ArticlePDF Available


Basil is an aromatic plant that encompasses scores of species of herb and shrub species belonging to the genus Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae). The name basil comes from the Greek basileus or "king." Common basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves have had culinary importance for centuries. Several Ocimum species, collectively known as Tulsi in India and Nepal, are used in Ayurvedic and other traditional medicine systems. Purported uses for Tulsi and other Ocimum species include relief of stress and treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and kidney ailments, as well as blood disorders and skin and eye diseases, to name a few. The present report is intended to provide a brief summary based on human studies from the scientific literature of the potential health benefits of basil relating to alleviating metabolic disorders, cognitive enhancement, strengthening the immune system, and oral and skin health.
Basil: A Brief Summary of Potential Health
Keith W. Singletary, PhD
Basil is an aromatic plant that encompasses scores of
genus Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae). The name basil comes
from the Greek basileus or ‘‘king.’’ Common basil (Ocimum
basilicum L.) leaves have had culinary importance for cen-
turies. Several Ocimum species, collectively known as Tulsi
in India and Nepal, are used in Ayurvedic and other tradi-
tional medicine systems. Purported uses for Tulsi and other
Ocimum species include relief of stress and treatment of
respiratory, gastrointestinal, and kidney ailments, as well as
blood disorders and skin and eye diseases, to name a few.
The present report is intended to provide a brief summary
based on human studies from the scientific literature of
the potential health benefits of basil relating to alleviating
metabolic disorders, cognitive enhancement, strengthen-
ing the immune system, and oral and skin health. Nutr
Today. 2018;53(2):92Y97
There are numerous herbs and shrubs included in
the term basil, which collectively belong to the
genus Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae). The name basil
comes from the Greek basileus or ‘‘king.’’ Common basil
(Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves have had culinary im-
portance for centuries. More than 20 cultivars have been
identified with designations that include Napoletano,
Reunion, Genovese, sweet, oriental, Mexican, anise, and
purple basils, to name a few. This herb is cultivated widely
in Asia, Africa, South America, and the Mediterranean. In
foods, dried and fresh basil leaves season tomato dishes,
vegetables, fish, meat, soups, salads, and pizza. The es-
sential oils and aromatic extracts from Ocimum varieties
are also important components of dental products, phar-
maceuticals, cosmetics, and flavoring agents.
Basil plants can differ substantially in genotype and
chemical profiles, although they may present similar
morphologies. Generally, basil essential oils can be
grouped into several chemotypes, each characterized by
their most prevalent phytochemicals. Such a group clas-
sification is monoterpenoids (eg, linalool, camphor),
phenylpropanoids (eg, eugenol, methyleugenol, estragole,
and methyl cinnamates), and sesquiterpenoids (eg, A-
caryophyllene, >-bergamotene).
Phenolic profiles also
have been reported.
The variation in essential oil com-
position depends on region and conditions of cultiva-
species and cultivar,
season of growth,
age or position of leaves selected,
harvesting pro-
light exposure,
and methods of
Information about typical human intakes and bioavail-
ability of basil is limited. A Food Frequency Question-
naire completed by Norwegian adults determined intake
of fresh and dried basil to be approximately 2.2 g/mo.
To determine metabolites from basil, volunteers consumed
5 mL of a brewed basil beverage prepared from 500 g
Estragole, trans-anethole, and para-anisaldehyde
levels were then determined in plasma and urine after
consumption. The estragole concentrationinplasmasam-
ples at 8 hours following consumption was 324.7 Kg/mL or
60% of the initial amounts absorbed. Likewise, urine con-
centration of estragole at 9 hours was 59% of the initial dose
An Ocimum plant of note is holy basil, composed of
Ocimum tenuiflorum (previously Ocimum sanctum)and
sometimes Ocimum gratissimum species, also known as
Tulsi in India and Nepal, where it is used in Ayurvedic and
other traditional medicine systems. In South America, the
term altavaca refers to Ocimum used in traditional
medicines. Purported health benefits for Tulsi and other
Ocimum species include relief of stress and treatment of
respiratory, gastrointestinal, and kidney ailments, as well
as blood disorders and skin and eye diseases, to name a
The present report is intended to provide a brief
Spices Series
92 Nutrition Today
Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2018
Keith W. Singletary, PhD, is professor emeritus of nutrition in the De-
partment of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Illinois.
From 2001 to 2004, he was the director of the Functional Foods for Health
Program, an interdisciplinary program between the Chicago and Urbana-
Champaign campuses of the University of Illinois. Dr Singletary received
bachelor and master’s degrees in microbiology from Michigan State Uni-
versity and his doctor of philosophy degree in nutritional sciences from the
University of Illinois. Dr Singletary’s primary research interests are in molec-
ular carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention, specifically identifying and
determining the mechanism of action of phytochemicals in fruits, vegeta-
bles, and spices as cancer-protective agents. He has been recognized with
the Senior Faculty Award for Excellence in Research by the College of
Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences at the University of
Illinois. Dr Singletary currently resides in Florida.
Funding for the preparation of this article was provided by McCormick
and Co.
The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Correspondence: Keith W. Singletary, PhD (
Copyright *2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000267
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
summary of the potential health benefits of basil as iden-
tified from published scientific investigations involving
humans and to identify areas for additional research.
A search of the PubMed database identified more than 100
relevant reports published prior to 2017. Search terms in-
cluded Ocimum, basil, altavaca, and Tulsi. Full reports of
English-language publications and English-language ab-
stracts of foreign-language articles from peer-reviewed
journals were the primary sources of information. Al-
though the quality of human studies varied consider-
ably, all published human investigations identified were
included in this discussion, so that the totality and diversity
of information can be evaluated, and issues for future re-
search can be identified.
Human Studies
As a component of Ayurvedic medicine for several millenia,
Tulsi was extensively studied in humans, especially in India.
