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Abstract

As of the beginning of the 21st century, the rural work force in México continues to be important, but it is shrinking. Traditional farming methods of small plots worked by families and small communities continue to dominate in many regions, especially those with large indigenous populations such as the Southern Plateau. In these areas, the main crops are corn, beans and squash, as in the Mesoamerican period. Many farmers still subsist thanks to self-consumption agriculture and earn money by selling surplus crops in local markets, especially in central and southern Mexico. Faced with this situation, the automation of small and large scale agriculture is of colossal importance, since applying mechatronic technologies to agriculture would help detonate productivity in the Mexican agriculture, an important role in this situation is of the Arduino board, for its versatility and its low cost, from the review of literature made highlights the amount of research work and design proposals for systems based on the Arduino board with application in Indian agriculture, over the other countries in which it is used. Reason why our country should emphasize this application of this low-cost and easy-to-apply technology to raise the productivity of agricultural activities that are so lacking in the current era.
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... Las redes neuronales no supervisadas, en cambio, siguen algoritmos como el llamado algoritmo de Kohonen (1982), que permite que la red perciba un patrón sin necesidad de introducir datos de entrenamiento ni de corregir el rumbo de cómo van quedando los resultados. Véase Negrete et al. (2018) para una revisión del uso de redes neuronales en aplicaciones a la agricultura en México. ...
... Aunque es cierto que hay barreras educativas y económicas para el uso de tecnología más allá de lo básico en zonas rurales, la revolución creciente del software y hardware libres hacen cada vez más posible la democratización y uso de herramientas sofisticadas para todos (Baker, 2014; y las tecnologías de la información y comunicación pueden ayudar en la transición agroecológica (Leveau et al., 2019). Negrete et al. (2018) publicaron una revisión del uso de placas Arduino, una popular distribución de microcontroladores, para la automatización de la agricultura en México. Las propuestas de enriquecer la agroecología con herramientas sofisticadas también podrían hacerla más atractiva para aquellos productores del campo con más posibilidades económicas; así, en lugar de que la visión del agro-negocio coopte exclusivamente el uso de tecnología, la agroecología puede apropiarse también de estos medios para avanzar. ...
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La Agroecología y las Ciencias de la Complejidad surgieron en la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En tanto campos académicos en construcción y de frontera, ambas enfrentan los retos de continuar reflexionando sobre sus bases epistémicas, explorar enfoques metodológicos novedosos y robustecer sus corpus a través de casos de estudio de distinta naturaleza. Este libro representa un primer esfuerzo por integrar un conjunto de trabajos desde la experiencia mexicana que, de alguna manera u otra, buscan tejer puentes entre la Agroecología y las Ciencias de la Complejidad respecto a los retos señalados. El eje conductor que subyace a la obra es la tesis central de que bajo cualquier acepción que se tenga sobre la ‘Agroecología’, esta involucrará constitutivamente procesos ecológicos, agrícolas, tecnológicos, socioeconómicos y políticos que se intersectan entre sí de múltiples maneras dando como resultado dinámicas emergentes y comportamientos inestables frecuentemente situados entre el orden y el desorden. Los entendimientos e interpelaciones de dichos procesos no pueden ni deben ser sobresimplificados por las miradas reduccionistas, sino por el contrario, requieren ser abordados de manera integral, entre otros enfoques, por las perspectivas filosóficas y las herramientas metodológicas heterodoxas propias de las Ciencias de la Complejidad. Algunas de las preguntas detonadoras que motivan la obra, son las siguientes: ¿Cuáles son las singularidades y aportes de reconocer y aproximarnos a la complejidad agroecológica? ¿Cómo dotarnos como agroecólogas y agroecólogos de nuevos andamiajes y herramientas de investigación? ¿Cómo dialoga la complejidad agroecológica con otras agroecologías, actores y sectores no académicos? ¿Qué rasgos tendría la complejidad agroecológica para el caso mexicano concretamente? ¿Cómo lidiar con la supuesta objetividad/neutralidad de los modelos desarrollados comúnmente en el marco de ciencias de la complejidad y llevar la complejidad agroecológica hacia la construcción participativa?
... It is programmable with the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) via a type B USB cable. ACS-712 is a Hall Effect based fully integrated lined current sensor with 2.1 KV-RMS voltage isolation with least resistance current conductor and having ability to measure current AC or DC ranging from -5A to -30A and +5A to 30A.Its provides cost-effective and accurate solution for both type of current in industrial marketable with other communication systems [15][16][17]. The sensing element module enable simple for implementation with kind of typical application include controlling purpose, load detection and management also suitable for switch mode power supply and over current failure protection. ...
... Efforts are currently being made in Colombia to create such a profession, and in my country Mexico and in other developing countries efforts must be made in the same direction, the author achieved that in Mexico the agricultural mechatronic engineering profession is implemented, the same You try again for this profession [1][2][3][4][5][6]. ...
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... The objective of this work is to know the current state of the applications of this board in irrigation of the Mexican agriculture. Cause why our country should accentuate this application of this low-cost and easy-to-apply technology to increase the yield of agricultural activities that are so lacking in the present era [2,3]. ...
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Since Mexico is a predominantly arid and semi-arid country, so that the use of irrigation is necessary, since irrigated agriculture helps produce almost 50% of the total agricultural production in the country. The irrigated land represented 30% of the total area of the country predestined to agriculture, generated about 50% of the value of the total agricultural production and more than 30% of the jobs in the sector. Of the irrigated area, 3.3 million hectares corresponded to 80 irrigated districts and 2.9 million to 30 thousand units of medium and small irrigation for rural development. This is of great importance nowadays because this production represents about 70% of exports of agricultural products abroad. Of irrigated agriculture, 1,300,000 have applied technology with multi-door irrigation systems, sprinkling, dripping and band; in the remaining 5,200,000 hectares, surface irrigation is used. Due to the fact that water is increasingly scarce as it is necessary to increase the area with irrigation, it becomes extremely important the more efficient use of water, this can be achieved by automating its application. In the country, various Irrigation automation systems, currently besides the water scarcity the cost of automation also it influences the installation of an automation system, the use of the automation of agriculture through the Arduino board is very used in the world and in Mexico. From the review of literature made highlights the amount of research work and design proposals for systems based on the Arduino board with application in Indian agriculture, over the other countries in which it is used. Goal why our country should accentuate this application of this low-cost and easy-to-apply technology to increase the productivity of agricultural actions that are so lacking in the current era, in Mexico it is too rare compared to other countries to use the Arduino board in the irrigation automation, a situation that should be improved by promoting the use of this technology for its benefits, and low cost.
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