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The new industrial policy 1991 focused on the rapid industrial developments in India. This led to the drastic economic transformations in India. The new terms called Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization rightly coined with the background of Indian economic context. Indian education system faced a typical phase of paradigm shift as per the global economy demands. New courses were introduced as per the industry needs. During the same time Management Education in India also gained huge demand and reputation. Indian Institute of Management's (IIM's) number significantly increased from 1990's to 2012. Indian industrial and service sectors continuously registering a progressive growth rates, this is one side to a coin and the other is talent crunch. It requires a micro level study on Indian management education. The reach of IIM's and B-Schools in India is another issue, typically Private Colleges (affiliated to universities) or B-grade colleges are playing vital role in proving management education. In short, there are many problems associated with the Indian management education in developing and motivating the students to become entrepreneurs. Hence, this paper discusses all those issues and concerns with an in-depth analysis.
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Asia Pacific Journal of Research Vol: I Issue I, January 2014
ISSN: 2320-5504, E-ISSN-2347-4793
Page | 1
Dr.B.Gangaiah, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management,
Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516003, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Juturu Viswanath, Research Scholar, Department of Business Management,
Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516003, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The new industrial policy 1991 focused on the rapid industrial developments in India. This led to
the drastic economic transformations in India. The new terms called Liberalization,
Privatization and Globalization rightly coined with the background of Indian economic context.
Indian education system faced a typical phase of paradigm shift as per the global economy
demands. New courses were introduced as per the industry needs. During the same time
Management Education in India also gained huge demand and reputation. Indian Institute of
Management’s (IIM’s) number significantly increased from 1990’s to 2012. Indian industrial
and service sectors continuously registering a progressive growth rates, this is one side to a coin
and the other is talent crunch. It requires a micro level study on Indian management education.
The reach of IIM’s and B-Schools in India is another issue, typically Private Colleges (affiliated
to universities) or B-grade colleges are playing vital role in proving management education. In
short, there are many problems associated with the Indian management education in developing
and motivating the students to become entrepreneurs. Hence, this paper discusses all those
issues and concerns with an in-depth analysis.
Keywords: India, Global economy, IIM‟s, Affiliated colleges, Management education, Students.
With the mushroom growth of management colleges in India, the quantitative improvisations
gradually increased. The Indian management education contributions towards socio-economic
considerations are typically not up to the mark due to many reasons. Basic objective of
management education is to inculcate business knowledge both in terms of theoretical and
Asia Pacific Journal of Research Vol: I Issue I, January 2014
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practical, developing decision-making skills, developing entrepreneurial attitudes among
students, filling gap between the demand and supply of human resources i.e. management
professionals to the industries. The real picture of management education in India is quiet
different with the above said objectives. In this regard the role of university affiliated managed
colleges, faculty, students is decisive.
Qualitative aspects are least considered, simply sending the students out has become the prime
motto of the management colleges. The problem areas in this regard are clearly visible; all these
situations led to unmatched results of management education towards industry and society
requirements. Indian society needs the entrepreneurs than the workers. Basically entrepreneurial
attitude begins with the rightly tuned and directed aspirations. Indian government is ever ready to
encourage the entrepreneurs through providing initial and developmental assistance. Here the
user is not yet prepared! So, where is the problem lies here, it needs an in-depth thinking,
analysis and presenting practical recommendations.
Literature Review:
Management education in India formally began in 1953 at the Indian Institute of Social Welfare
and Business Management (IISWBM) the first B-School established by Government of West
Bengal and Kolkata University. However, a few institutions like Tata Institute of Social Sciences
(1936) and Xavier Labour Research Institute (1949) had already started training programmes for
managers in personnel function well before the formal launch of first MBA programme at
IISWBM. IISWBM experiment of offering two-year, full-time MBA programme was followed
by Delhi University (1955), Madras University (1955), Bombay University (1955) and Andhra
University (1957). A few other institutions like Administrative Staff College of India Hyderabad
(1956), All India Management Association (1957), and National Productivity Council (1958)
were established to promote excellence in management practices, research and education. The
Government of India launched Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) as centres of excellence
in Management education in early 1960s. The first Indian Institute of Management was set up in
Kolkata in 1961 and second in Ahmedabad in 1962. Elite club of IIMs added new members in
1973 (Bangalore), 1984 (Lucknow) and 1997-98 (Khozhikode and Indore). Currently there are
12 IIMs in the country. Over the years, IIMs have evolved as great brand in Management
education across the globe and an enviable benchmark for other institutions in terms of quality of
faculty, students, curriculum and placement.
