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Knowledge, attitude and practice of rural mothers towards home injuries among children under 5 years of age in Menouf District- Menoufia Governorate, Egypnjuries paper

Authors:
  • faculty of medicine, Menoufia university, Egypt
1110-2098 © 2017 Faculty of Medicine, Menoua University DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.202506
Original article 1033
Introduction
Injuries to children arising from home accidents are
increasingly seen as a community health problem.
Injuriesareclassiedintointentionalandunintentional.
AccordingtotheNationalSafeKidsCampaigninthe
USA,40%ofdeathsand50%ofnonfatalunintentional
injuriesoccurinandaroundthehome[1].InEgypttoo
it has become a public health problem[2]. For example,
in1998theoverallrateofinjuriesintheindoorhome
environmentwas72.5%amongchildrenundertheage
of 5years[3]. e incidence of home accidents among
children under 6 years of age in Assiut governorate
in the year 2003 as perceived by their mothers was
50.3%.e most commoninjuriesincludedrowning,
falls, res or burns, poisoning, suocation, and
transportation‑relatedinjuries[4].Moreover,ndings
from selected Arab countries between 2004 and 2012
suggest increasing rates of domestic violence[5].
Knowledge, attitude and practice of rural mothers towards
home injuries among children under 5 years of age in Menouf
District- Menoua Governorate, Egypt
Mohamed A. Megaheda, Nora A. Khalilb, Reda A. Ibrahemc,
Reham S. El Disokib
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess rural mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices as
regardsrst aidforhome‑relatedinjuriesamongchildrenunder5years ofagebeforeand
after implementation of educational program and to measure the prevalence of these injuries.
This study was conducted to assess rural mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward
home‑relatedinjuriesandtheirrstaidsamongchildrenunder5yearsofagebeforeandafter
implementation of educational program.
Background
Accidental injuries are a major health problem in children. They are the most common cause
of death in children under 5 years of age. Every year they leave many thousands permanently
disabled. Most of the children at risk from a home accident are in the 0–5 years’ age group.
Most of these accidents are preventable through increased awareness, improvements in the
home environment, and greater product safety.
Materials and methods
This cross-sectional interventional study included 270 mothers from Bijirim village, Queisna
district,Menoua,Egypt.A predesigned questionnaire wasadministeredtothem before
andafterapplicationof educational program. The rstpartofthe questionnaire included
sociodemographic and economic characteristics of the mothers. The second part included
mothers’knowledge aboutthe causes,prevention, andrst aidofhomeinjuries.Thethird
part included mothers’ practice followed toward their children in case of exposure to any type
of home injuries and its occurrence.
Results
The study result revealed that mass media were the main source of knowledge for 43.3% of
theparticipants.Therewasastatisticallysignicantlyhigherpercentofsatisfactoryknowledge
among highly educated mothers and those with middle and high socioeconomic level. There
wasasignicantpositivecorrelationbetweenmothers’practiceandeithertheireducationor
theirsocioeconomiclevel.Therewasasignicantcorrelationbetweensocioeconomiclevel
andeither knowledgeor attitudeof motherstowardhomeinjuries.Therewasasignicant
improvement in mothers’ knowledge after intervention.
Conclusion
Thestudyrevealedthat there was a signicantimprovementinmothers’ knowledge and
practice as regards home injuries after intervention.
Keywords:
children, home injuries, under 5 years of age, unintentional
Departments of aPlastic Surgery and cPublic
Health and Community Medicine, Faculty
of Medicine, Menoua University, Menoua,
bDepartment of Family Medicine, Ministry of
Health, Egypt
Correspondence to Nora A. Khalil, MD,
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty
of Medicine, Menoua University, 49 Zaki
Shabana Street, El Bar El Sharki,
Shebin El Kom, Menoua Governorate, 32511,
Egypt
Tel: +20 482578178, +20100 2089093;
fax: +20 482325 116;
e‑mail: nora_abdelhady@yahoo.com
Received 07 June 2015
Accepted 04 October 2015
Menoua Medical Journal 2016, 29:1033–1039
Menoua Med J 29:1033–1039
© 2017 Faculty of Medicine, Menoua University
1110‑2098
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1034 Menoua Medical Journal, Volume 29 | Number 4 | October-December 2016
Young children are particularly vulnerable to accidents
due to their innate desire to explore their world and the
inability to perceive the dangers of their actions[6].