A recent comprehensive review
of human trials systemat-
ically evaluated the efficacy of Tulsi in the treatment of
metabolic disorders, in modulation of the immune system,
and in improving neurocognition. For this published review,
the term Tulsi included both the O tenuiflorum (Osanctum)
and O gratissimum species. The current, brief summary
highlights select findings on topics covered by this com-
prehensive review and also adds newer information not
included for these Tulsi topics. In addition, biological actions
in humans of other Ocimum species are presented in the
current summary.
Metabolic Disorders
Seventeen Tulsi trials, conducted between 1964 and 2016,
were selected for the referenced, critical review publica-
The study populations numbered between 3 and
100. The form of Tulsi leaves administered varied con-
siderably (whole plant, powdered leaves, juice, and water
and ethanol extracts), as did the dose (300 mg/d to 6 g/d)
and frequency. Taken together, these studies observed
significant decreases in fasting and postprandial blood
glucose, improved lipid profiles, and lower blood pres-
sure in diabetic and obese participants. Those trials with
longer duration of intervention (12Y13 weeks) tended to
report more substantial beneficial changes. Where mea-
sured, hemoglobin A1C (HbA
) and body mass index
(BMI) of obese participants were reduced. Only 1 ran-
domized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was among
the studies evaluated, and this trial observed an improve-
ment in lipid profiles for 6 of 22 participants. No adverse
events were reported in any trial.
In a separate study of a different Ocimum species, seeds of
Ocimum canum (or OamericanumL.), also known as
hairy basil, were given to nonYinsulin-dependent (n = 14)
and insulin-dependent (n = 2) Thai patients with dia-
Thirty grams of dried seeds was consumed after
meals in divided doses for 1 month. Compared with
baseline values, the blood glucose concentration curves
determined from the oral glucose tolerance test were
significantly suppressed after 1 month of treatment. These
seeds provided approximately 24 g/d dietary fiber, which
the authors suggested contributed to the lowering of
postprandial glucose levels and long-term improvement
in glucose tolerance in both the nonYinsulin-dependent
and insulin-dependent patients with diabetes.
In another trial
with Ocanum, effects on body compo-
sition and metabolic parameters in obese and overweight
subjects were examined. Obese patients (n = 5) were
instructed to decrease total energy intake to achieve 20%,
30%, and 50% of total caloric intake as protein, fat, and
carbohydrate, respectively. After 4 weeks, individuals were
provided basil seed extract (4 g/d swollen in water) for
12 weeks. Compared with baseline values, there were
significant but small decreases of 2.3% and 2.4% for weight
and BMI, respectively. No changes in serum lipid and
blood glucose levels and in body fat were observed. No
adverse effects were detected, and hematologic, renal,
and electrolyte parameters were normal.
The high-fiber seeds of O basilicum were also investi-
gated for effects on anthropometric measures in patients
with nonalcoholic fatty liver.
For this randomized,
parallel, single-blind trial, patients (n = 18) consumed
10 g/d of seeds for 12 weeks. Compared with controls,
no significant effect of seed consumption was seen for BMI,
percent body fat, and lean body mass. The authors attrib-
uted this lack of effect to the lower dose of seeds given to
the subjects.
Four clinical trials evaluating the effect of Tulsi on
neurocognition were selected for the published sys-
tematic review.
double-blind, placebo-controlled designs. The form of
Tulsi provided included ethanolic extracts, whole plant,
or leaves, and doses varied from 300 mg/d to 6 g/d. All
trials were similar in outcomes, observing some degree
of positive changes, with benefits that included reduced
as enhanced working memory and cognitive attention.
No adverse events were reported.
A separate inhalation trial examined the impacts of basil (O
basilicum) or peppermint essential oils on mental work.
Adult volunteers were evaluated, in a single experimental
run, for changes in sensory perception and mental work
following use of inhalers loaded with the essential oils.
For basil, there was a positive association between inha-
lation of the essential oil and mental work, which was
accompanied by a significant increase in fingertip skin
Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2018 Nutrition Today
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
temperature and an increase in magnitude of Awaves of
the brain. The authors suggested that these responses
for basil demonstrated this fragrance’s capacity to trigger
neurophysiologic stimuli and elevate the alert state, find-
ings consistent with those reported by others.
Immunomodulation and Inflammation
For this topic, 5 clinical trials were selected for the critical
Doses of ethanolic or aqueous extracts of Tulsi
leaves varied from 300 mg/d to 10 g/d, and durations of
intervention were shorter (1Y4 weeks). Beneficial immune
responses included increased natural killer and T-helper
cells in healthy adults and improved immune response to
viral infections. Patients with asthma reported enhanced
vital capacity and relief from asthmatic symptoms. Only 1
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was
among the 5 trials evaluated, and it found higher circu-
lating levels of select cytokines and interferons among the
22 subjects. The studies reported no adverse events.
Oral Health and Healing
Seven human studies evaluated basil for its effects on
oral cavity health in patients in India and Brazil. For 1
the teeth and gums of 50 adult patients
weretreatedwithanextractofO basilicum (250 mg/d)
for 3 weeks. Before and after treatment, plaque and soft
matter in the gingival area were quantitated (referred to
as a plaque index), as were changes in purulent dis-
charges and gingival bleeding and reports of adverse
effects. A significant 12% reduction in the plaque index
was reported after 3 weeks, compared with the initial
scores. The authors also observed a significant treatment-
associated reduction in the populations of several oral
bacteria, and in 80% of the patients, there was a substantial
improvement in gingival bleeding and purulent discharge.
No adverse effects were noted.
In India, a randomized, crossover, Latin squareYdesigned
study evaluated schoolchildren (n = 45) for the efficacy
of 0.2% chlorhexidine, Listerine, and 4% Tulsi extract
mouth rinses in reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans
All 3 rinses significantly decreased salivary S mutans
levels, with mean reductions for chlorhexidine, Listerine,
and Tulsi of 53%, 45%, and 43%, respectively, compared
with baseline values. The only adverse effect of the Tulsi
rinse was a bitter taste, which the authors attributed to the
higher 4% concentration chosen. Two other studies also
evaluated the oral health benefits of holy basil (Osanctum).