Structure of Management Education in India:
There are presently six types of management education organizations. These are:
(1) Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) set up by the Government of India.
(2) University departments of management studies.
(3) Colleges (government or private) affiliated to universities.
(4) Private or government institutes approved by the All India Council for Technical Education
(5) Private colleges or institutes not affiliated to any universities nor approved by AICTE and
(6) Private colleges or institutes offering MBA courses in India in collaboration with foreign
universities, where degree/diploma/certificate is awarded by the foreign university.
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Table 1: Indian Management Colleges Statistics:
South Central
South West
North West
Grand Total
Source: AICTE, 2013.
The statistics of Management Colleges in India shows that there are number of sufficient
institutions which offering management education.
Table 2: Growth of AICTE approved Technical Institutions in last five years
The growth of Management Colleges in India registered a progressive trend. From 1052 (2005-
06) to 1940 (2009-10). This indicates the growing demand for the management education in
Table 3: Intake of students for admissions in MBA and Ph.D Courses
AICTE approved intake of students ( seats available for
Level of Course
Five year
Five year
change (%)
Post Graduate
Fellowship & PhD
Source: AICTE *World Bank, CIA#NASSCOM adopted from:
The Intake of students into MBA and Ph.D courses is increased at the rate of 179% i.e. 89,369
(during the period 2007-08 to 2011-12) for MBA Program at Post Graduation level, with the
98% growth rate in Ph.D programs (during the period 2007-08 to 2011-12).
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Entrepreneurship Development: Indian Context:
The word „entrepreneur‟ is originally taken from the French language where it originally means
an organizer of musical or other entertainments. The word has been in use since the 16th century,
where it was applied to those who were organized and engaged in military expeditions. In the
17th century the word has been extended to cover architects and contractors engaged in civil
engineering activities such as construction, fortification and public works. The old oxford
dictionary coined the term entrepreneur as “the director or a manager of a public musical
institution, one who gets- up entertainment, especially musical performance”. It was only in the
beginning of 18th century that the word was used to refer to economic aspects. Richard
Cantillion, an Irish man living in France was the first person introduced the term entrepreneur, in
the early 18th century to refer the word entrepreneur to economic aspects. Various experts in
their researches have given different meanings and views to the word entrepreneur.
Entrepreneurship has acquired a special significance in the context of economic growth and
industrial development in the rapidly changing socio economic and socio cultural climates both
in developed and developing countries. Small scale industry has emerged as the most dynamic
segment with 55 percent of overall values of industrial production. This sector provides 42
percent employment opportunity both for literate and illiterate. It is a state of healthy balance in
the country in which entrepreneurs make their respective contributions to achieve the economic
development of the nation. With the government policy of encouraging the entrepreneurs, a large
number of business enterprises were established in recent years.
Regulatory Body:
Regulation of Management education began in 1987 when All India Council for Technical
Education (AICTE) was formed and management education was taken as part of the technical
education. AICTE helped in regulating the B-Schools in terms of governance, accountability,
transparency in admission and program administration, infrastructure, students-faculty ratio,
curriculum, library, laboratories, grant-in-aid for organizing seminars, conferences, faculty
development programs, setting up of entrepreneurship development cell, institute-industry
interface cell etc.
National Knowledge Commission’s Report (2006) on Indian Management Education in Brief:
National Knowledge Commission‟s report on Management Education advocates a greater role of
industry in promoting research programs in B-schools as they are the major beneficiaries in
terms of steady supply of efficient manpower. Indeed, the industry can sponsor research
programs, set up dedicated research chair professorships in specific domains, grant fellowships
to doctoral candidates and open their gates for collaborative research projects. Besides, the
corporate houses may also encourage some of their senior professionals to participate in research
programs and pursue higher education. B-Schools are unlikely to handle the shortage of faculty
without active support from industry. The Government of India as well as state governments
should also strengthen doctoral research in Management by increasing intake of students in Ph D
programs in central as well as state universities and increasing the number of Junior Research
Fellowships besides increasing fellowship grants.