As children learn through experience, minor injuries
are inevitable, but providing a safe environment can
reduce the risks, coupled with close supervision and
setting the limits of safety. Parents should remember
that they need to maintain a constant balance between
overprotecting the child on one hand and giving him
or her freedom in the process of learning the hazards
ofhisorherenvironment[7].
Accidentalinjuriestoinfantsand youngchildrenare
often serious, but are largely preventable. Prevention
programs that use a multidisciplinary strategy (i.e.,a
combination of education, environmental modication,
product modication, supportive home visits, and
legislation) have been shown to be particularly eective
in reducing injury mortality in many high‑income
countries[8].
First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness
or injury, usually by a nonexpert but trained person,
until medical treatment can be accessed. Provision of
immediate rst aid to patients who require emergency
care can make a big dierence to the outcome[9].
In certain self‑limiting illnesses or minor injuries,
appropriate rst aid measures may be sucient to
avoid a medical consultation. Parents’ knowledge and
practice about rst aid is especially important, as many
adverse consequences of injuries can be averted if
parents know what actions to take[3].
e aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes,
andpractices(KAP)ofmotherstowardhomeinjuries
and to identify the most common types of home
injuriesinthestudiedgroupandtoassesstheeectof
a well‑structured program in promoting KAP toward
homeinjuries.
Materials and methods
is cross‑sectional interventional study was
conducted from 1st of April2014 to the end of May
2015inBijirimfamilyhealthunit,Quewisnadistrict,
Menouagovernorate.MotherswhoattendedBijirim
health unit from 1May2014 to the end of July 2014
for any service and had children under 5years of age
were included in this study. ere were 296 mothers. In
all,270ofthemagreedtoparticipateinthisstudy,with
a response rate of 91.2%.
e study was conducted on three phases:
(1) Phase 1(the preintervention phase):
Datawerecollectedfromparticipantmothersusinga
structured questionnaire, which included the following
four parts:
(a) Sociodemographic and economic data
(e.g., age, education, occupation, and the
El‑Gilany socioeconomic scoring system) [10]
(b) Mother’s knowledge toward dierent types
ofhomeinjuriesamongchildren(causesand
methods of prevention). Mothers who scored
greater than 50% were considered as having
satisfactory knowledge
(c) Attitude of participant mothers toward home
injuriesamongchildrenunder5yearsofage.
Mothers who scored greater than 50% were
considered as having positive attitude
(d) First aid measures toward dierent types of
home injuries (mothers who scored >50%
were considered as having good practice).
(2) Phase 2(the intervention phase):
An educational program was carried out for mothers
by the researcher during the period from 1May2014
to the end of July 2014, 4days a week, in the form of
lectures, group discussion, posters, video, booklets, and
real objects such as medication, cleaning substances,
toys, etc.
e aim of the program was to improve the mothers’
knowledge and practice as regards injury prevention
and rst aid for their children under 5years of age.
e content of the program was implemented
for each group in one session. Each session
included 7–10 mothers and took 60 min. Its
content was as follows:
(a) Denitionofunintentionalhomeinjuries
(b) Typesofchildhomeinjuries
(c) Causes of common types of child home
injuries
(d) Preventionofdierenttypesofhomeinjuries
(e) First aid for common types of child home
injuries.
(3) Phase 3(the postintervention phase):
Using the same questionnaire the participants were
re‑evaluatedfor KAP toward children home injuries
from the rst to the end of November 2014.
Statistical analysis
e data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed
using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science)
version17.0onIBMcompatiblecomputer(SPSSInc.,
Chicago,Illinois,USA).
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Home injuries among children Megahed et al. 1035
Two types of statistics were performed
(1) Descriptivestatistics[e.g.,percentage(%),mean,
andSD].