A triple-blind, randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial
(30-day duration) among medical student volunteers ex-
amined the strength of a 4% ethanolic extract of Tulsi
(prepared from dried, powdered leaves), 0.12% chlor-
hexidine, and saline (n = 36/group) in decreasing plaque
and gingival inflammation.
Both holy basil and chlor-
hexidine treatments significantly decreased supragingival
plaque and gingivitis, compared with saline controls, and
no significant difference in efficacy was observed between
the 2 treatment groups. Similarly, in a single-blind, ran-
domized, parallel-design study,
a 4-day treatment with a
water extract of holy basil was found to significantly sup-
press plaque regrowth among 30 adult volunteers, com-
pared with water controls, and showed similar clinical
efficacy to 0.2% chlorhexidine.
Using O gratissimum samples, a randomized, parallel,
double-blind trial
evaluated the effectiveness of a mouth
rinse containing an extract of this basil species in inhibiting
de novo development of dental plaque and gingival in-
flammation, compared with a rinse containing 0.12% chlor-
hexidine digluconate (CLX). Following tooth polishing to
remove existing plaque, subjects (n = 10/group) brushed
teeth and rinsed with one of the formulations (3 times per
day) for 3 months. Compared with controls (no antiseptic
agents) at 90 days, the plaque index for basil and CLX rinses
significantly decreased by 43% and 64%, respectively. The
gingival bleeding index also significantly decreased by 63%
and 77% for the basil and CLX groups, respectively, com-
pared with controls. Taken together, these results indicate
similar efficacy of basil and CLX groups, and no adverse
effects were recorded for those using the basil rinse. In a later
clinical study by the same research group,
a crossover,
double-blind trial design was used to evaluate the effec-
tiveness of mouth rinses of this basil and CLX on plaque
regrowth in the absence of tooth brushing. Dental plaque
remnants were removed from subjects (n = 15), who then
rinsed twice daily with control, basil (10% vol/vol essential
oil) and CLX (0.12%) formulations for 3 days, while
abstaining from mechanical cleaning of teeth. Compared
with controls, both basil and CLX rinses significantly
inhibited de novo plaque growth, but the efficacy of the
CLX rinse was significantly better than that of the basil rinse.
For a clinical trial in India,
individuals with jaw (man-
dibular) fractures (n = 9) consumed 2.5 g of an alcoholic
extract of Tulsi (O sanctum) leaves (4 times per day)
during the period of jaw immobilization and healing
(4Y6 weeks). Compared with placebo controls (starch
powder, n = 9), subjects given Tulsi extract showed a
significant 32% reduction in time of immobilization.
Comparable evidence of complete clinical healing among
the 2 groups was demonstrated radiologically and by
identical bite force tensile strength results. No adverse
effects were reported.
Skin Health
of male volunteers (n = 11) was
conducted evaluating a facial skin cream formulation
containing 3% concentrated ethanol extract of basil leaves
and flowers, compared with the base formulation without
basil. Subjects applied the 2 creams at night on separate
cheeks for 12 weeks. Biophysical measurements of skin
94 Nutrition Today
Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2018
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
smoothness, moisture, and wrinkle prevalence were de-
termined. Compared with the base cream, the formulation
with basil significantly enhanced moisture content, de-
creased roughness, and suppressed wrinkling. No harm-
ful effects were noted. Dermatology outpatients in India
were randomly assigned to control (n = 26) and treatment
(n = 25) groups in a single-blind controlled study.
control group was administered a standard treatment for
acne consisting of oral tetracycline (500 mg, 2 times per
day) and a facial sulfur lotion (2 times per day), and the
treatment group members were instructed to manually
crush fresh Obasilicumleaves, smear the resulting juice
night until washing with mild soap the next morning. Both
groups continued these protocols for 8 weeks. The re-
sponses of the acne lesions (comedones, papules, pus-
tules, and cysts) to treatment indicated that the basil
treatment was just as effective as the standard acne drug. A
randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated a
series of 16 O gratissimumYcontaining formulations (n =
7/formulation) on management of acnes vulgaris in uni-
versity students in Nigeria.
Test samples were pre-
pared from 1 of 4 doses of O gratissimum essential oil
along with 1 of 4 base blends and applied to the face
topically (2 times per day) for 4 weeks. Compared with
the lesion counts prior to the study, at 4 weeks the essential
oil preparations, especially at the higher doses, were sig-
nificantly more efficacious than a reference drug product
(10% benzoyl peroxide lotion) in reducing the number
of papules and pustules. Adverse effects were reported
to be minimal, with some higher doses producing skin
As reported in numerous human trials, adverse effects of
Tulsi appear to be minimal. This, along with its long his-
tory of use in Ayurvedic medicine, suggests that it has no
oral toxicity at the doses used.
Toxicological experiments
in animals of the essential oil and of alcoholic extracts
demonstrated no toxic effects of oral administration up to
the highest doses tested.
Some reports led to a con-
cern that excessive consumption of cultivars with high
contents of estragole could be problematic,
but ad-
verse effects are unlikely at typical levels of human con-
There are reports suggesting dietary Tulsi can
affect the reproductive behavior of male rats and rab-
although the relevance of the doses examined to
human intakes is not known.
Portions of the basil plant, especially the leaves, and its
extracts demonstrated health benefits in a variety of clinical
settings (Table). All the species tested, O tenuiflorum/O
sanctum,O basilicum, and Ocanum, showed some level
of benefit, with the magnitude of change depending on the
end point examined and the experimental methods. The
benefits identified include improving glucose homeostasis
and lipid profiles for patients with diabetes, strengthening
TABLE Reports Some of the Purported Benefits of Ocimum Species From Human Studies
Topic Ocimum Dose
Potential Benefits Adverse Events Ref.
