cities and suburbs. These findings are particularly concerning for public health because large, high-quality, well-maintained, and safe parks can better foster physical activity and its associated benefits than small parks with few amenities. Also, identifying inequities in access to parks based on proximity, acreage or quality can help develop targeted landscape planning strategies to address specific inequities.
Book
Green Gentrification looks at the social consequences of urban "greening" from an environmental justice and sustainable development perspective. Through a comparative examination of five cases of urban greening in Brooklyn, New York, it demonstrates that such initiatives, while positive for the environment, tend to increase inequality and thus undermine the social pillar of sustainable development. Although greening is ostensibly intended to improve environmental conditions in neighborhoods, it generates green gentrification that pushes out the working-class, and people of color, and attracts white, wealthier in-migrants. Simply put, urban greening "richens and whitens," remaking the city for the sustainability class. Without equity-oriented public policy intervention, urban greening is negatively redistributive in global cities. This book argues that environmental injustice outcomes are not inevitable. Early public policy interventions aimed at neighborhood stabilization can create more just sustainability outcomes. It highlights the negative social consequences of green growth coalition efforts to green the global city, and suggests policy choices to address them. The book applies the lessons learned from green gentrification in Brooklyn to urban greening initiatives globally. It offers comparison with other greening global cities. This is a timely and original book for all those studying environmental justice, urban planning, environmental sociology, and sustainable development as well as urban environmental activists, city planners and policy makers interested in issues of urban greening and gentrification.
Article
On December 13, 1999, the City Council of Aspen, Colorado-one of the country's most exclusive recreational sites for some of the world's wealthiest people-unanimously passed a resolution petitioning the U.S. Congress and the president to restrict the number of immigrants entering the United States. The language of the resolution suggests that this goal could be achieved by enforcing laws regulating undocumented immigration and reducing authorized immigration to 175,000 persons per year, down from the current annual level of between 700,000 and one million. One of their primary reasons for encouraging tougher immigration laws was the purported negative impact of immigrants on the nation's ecosystems.
Article
Collaborative/communicative planning theorists have engaged Habermas’s idea of communicative ratio- nality to offer a framework for a more democratic decision-making process. However, critics of commu- nicative rationality and its underlying assumptions raise fundamental questions about the very possibility of an actually existing collaborative planning process. While collaborative planning theory provides a worthwhile ideal, the assumptions of bracketing status difference, identifying common good and building consensus, problematize its application in real life. In fact, collaborative planning principles provide a means for the market-driven local state and planning agencies to reinforce present neoliberal hegemony. While such processes may result in community empowerment and greater democracy under certain conditions, market-led planning projects are more likely to co-opt the high democratic principles of collaborative/communicative planning theory and nurture a post-political condition. This paper elab- orates these points by examining the planning process of the Atlanta BeltLine as an instance of neoliberal governance. Using qualitative research methods this paper analyzes the BeltLine’s community engage- ment effort to democratize the planning process in the Historic Fourth Ward neighborhood in Atlanta. It argues that BeltLine-like market-led planning efforts tactfully take advantage of the problematic prin- ciples of collaborative planning theory to create an ostensibly democratic decision-making process that in reality reinforces the neoliberal hegemony instead of challenging it.
Article
While sustainability and green urbanism have become buzzwords in urban policy circles, too little analysis has focused on who gets to decide what green looks like. Many visions of the green city seem to have room only for park space, waterfront cafes, and luxury LEED-certified buildings, prompting concern that there is no place in the “sustainable” city for industrial uses and the working class. We will use the case study of Newtown Creek in Brooklyn, New York, to explore how different visions for the green city are enacted through activism and policy-making. Neighbourhood residents and business owners seem to be advocating a strategy we call “just green enough”, in order to achieve environmental remediation without environmental gentrification. Following the crash of both the financial and real estate markets, attempts to construct a sustainable city that is economically diverse and socially just seem to be taking hold. We interrogate how urban sustainability can be used to open up a space for diversity and democracy in the neoliberal city and argue that there is space for interventions that challenge the presumed inevitability of gentrification.
