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Abstract

The performance of an activity can have positive incentives per se and individuals may engage in an activity purely for the enjoyment of it. The engagement due to the enjoyment of an activity is often called intrinsic motivation. Beside this understanding of intrinsic mo-tivation other conceptions are presented (self-determination, experience of competence, interest and involvement, mean-end-correspondence, learning-goal orientation). In doing so, the problem became evident, that the term intrinsic motivation refers to different, even conflicting conceptions. With the “Extended Cognitive Model of Motivation” different as-pects of motivation are theoretically integrated. Instead of using the term intrinsic motiva-tion, we use the term activity-related motivation. Qualitative and quantitative ways to measure activity-related incentives are outlined. Finally we present an intensively studied activity-related incentive, i.e. the experience of flow.



 
 
 
  !"
 # $%&
' 
(  %&)*+
, -.
/ 0+1"2
3 4+5+16*"6"2
7 &
 &$    !"$6        +1  %    

 &$.6)
 6!"$6
' 8!"!"$6
' 9!8"+1&
' !!"$ &
' !"$6!
( :*;"!&!"
( 
( 8:*6
( 8:*6
(' !6
((   +1&  +5    6      4    

(, :*!
, :&:*<"&%&
;<=><<=?@+A@BB3A?Motivation andAction?Chapter 13
@&&$'3A#C%4"A
 
"activating orientation of current life pursuits toward
a positively evaluated goal state"@6?BB'?&/A
&&=D
"&:&&"
&?*&
   &"        "          &  
    D        "  5        &&
@%&'$$,A
  & &?    &
&0???
=    &      *    *      
"?
& $" &"
    ?  ?      &&      "    "      
    && = "   <= @7//A 
E@7,'A
4"?
"D&&&""*
"&0*&&?1&?
***@F"A
 "*@FA =
="*&&?*"=
*""&"G"*
==""
1"      D                
HD&
*
&D?&&"
"1&!*"
&*&&*=*=
H"*&
"I&
*1&&&&
&$$"
&&&*&"=""=
    "  &?              
D            &    *?  "  *
&D&
  "          1&?    &&      &*$
"  &    & &
*1"*=&
&&
 &  " " & &   
0   &?  "    " &"  
G"
!""**"B$
  &  ',J      *=          "  G"  @
B  6? 737A       
* *  &     "&"
      ?    1&    
      &  0  &      ?  *?
&&&&H?"*"
&?&?1&"
&+"*
      "  &&    "  *      
1?&&"
&"G"=*"DH
    &  " = 

.  ?               "        
    "      1&    &      *    "  &

+K!L+
:1&?"M$*G"=&1
"G"&&"*
L=*?&*$&*G"1&
=      &?    =  &         M  
N?&?&
"=$?&"
&&  *" *     "
      $  "        G"      *  ?
&"*"&&0=
&&?  &&              G"            
?     =*  **
D$"
! @"A&" =&
    *      " =*?
0*  @73A  *                    
      &      "?          
1        @0*?  73?  &,/5A  !        ?
*?"*?*
$      ?    *  *  5  &  
&"     &    *= * & 
*
&1*M"
*     @ A?
1&  D  5 5 @  
'A?"1&&"$?"
N*1&?@ (A

+  *      "   ?      "     
&*&D
"@?*
&    A    5    @*      &
        A  0    ?        
"&""=&="
"&D"
="1&M"
 !"##$%%&
  '%&
&"1&1&?
 9 $$ " 
&
?*?"&&*1
*"
?""
&"1
&*  5*
 M"   &"   & O
&"&?*?&&&?*
 5$$ *"
&&
!&"?"
  &    *?    "?       +1
      &    *?    ?  1
4"?5*""** 
    =   ?    9          
"       *?    G         
:            <=  @737A?  <=    6
@73BA?    <=*9 @BBBA     * 
&      5  &9    =    ?    =  
?"*=
  #(#
* * *     & 
"?* D1$$
?"
According to this denition, incentives that reside in the pursuit of an activity are
intrinsic, whereas the incentives of events or changes that occur only once an activity
has been successfully completed are extrinsic. This denition of intrinsic vs. extrinsic
is based on the structure of an action episode: "intrinsic" pertains to the performance
of an activity, "extrinsic" to its intended e#ects.
! "1&=&&  & 
)P@7A)&
&""?      &       "  @:=
  5A during   "    &      @+  
)A after  " !  &?  
&*?14"?)P
  &  < ?   