Metabolic disorders 300 mg/d to 6 g/d
(whole plant, leaves,
seeds, extracts)
Improvement in blood
glucose regulation and
lipid profiles
Memory and cognition 300 mg/d to 6 g/d
(whole plant, leaves,
extracts, essential oil)
Reduced stress
response, anxiety,
depression; improved
mental performance
Immunity and
inflammation 300 mg/d to 10 g/d
(extracts of leaves) Improved immune
responses and relief
from asthmatic
Oral health and healing 250 mg/d, various oral
formulations (essential
oil, extracts of plant)
Decreased plaque
deposition, less gingival
inflammation and
bleeding, enhanced
healing jaw fractures
Skin health 3% cream, various skin
formulations (leaves,
essential oil)
Decreased wrinkling,
improved acne
Duration of dosing varied from 1 to 13 weeks depending on clinical trial.
Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2018 Nutrition Today
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
of the immune system, alleviating stress and anxiety, and
enhancing memory. Oral and skin health and healing were
reported. Comparisons of beneficial effects among Ocimum
species exhibiting different chemotypes are difficult to make
at this point. The number of clinical trials evaluating specific
health issues vary greatly among species. Only 2 studies
were reported for Ocanumin which inconsistent responses
of postprandial glucose levels to basil administration were
noted. Similarly, only 4 reports indicated benefits for O
basilicum in mental performance, treatment of acne, and
tooth health, with no effect seen for BMI and percent body
fat. In contrast, at least 34 clinical trials have been conducted
for Tulsi (Osanctum,O tenuiflorum,Ogratissimum)in
which benefits were observed toward metabolic disorders,
mental and immune health, gingival inflammation and
tooth decay, and skin health. Valid comparisons of health
benefits among these species await more reports of trials
using species other than those in Tulsi.
Despite no adverse events being detected at the doses
and durations of basil evaluated in these human in-
vestigations, any adverse effects from long-term intake
of basil and its extracts need to be carefully documented.
Although there is encouragement to include basil in the
diet to improve management of diabetes and the meta-
bolic syndrome,
several issues need to be more thor-
oughly addressed when assessing all these purported
health benefits. As Jamshidi and Cohen
have pointed
out, only a minority of the published studies can be
considered high-quality, and approximately only 13%
of the trials incorporated a double-blind approach. The
methodological concerns, as well as the widespread lack
of details about the basil cultivars, dosage form, and
chemical composition of the test samples, suggest that
there are still insufficient data to support specific recom-
mendations for use. Additional studies are needed with
larger subject populations, longer periods of intervention,
and better characterization of the effective forms and the
active dietary doses of basil. Studies should report chem-
ical composition of samples, and, in any trials using basil
for adjunct or complementary treatments, data on in-
teractions with commonly prescribed drugs should be
1. Kumar A, Shukla R, Singh P, Dubey N. Chemical composition,
antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum
L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:539Y543.
2. Shamsher AA, Charoo NA, Rahman Z, Pillai KK, Kohli K. Tulsi oil
as a potential penetration enhancer for celecoxib transdermal
gel formulations. Pharmaceut Dev Technol. 2014;19(1):21Y30.
3. Cohen MM. TulsiVOcimum sanctum: a herb for all reasons. J
Ayur Integ Med. 2014;5(4):251Y259.
4. Prakash P, Gupta N. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn
(Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a
short review. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;49(2):125Y131.
5. Fatope M, Marwah R, Al-Hadhrami N, et al. Identification of the
chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by
NMR spectroscopy. Chem Biodivers. 2008;5:2457Y2463.
6. Rao BR, Kotharia SK, Rajput DK, Patel RP, Darokar MP. Chemical
and biological diversity in fourteen selections of four Ocimum
species. Nat Prod Comm. 2011;6(11):1705Y1710.
7. Chalchat JC, O
¨zcan MM. Comparative essential oil composition
of flowers, leaves and stems of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)
used as herb. Food Chem. 2008;110(2):501Y503.
8. Liber Z, Carovi(-Stanko K, Politeo O, et al. Chemical character-
ization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L.
cultivars. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8(11):1978Y1989.
9. Jayasinghe C, Gotoh N, Aoki T, Wada S. Phenolics composition
and antioxidant activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).
J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(15):4442Y4449.
10. Shafqatullah , Khan R, Hassan W, et al. Development of HPLC
method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic
acids in different Ocimum sanctum L. extracts. Pak J Pharm
Sci. 2014;27(5):1271Y1275.
11. Mura´ rikova´A,}aºk]A, Neugebauerova´ J, et al. Characteriza-
tion of essential oil composition in different basil species and
pot cultures by a GC-MS method. Molecules. 2017;22(7).
12. Sharopov FS,Satyal P, Ali NA, et al. The essential oilcompositions
of Ocimum basilicum from three different regions: Nepal,
Tajikistan and Yemen. Chem Biodivers. 2016;13(2):241Y248.
13. FlaniganPM, Niemeyer ED. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels,
anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple
basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Food Chem. 2014;164:518Y526.
14. Maggio A, Roscigno G, Bruno M, De Falco E, Senatore F.
Essential-oil variability in a collection of Ocimum basilicum L.
(basil) cultivars. Chem Biodivers. 2016;13(10):1357Y1368.
15. Avetisyan A, Markosian A, Petrosyan M, et al. Chemical composition
and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil
Ocimum different cultivars. BMC Complement Altern Med.
16. Hussain A, Anwar F, Hussain Sherazi ST, Przybylski R. Chemical
composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil
(Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal varia-
tions. Food Chem. 2008;108:986Y995.
17. Fischer R, Nitzan N, Chaimovitsh D, Rubin B, Dudai N. Variation
in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet
basil (Ocimum basilicum L) is more affected by leaf position
than by leaf age. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59(9):4913Y4922.
18. Verma R, Padalia R, Chauhan A. Variation in the volatile terpenoids
of two industrially important basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars
during plant ontogeny in two different cropping seasons from
India. JSciFoodAgric. 2012;92:626Y631.