(2) Analytic statistics included the following tests:
(a) e c2‑test, to study the association between
two qualitative variables
(b) e Z‑test, to test the proportion between
two independent groups
(c) e t‑test is a test of signicance used for
comparison between two groups normally
distributed having quantitative variables
(d) Paired t‑test: It measures whether means from
awithin‑subjectstestgroupvaryovertwotest
conditions of normally distributed data. e
paired t‑test is commonly used to compare
a sample group’s scores before and after an
intervention
(e) e Wilcoxon signed‑rank test is a
nonparametric statistical hypothesis test
used when comparing two related samples,
matched samples, or repeated measurements
on a single sample to assess whether their
population mean ranks dier
(f ) Spearman correlation test (r) is a test used
to measure the association between two not
normally distributed quantitative variables or
one quantitative and one qualitative ordinal
variable.
A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered statistically
signicant.
Results
e mothers’ ages ranged from 20 to 43years, with a
mean of 29.56±5.42years. As regards educational level,
41.9% of the participants had secondary education and
9.6% of them were illiterate. As regards the working
status of mothers, 69.3% of them were housewives. As
regards socioeconomic level, 53.3% of mothers were
of very low and low socioeconomic level; the mean of
socioeconomic score was 56.39±8.81, with a range of
40–72(Table1).
emostcommontypesofhomeinjuriesinthestudied
group were wounds, fractures, and choking(68.9, 55.6,
and 53.3%, respectively)(Fig.1).
As regards the source of mothers’ knowledge about
homeinjuries,thisstudyrevealedthatthemainsources
of knowledge were mass media and relatives(49.0 and
49.4%, respectively)(Fig.2).
e level of knowledge of our participants on home
injuries was not aected by mothers’ age. It also
revealed that, among these demographic and economic
criteria, knowledge satisfaction is signicantly
aected by education and socioeconomic level, being
higher among those with high education(P<0.001)
and those with moderate and high socioeconomic
level(Table2).
ere was a remarkable improvement in participants’
level of knowledge as regards home injuries (causes,
prevention, and rst aid) after the program(P<0.001)
in comparison with that before the program. e mean
knowledge score was statistically highly signicant
after the program(P<0.001)(Table3).
ere was an improvement in mothers’ attitude
toward home injuries after implementation of the
Table 1 Sociodemographic and socioeconomic criteria of the
studied group
Sociodemographic parameters Studied group (N=270)
Mothers’ age (years)
Mean±SD 29.56±5.42
Range 20-43
Mothers’ education (n (%))
Illiterate and basic 56 (20.7)
Secondary 113 (41.9)
High 101 (37.4)
Mothers’ job (n (%))
Housewife 187 (69.3)
Working 83 (30.7)
Socioeconomic level (n (%))
Very low and low 144 (53.3)
Moderate 77 (28.6)
High 49 (18.1)
Socioeconomic score (n (%))
Mean±SD 56.39±8.81
Range 40-72
Table 2 Relationship between mothers’ knowledge about
home injuries and both sociodemographic and economic
criteria of the studied group
Preintervention knowledge Test of
signicance
P
Satisfactory
(N=70)
Unsatisfactory
(N=200)
Mothers’ age
(years)
t-Test
Mean±SD 29.7±5.28 29.51±5.48 0.25 0.80
Range 20-43 20-43
Mothers’ education
(n (%))
Z-test
Illiterate and basic 3 (4.3) 53 (26.5) 3.77 <0.001
Secondary 22 (31.4) 91 (45.5) 1.92 0.06
High 45 (64.3) 56 (28.0) 5.26 <0.001
Mothers’ job (n (%))
Housewife 35 (50) 152 (76.0) 3.91 <0.001
Working 35 (50) 48 (24.0) 3.91 <0.001
Socioeconomic
level (n (%))
Very low and low 23 (32.9) 121 (60.5) 3.84 <0.001
Moderate 28 (40.0) 49 (24.5) 2.32 0.02
High 19 (27.1) 30 (15.0) 2.08 0.04
P<0.05,signicant(S).
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1036 Menoua Medical Journal, Volume 29 | Number 4 | October-December 2016
program (Fig. 3). ere was a positive correlation
between mothers’ socioeconomic level and both total
Attitude toward home injuries in the studied group before and after
intervention.
Figure 3
Thesourceofknowledgeofstudiedmothersaboutrstaidofhome
injuries among children.
Figure 2
Prevalence of home injuries in children under 5 in the studied group.