Article
This essay examines the intersection of environmental justice activism and state‐sponsored sustainable urban development—how is environmental justice activism enabled or disabled in the context of rapid urban development, consensual politics and the seemingly a‐political language of sustainability? Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, I define a process I refer to as “environmental gentrification,” which builds on the material and discursive successes of the environmental justice movement and appropriates them to serve high‐end development. While it appears as politically‐neutral, consensus‐based planning that is both ecologically and socially sensitive, in practice, environmental gentrification subordinates equity to profit‐minded development. I propose that this process offers a new way of exploring the paradoxes and conundrums facing contemporary urban residents as they fight to challenge the vast economic and ecological disparities that increasingly divide today's cities.
Article
Access to parks and recreational opportunities contributes to physical activity and positive health outcomes. But who is responsible for building the healthy city, particularly where resources are limited? While neoliberal state restructuring and fiscal austerity measures have increased the responsibility of nonprofit organizations in local services provision, little is known about their role in promoting healthy urban environments. This article investigates the role of nonprofits in supporting parks and physical activity in Southern California and analyzes the relationships between levels of voluntary-sector activity and the socio-demographic, economic, and fiscal characteristics of municipalities. Results indicate that nonprofits are unevenly distributed and more active in affluent, fiscally stronger, suburban, conservative, and white municipalities, reproducing intra-urban differences underlying health disparities.
Article
Urban green spaces (UGS) have been shown to provide a number of environmental and social benefits relevant for a higher quality of life of residents. However, population growth in cities combined with urban planning policies of (re)densification can drive the conversion of UGS into residential land. This development might result in an unequal distribution of UGS in a city. We present an analysis of UGS provisioning in Berlin, Germany in order to identify distributional inequities between UGS and population which are further discussed in light of variations in user preferences associated with demographics and immigrant status. Publicly available land use and sociodemographic data at sub-district level are applied in a GIS, dissimilarity index and cluster analysis approach. Results show that although most areas are supplied with more UGS compared to the per capita target value of 6 m2, there is considerable dissimilarity by immigrant status and age. To address rising concerns about socio-environmental justice in cities and to evaluate the (dis)advantages of applying UGS threshold values for urban planning, visitor profiles and preferences of a site-specific case, the park and former city airport Berlin-Tempelhof are analyzed. Results from questionnaire surveys indicate that the identified dissimilarities on sub-district level are not the same as socio-environmental injustice in Tempelhof, but point to a mismatch of UGS and user preferences. In addition to evaluating UGS distribution, the match between quality of a park and specific cultural and age dependent user needs should be considered for successful green infrastructure planning rather than focusing on target values.
Article
The comprehensive data set used in this paper was derived from local government entities in the U.S. for the period 1964-65 to 1999- 2000. These data are collected by the Census Bureau from all 87,000 units of local government in years ending in "2" or "7". In the non-census years the data are collected from a survey of approximately 13,000 non-school local governments, selected by a size-based sampling procedure. Self-generated revenues increased substantially over this period and by the end of it approximately one out of every three operating dollars allocated for parks and recreation came from user sources. Analysis of total local government expenditures on parks and recreation using constant, adjusted dollars revealed that there was an average annual decrease in the 1976-77 to 1985-86 period of $13 million. This was the era in which the tax limitation movement peaked and it was subject to the severe economic recession in the early 1980s. In contrast, increases in annual expenditures in the most recent 1994-95 to 1999-2000 era averaged $595 million. This level of expenditure was unprecedented, suggesting that in the future when these data are reviewed from an historical perspective, this period may be considered to be the field's "golden era". Typically, approximately one- quarter of annual budgets were for capital projects and these increased in constant, adjusted dollars by 58% between 1993-94 and 1999-2000. In 1999-2000, $5.8 billion in actual dollars was invested in capital projects in parks and recreation by local governments. It was estimated that capital investment in the 1964-65 to 1999-2000 period exceeded $70 billion (adjusted 1990 dollars), while tax support for operating expenses over the same period increased by less than 5%. Per capita expenditures on local parks and recreation averaged $74.58 in the U.S. in 1999-2000, of which $20.87 was invested in capital projects and $53.72 was for operating expenses. These national averages obscured an extraordinary range of differences among the states where total per capita expenditures ranged from $20.58 in Vermont to $179.21 in North Dakota. The number of full-time employees in the field hired by local entities was 145,000 in 1977-78 and 142,000 in 1996-97. In the last three years of the 1990s, it increased to 153,000. During this period, part-time employees increased from 26,000 to 172,000. On average, it was estimated that approximately one full-time staff member has been hired for each $9 million of capital investment in the 1978-79 to 1999-2000 period. During this same period, it was estimated that approximately 94,000 full and part-time positions had been contracted out to the private sector to do work that was previously done by public sector employees.