19. Zheljazkov VD, Cantrell CL, Tekwani B, Khan SI. Content,
composition, and bioactivity of the essential oils of three basil
genotypes as a function of harvesting. J Agric Food Chem.
20. Tsasi G, Mailis T, Daskalaki A, et al. The effect of harvesting on
the composition of essential oils from five varieties of Ocimum
basilicum L. cultivated in the island of Kefalonia, Greece.
Plants (Basil). 2017;6(3).
21. Carvalho SD, Schwieterman ML, Abrahan CE, Colquhoun TA,
Folta KM. Light quality dependent changes in morphology,
antioxidant capacity, and volatile production in sweet basil
(Ocimum basilicum). Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:1328.
22. Ghasemzadeh A, Ashkani S, Baghdadi A, Pazoki A, Jaafar HZ,
Rahmat A. Improvement in flavonoids and phenolic acids
production and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil (Ocimum
basilicum L.) by ultraviolet-B irradiation. Molecules. 2016;21(9).
23. Li H, Ge Y, Luo Z, et al. Evaluation of the chemical composition,
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of distillate and
residue fractions of sweet basil essential oil. J Food Sci Technol.
96 Nutrition Today
Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2018
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
24. Zlotek U, Mikulski S, Nagajek M, Swieca M. The effect of different
solvents and number of extraction steps on the polyphenol
content and antioxidant capacity of basil leaves (Ocimum
basilicum L.) extracts. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2016;23:628Y633.
25. Shiwakoti S, Saleh O, Poudyal S, Barka A, Qian Y, Zheljazkov
VD. Yield, composition and antioxidant capacity of the
essential oil of sweet basil and holy basil as influenced by
distillation methods. Chem Biodivers. 2017;14(4).
26. Ghasemi Pirbalouti A, Mahdad E, Craker L. Effects of drying
methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential
oil of two basil landraces. Food Chem. 2013;141(3):2440Y2449.
27. Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R, Andersen LF. Intakes of culinary herbs
and spices from a Food Frequency Questionnaire evaluated
against 28-days estimated records. Nutr J. 2011;10:50.
28. Barfi A, Nazem H, Saeidi I, et al. In-syringe reversed dispersive
liquid-liquid microextraction for the evaluation of three
important bioactive compounds of basil, tarragon and fennel
in human plasma and urine samples. J Pharmaceut Biomed
Anal. 2016;121:123Y134.
29. Jamshidi N, Cohen MM. The clinical efficacy and safety of Tulsi
in humans: a systematic review of the literature. Evid Based
Complement Altern Med. 2017;2017:9217567.
30. Viseshakul D, Premvatana P, Chularojmontri V, Kewsiri D,
Tinnarat P. Improved glucose tolerance induced by long term
dietary supplementation with hairy basal seeds (Ocimum
canum sim) in diabetics. J Med Assoc Thai. 1985;68(8):408Y411.
31. Leelahagul P, Putadechakum S, Tanphaichitr V. The effects of
soluble dietary fibre from the Thai herb, sweet basil seed, on
human body composition. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 1992;1:169Y174.
32. Akbarian SA, Asgary S, Feizi A, Iraj B, Askari G. Comparative
study on the effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum
seeds on anthropometric measures in nonalcoholic fatty liver
patients. Int J Prev Med. 2016;7:114.
33. Satoh T, Sugawara Y. Effects on humans elicited by inhaling the
fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermo-
metric study and forehead surface potential wave measure-
ment on basil and peppermint. Anal Sci. 2003;19(1):139Y146.
34. Sugawara Y, Hino Y, Kawasaki M, et al. Alteration of perceived
fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple
screening test for efficacy of aroma. Chem Senses. 1999;24(4):
35. Patel V, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H. Folklore therapeutic indigenous
plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and
clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1988;26:
36. Agarwal P, Nagesh L. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of
0.2% chlorhexidine, Listerine and Tulsi extract mouth rinses on
salivary Streptococcus mutans count of high school childrenV
RCT. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011;32(6):802Y808.
37. Gupta D, Bhaskar D, Gupta R, et al. A randomized controlled
clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouth-
wash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. J Ayurveda
Integr Med. 2014;5:109Y116.
38. Hosamane M, Acharya A, Vij C, et al. Evaluation of holy basil
mouthwash as an adjunctive plaque control agent in a four-day
plaque regrowth model. J Clin Exp Dent. 2014;6:e491Ye496.
39. Pereira SL, de Oliveira JW, Angelo KK, da Costa AM, Costa F.
Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum
on plaque and gingivitis control. JContDentPract. 2011;12(5):
40. Pimenta MS, Lobo NS, Vieira VC, Costa A
ˆM, Costa FN, Pereira
SL. Effect of Ocimum gratissimum in mouthrinses on de novo
plaque formation. A randomized clinical trial. Braz Dent J.
41. Mohammad S, Pal US, Pradhan R, Singh N. Herbal remedies for
mandibular fracture healing. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2014;5(1):
42. Rasul A, Akhtar N. Formulation and in vivo evaluation for anti-
aging effects of an emulsion containing basil extract using non-
invasive biophysical techniques. Daru. 2011;19(5):344Y350.
43. Balambal R, Thiruvengadam KV, Kameswarant L, Janaki VR,
Thambiah AS. Ocimum basilicum in acne vulgarisVa con-
trolled comparison with a standard regime. J Assoc Physicians
India. 1985;33(8):507Y508.
44. Orafidiya L, Agbani E, Oyedele A, et al. Preliminary clinical tests
on topical applications of Ocimum gratissimum Linn essential
oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clin Drug Invest. 2002;
45. Martin KW, Ernst E. Herbal medicines for treatment of bacterial
infections: a review of controlled clinical trials. J Antimicr
Chemother. 2003;51(2):241Y246.
46. Singh S, Majumdar D. Toxicological studies of the fixed oil of
Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi). New Botanist. 1994;21:139Y146.
