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Knowledge, attitude and practice of rural mothers towards home injuries among children under 5 years of age in Menouf District- Menoufia Governorate, Egypnjuries paper

  • faculty of medicine, Menoufia university, Egypt
1110-2098 © 2017 Faculty of Medicine, Menoua University DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.202506
Original article 1033
Injuries to children arising from home accidents are
increasingly seen as a community health problem.
it has become a public health problem[2]. For example,
of 5years[3]. e incidence of home accidents among
children under 6 years of age in Assiut governorate
in the year 2003 as perceived by their mothers was
50.3%.e most commoninjuriesincludedrowning,
falls, res or burns, poisoning, suocation, and
from selected Arab countries between 2004 and 2012
suggest increasing rates of domestic violence[5].
Knowledge, attitude and practice of rural mothers towards
home injuries among children under 5 years of age in Menouf
District- Menoua Governorate, Egypt
Mohamed A. Megaheda, Nora A. Khalilb, Reda A. Ibrahemc,
Reham S. El Disokib
The aim of this study was to assess rural mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices as
regardsrst aidforhome‑relatedinjuriesamongchildrenunder5years ofagebeforeand
after implementation of educational program and to measure the prevalence of these injuries.
This study was conducted to assess rural mothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward
implementation of educational program.
Accidental injuries are a major health problem in children. They are the most common cause
of death in children under 5 years of age. Every year they leave many thousands permanently
disabled. Most of the children at risk from a home accident are in the 0–5 years’ age group.
Most of these accidents are preventable through increased awareness, improvements in the
home environment, and greater product safety.
Materials and methods
This cross-sectional interventional study included 270 mothers from Bijirim village, Queisna
district,Menoua,Egypt.A predesigned questionnaire wasadministeredtothem before
andafterapplicationof educational program. The rstpartofthe questionnaire included
sociodemographic and economic characteristics of the mothers. The second part included
mothers’knowledge aboutthe causes,prevention, andrst aidofhomeinjuries.Thethird
part included mothers’ practice followed toward their children in case of exposure to any type
of home injuries and its occurrence.
The study result revealed that mass media were the main source of knowledge for 43.3% of
among highly educated mothers and those with middle and high socioeconomic level. There
andeither knowledgeor attitudeof motherstowardhomeinjuries.Therewasasignicant
improvement in mothers’ knowledge after intervention.
Thestudyrevealedthat there was a signicantimprovementinmothers’ knowledge and
practice as regards home injuries after intervention.
children, home injuries, under 5 years of age, unintentional
Departments of aPlastic Surgery and cPublic
Health and Community Medicine, Faculty
of Medicine, Menoua University, Menoua,
bDepartment of Family Medicine, Ministry of
Health, Egypt
Correspondence to Nora A. Khalil, MD,
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty
of Medicine, Menoua University, 49 Zaki
Shabana Street, El Bar El Sharki,
Shebin El Kom, Menoua Governorate, 32511,
Tel: +20 482578178, +20100 2089093;
fax: +20 482325 116;
Received 07 June 2015
Accepted 04 October 2015
Menoua Medical Journal 2016, 29:1033–1039
Menoua Med J 29:1033–1039
© 2017 Faculty of Medicine, Menoua University
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1034 Menoua Medical Journal, Volume 29 | Number 4 | October-December 2016
Young children are particularly vulnerable to accidents
due to their innate desire to explore their world and the
inability to perceive the dangers of their actions[6].
As children learn through experience, minor injuries
are inevitable, but providing a safe environment can
reduce the risks, coupled with close supervision and
setting the limits of safety. Parents should remember
that they need to maintain a constant balance between
overprotecting the child on one hand and giving him
or her freedom in the process of learning the hazards
Accidentalinjuriestoinfantsand youngchildrenare
often serious, but are largely preventable. Prevention
programs that use a multidisciplinary strategy (i.e.,a
combination of education, environmental modication,
product modication, supportive home visits, and
legislation) have been shown to be particularly eective
in reducing injury mortality in many high‑income
First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness
or injury, usually by a nonexpert but trained person,
until medical treatment can be accessed. Provision of
immediate rst aid to patients who require emergency
care can make a big dierence to the outcome[9].