!?*?=!
!  @77,A & ?  )&  *   *
&                "    &    
"!"&
"  @7/A    &  BBB" ?   
1"@?Q?>6"?777A
?"?"&
"-I@377A*=+((+(?*
*    "  #  "    -  &      &  
?  " &""&& 
""I&&@
G*"&*&"$1&
&& D&" H"? P9*?
>69?777A.(B"?Q@7(,A*D
"      "?  
%=9"@777A6@77H6>?BBH6>
&?BB,A&"@ 'A
0* @73A *     ,-  *=?
&&"<*""
  *    @0*?  73?  &/BA?  &        "    
""5"&
*0""1
@0*?73?&/BA??*"
"?&="
0*    &        "            
"  :  1&?      D  &        =  &    "  
1  ?      &                
&&*?*
    &      "      &$  &&      
"&G1&1
9?*?*0*
*      *        *      &  &
     "&   " 
  ?  *  *            &&  5
1&"?*&
@77,A   & "$
  &&        )    "      
G?&I""@A
" " " ? " G:1&? "
; )G)O
&"  G"        G        ?        

+:#.#
Interest is a form of motivation characterized by a focus on a certain object ("interest
in XY"HQ&&?BBA
1&?*G""""G
; )@ )I ?   *  ?=
?&?A?*?"
? @77,A  ? 
" (.   @  6?  737?  77A      ?  
  *  G"    1      =  !"$    
&"1&??
&"@ 'A

:    "      9        1  ?  
&9      &? * 
*&"?
1&?")&
)P@7A?-@377A?0*@73A?&9
*=  <*@7(BA? < @7,(A? Q@7(,A?6"
@7/A? = @77A?    QR @BBA :  
      ?                @?
%=9"?  777H  Q?  7/A    "$  @  &&$A
@6?737?77A"
"  &" "  ""$& ?& 
*    G      "      &  &      
@!&9& 'A
      )  .!& 
&+
&9  ?     
6"  @73B?  73(A  *              
&"&$ )  &&
?&"&&
(+?""
*"1&1*?
1""1*@?7/A
& &        ?  
6"  @73BA  &    *  '(@%+A    "
*  1   *&&
&          $  @          *  A    
&*"?*O*
&&""?&"
    "             $      *  
&($@ A-?*="
**1&"G"
  *    )   *  "            ?
*&$G""?
0      &  &?  *?  *  "  =    "  $
  &&    &      @?  =    &  
*&? A@?&=A
       1"  " ?
&&&
  6" @73BA &  ="&  .& @"A
  %  @7,3?  7/,A  <*?  %    9    =  
  &9      ?
**"&D"*
$O@%?7/7?&BA6"@73BA=
5
)  %I     "?      *       
&?"./(&+?"0
@7(7A "&=?&""-@377A?
* G"  @&'37A?G"  &
5@&'37A?$=@&'33A
*%I"@7,3A 0I  &
@7(7A?      6"  @73BA                
   & $*? *
?"&"&&"@>
6"?73(?BBBA
      &    9?      6"  @73(A        
&"    $$            $$      .
!&  '( @ A        
&&&1"&&&
?1&?*!
&1?
      &              G  ?
?"?*&"&
**"1$
  &$? ?    1
& 5?1
               "            

  &     ? D 
*"&"&"$&
=&"&&=&?
      *    1  &            
"1"&"
&"**
@6?77A#
?*11&=@?1
&M&"A&" @? 
 "A?   * @?=  A?
@6?77?77,A

&&"6"@73B?73(A&*"
@$&A?*
         "? " && &
    1    *  &          1
M )1&
$$"
&&"?  &"          @Q&&?  777H      
?  ? 77,A  "   $    $
?&&&""
?&*=
&&&*"
SO&BT
 0 &
*"N" ?**
&"*
G"&@ ?77,H >QR?
BBA

&9   &
""&&"
  ?  *  @Q&&?  777A  !  ?    &&    $
*G" G ) 
=*    & "*?
 "?  *     1    *  
*1"?
*
@Q&&?777?&7A
"&&"Q&&??  
"$   ? && =" 
6"@73(A
From this perspective, a learning activity is considered to be "intrinsically motivated"
if learners identify with the object of study, and hence perceive the learning activity to
be self-determined. It is quite possible for the task to be externally imposed, and the
learner to be working purposefully toward a specic learning goal. The decisive factor
is that learners perceive their actions to be self-determined (self-intentional) and
consider the object of study to be worthwhile.
    "            &    "        
 *    && )  && "   
"&*
$"&"*&&
  1      ?      5  & 6
      *        "      
    5  *"  $$                "
@ A&O
6"@73(AQ&&@777A

&5&9*&9
"*&&&1
      0          "    *
        "   actual, anticipated, or soughtexperience of
interest@ > ?BBB?&'A
!*)'1)
          &"        5  1&  
        "  =   & * 
"*@=AG"
   @BBBA          
&        @  A    "      $
&@>6"?73(HA?
&1&1&"1&"?
&
                "  5    
  "        ?            *  
"$ &&   "  @77,A< @BBBA
@ A I&&?*?&
 G$? 9  any   &"  
"G"&"=&
"$ 
   @BBB? &''A        = 
"$  ?    1&    &          
=.?&**
&?*?
?&?
$$"*"G