There are several challenges of management education, which require change in the character
and structure of management education and integration of management education with the
corporate sector. As the pasture of management is dynamic in nature, new tools and techniques
are always being introduced to improve the competence, efficiency and prosperity of any
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organization. So is the case with management education. Professional skills should be acquired
with practical knowledge, gradually making them experts in diagnosing the symptoms of
patients. Just by confining themselves to textbooks, students may not understand business
situations as each situation is unique and requires exceptional solutions. Management education
in India is not very old; it has taken its practical shape during early sixties with establishment of
Indian Institute of Management to train the people with management concepts. After that many
institutions, universities have also come forward to provide management education to cater the
increasing demand of entrepreneurs and managers. The term „attitude‟ means mentally prepared
state for any known subject. It is a subjective consciousness and that is affected by the
environment. The attitude is a kind of lasting inclination. It can be an idiosyncrasy that could be
shaped or changed via experience or study. The attitude toward entrepreneurship is an
individual's concept about entrepreneurship, assessment and inclination towards entrepreneurial
behavior or self-employment. If the individual has a strong attitude for starting a new venture the
relationship between attitude and behavior is strong. This individual has a strong inclination
towards entrepreneurship.
Significance of the Study:
Quality of human resource plays a vital role in the nation‟s development. Sound educational
system definitely improves the quality of human resources; in this regard the management
education demands a great consideration towards socio-economic development of the country in
form of developing entrepreneurs i.e. transformation from student to entrepreneur. But in reality
this transformations are not effectively delivered. Hence, this situation demands a study
regarding assessing the impact of management education in developing entrepreneurial attitudes
through identifying the reasons for this gap and to devise various measures to develop and
sustain the entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes among the management students.
Objectives of the Study:
The following are the objectives for the study:
1. To uncover various factors affecting the entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes among
management students.
2. To assess the influence of current management education on motivating management
students towards entrepreneurial considerations and
3. To ascertain the impact of management education in managing entrepreneurial
aspirations among management students.
Non Probability Convenience Sampling method was adopted to collect the sample. Both primary
and secondary data used for the study. Secondary data is collected from various websites and
published articles in various national and international journals. Primary data is collected through
questionnaire, which is specifically designed with an intention of getting responses towards
entrepreneurial attitudes among management students. The sample is collected from the
Rayalaseema Region consists of 4 districts namely Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa and Kurnool
from Andhra Pradesh State. 25 Management Colleges are considered for the study and the
sample includes both teaching fraternity and course pursuing students. The size of the sample is
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180 equally chosen from the four cities i.e. 45X4, includes 120 students and 60 faculty members.
The tabulated data is analyzed through simple percentages and correlation coefficient.
Data Analysis:
Table 4: Respondents Perception towards Factors affecting the Entrepreneurial aspirations and
attitudes among management students with reference to Indian Management Education:
Family and Social Groups
57 (31.66 )
School and College Environments
148 (82.22 )
32 ( 17.77)
Self-Confidence (being independent, self-reliance, sincere)
162 (90 )
18 (10 )
133 ( 73.88)
47 (26.11 )
Frequent Industrial Visits and Interactions with upcoming
164 (91.11 )
16 ( 8.88)
Inspirational Teaching concerns on entrepreneurship
ideologies development
159 ( 88.33)
21 (11.66 )
Cultural Influences
138 ( 76.66)
42 (23.33 )
Entrepreneurial Development Programs
166 (92.22 )
14 (7.77 )
Social Media
157 (87.22 )
23 (12.77 )
Risk-taking Propensity
165 (91.66 )
15 ( 8.33)
Source: Field Survey (figures in the parenthesis indicates percentages)
Table 4 shows the perception of respondents towards entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes
with regard to management education. All the above mentioned factors possess high impact on
developing entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes among management students here the high
influencing factor is entrepreneurial development programs (92.22%).
Table 5: Influence of Management Education on motivating Management Students in
developing Entrepreneurial Aspirations and Attitudes:
Faculty (60)
Course Pursuing Students
Industrial Visits
43 (71.66 )
17 ( 28.33)
98 (81.66 )
22 (18.33)
55 (91.66 )
05 (8.33 )
95 (79.16 )
25 (20.83)
Management Games
58 ( 96.66)
02 ( 3.33)
85 ( 70.83)
35 (29.16 )
42 ( 70)
16 (26.66 )
89 ( 74.16)
31 (25.83 )
Learning Aspect
51 ( 85)
09 ( 15)
93 ( 77.5)
27 (22.5 )
EDP-Wing in the College
46 ( 76.66)
14 ( 23.33)
101( 84.16)
19 ( 15.83)
Local Industry Connectivity
45 (75 )
15 ( 25)
91 ( 75.83)
29 (24.16 )
Interactions with Successful Entrepreneurs
52 (86.66 )
08 ( 13.33)
106(88.33 )
14 (11.66 )
Project Management
56 ( 93.33)
04 (6.66 )
94 ( 78.33)
26 (21.66 )
Case-Method of Learning
49 ( 81.66)
11 ( 18.33)
81 ( 67.5)
39 ( 32.5)
Source: Field Survey
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Table 5 presents the motivating facets of management education on developing entrepreneurial
aspirations and attitudes among students. Both faculty and students responded positively towards
various key elements of management curriculum, in fact stresses the need for imparting quality
concerns in the education system.