Article
Obesity and inactivity have become a troubling crisis for today’s youth. Low-income communities and communities of color are disproportionately affected by these conditions, due to a denial of the benefits of safe open spaces for physical activity and opportunities to be active. The article describes the epidemic of obesity and unfitness in the United States and the statistics associated with inactivity, as well as the health impacts associated with being overweight and obese and the importance of physical activity. Along with the health implications, the trend in obesity is primed to carry huge direct and indirect financial costs. This health crisis is worse for low-income and communities of color due to social and economic disparities and inequities and the article exemplifies this a focus on California, where the districts with the highest proportion of overweight children also have the highest concentration of people of color. The article closes by addressing the need to lower the barriers to physical activity, articulate a campaign for active recreation spaces, and advocates correcting structural disparity and creating healthy communities with access to open space and fair treatment of all people.
Article
Some studies of the recent neighborhood planning movement suggest that its origins can be traced to the reform fervor of the 1960s. In fact, the idea of “neighborhood” and of planning its character has been an enduring component of American social thought for at least the past 100 years. An examination of the roots of the contemporary neighborhood movement reveals its complicated and somewhat contradictory lineage. This article suggests that we must measure the recent successes of the neighborhood movement not merely in terms of a two-decade struggle but in light of nearly 100 years of planning and reform activity.
Article
Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context, word count, classical content analysis, domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, conversation analysis, discourse analysis, secondary analysis, membership categorization analysis, narrative analysis, qualitative comparative analysis, semiotics, manifest content analysis, latent content analysis, text mining, and microinterlocutor analysis. Moreover, the authors present a new framework for organizing these analysis techniques via the four major sources of qualitative data collected: talk, observations, drawings/photographs/videos, and documents. As such, the authors hope that our compendium of analytical techniques should help qualitative researchers in school psychology and beyond make informed choices for their data analysis tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Municipal governments in Western Europe and the United States historically built and programmed public, urban park spaces to promote citizenship in accord with middle class values. In many cities these decades-old green spaces have recently fallen into disrepair as fiscally austere governments cut parks budgets. Shared governance for green space is a new solution to parks disinvestment whereby responsibility for their upkeep is redistributed among corporations, non-profits, and local residents. Individual citizenship status in this process is not gained by patronizing parks as in the past, but by assuming responsibility for rebuilding and reprogramming them. But while shared governance increases the number of stakeholders in decision making, its democratic potential is often subverted by entrepreneurial growth coalitions that wield disproportionate power to make market-based, urban environmental decisions. An extension of what counts as governable green space comes with an increase in entrepreneurialism – from the largest waterfront redevelopment projects to the smallest gardens on vacant neighborhood lots. The uneven distribution and quality of green space under market forms of shared governance is intensified as ‘communities of self-interest’ arise around green spaces in some locations whereas others continue to be disinvested in the absence of direct state support. I provide three examples of green space renovation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to further demonstrate that shared governance arrangements possess democratic potential despite the injustice of their exclusivity as currently negotiated.
Article
  Over the last decade the scope of the socio-environmental concerns included within an environmental justice framing has broadened and theoretical understandings of what defines and constitutes environmental injustice have diversified. This paper argues that this substantive and theoretical pluralism has implications for geographical inquiry and analysis, meaning that multiple forms of spatiality are entering our understanding of what it is that substantiates claims of environmental injustice in different contexts. In this light the simple geographies and spatial forms evident in much “first-generation” environmental justice research are proving insufficient. Instead a richer, multidimensional understanding of the different ways in which environmental justice and space are co-constituted is needed. This argument is developed by analysing a diversity of examples of socio-environmental concerns within a framework of three different notions of justice—as distribution, recognition and procedure. Implications for the strategies of environmental justice activism for the globalisation of the environmental justice frame and for future geographical research are considered.