6&=
 && :    @BBBA?  &   
"" * @&A "$    QR @BBA
&*G
"?        "    :"?  Q&&  @777A  *    $
"@>6"?73(A:?""
1&*G$
  $$          "    &&$?  ?    
D""&"
 2      + 3  
*
!&
Q=@737H >Q=?BBBA<=
@737A&&=&&&*=
*    *" : 1&? *  *
    ?  ? =& G? " *=?
  =  ?  =  &?     =    ?    *  
   6?  =*   4"( @?<? 7(3A
%"?  " "   &    
"= =*?
&&?&*1?=1*
5G?&"(
*"
  Q= @BBBA *=     &  
D"    "            &?  
9"$&*??
*"-K""&"C?
&& &"C&K@ >Q=?
BBB?&'A=$$&
&@&A
? Q=@BBBA*=
$ :?& "&1"
$ ?    &&   &   
&&&
*&"
        &&  ?        "        
"
  &&      &    "?  &    ?  
  &&?                "      "
<=  @73BA  <=            *  
?  &   ?   & 4 
"@:*A!
"@FA*&@FA 
*        &     &    *  &       M
&@FDA!<=@73BA?
              $$   *  
1$$"
    &  &"  *  @F  A?          
    &  @F            &A?    
D      &&          @F    M
&A   &D  
@?  *  1&
&&1A?*1
    &9      ?    *O*  
N**
  ? *   
"&
&      "  @:  1&?            ?  "
?"&A
&*     D 
 "     * 
&6&D:1&?
 =  =    * & = 
&&??=&C=!"?=
="*"?
&?")&*
                D        
"?=&&
      &  "  "    &  D      
&"D?*?*
              "    *    "    
D"

!&1
*D*
@?&?&?1&*A
  ?            ?        
?        1    &9  *    "
<=@737AQ=@737A?&
 5 61
6   ? &? *  
        *        D  @<=  >
6?73BH6?737A!"&
    "    ?          &    "  
@ (A
+&"      +$&=  ?  *         
&"
 Learning or mastery goal orientation:
L  *    =      "    "  *    =*  
&D=*=
 Performance goal orientation@*=>L?733H#?73'A
L*="&
*"=*=
!*=L@733A?&
* * "   ? * 
9"":?
&  & & *   
@    &A?  *    $    &  &
*I*&=* =@&A*
        G    "  @G    A  @ &  
&*"<=?7/'?1"
6?73BH%&,=A
:    *        ?      "      &
    "  "  H          *
!& (?
 &   
&&"      *    &        I
&"  "  " *"
*
 "$$&" &*@0?0?> ?
BB,A    =        *    "      &
D&1
  &  *            1    
@?)?BBBH>*=?
BBBA ? *    ?   *
1&
4!6C
!     * *   1  
1?*@D
  =*    =A      ?    &  
  @        =*    =A    
1          &            
@ (A
SO&BT
/ 0+1"2
  &9              "    
1!*  &&& <=
@77?&'B$$'B3A &&
*    * @&A?
&&D&&
  ?  ?      ."?     &      
1&"&*"?
"&*"&

0      $$        &          
    $$        &      &    &  
*":?&
                          
@ ><=*9?BBBA"
 & & &? = =&
&&*
%D"?*1
*
*"@?777H+>%?77,?773H
"? BB'A +  &$"  1&
    =*        &      
*1"1
*"*1
*@5A
3 4+5+16*"6"2
%&G""*"
"&&*?&&?
"  0*  @73A?    1&? &    1  *  *
*  *"   "   !  1 **
""?*5
  &     " @0*?
73?&,7A
        ""  ?  *?          *"
&*"&&"*"@7/?
7/(A    L&&?  -?    #  @7/A      5  
1&"
$ &?*&@?&A
G"*
$ &? "*&  