Table 6: Impact of Management Education in Managing the Entrepreneurial Aspirations and
Attitudes among Management Students:
Teaching Fraternity Responses
Majority of the students are interested to take-up
entrepreneurial activities.
12 (20 )
48 ( 80)
Current academic curriculum is matching with industry
09 ( 15)
51 ( 85)
The student quality is up to the mark.
24 ( 40)
36 ( 60)
Active participations in self development programs.
14 ( 23.33)
46 ( 76.66)
Institutions are cooperating in establishing and
maintaining EDP-cells.
06 (10 )
54 ( 90)
There are no any problems with the teaching and
learning factors.
17 ( 28.33)
43 ( 71.66)
Risk-taking orientation is considered as key element for
entrepreneurial transformations.
42 (70 )
18 ( 30)
Students possess higher degree of Social Learning
15 ( 25)
45 ( 75)
Industrial visits are perfectly designed.
19 (31.66 )
41( 68.33)
Most of the academic assignments are intended to
develop entrepreneurial aspirations among students.
11 ( 18.33)
49( 81.66)
Students are well connected with e-social networking
sites and internet usage.
32 ( 53.33)
28( 46.66)
Student‟s entrepreneurial aspirations are identified and
18 ( 30)
42( 70)
Sessions are specially designed for developing and
guiding entrepreneurial ideas among students.
08 ( 13.33)
52( 86.66)
Present management education system is helping the
students in recognizing need and developing
entrepreneurial attitudes.
16 ( 26.66)
44(73.33 )
Existing management education system assisting us to
perform our role as a mentor for the students towards
entrepreneurial activities engagement.
23 (38.33 )
37( 61.66)
Source: Field Survey
Table 6 shows the teaching fraternity responses towards the role of management education in
developing entrepreneurial attitudes and aspirations. In reality there are many problems exists
with the present management education. They expressed to have special attention and assessment
on these issues.
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Table 7: Correlation Coefficient between the Respondents Response between the Management
Education and Entrepreneurial Aspirations and Attitudes:
Teaching Fraternity
Students (120)
No. of Respondents
Impact of Management
Education on Developing and
Sustaining Entrepreneurial
Aspirations and Attitudes
Correlation Coefficient
Source: Field Survey
Table 7 shows the close relationship between the management education impact and developing
and sustaining entrepreneurial attitudes among management students. All the respondents
positively reacted towards the role of management education in developing entrepreneurial
attitudes among students.
Majority of the respondents accepted (with higher degree of significance) the influence of factors
like family and social groups, school and college environments, self-confidence, situations,
frequent industrial visits, interactions with upcoming entrepreneurs, inspirational teaching,
culture, entrepreneurial development programs, social media, risk-taking nature on developing
entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes among management students with regard to Indian
management education (Table 4). The high influential facets which influences the students
towards developing entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes are industrial visits, well designed
curriculum, participation in management games, effective assignments, learning aspect of the
faculty and students, Entrepreneurship Development Program wing existing in the college,
connectivity with local industries, interactions with successful entrepreneurs, project course work
and case method of learning (Table 5).
Most of the students are not interested to take up entrepreneurial activities after the completion
of the course. Present academic curriculum unmatched with the industry needs, more over the
quality of the student is not up to the mark. Majority of the respondents are not actively
participating in the self development programs like attending seminars, conferences etc. Even the
institutions are not taking initiation towards establishing EDP cell in the colleges. There are
problems with the teaching and learning aspects. Risk-taking orientation considered as key step
towards transformations of entrepreneurial aspirations into a reality. The students don‟t possess
the social-learning-adjustment degree. Industrial visits are not effectively designed.
Entrepreneurship attitude development element is least preferred in the academic assignments.
Respondents are aware of usage of internet towards knowledge gathering. Teaching fraternity is
unable to identify and manage student entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes. No special
attention on conducting sessions on entrepreneurial ideas development among the students.