Figure 1
knowledge score (+0.13) and attitude score(+0.14)
(Fig.4).
ere was a positive correlation between mother’s
practice as regards child home injuries and both
education and socioeconomic level of mothers(Table4).
ere was a statistically signicant improvement in
mothers’practicetowardrstaidofchildhomeinjuries
after intervention(Table5).
Discussion
Unintentional injuries continue to be a major cause
of death, ill health, and long‑term disability during
childhood, but are largely preventable with appropriate
information and safe practice [11]. Young children
are particularly vulnerable to accidents due to their
innate desire to explore their world and the inability
to perceive the dangers of their actions. As children
learnthroughexperience,minorinjuriesareinevitable,
Table 4 Spearman correlation between level of mother
education and socioeconomic status and level of practice
toward different home injuries before intervention
Practice Education SES
R P R P
Child fracture (N=150) +0.14 0.02 +0.26 0.01
Wound (N=186) +0.15 0.02 +0.32 0.008
Child poisoning (N=100) +0.19 0.008 +0.22 0.03
Child burn (N=101) +0.13 0.03 +0.33 0.008
Child choking (N=144) +0.21 0.006 +0.30 0.01
Electrical shock (N=88) +0.31 0.03 +0.24 0.04
Drowning (N=30) +0.37 0.07 +0.42 0.04
R,correlationcoefcient;SES,socioeconomicstatus. P>0.05,
nonsignicant; P<0.05,signicant.
Table 3 Total knowledge about home injuries among the
studied mothers before and after intervention
Knowledge level Satisfactory knowledge Z-test P
Preintervention
(N=270)
(n (%))
Postintervention
(N=270) (n (%))
Knowledge
about cause of
home injuries
95 (35.2) 223 (82.6) 11.11 <0.001
Knowledge
about prevention
of home injuries
77 (28.5) 199 (73.7) 10.42 <0.001
Knowledge
aboutrst aidof
home injuries
38 (14.1) 158 (58.5) 10.64 <0.001
Total knowledge
about home
injuries
70 (25.9) 176 (65.2) 9.08 <0.001
Mean
knowledge
score
Mean±SD 27.37±12.45 49.73±5.11 W<0.001
Range 6-61 39-64 7.3
P<0.05,signicant(S).W , Welicoxon
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Home injuries among children Megahed et al. 1037
but providing a safe environment can reduce the risks,
coupled with close supervision and setting the limits
of safety[2].
e current study revealed that more than half of the
mothers(69.3%) were housewives. is nding is in
agreementwiththatofEldosoky[3],Hossien[12], Abd
El‑Aty etal.[13], and Ibrahim[14], who mentioned
thatthemajorityofmotherswerehousewivesandthe
home accidents’ rate was high among their children.
However,Mohammedetal.[7], who conducted a study
inCairoUniversitySpecializedPediatricHospitaland
BenhaUniversityHospitalandincluded100mothers
indicated that less than 60% of the mothers (59%)
were working. is can be attributed to the existence of
jobsinthegovernorateofCairomorethananyother
province.
As regards types of home accidents, the present
study indicated that cut wound represented the
highest percentage of home injuries among the
studied children (68.9%). is is in agreement with
the study conducted on 600 mothers in Elwan and
El‑Masra villages in Assiut governorate, Egypt,
by Abd El‑Aty et al. [13] and with the study by
Ibrahim [14] in El‑Fatah district, Assiut governorate,
Egypt. Moreover, this result is in line with that of
Eldosoky[3], who measured the incidence and types
of home injuries aecting rural children aged up to
12years in the study that included 1450 rural mothers
from Qalubeya governorate, Egypt. ey found that
cut wounds were the most common accidents among
the studied children. Asimilar trend was obtained by
Mohammed etal.[7], whose study was conducted in
Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital and
BenhaUniversityHospital.eyfoundthatthehighest
percent of the mothers reported that falling and cut
woundswerethemostcommoninjuriesexperienced
among their children.
is study also investigated the source of mothers’
information about prevention and rst aid of home
injuries among children. It was revealed that 43.3%
of them gained their rst aid information from
mass media. Similar results were obtained by other
researchers. Kamel etal.[2], who conducted a study
on 283 mothers from Damares village, El‑Minia,
Egypt, found that 38.5% of mothers obtained their
rst aid information from television. Our results are
in agreement with those of Eldosoky[3], who showed
similar results as regards the source of knowledge, in
whichTVandradioaccountedforabout45.8%.is
is in agreement with the ndings of Morrison and
Stone[15], who recorded that television and family
members were considered the primary source of
parents’ information about their child safety measures.