47. Raina P, Chandrasekaran C, Deepak M, Agarwal A, Ruchika K.
Evaluation of subacute toxicity of methanolic/aqueous prep-
aration of aerial parts of O. sanctum in Wistar rats: clinical,
haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies. J
Ethnopharmacol. 2015;175:509Y517.
48. Miller EC, Swanson AB, Phillips DH, Fletcher TL, Liem A, Miller
JA. Structure-activity studies of the carcinogenicities in the
mouse and rat of some naturally occurring and synthetic
alkenylbenzene derivatives related to safrole and estragole.
Cancer Res. 1983;43(3):1124Y1134.
49. Raffo A, Nicoli S, Leclercq C. Quantification of estragole in
fennel herbal teas: implications on the assessment of dietary
exposure to estragole. Food Chem Tox. 2011;49(2):370Y375.
50. Kantak NM, Gogate MG. Effect of short term administration
of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on reproductive behaviour
of adult male rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992;36(2):
51. Sethi J, Yadav M, Sood S, Dahiya K, Singh V. Effect of Tulsi
(Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive
hormones in male albino rabbits. Int J Ayurv Res. 2010;1(4):
52. Kapoor S. Ocimum sanctum: a therapeutic role in diabetes and
the metabolic syndrome. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40(4):296.
Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2018 Nutrition Today
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
... Tinh dầu húng quế có tác dụng giảm bớt mệt mỏi về tinh thần, trị chứng cảm lạnh, co cơ, viêm mũi dị ứng, kháng khuẩn, kháng nấm, diệt côn trùng và được ưu tiên dùng để trị côn trùng đốt hoặc rắn cắn. [4], [7], [8]. ...
... Kết quả trên cũng phù hợp với thực tế sử dụng trong dân gian khi dùng tinh dầu để xua đuổi côn trùng và dùng để ăn (làm gia vị) hoặc để chữa bệnh. [4], [8] Rất ít nghiên cứu trên thế giới tiến hành đánh giá tính an toàn của tinh dầu húng quế trên thực nghiệm và lâm sàng. Đây là nghiên cứu đầu tiên ở Việt Nam đánh giá độc tính trên da và ảnh hưởng của tinh dầu húng quế đến một số chức năng sống của động vật thí nghiệm. ...
Nghiên cứu được tiến hành vào tháng 5 năm 2021, tại Học viện Y Dược học cổ truyền Việt Nam. Mục tiêu: Đánh giá tác dụng kích ứng da và ảnh hưởng của tinh dầu Húng quế (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae) đến một số chức năng sống của thỏ thí nghiệm. Phương pháp: Tiến hành theo hướng dẫn của Bộ Y tế và OECD. Kết quả: Tinh dầu húng quế nguyên chất và hỗn hợp tinh dầu - ethanol 700 (7:3) không gây kích ứng da thỏ sau 24 giờ theo dõi liên tục (không gây mẩn đỏ, không phù nề, không gây viêm da), không làm thay đổi có ý nghĩa thống kê các chỉ số thân nhiệt, nhịp thở và nhịp tim của thỏ tại các thời điểm 1, 4, 6 và 24 giờ sau khi dùng chất thử so với trước khi dùng (các giá trị p > 0,05).
... Cho đến nay, rất ít nghiên cứu về ảnh hưởng của dịch chiết húng quế đến chức năng tim mạch của động vật hay người. Tuy nhiên, một số nghiên cứu ở châu Phi đã cho thấy húng quế có tác dụng cân bằng hormone cortison, cải thiện chức năng của não, tim, gan và có tác dụng chống đông máu [1], [7]. Điều này cũng phù hợp với kết quả nghiên cứu trên của chúng tôi. ...
Mục tiêu: Đánh giá ảnh hưởng của dịch chiết nước Húng quế (Ocimum basilicum L.) đến điện tim của thỏ thí nghiệm với liều đường uống liên tục 28 ngày. Đối tượng và Phương pháp: Tiến hành theo hướng dẫn của Bộ Y tế và OECD về thử độc tính bán trường diễn. Dịch chiết nước húng quế được dùng bằng đường uống trên thỏ ở 2 mức liều 0,6 và 1,8 g/kg/ngày x 28 ngày liên tiếp. Thử nghiệm tiến hành song song với nhóm chứng. Ghi điện tim thỏ ở các ngày N0 (trước khi dùng thuốc), N14 và N29. Điện tim thỏ được ghi ở 12 đạo trình (3 đạo trình song cực chi, 3 đạo trình đơn cực chi, 6 đạo trình đơn cực ngực). Các chỉ tiêu đánh giá gồm: nhịp tim, sóng P, khoảng PQ, phức bộ QRS, sóng T, khoảng QT, và các dấu hiệu khác (nếu có). Kết quả: Dịch chiết húng quế ở cả hai mức liều 0,6 và 1,8 g/kg/ngày x 28 ngày liên tiếp không làm thay đổi có ý nghĩa thống kê nhịp tim và các sóng điện tim (sóng P, khoảng PQ, phức bộ QRS, sóng T, khoảng QT) tại các thời điểm trước uống thuốc (ngày 0), ngày 14 và ngày 29 (sau đợt dùng thuốc). Các chỉ số trên giữa lô dùng thuốc và lô chứng cũng khác biệt không có ý nghĩa thống kê (các giá trị p > 0,05). Kết luận: Như vậy, dịch chiết húng quế ở liều 0,6 và 1,8 g/kg/ngày x 28 ngày liên tiếp an toàn với tim thỏ thí nghiệm.
... Sweet basil, one of the most economically important aromatic culinary herbs, is widely used as seasoning in the form of fresh and dried herbs (Bączek et al., 2019). It has been reported by Singletary (2018) that basil has commercial importance for the production of phytochemicals used for medicinal purposes, as well as being a culinary and ornamental fresh market herb. On the other hand, since flowering basil herb contains much-appreciated fragrance components used in cosmetics such as linalool, citronellol, geraniol and limonene (Pitman, 2004;Sharmeen et al., 2021), the cosmetic industry uses basil oil in shampoos, soaps, lotions, and perfumes. ...