Existing management education system is not giving much scope for recognizing the need and
developing the entrepreneurial interests among the young managers and not in a position to
Asia Pacific Journal of Research Vol: I Issue I, January 2014
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perform their role as a mentor (Table 6). Correlation coefficient (0.999015) shows a positive
relationship between management education and entrepreneurial aspirations and attitudes
developing and sustaining (Table 7).
Practical Implications and Conclusions:
The present globalized business environment is peculiarly constant with dynamic changes. The
role of management education is quiet vital in providing quality human resources with adequate
business acumen. Beyond all these identifying, developing and sustaining entrepreneurial zeal
among the management students is highly required. There are many challenges and issues in
front of the management teaching fraternity and students towards adopting this dynamics.
Therefore, with reference to above findings the following suggestions are recommended towards
maximizing impact of management education system on entrepreneurial training and effective
transformations from a student to entrepreneur:
Curriculum should be revised continuously with the changing business needs. The regulatory
bodies like University Grants Commission (UGC) and Universities must involve continuously in
designing new programs for entrepreneurship development. New specializations are needed to be
implemented in the area of entrepreneurship development. Assessing the student ideologies on
the entrepreneurial activities through focused assignments. Frequent Organizing of
entrepreneurship games for developing entrepreneurial aspirations among management students.
Planning and arranging sessions for entrepreneurial idea generation among the students through
discussions and addressing rightly the concerned issues. Taking the assistance of successful and
young (upcoming) entrepreneurs for organize those sessions.
Adopting change management strategies are required to manage the entrepreneurial attitudes of
the students. The faculty should act as a change agent in understanding, assessing and directing
the entrepreneurial aspirations among the management students. Developing Entrepreneurship
Development Program (EDP) cell in the institution; coordinating with the district industrial
centers and local enterprises. Taking steps towards creating a committee consisting of members
from local entrepreneurs, faculty and course director; aiming counseling, guiding and managing
the students towards understanding the significance and making ready to take up
entrepreneurship as a career. Designing effective industrial visits on continual basis intended to
promote entrepreneurial attitudes among students.
Proper usage of social networking sites to develop entrepreneurial ideas. The management
teachers have to change themselves as mentors to guide students. Analyzing the cultural-
situational influences on the students; taking initiatives to convert highly negative influencers
into positive. Project work period should be efficiently used through taking enterprising drafting,
dream venture materialization, finalizing a proposed venture documentation etc. Entrepreneurial
aspirations and attitudes should be considered in a socio-economic perspective of the nation.
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Dr.B.Gangaiah& Juturu Viswanath
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... The MEP has been criticised for failing to: match the industry needs (e.g., Abayadeera & Watty, 2016;Borges et al., 2014;Gangaiah & Viswanath, 2014), meet students' expectation (e.g., Mahajan, Agrawal, Sharma, & Nangia, 2014;Nazeer, 2015) and equip graduates with modern competences required in the job market (e.g., Bunney et al., 2015;Sithole, 2015a;Rolla, 2016). These quality concerns are ascribed to several quality assurance factors including poor learning environment, infrastructure facilities and instructional resources (e.g., Arvindbhai, 2012;Oza & Parab, 2012;Mahajan et al., 2014), poor student engagement (e.g., Robinson, & Dostaler, 2016;Haug, Wright, & Huckabee, 2019), outmoded instructional pedagogies and service quality (e.g., Fogarty, 2010;Fouché, 2013;Nazeer, 2015;Rolla, 2016;Bush, & Glover, 2016), static skills and knowledge and theoretical nature of the programme etc (e.g., Albrecht & Sack, 2000;Bunney et al., 2015;Sithole, 2015a;Rolla, 2016). ...