$ &?"&&*
ST:**&"
D"        *  &      "          
1  *    "            "  
&  *     &  7  8"  7
@L&&?7/H"?<=?737H<=>6?
73BA
651&5?5
 &&     $ 
1&  1&* *= " 1*?
              @  >  6"?  73B?  73(A  .
    5      &    $&&?    
&
"@*&"A1&*
@L&&?7/A
+1&*51*
$$&"&?
&&""$$&:?
&    ""  H  "  &"    *    &    
*  ?  &&  &?" * 
*  6?* ? * ? 
"*"*1&
"                       
&1&&&.?
    "      &  "        
51&
E"4+5
)*5"25
            &  :  1&?    "    *
&&"G"&"@%> *?7/(A
 1&?*  *&""
<*20"**
?*&&&$$&$$5@%?)=?
>?BBA
        "    5
+%@77,A15*
  $"    ,            $$  *    "  
*""$$5
   "  " "  @*=A  5" *
&  *      @  UA  *  &"    =    =
6&  *  &    =    &$  *
*=*&&*
*
& &=  "?"&
D$"*&"@?7773
H%?BB'(A**
        5       "  ?  ""
" * *1&   
@&A?*=&
*?**&5
    ?    1  $"  "  %      @BBA
5"*
 "?
 *@A?
 *1&
?  *  "           5       "
&""="""1
=?    *   M          5  "  
""    *  =            ""    :
?=&1&
@7/AL&&@7/A*&
&""*G"*"
*
            &        6"      @BBBA?
*?*5*&
"@6">?BBB?&/A"
&&*&&*??
" 1&*$
*&1*??@&'3A6"
 "  ="&1&&
*&
S&T:&SO&T- "&9
?"&59&
      *=?          0  &    =      
=*"*?1&?
56*="N*?*?
&&    *=     =    * "      *  *
&&"**=4
?1&&!
"&9*?
?&&1"
:  1&?                       "
@ A?&"5
&"$="
@ 'A " ?  ? "   *"  &$
  &"  &   * " ? *
    &  =    *  &        &  
&"?  *  &&  * 
        5  *  &?        "$
    =    &            5?  *
*"&&
*!&&@$?
&?    A  *  "      &    &

7 &
& D*?1"?
   D  =?*0  
      *"?                  ?  
  & G    ?    
                ?      *  *
G?&&
?**?&
"&"
1" *  @6?77(? BB,A ! &
&*&
?&"?"
*&9?
  1    &        &      "
<*?   @ 1A & ""$ @
&&$A?&@?N*A
&"
 &$    !"$6        +1  %    

 &$.6)
!       *= "9 
&&51 
&&"<=@7//A*E@7,'A&"
&&"@<=>6?73BH
6?737A&&&&&&
    &            $    !  
 &   *  ? &? 
&    !"    =        "        &
&?*"4@:A
&I??"?&
"&1&?*&
 $1&
ST 1& @ $. 1&  :A N &&I
G*="**
 " &   M *   
@FA?  *                @FA  !    *
"        &      &        &  1  "  
      *  @FA  *          &&
@FA  " ="    * 
 I&? =< $
1&"
 !$1&
ST&&  $ 1& @!$. 1&A
1&N&&I G *=" 
N& !"1
   & =?     *  "    * "
&&&D&?**H?*
G  = )?   ? "   &
"**&&1 !"*
$1&H)"$1&
 .$D1&
ST  1&  @.$%  1&A  N    "    
I         $$         $$ *    
D  = *  &   D  
 &(  #    E  @7,'A    "    
"&1&?5"$
D  1&"?      ="    D      N  
"      !    1&    "?      M?
N
' &D
ST&D
  D      "  *    "          
DM"D&

&&**
&1&**=*&&
S&/T
!        *                     M
&&1
 *&&1?
 N"&&1?
 D?
' DM"&
*&&&&"1
 %D"?  D" 5  **

 "1?
 &1?
 1D?
' &D&
SO&/T
!&&1
*?  &      *          &&    "
 "*/BJ
7BJ@<=>6?73BH6?
737A.? * "  
D?"&
&&@+?BB'A
 6!"$6
.        ?                   "    
&<*? &  &$5
  $$  &&      &      1        $$  
&$&&1     
&&"@?)*?
77BA&&*&
"
    = *" $5 &    
&1&&"/BJ7BJ+1&
"            *     1      
            &          
   "  @6? 737A !  ? *?
??*=?"?"@"A
$&D<*?
 &"  &  " $$  * 
D"K&*=$$&*
*"*=&&"&C
S&7T
          &    "      "$
@6?737A
SO&7T
I1&&?1&
**=**="
        I  &  *  "      
"$?*
"&&?&**&&*
"  5?  "?    &      &        
*1&&?
!"$&=*&1
?*   " " 
&D+G""
   &? *?   &@ A
&"$?&&*"
&&1?&"1
 @ 'A <=I "  & 
1
I
.  ?  <=  *  &"  *      1    &&
      &      *  =  <      
="*=@7,'A&""&"*
  &      *    "    &      1
?*<=6@73BA&
"          &        $$  ?  ?  
D$$&&
          &    &&    "$
&*1"
&&&?*
1*1"$?
  &    &&$   @6?  737A       
*:
!D*&I&&"
    G" " & "    
&D@"G$ 
: H6? > ?77/A 0"$ 
*=?$5&
*&@6?737A
S&7T
1&"
&!&*5
  "  
1&""&@1&A?
M&&&"&&"&&$@I
*AO"$@IA
SO&7T
%+."N1&""&
  D    &   M"
&"@A"@A&@AM"="
@'A**D""
?&&$&&"!?
"  &       "         