In certain self‑limiting illnesses or minor injuries,
appropriate rst aid measures may be sucient to
avoid a medical consultation. Parents’ knowledge and
practice about rst aid is especially important, as many
adverse consequences of injuries can be averted if
parents know what actions to take[3].
e aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes,
and to identify the most common types of home
a well‑structured program in promoting KAP toward
Materials and methods
is cross‑sectional interventional study was
conducted from 1st of April2014 to the end of May
health unit from 1May2014 to the end of July 2014
for any service and had children under 5years of age
were included in this study. ere were 296 mothers. In
a response rate of 91.2%.
e study was conducted on three phases:
(1) Phase 1(the preintervention phase):
structured questionnaire, which included the following
four parts:
(a) Sociodemographic and economic data
(e.g., age, education, occupation, and the
El‑Gilany socioeconomic scoring system) [10]
(b) Mother’s knowledge toward dierent types
methods of prevention). Mothers who scored
greater than 50% were considered as having
satisfactory knowledge
(c) Attitude of participant mothers toward home
Mothers who scored greater than 50% were
considered as having positive attitude
(d) First aid measures toward dierent types of
home injuries (mothers who scored >50%
were considered as having good practice).
(2) Phase 2(the intervention phase):
An educational program was carried out for mothers
by the researcher during the period from 1May2014
to the end of July 2014, 4days a week, in the form of
lectures, group discussion, posters, video, booklets, and
real objects such as medication, cleaning substances,
toys, etc.
e aim of the program was to improve the mothers’
knowledge and practice as regards injury prevention
and rst aid for their children under 5years of age.
e content of the program was implemented
for each group in one session. Each session
included 7–10 mothers and took 60 min. Its
content was as follows:
(a) Denitionofunintentionalhomeinjuries
(b) Typesofchildhomeinjuries
(c) Causes of common types of child home
(d) Preventionofdierenttypesofhomeinjuries
(e) First aid for common types of child home
(3) Phase 3(the postintervention phase):
Using the same questionnaire the participants were
re‑evaluatedfor KAP toward children home injuries
from the rst to the end of November 2014.
Statistical analysis
e data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed
using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science)
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Home injuries among children Megahed et al. 1035
Two types of statistics were performed
(1) Descriptivestatistics[e.g.,percentage(%),mean,
(2) Analytic statistics included the following tests:
(a) e c2‑test, to study the association between
two qualitative variables
(b) e Z‑test, to test the proportion between
two independent groups
(c) e t‑test is a test of signicance used for
comparison between two groups normally
distributed having quantitative variables
(d) Paired t‑test: It measures whether means from
conditions of normally distributed data. e
paired t‑test is commonly used to compare
a sample group’s scores before and after an
(e) e Wilcoxon signed‑rank test is a
nonparametric statistical hypothesis test
used when comparing two related samples,
matched samples, or repeated measurements
on a single sample to assess whether their
population mean ranks dier
(f ) Spearman correlation test (r) is a test used
to measure the association between two not
normally distributed quantitative variables or
one quantitative and one qualitative ordinal
A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered statistically
e mothers’ ages ranged from 20 to 43years, with a
mean of 29.56±5.42years. As regards educational level,
41.9% of the participants had secondary education and
9.6% of them were illiterate. As regards the working
status of mothers, 69.3% of them were housewives. As
regards socioeconomic level, 53.3% of mothers were
of very low and low socioeconomic level; the mean of
socioeconomic score was 56.39±8.81, with a range of
group were wounds, fractures, and choking(68.9, 55.6,
and 53.3%, respectively)(Fig.1).
As regards the source of mothers’ knowledge about
of knowledge were mass media and relatives(49.0 and
49.4%, respectively)(Fig.2).
e level of knowledge of our participants on home
injuries was not aected by mothers’ age. It also
revealed that, among these demographic and economic
criteria, knowledge satisfaction is signicantly
aected by education and socioeconomic level, being
higher among those with high education(P<0.001)
and those with moderate and high socioeconomic
ere was a remarkable improvement in participants’
level of knowledge as regards home injuries (causes,
prevention, and rst aid) after the program(P<0.001)
in comparison with that before the program. e mean
knowledge score was statistically highly signicant
after the program(P<0.001)(Table3).