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Criticisms have been raised against the quality in Management Education Programme (MEP) for failing to produce competent graduates for the job market. This study examined the perceptions of lecturers and students on quality in the MEP in a HE. The study was rooted within TQM theory, Expectation-Confirmation Theory (ECT) and CIPP Model of programme evaluation. The study employed sequential explanatory mixed methods design within the pragmatism research philosophy. The population was Mangement lecturers and final year students in UCC. Census method was used to include 43 lecturers and 529 students and interviews were conducted among eight (8) lecturers and twelve (12) students. The data were collected using QUAMEP-Q and Follow-up Interview Guide (FIG) and processed via SPSS version 25.0, AMOS version 21.0 and PROCESS Macro version 3.3. Thematic analysis was employed for qualitative data. It was discovered that the lecturers and students perceived a moderate level of quality in the programme in terms of quality: learning environment (QLE), services (QS), teaching (QT), student engagement (QSE) and student competences acquisistion (SCA). They were, also, moderately satisfied (SAT) with the programme. These were as a result of large class size, low quality and inadequate facilities, learning resources, support systems, health and accommodations services, unfavourable learning environment, high workload and lack of practical delivery of lessons. Further, the study established that QLE and QS significantly influence QT. There was significant conditional direct and indirect influence of QLE on QSE as moderated by QT and QS. Also, SCA and SAT with the programme were significantly conditionally predicted by QLE, QS, QT and QSE. The age of students significantly influence their perceptions toward quality drivers in the programme. The study recommended that the Management of the University should continue to provide and strengthen quality culture by fostering continuous improvement in QLE, QS, QT QSE, SCA, and SAT with the programme. They should make every effort for the provision of quality instructional resources, learning climate and infrastructure facilities to help reduce the large class size. The lecturers should continue to highly engaged the students and not relent in equipping the students with the 21st century employability skills. Keywords: Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) model, Conditional Process Analysis, Expectation-Confirmation Theory (ECT), Management Education Programme (MEP), Moderated Mediation Analysis, Quality Learning Environment (QLE), Quality Service (QS), Quality Student Engagement (QSE), Quality Teaching (QT), Student Competence Acquisition (SCA), Student Satisfaction (SAT), Total Quality Management (TQM)
... The term entrepreneurship has been defined by various scholars from different fields and as such, signifies different things to different people based on their conceptual viewpoint, Entrepreneurship is a multidimensional phenomenon. Gangaiah and Viswanath (2014) explained the genesis of term 'entrepreneurship' from the French word 'entreprendre' which originally means an organizer of musical or other entertainments. According to Omolayo (2013) entrepreneurship is the act of starting a company, arranging business ideas and taking risks in order to make profit through the educational skills acquired. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which entrepreneurship development education enables business education students' start up business. Design of the study was descriptive survey; a sample size of 274 final year undergraduate business education students from universities in Northeastern Nigeria were drawn from the population of 998. Also 274 structured questionnaires were administered by the researcher with the help of three research assistants and 246 were returned. Data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study revealed that all the respondents indicated that there are challenges faced by business education students on entrepreneurship development in acquiring entrepreneurial skills for business start-up. The findings also revealed that majority of the respondents indicated that there are inadequacies of physical facilities of entrepreneurship development education as regards training business education students for business start-up. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Federal Ministry of Education, National Universities Commission, Non-governmental organizations, Stakeholders to intervened in providing lasting solution to the challenges faced by business education students in acquiring entrepreneurial skills and also to intervene in providing physical facilities for entrepreneurship development education as regards training business education students for business start-up.
... An entrepreneur is a person who unravels a business opportunity and takes positive advantage of the scarce resources to meet with unlimited opportunities profitably. The entrepreneur ventures into the business of organising, controlling, coordinating and directing human and material resources to achieve economic, social and financial goals of the business enterprise (Ohaka, Nnokam and Akpomi, 2018;Amesi, 2015;Amaewhule, 2014;Gangaiah and Viswanath, 2014;Ohaka, 2018;Ahmad and Seymour, 2006;AkanwaandAgu, 2005; Akpomiand Amadi, 2010). ...
... Pojęcie przedsiębiorczości wywodzi się od francuskiego słowa entreprendre, oznaczającego: 'podjąć, postawić sobie coś za zadanie' (Gangaiah, Viswanath, 2014) oraz niemieckiego unternehmen, które można tłumaczyć jako: 'przedsiębrać, przedsięwziąć' lub (w ujęciu rzeczownikowym) 'przedsiębiorstwo'. W dyskursie naukowym przedsiębiorczość uważana jest za proces, w wyniku którego podejmowane są nowe działania i powstają nowe organizacje gospodarcze (Davidsson, 2015). ...