   (.  &"* !
&"5&&"&*"
D""="&?
?"?*"1&*"&
&1
&&$"$*
*    "  *=           &    
@6?BB'A*=*"$
1&
' 8!"!"$6
' 9!8"+1&
0="*=&
     ?  $$ D  && $$   
    ?  "?   52    D          
    &  5"    *$      D"    1&
"6!#! @0?%=?>
?733A!#!E!"@ ?BBBA
!#!E! "
)  !#!    !#!E! "      
    * "  " 0 @37,A?  
5"   !#!E!"? @BBBA  *
1""'(V*
:
5 
&*
$ ! @!?**=?A?
$ #!@#! ?"?A
!#!E!"&???E
@E!A      &      &&        
*&"
!
&"    
  &"  -
          

&  *    &"
      @6?
BB,?  &/A?    !  
"      &  
@&&A    #
!         *  
      &?
    &  
*
!#!E!"?D"1& G B & @?
  $$$$$$B$$$$$$  A          *  &&  
""?
&    5  ?  ?    &        *
""
S&3T
S(T &+1&6=:
0      =  *"  "  &              =
?&"?"
  "  &*OG"  1&        1
M&*"&?
"&51&
!@BB'AD&&=*&=!#!E!?
*"*=!&?
"&D"1&
!#!E!    !            &        ?  *
        @                      
    A      @      1        
A?    "        ?        G"    
?    =? && D&?? 
?    G"  ?  A  :'      D"    1&
&"5"&"
!*?!@!A&=@
A *&"?*?
&&@E?E!A?*&= D  @=?*
=?  A   & 
!&&=
          #  !  @?  *?  A?  *  
            #  !     "  
"1$
#!"&&?&"
5@&
:'A?&&*#!&?
 =<G
M?M"
*"=
&*""&@?<)?
*D#A&*=**
*$$**&
SO&3T
"*M
"&$$&?*"*
  &           M   @    E! ?
&:'A&?
" * "     *    =& &&
        =            
&*&*G""
=*&&"?*?*
*=?            :    &&      &
=&"@%=9"?777H6>
E"?  BB'A?          "  *        #
!  *  &   ! @ ? BBBH
>?BBA
' !!"$ &
"
&&""?*&0
G    * 1"    = & 
"    G"?  *?    "        *=
6=" &  =$$
 ? "?    &  $$ *  
   "  =  &        #  !   
"      ="        
?D"1&&"
D5
0?6@77?BB'A&&*D
&1&=&"
)*?9
&*&"?*"$
&&*&1&
91
! "   @$? &? & =? "?
A     B  ,B     
      ?  5?    "    &    "   

0*=*&?&
*            1&          ?      
      1&    5  ?  =    
&&&  ?      &&        *  
"?"
" "   ? * 
    5  ?  "?  "    &  @-?
0? ?> ?733H6?BB'A
      && *   
  "    "                     
 %& =
5   &:"?1&?
"    "    &    "$    *    0  
&&$        &      "  &    ?
"  *    ="        "        
@->4? 77BA&    
"?  $?    &"            
#  D"  5  1&  =&        
& ?   !"   
"  &?   M &"?  &
*""&&*
&"&&"I*
"=*
&
-  "          1&?    "        
"              *    "  @?
6  >  ?  BBA  %            "  5
"&$@6?77A
&& * &&  &   *=* *
G"        "?  *    *        &  
&*="&&?"=*
"1@6?737A
' !"$6!
""$"N
  &      "            
*?""&)&*
@&*??*"H%&3A?
M@1&*""H
%&/A?9@G"1?A??
""$*

S&,T
  "$              1&  
&=I*&?&
   =?   =   @6?
BB?BB,A
SO&,T
    *?      &      &      "  
*&"@1&N*?*A
     1&       ?     "&"       
&??N*
"$"=
! % @777A?    
1&*=%?777?&3$$=
"  1&              
D"      1&      &      *    &
&    &"  *    "    "  5    =  
"1&
<*?    &        &        ?
  ?              !$
                      &  
                    