Full-text available
In this book, we have a publication: Eldar Garayev, Adila Valiyeva, Tohfa Nasibova, Ilkin Nasirli, Kamala Badalova, Gaëtan Herbette. Phytochemistry of some alkaloid containing plants from Azerbaijan.
... Recently, many studies have scientifically proven that medicinal plants such as spices and herbs can be used in the biomedical field due to their wide range of applications. Herbs and spices such as basil [35] , lemon grass [36] , saffron [37] and ginger [18] are being used as effective therapeutic food since decades. These natural extracts have become a dietary choice because of the advantages of the naturally occurring bioactive compounds in the plants [38] . ...
Full-text available
The advancement of clinical medicine established exceptionally in today’s era is used to cure many infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the negative aftermath associated with synthetic drugs has caused many to turn their attention towards an alternative, which is natural plant-extract drugs. Plant-based drugs have a vast number of benefits and applications in the biomedical field and are further formulated with nanocomposite hydrogel, namely sodium alginate. Sodium alginate is a biopolymer that is water-soluble, non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable, therefore having a high demand in the medical field. The objective of this review is to highlight the nanotechnology development that is used in the medical field to enhance the therapeutic effects of naturally occurring drugs. This review will discuss the use of sodium alginate nanocomposite to create a nanohybrid drug loaded with plant extracts.
Nghiên cứu được tiến hành từ tháng 5 - 7 năm 2021, tại Viện Sốt rét - Ký sinh trùng - Côn trùng Trung ương và Trường Đại học Y Hà Nội. Mục tiêu: Thử ảnh hưởng của dịch chiết nước Húng quế (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae) đến chức năng thận của thỏ. Phương pháp: Tiến hành theo hướng dẫn của Bộ Y tế và OECD về thử độc tính bán trường diễn. Dịch chiết nước húng quế được dùng bằng đường uống trên thỏ ở 2 mức liều 0,6 và 1,8 g/kg/ngày x 28 ngày liên tiếp. Thử nghiệm tiến hành song song với nhóm chứng. Thử nghiệm tiến hành song song với nhóm chứng. Lấy máu tĩnh mạch tai thỏ để xét nghiệm sinh hóa vào các ngày N0, N14 và N29. Mổ 50% số thỏ ở mỗi lô vào ngày N29 và mổ nốt thỏ ở ngày N43 để quan sát đại thể thận và lấy các mô thận, làm tiêu bản đánh giá ảnh hưởng của thuốc đến hình thái vi thể thận thỏ. Các chỉ tiêu đánh giá gồm: hàm lượng creatinin huyết thanh, những biến đổi bất thường của hình thái đại thể và vi thể thận thỏ (nếu có). Kết quả: Hàm lượng creatinin ở các lô uống dịch chiết húng quế liều 0,6 và 1,8 g/kg/ngày × 28 ngày tại N14 và N29 thay đổi không có ý nghĩa thống kê so với N0 và so với lô chứng tại các thời điểm tương ứng với N0 (các giá trị p > 0,05). Hình thái đại thể thận thỏ của tất cả các lô thí nghiệm tại N29 và N43 đều bình thường, nhu mô mềm, mịn, không sung huyết. Cấu trúc vi thể: Ở các lô chứng và lô dùng thuốc, ống thận bình thường, tỷ lệ thỏ bị sung huyết nhẹ cầu thận tương ứng là 2/5, 2/5 và 3/5 ở ngày N29 và 3/6, 2/6 và 3/6 ở N43. Kết luận: Dịch chiết nước húng quế không ảnh hưởng đến chức năng thận thỏ thí nghiệm.
Full-text available
To counterbalance the growing human population and its increasing demands from the ecosystem , and the impacts on it, new strategies are needed. Use of organic fertilizers boosted the agricultural production, but further increased the ecological burden posed by this indispensable activity. One possible solution to this conundrum is the development and application of more environmentally neutral biofertilizers. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two doses of Hermetia illucens frass (HI frass) with the commercial cattle manure in the cultivation of basil under drought. Soil without the addition of any organic fertilizer was used as a baseline control substrate for basil cultivation. Plants were grown with cattle manure (10 g/L of the pot volume) or HI frass at two doses (10 and 12.5 g/L). The health and physiological condition of plants were assessed based on the photosynthetic activity and the efficiency of photosystem II (chlorophyll fluorescence). Gas exchange between soil and the atmosphere were also assessed to verify the effect of fertilizer on soil condition. In addition, the mineral profile of basil and its antioxidant activity were assessed, along with the determination of the main polyphenolic compounds content. Biofertilizers improved the fresh mass yield and physiological condition of plants, both under optimal watering and drought, in comparison with the non-fertilized controls. Use of cattle manure in both water regimes resulted in a comparably lower yield and a stronger physiological response to drought. As a result, using HI frass is a superior strategy to boost output and reduce the effects of drought on basil production.
Basil or sweet basil is named Ocimum basilicum L. from the Lamiaceae family, which originated from India, and it is also well known as a culinary herb in other countries such as Italy, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Agricultural systems (traditional or alternative agricultural systems) have a different effect on the morphology, yield, and yield components of basil. These agricultural systems include aquaponics and hydroponics systems and organic farming by using organic manure as vermicompost, poultry or cattle manure, biofertilizer, growing techniques, etc., as well as chemical fertilizer. Fertilization, especially organic and chemical fertilizer, combined with minerals, applied in appropriate dose and composition, affects growth, herb weight, and basil inorganic matter content. In this context, the management of the fertilizers is a significant factor to obtain successful basil cultivation and sustainable agriculture. So, the best agricultural system and growing condition should be determined to obtain the maximum yield values in basil. In this chapter, botany, distribution, origin, domestication, spread, genetic resource, collection, conservation, characterization, and evaluation (different agricultural systems, fertilizer application, genetic variability and morphology, and yield properties) will be covered in detail and provide information for basil producers and researchers.
Full-text available
Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site.