However, only 3% of them depend on internet to
obtain information. e same trend was found in
the study by Joanne et al.[16], who documented in
Figure 4
Correlation between socioeconomic score and both total knowledge and attitude scores.
Table 5 Level of improvement in rst aid practice for home
injuries in the studied group after intervention
Practice Good practice Z-test P
Preintervention
(n (%))
Postintervention
(n (%))
Fracture N=150 N=52
19 (12.7) 50 (96.2) 119.7 <0.001
Wound N=186 N=41
35 (18.8) 35 (85.4) 69.8 <0.001
Poisoning N=100 N=17
30 (30.0) 11 (64.7) 7.7 0.005
Burn N=101 N=27
42 (48.5) 20 (70.1) 9.0 0.003
Choking N=144 N=30
55 (38.2) 22 (73.3) 12.4 <0.001
Electrical shock N=88 N=22
23 (26.1) 14 (63.6) 11.09 0.001
Drowning N=30 N=10
8 (26.7) 7 (70.0) 6.01 0.01
P<0.05,signicant(S).
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1038 Menoua Medical Journal, Volume 29 | Number 4 | October-December 2016
their study in 14 European countries that the most
frequently cited sources of parents’ information on their
child’ssafetywerefamilyandTV,followedbyfriends.
is is contradictory to the ndings of Sonavane and
Kasthuri[17],whoreportedinastudyinIndiathata
higher proportion rate of the studied women had not
heardaboutrstaid (65.7%).is maybeattributed
to the dierent demographic characteristics of the
populations.
e ndings of this study showed that, mothers’
knowledge score was higher with increased level of
education, as 64.3% of mothers who had satisfactory
knowledge had high education, whereas 2.9% of
mothers who had satisfactory knowledge were illiterate.
is result is in agreement with that reported by
El‑Sabely etal. [4] in a study that included 150 mothers
from Kafr Mohsen village, Sharkia governorate,
Egypt, which revealed that illiterate mothers had poor
knowledge on home accidents among children. e
same was obtained from the study by Ozturk [18],
who reported that there was a meaningful relationship
between mothers’ educational status and knowledge
andpracticeasregardschildhomeinjuries.
As regards mother’s knowledge on causes of home
injuries, the current study revealed that more than
half (64.8%) of the mothers had unsatisfactory
knowledge about causes of home accidents. is is in
agreement with the ndings of El‑Sabely etal.[4], who
reported that more than half of the mothers(55.3%)
did not know anything about home accidents to which
their children might be exposed, and the ndings
of Abd El‑Aty et al. [13], who assessed knowledge
and practice of 600 mothers in rural areas, Assiut
governorate, toward home accident among children and
documentedthatapproximatelythree‑quarter(74.5%)
of mothers did not know the causes of home accident.
As regards mother’s knowledge about prevention of
childhomeinjuries,ourstudyrevealedalowpercentage
of satisfactory knowledge about the preventive
measures of common types of home injuries in the
studied group. is result was similar to that of a study
conducted in Baghdad city by Lafta et al.[19], who
found that mothers’ knowledge about prevention of the
four types of accidents studied was clearly decient.
is is also in agreement with a study conducted in
China by Wang et al. [20], which concluded that
parental knowledge on injury prevention and safety
promotionwasunsatisfactory.However,thesendings
arein disagreementwiththendingsof Hatamabadi
et al.[21], who conducted a study in Iran on
230mothersandmentionedthat75%ofparticipants
had good knowledge on preventive measures.
is study showed that there was general improvement
in mothers’ knowledge on prevention of child home
injuries (burn, choking, wounds, falls, electrical
accidents, poisoning, and drowning) after intervention.
is portrays the important role of educational
programs in injury prevention.e same result was
obtained by Olds etal.[22], who recommended that
all mothers should be counseled as regards safety and
injurypreventionforchildrentopreventtheoccurrence
ofinjuriesanddecreasechildmortality.Moreover,this
was emphasized by Yousef[23], who studied health
promotion for child care at home within the rst
2years of life and found that, before the application
of the health promotion program, mothers’ knowledge
scores on accidents and its control were inadequate,
whereas after program implementation, the mean
scores of all knowledge items on accidents prevention
were signicantly improved. Moreover, Sobhy [24],
who conducted a study on the impact of health
promotion educational program for 100 mothers as
regards accident prevention and rst aid for preschool
children at Benha city mentioned that there was
obvious improvement in mothers’ knowledge about
prevention of preschool children home accidents
after implementation of health promotion program.