1    "                  " 
?          D  $$      &
@!=?7(/A & $@<=? 7/A $$ & 
& &&?
"&&$!"1&"
??$"&
="?="1
&&&$!
1&??1&?
!&$  
"$2"
S&/T
L=1&"=*&&"?
 * !   ?  G"  1&  & &"
  @  *    1  "&      =AH    &
          &=     ?            
- &&"?= *&  
1&    & &  & =
*5D""?G5
1&$&5
&1&**=?
  &=I*=&M=
D 5   1&   =   "
&
SO&/T
    * 5 *"    1& 
    1&      &  ?    1&?  
  ?  * ?
5D"    & 
=1&1*=?
=&"*=&
&=*??"=
&=*
?"1&"=
 1&1&?=&
?====
&&!"$"
S&T1!SO&T
1&&1!$
&&$H&&M
  .          ?  "$      
&      *?                &  
    *      &      "  *    
?*? N & ?  ?&99
<N"?1&?1"
G*=$&D
G&?"?
  #?    "        =&        $
&G?&&"
****
!    %I  @777A  5  *  ? &+
&        &  .+ @%&7A?  
11&***=
$)&
1"*
&=)
&      =  5  *        ?  
&?=
 &" ="   * &I     $
&      &  *        &    @
&?6?BB?BB,? ,A
( :*;"!&!"
( 
%=9"  @7/(?  777A    "        
&1 1  I < 
*"&&G?*="
?".&G*?
*?&&"*&*"*
&&
*&G
??"
!"*   &*
&G*?&"*
"&1&H?""$"
 *=    H "?     
&&"&*="G""$
@6?737?BB,A
$*"?%=9"@7/(?777A&"
*   =&  "   &&  
&"  %=9"  *            "9  
    *    ?               
"$@ 'A69&
&    1&      "    ?    *  
*=
S&7T
D9"&
& ?D  = ? 
    5        %=9"  @7/(A        
N*
SO&7T
:*      1&  "    &  &?    &"?
??&?=?!0*@73A
  "            &      "      
&  @0*?  73?  &,7A?          "    ""
%=9"9G*1&
1"1&
( 8:*6
&?%=9"=D&&?*
*&"N*E"
  N*  &            "H    *  "
&&*@6?BB,A
S&'T
S(T%&:*@%=9"?7/(H6?BB,A
 :&H&
@=A
         "    =    &      
H&&  N*" =**  ? *  ? "

 &1&.&N*1?
      "        @  &  &"  &    
N*A
' 5H?
*?=!*
""
( &N*"=HN"
"=
, &    N*      &    *  "    ?      &"
   @   *AH   $N $

SO&'T
1&N*$
  *                1
?  $?          =?  ?  G?    
"$
N*$1
S&7T
          &    N*  @  *A?    "$
 9" G"&=
I *&   & "
&1&N*
SO&7T
)        &    G        
&""?      *  "  &      &  &&
@%=9">%=9"?77?&BA*"
  *    *  &&    &    1&    
#?& " & 
"9*1&@0?77A 
73B?N*&&=**?"
&""
-"?&&    D"
N*  1&    &  &    77(  @!  =$  
0W"?  BBBA  !      "?  *        -
&&  1&  N*            &&1  (J
*&1& N*." BJ  && 1&
N*
  "    1    D"        N*        
  &  &              1
  1&  N* : * N*  1& 
D"  "  &&          ?    &?    "
@&" 1A @6? 77,A    
*"@>%?77A
!N*1&&1
&?" *= @%=9" > L:?737H
?BBH >?BBA!*
N*M*=
$ *=&=?
$ *=&@?&A?
$ *
%*N*
$ D&@?&A?
$ *=&"*&?
$ &@>6?BBH?BBA
!&
  N*?         *             +    
        *      N*  "  @%=9"?
7/(H6? 77,A ?N*     * 
&&"?*
  &      N*=  ?  %=9"  
&""&*
N* @%=9"? 7/(A !  ? *?    
""
( 8:*6
+1& &
N*&"&&N*"&"
 " &"   "   
*&?=M&
&*"&
1""?N*"?
"&
&1&&@+ H%=9"?L?
>?7//H<?73,A*G&&
& * & @? &*   &A  
!&?"&=
$&?*1""D"
1&!?*=?*&&&
($$7& "!!I"@BB'A=  ?
+      *  &" &   "
&    @A  *  &    "      
"      "    $    $  D?        
"&1"
 +       &G @? %=9" >
%=9"?77H%=9">L:?737H:>)?BBBH
  >  %=9"?  77,H  6?  ?  Q?  +?  >  E"?
BB/H >?BBA#"?&
&*1"&=???
"+ $N*&+ 
* " &9 N* 
D&@ (A6?+ 
    &&  ="      &  1&?    *  &&    N*
&  B"    @%=9"?  77A        
       ? "?  + 
"&=*N*
N*&D"+ ?
1&    ?          =            
&&1&
*&N*D
%:*O =)2
)  +     &  N*?  
 *  N* *   &   %=9"
      N*        G        &?  "  
+   *      =?      &    &&
N**=@?%=9"
>L:?737A
&&*&?&?*"="
      &       G        &  !
**&&1&N**""
 *   "   M?    "
?1&*
=N*
:&"%=9"@77,A 
      &          
5*O=**N*
"                *$&  5   "
&?*
S&7T
?*?&=5
&"*=*
  "      *   &               
 &"? !=I @7(/A =$=    
&"$&&&@"MA
&               +    
   ="   *      = 
"?
*?**&"9@%&,A
SO&7T
"&51&
 N*  *   "  =  *  
M   "   @ .( - &A
0*=   =? " *&  =  &   
 @6?E"?>+?BBA?*&&
N*  *   * @ (,A     
 "   ! @! A "
-G#"@7/BA
4 $  "  ?  N*
   *=   $" 1     
+?"! !?*"@
N*A                ?   "  !
@6 ?BBA ? *    O=
      *    1&    N*            