Full-text available
Basil (Ocimum L.) species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i) the produced amount (extraction yield), (ii) qualitative, as well as (iii) quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, ‘Mánes’, was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: ‘Ohře’, ‘Lettuce Leaf’, ‘Purple Opaal’, ‘Dark Green’ (linalool, 5.99, 2.49, 2.34, 2.01 mg/mL, respectively), and ‘Mammolo Genovese’, ‘Mánes’, ‘Red Rubin’ (eucalyptol, 1.34, 0.96, 0.76 mg/mL, respectively). At the same time, when considering other compounds identified in GC-MS profiles, all the studied varieties, except from ‘Lettuce Leaf’, were methyl eugenol-rich with a strong dependence of the eugenol:methyl eugenol ratio on the seasonal changes (mainly solar irradiation, but also temperature and relative humidity). More complex and/or variable (depending on the season and cultivation) chemotypes were observed with ‘Lettuce Leaf’ (plus estragole, 2.27 mg/mL), ‘Dark Green’ (plus eucalyptol, 1.36 mg/mL), ‘Mammolo Genovese’ (plus eugenol, 1.19 mg/mL), ‘Red Rubin’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.46 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively), and ‘Mánes’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.58 and 0.40 mg/mL, respectively). When considering superior extraction yield (ca. 17 mL·kg−1, i.e., two to five times higher than other examined varieties) and consistent amounts (yields) of essential oil when comparing inter-seasonal or inter-year data (RSD and inter-year difference in mean yield values ˂2.5%), this new basil variety is very promising for use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries.
Full-text available
Tulsi, also known as holy basil, is indigenous to the Indian continent and highly revered for its medicinal uses within the Ayurvedic and Siddha medical systems. Many in vitro, animal and human studies attest to tulsi having multiple therapeutic actions including adaptogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory effects, yet to date there are no systematic reviews of human research on tulsi’s clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of human studies that reported on a clinical outcome after ingestion of tulsi. We searched for studies published in books, theses, conference proceedings, and electronic databases including Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, and Indian Medical databases. A total of 24 studies were identified that reported therapeutic effects on metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, immunity, and neurocognition. All studies reported favourable clinical outcomes with no studies reporting any significant adverse events. The reviewed studies reinforce traditional uses and suggest tulsi is an effective treatment for lifestyle-related chronic diseases including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and psychological stress. Further studies are required to explore mechanisms of action, clarify the dosage and dose form, and determine the populations most likely to benefit from tulsi’s therapeutic effects.
Full-text available
Background The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. Methods The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. Results According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.
Full-text available
The profile and bioactivity of essential oil (EO) depends on genetic, environmental, and other factors. We hypothesized that the basil EO may be influenced by the distillation methods. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) extraction method on the yield, composition, and bioactivity of EO of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum). In both basil species, the EO yield (content) was significantly higher from SD than from HD. There were significant differences in the compounds’ concentrations of EO obtained from SD and HD as well, however, the same compounds were identified in the EO from HD and SD. In the EO of O. basilicum, the concentration of 74% of the identified compounds were higher in SD than HD, whereas in the EO of O. tenuiflorum, the concentration of 84% of identified compounds were higher in SD than in HD. However, the concentrations of two of the major compounds of O. basilicum EO (estragole and methyl cinnamate) and a major compound of O. tenuiflorum EO (methyl eugenol) were significantly higher in HD than in SD. The type of distillation did not affect the antioxidant capacity of basil EO within the species. This study demonstrated that the type of distillation may significantly affect oil yield and composition but not the antioxidant capacity of the EO from sweet and holy basil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of Ocimum gratissimum (Og) by in vivo investigation. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind clinical study, using a 3-day partial-mouth plaque accumulation model. The participants abolished any method of mechanical oral hygiene and they were randomly assigned to initially use just the following mouthrinses: distilled water (DW solution), 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX solution) or 10% Og (Og solution). The plaque index (PLI) was recorded in all mandibular teeth at the end of the trial and the Kruskal-Wallis (α=0.05) and Mann-Whitney (α=0.05) tests were used to estimate the difference among groups. The clinical results showed statistically significant difference among the groups (p<0.05), favoring the CLX solution and Og solution, but the first was more effective (p<0.05). The mouthrinses containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% Og were able to inhibit plaque re-growth, however Og showed more limited results in comparison to CLX. © 2016, Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
Background Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. Methods All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t-test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. Results In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. Conclusions The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD.
Full-text available
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV-B treated leaves presented the highest DPPH activity and antiproliferative activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56.0 and 40.8 µg/mL, respectively, over that of the control plants (78.0 and 58.2 µg/mL, respectively). These observations suggest that post-harvest irradiation with UV-B can be considered a promising technique to improve the healthy-nutritional and pharmaceutical properties of sweet basil leaves.
Full-text available
Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv ‘Ceasar’) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be useful tools in improving commercial production.
In this study, the chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae family) were evaluated. Sweet basil is a food-related plant that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Sweet basil crude oil was processed via molecular distillation and further characterized using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to screen for new compounds. The GC–MS analysis identified thirty-eight compounds. The major constituents of the residue fraction were estragole (17.06%), methyl eugenol (11.35%) and linoleic acid (11.40%), while the distillate fraction primarily contained methyl eugenol (16.96%), α-cadinol (16.24%) and α-bergamotene (11.92%). The antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS assays) and anti-inflammatory (in Raw264.7 cells) activities were evaluated. The residue fraction markedly scavenged the DPPH (IC50 = 1.092 ± 0.066 mg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 0.707 ± 0.042 mg/mL) radicals. Meanwhile, the distillate fraction distinctly suppressed the production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6) and their gene expression in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells and suppressed NO and iNOS in an in vitro model when compared with the crude oil. In conclusion, the fractions obtained from sweet basil crude oil showed different antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents after molecular distillation. Thus, the properties of essential oils in natural herbal medicines may be maximized to provide a valuable therapeutic strategy for treating various disorders caused by extreme oxidative stress.