Moreover, Abd El‑Aty et al. [13] reported that
prevention and control of home injuries among
children has been recently a target and very important
area for health promotion.
e current study revealed that there was a positive
correlation between mothers’ KAP and their
socioeconomic level. e same result was obtained
by Eldosoky[3], who mentioned that higher
socioeconomic status was a signicant predictor of
better KAP among mothers. is is in agreement with
the ndings of Sobhy [24] as well, who reported that
there was a general improvement in total mothers’
KAP as regards home injuries with the increase in
family income, with a highly statistically signicant
dierence(P<0.001). Increased family socioeconomic
level helps mothers to gain more knowledge through
mass media and enables them to apply safety measures
at home.
Our study illustrated that mothers’ practice of rst aid
as regards burn, choking, wounds, fracture, electrical
accidents, poisoning, and drowning were obviously
improved after intervention. e incidence of mothers
who reported good practice before intervention was
48.5,38.2,18.8,12.7,26.1,30,and26.7%,respectively,
and the incidence after intervention was 70.1, 73.3,
85.4, 96.2, 63.6, 64.7, and 70%, respectively. ere
was a highly statistically signicant dierence before
and after intervention as regards mothers’ practice.
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Home injuries among children Megahed et al. 1039
is nding was approved by Sobhy [24] and
Abd El‑Aty etal.[13], who documented that mothers’
practice as regards rst aid of home injuries among
children under 5years of age was highly improved after
implementation of the educational program.
Conclusion
Althoughhome‑relatedinjuriesareacommonproblem
among rural children, mothers in Bejerim district
did not have enough knowledge as regards causes,
prevention,andrstaidoftheseinjuries.Factorsfound
to aect KAP scores of mothers were level of education
and socioeconomic level.
Recommendation
It is recommended that health education programs
be conducted for parents, especially new parents, on
injury preventionandrstaidasaroutineserviceat
MCHcentersandunits.
Acknowledgements
e author thanks the participating mothers for their
cooperation.
Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.
Conicts of interest
ere are no conicts of interest.
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... of home accidents become too important for health promotion of the children at preschool age. Informal caregivers' knowledge and practices toward first aid is important because first aid is an initial care provided to the child when home accidents occur; that makes a big difference in the outcome; also it decides the future progression of complication rates [4] Many injuries related to home accidents are predictable so that they can be prevented through providing educational program by nurses to ensure that people in the community known how to prevent home accidents at living setting [5]. Organizational change is one theory of educational program the nurse used it to improve the people knowledge, attitudes and practices [6] The environment plays an important role in occurrence and severity of child's home accidents. ...
... These results are in agreement with those of Silva et al., (2016) [12], which showed highly statistically significant positive relation with their studied sample total practice score. This results also conformity with Megahed et al., (2016) [4], who showed that, highly statistically significant positive relation with their studied sample total attitude score. The researchers observed that informal caregivers' knowledge influenced on their attitudes and reported practices. ...