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Olimpiada Przedsiębiorczości jest jednym z najważniejszych wydarzeń edukacyjnych adresowanych do uczniów szkół średnich. Problematyka konkursu dotyczy zarówno ogólnych aspektów przedsiębiorczości, jak i zagadnień z zakresu marketingu, zarządzania, rynków kapitałowych czy etyki w biznesie. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest krytyczna ocena tematyki dotychczasowych czternastu edycji Olimpiady Przedsiębiorczości, dokonana w kontekście potrzeb edukacyjnych oraz wyzwań ekonomicznych, napotykanych przez młodych ludzi w dorosłym życiu. Analizie poddano założenia i programy poszczególnych edycji Olimpiady, wykazy obowiązującej literatury oraz zestawy pytań i zadań konkursowych. Na tej podstawie można stwierdzić, że problematyka konkursu obejmuje zarówno ważne i aktualne zagadnienia z zakresu przedsiębiorczości, jak i treści o ograniczonej przydatności dla uczestników. Autorzy postulują wyeliminowanie tego rodzaju zagadnień z przyszłych edycji Olimpiady, co powinno przyczynić się do zwiększenia zainteresowania młodzieży tą niewątpliwie interesującą i potrzebną inicjatywą edukacyjną.
... social, political, and economic etc. across the globe Entrepreneurship is a multifaceted phenomenon. Gangaiah and Viswanath (2014) explained the genesis of term 'entrepreneurship' from the French word 'entreprendre' which originally means an th organizer of musical or other entertainments. The word has been in use since the 16 century. ...
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Entrepreneurship education has the mandate to equip the youth with functional knowledge and skill to build up their character, attitude and vision. It has vital role in developing eco-system that promotes innovation (European Union, 2006).QAA (2012) remarks its importance for providing the base for innovation and creating a value system; and developing entrepreneurial culture, which drives wealth creation and gives further push to innovations. This necessitates pro-active policy interventions in favour of entrepreneurship. Initiating a fruitful discussion on entrepreneurship education, this article tries to conceptualise the phenomenon of entrepreneurship education, starting form genesis of term 'entrepreneur', its definition, nature and new role of teachers and teacher training institutions in fostering young entrepreneurs. The article also tries to facilitate an understanding about 'entrepreneurial teacher and training institution' and emphasizes the active role of teacher as a 'facilitator'. For this new role teachers have to be ready initially by going through rigours of teacher training and by continuing professional development. The paper also deals with the urgency of policy interventions in India in this regard. Key-words: Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Teachers, Teacher Education.
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Marketing is an ocean. Advertisement, many a time, functions like a ship that takes the products to the prospect. Without advertisement the product or brand will not sustain in the market. Without Green Marketing the globe could not sustain over a long period. There was lot of studies that discussed the branches of green marketing like, Environmentally Friendly Products, Buyer Awareness of Green Marketing, Buyer Acceptance of Green Marketing, Eco-Friendly Product, Buyer Behavior relating to Green Marketing, Factors Influencing Buying Green Products. There is a limited studies relating to Green Advertising, which reduces wastages and save the society and Environment. Green Advertising is the one that promote a product, service, or company’s ability to help or reduce environmental harm. This study analyzes the awareness of green advertising. Also the study reveals many other intents of the consumers. The researcher has collected126 samples for this research work and convenience sampling is used for this study. Percentage and Chi-Square tools are used for this research.
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Entrepreneurship is the driving force of socioeconomic development of a nation. The objective of the present study is to understand the entrepreneurial intention among the students and factors affecting this intention and to study the effect of entrepreneurial training program on their entrepreneurial intention. To achieve the purpose of this study forty entrepreneurs were selected from Chidambaram town of cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, at random and their age ranges from 30 to 65 years and all of them are health and normal. They are divided into two groups and designed as control group (students have not underwent training) and treatment group (students underwent entrepreneurial training program) twenty entrepreneurs each. The treatment group underwent a four weeks of entrepreneurial development training program. The control group was restricted from any form of training intervention. The primary data was collected through a well structured questionnaire before the training period and after the training completion. The collected data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANCOVA). The results of the study showed that EDP training can be an effective training intervention to enhance entrepreneurial intention of entrepreneurs.
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Attitude is presented as a better approach to the description of entrepreneurs than either personality characteristics or demographics. The development and validation of the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation (EAO) scale are explained. Sixty-three undergraduates were used in developing and establishing the test-retest reliability of the EAO. Fifty-four entrepreneurs and fifty-seven non-entrepreneurs served as known groups in establishing the discriminant validity of the EAO. There was a significant difference between known groups for all four of the EAO subscales (achievement, personal control, innovation, self-esteem); all subscales but achievement entered into a stepwise discriminant function. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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This study explored the relationship between individual differences and behavioral intentions toward entrepreneurial careers, defined here as owning one's own business. Of particular interest was a recent innovation in the individual differences literature - the proactive personality scale. Using a sample of 181 students, entrepreneurial intentions were found to be significantly associated with gender, education, having an entrepreneurial parent, and possessing a proactive personality. The strongest association was found between entrepreneurial intentions and the proactive personality scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that proactivity explained significant incremental variance in entrepreneurial intentions above and beyond that explained by the other variables.