%%+D2
0="&*=&
&  ?          1&           
  *  &I =? =  H 
"        ?    =    ="      &        &
@<=?7,?7/A%&9,&
<"=&&G"?
* &*&=& G" *!
?+ N*=
*?N* ="*"M"
   &     *   "
?  "     &  1& N*
**
  &" * && *  +   %=9"I @7/(A
*"&@?GM"
AM"*&I
=)&*=*$?
1&*=$+ ?*?&
G"? =$&H
?&"&??N*"
  *    ?    *  =      *    *        
          "  *?    I  =          

! && "5*
  O              *  =O"  :  
&&?"&&&**@
?""A:?&&
    @            ?    *  "  "A  
**N*$$7SS77?*
 F(@?BB?&A
S&7T
-=5&&I&?
&N*=
SO&7T
(' !6
 & *  *   +       
&&N*?*&
"$1=1$1"!&
      *      =      @:    &?
:(A?1&
      @:(A  *            D  *
@4&A*N*
      *      ?    *  *        "  *
$$$*
&&    *   "  $$ =    
  @%=9"  >  %=9"?  77H  %=9"?  77/A  #
&"?D&"?
@&A*@?>%?77A
6    D@ A  "&"  " 
*D&&@$*$
  =H  :(A    D"    1&      
D&?   &
D :1&?%@77A&N*
  &  $      ?  ?  "?
"??"?*&"?
"&1&?*
1" N1&N*?   &"
""1&N*

  @  >  %?  77?  &7/A  -    
5&&I&=@
A?&"&
4!6C
?      N*  
&+ ?*N*"
O= #?  & 5 ?  
?&&&D5
*
SO&BT
((   +1&  +5    6      4    

+1&+5
0    N*  1&      "  D  *      *
=?&&"**
    =    N    &    N*    &&    *
&
0   ?     N*
  ="      *  =          *    &&  
&+-         &  @?  )=?  77A?  &"  
@ >E?77BA?&"M@6>?BBA?
* &@? ?73,A && 5
"&N*1&"*"&
@&*%&:*
(A
+1&*I&&=&?
$ I&"&"
!  *    "    *  *  =      ?  
I &     ? 5   N* 
 +1&  ="    1&  N*
=&1@)=?77H6>?BBH ?
73,H >E?77BA
S&7T
1&5&&"&1D=
     &  " = 
5  <*?      &"    ?        &
?N*"*
=@6>E"?BBHE">6?BBA
1&5"
D
SO&7T
64+5
"?    1&  5        &&$  
 <@77A & & ?*  
@*&A?*"?*&
    * G"  "   "  "
"$ : &? *? " 
      DH  "    &&$  
@1 *A !  ?  "&   * 
 1? & * G"    "
@H6">?BBBA
<*?1&?&
&DI"N*$
5 1& &   N*$& 5
1    G    ?    &    *
"=""&N*
?N**"
&&@<?77?&7'A*?1*
  "  &  &&      "       "  
  4    ?  &&  "  &        
5?"**
1&!=&&&"&
     1  @ ? 3A  
*
(, :*!
!%&!:*
 &  N*   *  
=      9?  *            &
&   &  N*  5 "
&"?       1&  N* 
@#=<5?77/A?&@6"?BBBA?
1&""@;=>+=?BBA
?B$&N*"@
H 6?BBA! & *
""*
+ ?*&N*&&*
  &&  *    "            9  @6?
BB'?A  &"1@6 ?
BBA:*  *
S&T
S(T:*  
    *      &    N*          B  
'B      & ?  *   + $
     :*      
&"BN*?"
@%I 7BBA6
B&N*@:A6?*&
*?&*"@0H6
?BBA)9@6?BB'A+/$
&
 G@:A
 "ON""@:A
 I&@:A
' M"@:A
( "&"@:A
, "*@:A
/ O*@:A
3 =**&*"@:A
7 "@:A
B &"@:A
 &=@0A
 I="=@0A
 *@0A
ST@$$BN*H$$*"A
SO&T
:*?L?!
 +&=*=
= 0*@73A&N*
* (?DN* 
&5  1&$=  
"  I ?*  *
!&1&* "   & ?*$$
        =  $$        &    "  
"I?&*
"N*1&D"@FH
&SB(H6?77A
0 1&   ? *? N*  1& 
  #= @77A  "   *$
*=" 1&N*  D"
?$&"DN*
1&&2
&*$&  =  & 
&*1&5
N* ?&"#=@77A"
" $N*&""
&*$&&"==
"=&*?N*?
"?*&1&
N*?N**@"A?@AD

6&5=M+&
N*  *& " )5
@BBA"&!
?*5&&
    9  .     ?
"  *                     
@6?BBA*
& "1& N*  @1  F3H&SBH
GF''H&SBA&*
  5          N*  *  9  "    
  D              N*    &  
 BJ           @+?
6?E"?>)5?BB(A
S&7T
?          N*      &  5    