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Article
Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the mother's education and her knowledge in relation to home accidents prevention in rural area in Sharkia Governorate. Study design, a cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted in this study. The sample size was 150 mothers from Kafr Mohsen village, this number was drawn by a systematic random by visiting every 5 house in the village, those mother's were inter-viewed in their homes through home visits. Structured interview sheet was developed based on relevant literature ,it contained the following data: A) The first part included socio-demographic characteristics of the families as mother's age, educational level, occupation, family size and number of children .B) The second part included mother knowledge towards home accidents among children and its occurrence, types and mother's knowledge regarding causes of home accidents. C) The third part included mother's practice or first aid measures she followed towards her child in case of exposure to any type of home accidents. The study result indicated that, the mean age of the mothers was (34.1±9.6) years. Regarding educational level, 33.3% had completed university education, while 25.3% of them were illiterate. Occupational status showed that more than one half of the studied mothers (58%) didn't work, while 14% worked as health care personnel. 61.3% were of middle socio economic status. More than half of the injured children (59.3%) were aged 3years or less, over half of them (58.7%) were males. The majority of the mothers (84.7%) reported that the child had suffered an injury at home. Cut/wound represented the highest percentage of home injury (37.3%) followed by fall (29.3%), burn (12%), animal bite (3.3%) then poisoning (1.3%). The study revealed that the majority of mothers (80%) heard of the term of first aid and the main source of their knowledge was from "radio and television" (24%) then "doctors and nurses" (15.3%) , "part of curriculum" nearly(14%) and the lowest source was from "books" (6.7%). More than half of the studied mothers (55.3%) did not have any knowledge about the causes of home accidents. the relation between mother's age and her knowledge regarding causes of home accidents was proved to be statistically non significant (p>0.05). mother's knowledge regarding causes of home accidents increased with increasing educational level. The relation was proved to be statistically significant (p<0.001).The conclusion of this study revealed that, well educated mothers will use the proper first aid. So there is need for parent's educational programs especially mothers with preschool children about home accidents and how to manage.
Excessive dependence of preschool children on their parents has led to a significant increase in the incidence of home injuries. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate factors influencing the knowledge and attitudes of mothers in this group regarding their adoption of preventive measures for home injuries. The subjects in this descriptive/analytical study consisted of all mothers of preschool children with home injuries, who had referred to the emergency department of Imam Hussein Hospital and Shohada-e-Haftome Tir Hospital in Tehran, Iran. After knowledge levels and attitudes of mothers were divided into two groups, multivariate logistic regression analysis and chi-squared test were used. Finally, 230 mothers, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 5.2 years, were evaluated, 75.0% of whom had good knowledge and 46.2% had positive attitudes. High school education, mothers' employment and mothers' absence from home for at least 8 hours a day were the factors predicting poor attitudes of mothers. There was a close correlation between mothers' knowledge and attitudes. The results of this study showed that mothers' high educational status, absence, occupation and the number of children in the family and history of accidents during the previous 3 weeks are important predicting factors.
The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and their related factors on injury prevention and safety promotion among children's parents in the city area, in order to provide scientific data for the development of Safe School in mainland China. A total of 3617 subjects were investigated in Jinan with the help of a self-administered questionnaire which included parental demographic characteristics and 40 questions related to KAP about injury prevention and safety promotion. Responses to each question included only one correct answer. A score of 1 was given if the participant answered correctly, otherwise the score was 0. Therefore, the total KAP score was 40 if all the 40 questions were answered correctly by one respondent. The total KAP scores were classified into two categories for which the cutoff value was the mean of the total KAP scores. The results showed that the KAP scores ranged from 13 to 39, with an average of 30.79 ± 3.54. Higher KAP scores were statistically associated with mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79) and higher education level (OR = 1.34). It was concluded that parental KAP about injury prevention and safety promotion was unsatisfactory, and health education on KAP about injury prevention and safety promotion for parents, especially among fathers and parents with low education levels, should be strengthened further by Safe School programmes.
Article
To examine recent trends in unintentional childhood injury mortality in Europe, and to identify the contribution of specific causes. The 15 current member countries of the European Union. Analysis of mortality data (1984-93) obtained from the World Health Organisation and national government agencies. Injuries continue to be the leading cause of childhood death in all study countries, with more than 4500 fatalities annually, accounting for over 30% of all child mortality. The major causes of death in all countries were injuries due to motor vehicle traffic accidents, drownings, fire and flames, and falls. Portugal experienced mortality rates double those of most other countries, with the differentials particularly stark early in the study period. Although a decrease in age standardised mortality rates was observed in all countries over the decade, the extent of the decrease varied widely, from -47% in the UK to -11% in Finland. The pattern of childhood injury in Europe is similar to that observed elsewhere in the world. None the less, differences in rates of childhood injury mortality persist between countries. Identifying the reasons for these variations between countries may hold the key to the reduction injury rates in Europe as a whole.