Can entrepreneurship be taught? Can it be learned? The debate continues unabated in the press, at academic conferences, and even meetings of successful practitioners.
Evaluated the validity of a prevalent model of attitude structure that specifies 3 components: affect, behavior, and cognition. Five conditions needed for properly testing the 3-component distinction were identified. Consideration of the tripartite model's theoretical basis indicated that the most important validating conditions are (a) the use of nonverbal, in addition to verbal, measures of affect and behavior; and (b) the physical presence of the attitude object. Study 1--in which 138 undergraduates attitudes toward snakes were examined, through the use of measures such as the Mood Adjective Check List, semantic differential, and distance of approach--indicated very strong support for this tripartite model. The model was statistically acceptable, its relative fit was very good, and the intercomponent correlations were moderate. Study 2, with 105 Ss, was a verbal report analog of Study 1. Results from Study 2 indicate that higher intercomponent correlations occurred when attitude measures derived solely from verbal reports and when the attitude object was not physically present. (74 ref) ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
Purpose – In the future, the legitimacy of business schools will no longer be in question, nor will their vocation to participate in training the élite (especially of companies) alongside institutes which, in various countries, train top Civil Servants. But this context, which dominant positions always provoke, should not encourage complacency. On the contrary, it should invite reflection on the weaknesses of the institutions in question. Aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Some major new trends in management education are questioned (the use of new information technologies, an initiation to management starting at a much earlier stage of the education track, a different way to grasp the use of case studies). Findings – This paper is an analysis of the functions of business schools and management faculties in universities. It leads one to observe that they appear above all as places busy “reproducing” or “miming” reality. Where science faculties describe, management teaching establishments imitate. Originality/value – This paper is dedicated not only to stressing the pedagogic dangers that new trends in management education imply, but also to explaining what major change it could induce.
The purpose of this study was to determine college students' entrepreneurial characteristics and attitude change toward entrepreneurship after participation in a Small Business Institute (SBI) program. The sample consisted of 220 college students enrolled in an SBI program during the fall semester 1992, in Region 8. Student participants completed the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation (EAO) instrument at the beginning and end of the SBI program. The EAO assessed student participants' attitudes toward becoming entrepreneurs on four sub-scales: need to achieve, innovation, locus of control, and self-esteem. Results show that participants with a high locus of control, as well as younger students, were most likely to develop more positive attitudes to entrepreneurship.
Argues that the subject matter involved in the process of knowledge transfer needs also to be an integral part of the discourse and that this consideration is of particular relevance within the business school community of higher education. Further argues that the development of the subject matter taught is in danger of becoming irrelevant to the needs of the customers purported to be served and, hence, at best marginalised and at worst excluded, from the discourse of education. States that the trend in management teaching and research to increased specialism and self-referential legitimation is ultimately self-defeating because the needs of the customers involved are changing from specialisation to generalisation. Concludes that, consequently, academics in the management metadiscipline are in fact legitimating their own irrelevance and marginalisation and that the discourse of teaching management subjects needs to include not just academics, and their needs and desires, but also those of their customers.
Independently constructed 4 verbal measures for each of 3 possible attitude components (feeling, belief, and intention to act), using the techniques of thurstone equal-appearing intervals, likert summated ratings, guttman scalogram analysis, and guilford self-rating. The scales were developed using 2 samples of 36 users and 36 nonusers of contraceptives among low-income negro women. Administration of these 12 scales on 50 users and 50 nonusers yielded a 12 * 12 multitrait-multimethod correlational matrix. Factor analyses of this matrix yielded 3 factors feeling, belief, and intention to act. Results of a stepwise discriminant analysis of the components indicate that the intention-to-act was a better predictor of actual contraceptive behavior than either the feeling or the belief measures. Implications for attitude structure and educational programs are considered. (31 ref.)
The Psychology of Entrepreneur, Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship
  • R H Brockhous
Brockhous, R.H. (1982). The Psychology of Entrepreneur, Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Assessing entrepreneurial attitudes
  • S Cromie
  • J Donoghue
Cromie, S., & O Donoghue, J. (1992). Assessing entrepreneurial attitudes. International Small Business Journal, 10(2), 66 -70.