SO&7T
+  @BB'A  &        $  ?      
    &""    &&        1  +
 @6?BBA*=
1?  *      *  *=            1
$ *    @& =*
?        ?    ?  A  +  *
"            &$  ?    N*  
***=1&'J
        1      &  &*    N*  1&  *
&&1"D&&=*
@+?BB(A
!*1&"
  6    E"  @BBA    *      *  &  
&"  N*1&""" M" 
&@? A59*@TA!
&"N*@ ('?:(A?
* *   :*  ? &
&*= *&M?*N*

    *  &  *    &    @%&A  @E"  >
6?BBA&G&@A!
    F,H  &SB  *    *    1&    N*    
!&?&
    N $$ N*   
:?*
&"  &&"    ?
$&5&$1
@    1  =  H  6    ?  BBA  *      
1&
, :&:*<"&%&
S&,T
&&I"
*"&
M"?*&@6?BBA
SO&,T
  &  ?  &   
    I  *  @&A    @6?  BB,A    &
&    *    &I &+  &       
&.+
  &&  "  &    &9  6I  &    $
  @6?  7,A        ?  *    %I
  *  &?        $?  
@%?777H%&7A
        =        &    
&  @    %?  777A      &    $
&& "   + @777H     6"? 73(A $
&*  &I 
&&
&  *    I   &     
?**I&*
  &              *  I  &      
"          *$  <      $
    "       *$  :  &&  *   
&?*?*$&*
@)? ? >-W? 773A   =
&    & &   5 
      "                  
$@)?BBH &?77A
:1&?&&4 &
*&*&*
"*:?$&
*"&*&!$
? ?&&**" 
*$
&&@0?73A
  "  *            *  &      
 $& @)? BBH &? 77A  ?  
&&?$&&*&??
&&?  "      :  ?    &  *       &  
N&*
S&/T
 *  $&  &    &
&"="$*&
0N"?&&*
  $&          &  ?        &
&G*&
&?*""&&&?D
 ?*&*N*
@ =*=?77A
  *    $&  &  *    &  
="$!"?
"*&="5
    && :  1&?     &G  *   
&&&1&"
G"&&=
          !    5?    N*    "  ="
@6?BB? ? BB,?BB'A <?&& *  
&1&1&N*D"
SO&/T
+& &&:*<"&
N*"&  & 1& 
"$+ "@6?BB/A?
"    &        &&  %  @BBA  =
  *  9  &    
@6?BBA"*=!"?
 .  6 @-H ? =*= > L? BBBA  
%(&@6:H &?!?0=?;=?>)$?
73(A*I?&*?M
        $&  @6:A    &    @-A  
5*1&&*&H
5 *     
& *  N* "&&? 
  I   $&   & *    &  ?
N*"1&&G@F'H&SBA
""+@BB'A&
&&  N*"& +  &  
@! 0?77A$&@6:H &?73(A
,,&""?
;&+(@E%A"Q:@773A*
*
  &  *  1           *  
&$& **
    &        $    
* =" "* *=   "
@$        E%A    ?    *      &
      *    $&  &  M  
?"*=@$
O          E%A  :    *    *  &
  ?      $&  *          
   $   =   * &
 1&  *    & @ ? BB,A   "? 
&*@6?BBA
S&7T
&"&I&$
&& $$ ?  &   $$*   
&
SO&7T
!          $&            
   ""   + ? " &  &
    &&      N*  "&      &  
"&"&"&1&
&&="G"*
  $  ?  *        &    &

S&3T
S(T:*??&&&1*=
N*=&&&&"2.?&1&N*
"*&&:*&"*
&""M??&&"@
>  %=9"?  77,?  &//A  .      ?  &    
D"N* * && *= C
&"***=?
&&&"*=&
  &1  *= @%=9" > L:? 737H  >
?BBA
<* &1 1&2    *" N*
*  2        D  *        D  ?  
N*  *     = *
!?N*"&
6@BB/A=5&&N*+ "
B&*&"*=!
 &? " @A &  :*    @A   
&&O@A:,&G*
     "  *=*= @& &A  
*=@&A
! :*   &  N*1&? 
&1 *= * && .*="? N** 
*=    @B7($$,(A        ?  *  &&  
  *              *=    !  5  &
"        *=?  *  &&O    *
"N*"*
<*          1&2  6      @BB/A  =
&*"**&
!*1&N*?9
          :/  *  *      
*5N*&&O*=@&A
@&A
! 1&?$**:*
 *=-&***
&&?*?&"0"2!
&""!"?
5*&&
    5  "          N*?      
&  *        &&      -  
&*="&*=?
     N*  &&O  
&1 *=?     5     *=$

.?D&1&N**?&&"
    @?  *  ?  ?  ?  =        "
"?A""?N*1&*="
?*?&&&?&&