Article
Although urban sustainability programs frequently include measures that focus on the environmental and economic components of sustainability, the social dimension of sustainability remains underrepresented. An analytical vulnerability approach from global change vulnerability research provides one way to evaluate the distributional impacts and procedural aspects of sustainability initiatives. I apply the vulnerability approach to a study of one contemporary sustainability initiative in New York City, brownfield redevelopment, and identify populations who are vulnerable to the negative impacts of the redevelopment process: elderly residents, renters, and residents receiving government assistance. The results of the case study suggest that the vulnerability approach provides a way to develop indicators of social sustainability for inclusion in existing urban sustainability indicator projects.
Article
Obra en que se estudian los efectos de la reestructuración de las grandes ciudades en Estados Unidos, desde las perspectivas urbanística, administrativa y social. Con base en el análisis de la política económica neoliberal, se revisan sus efectos en la forma de gobierno de estas ciudades a la vez que se agravan los problemas de inequidad, exclusión y desplazamiento en las zonas urbanas.
Article
Objectives. Park planning and development in the Los Angeles metropolitan area offer an opportunity to explore the assertion that “Western cities are now being managed, organized and governed in different ways” leading to a ‘new urban politics,” and the suggestion that urban regime theory captures cultural and civil societal influences and organizations in its descriptions of coalitions and their roles in promoting places. Methods. This article examines park provision in Los Angeles historically and in the contemporary period through interviews and current documents, as well as through newspaper articles and park bond proposition language. Results. The resulting analysis suggests that civil society organizations such as nonprofits act in quite similar ways to traditional urban regime business interests. Conclusions. Nonprofits should be examined for their roles in creating a new urban politics, including structures of governance. Additionally, in the environmental area, these organizations have become significant actors in determining land uses.
The code of the city: Standards and the hidden language of place making
  • E Ben-Joseph
Ben-Joseph, E. (2005). The code of the city: Standards and the hidden language of place making. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
The High Line's next balancing act
  • L Bliss
Bliss, L. (2017). The High Line's next balancing act. Retrieved November 2, 2017, from http://www.citylab.com/cityfixer/2017/02/the-high-lines-next-balancing-act-fairand-affordable-development/515391/.
Equitable development planning and urban park space
  • M Bogle
  • S Diby
  • E Burnstein
Bogle, M., Diby, S., & Burnstein, E. (2016). Equitable development planning and urban park space. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/ sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000874-Equitable-Development-Planning-and-Urban-Park-Space.pdf.
Rail Deck Park: City-initiated official plan amendment, final report
  • Chicago City Of
City of Chicago (1998). CitySpace: An open space plan for Chicago. Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://www.cityofchicago.org/dam/city/depts/zlup/Sustainable_ Development/Publications/CitySpace/CitySpace1a.pdf. City of Chicago (2004). Logan Square Open Space Plan. Chicago, IL. Retrieved from https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/dcd/supp_info/logan_square_ openspaceplan.html. City of Chicago (2015). Sustainable Chicago 2015: eAction agenda 2012-2015. Highlights and look ahead. Chicago, IL. Retrieved from https://www.cityofchicago. org/content/dam/city/progs/env/Sustainable_Chicago_2012-2015_Highlights.pdf. City of Toronto (2017). Rail Deck Park: City-initiated official plan amendment, final report. Toronto, ON. Retrieved from https://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2017/te/ bgrd/backgroundfile-108621.pdf.
Environment and sustainability
  • R Emanuel
Emanuel, R. (2017). Environment and sustainability. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/progs/env.html.
Whitewashing the Los Angeles River? Displacement and equitable greening
  • R García
  • T Mok
García, R., & Mok, T. (2017). Whitewashing the Los Angeles River? Displacement and equitable greening. Los Angeles, CA: The City Project. Retrieved from https://www. cityprojectca.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Policy-Report-greendisplacement-20170714.pdf.
Public spaces/private money: The triumphs and pitfalls of urban park conservancies
  • P Harnik
  • A Martin
Harnik, P., & Martin,