ere was an improvement in mothers’ attitude
toward home injuries after implementation of the
Table 1 Sociodemographic and socioeconomic criteria of the
studied group
Sociodemographic parameters Studied group (N=270)
Mothers’ age (years)
Mean±SD 29.56±5.42
Range 20-43
Mothers’ education (n (%))
Illiterate and basic 56 (20.7)
Secondary 113 (41.9)
High 101 (37.4)
Mothers’ job (n (%))
Housewife 187 (69.3)
Working 83 (30.7)
Socioeconomic level (n (%))
Very low and low 144 (53.3)
Moderate 77 (28.6)
High 49 (18.1)
Socioeconomic score (n (%))
Mean±SD 56.39±8.81
Range 40-72
Table 2 Relationship between mothers’ knowledge about
home injuries and both sociodemographic and economic
criteria of the studied group
Preintervention knowledge Test of
Mothers’ age
Mean±SD 29.7±5.28 29.51±5.48 0.25 0.80
Range 20-43 20-43
Mothers’ education
(n (%))
Illiterate and basic 3 (4.3) 53 (26.5) 3.77 <0.001
Secondary 22 (31.4) 91 (45.5) 1.92 0.06
High 45 (64.3) 56 (28.0) 5.26 <0.001
Mothers’ job (n (%))
Housewife 35 (50) 152 (76.0) 3.91 <0.001
Working 35 (50) 48 (24.0) 3.91 <0.001
level (n (%))
Very low and low 23 (32.9) 121 (60.5) 3.84 <0.001
Moderate 28 (40.0) 49 (24.5) 2.32 0.02
High 19 (27.1) 30 (15.0) 2.08 0.04
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1036 Menoua Medical Journal, Volume 29 | Number 4 | October-December 2016
program (Fig. 3). ere was a positive correlation
between mothers’ socioeconomic level and both total
Attitude toward home injuries in the studied group before and after
Figure 3
injuries among children.
Figure 2
Prevalence of home injuries in children under 5 in the studied group.
Figure 1
knowledge score (+0.13) and attitude score(+0.14)
ere was a positive correlation between mother’s
practice as regards child home injuries and both
education and socioeconomic level of mothers(Table4).
ere was a statistically signicant improvement in
after intervention(Table5).
Unintentional injuries continue to be a major cause
of death, ill health, and long‑term disability during
childhood, but are largely preventable with appropriate
information and safe practice [11]. Young children
are particularly vulnerable to accidents due to their
innate desire to explore their world and the inability
to perceive the dangers of their actions. As children
Table 4 Spearman correlation between level of mother
education and socioeconomic status and level of practice
toward different home injuries before intervention
Practice Education SES
Child fracture (N=150) +0.14 0.02 +0.26 0.01
Wound (N=186) +0.15 0.02 +0.32 0.008
Child poisoning (N=100) +0.19 0.008 +0.22 0.03
Child burn (N=101) +0.13 0.03 +0.33 0.008
Child choking (N=144) +0.21 0.006 +0.30 0.01
Electrical shock (N=88) +0.31 0.03 +0.24 0.04
Drowning (N=30) +0.37 0.07 +0.42 0.04
R,correlationcoefcient;SES,socioeconomicstatus. P>0.05,
nonsignicant; P<0.05,signicant.
Table 3 Total knowledge about home injuries among the
studied mothers before and after intervention
Knowledge level Satisfactory knowledge Z-test P
(n (%))
(N=270) (n (%))
about cause of
home injuries
95 (35.2) 223 (82.6) 11.11 <0.001
about prevention
of home injuries
77 (28.5) 199 (73.7) 10.42 <0.001
aboutrst aidof
home injuries
38 (14.1) 158 (58.5) 10.64 <0.001
Total knowledge
about home
70 (25.9) 176 (65.2) 9.08 <0.001
Mean±SD 27.37±12.45 49.73±5.11 W<0.001
Range 6-61 39-64 7.3
P<0.05,signicant(S).W , Welicoxon
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Home injuries among children Megahed et al. 1037
but providing a safe environment can reduce the risks,
coupled with close supervision and setting the limits
of safety[2].
e current study revealed that more than half of the
mothers(69.3%) were housewives. is nding is in
agreementwiththatofEldosoky[3],Hossien[12], Abd
El‑Aty etal.[13], and Ibrahim[14], who mentioned
home accidents’ rate was high among their children.
However,Mohammedetal.[7], who conducted a study
indicated that less than 60% of the mothers (59%)
were working. is can be attributed to the existence of
As regards types of home accidents, the present
study indicated that cut wound represented the
highest percentage of home injuries among the
studied children (68.9%). is is in agreement with
the study conducted on 600 mothers in Elwan and
El‑Masra villages in Assiut governorate, Egypt,
by Abd El‑Aty et al. [13] and with the study by
Ibrahim [14] in El‑Fatah district, Assiut governorate,
Egypt. Moreover, this result is in line with that of
Eldosoky[3], who measured the incidence and types
of home injuries aecting rural children aged up to
12years in the study that included 1450 rural mothers
from Qalubeya governorate, Egypt. ey found that
cut wounds were the most common accidents among
the studied children. Asimilar trend was obtained by
Mohammed etal.[7], whose study was conducted in
Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital and
percent of the mothers reported that falling and cut
among their children.
is study also investigated the source of mothers’
information about prevention and rst aid of home
injuries among children. It was revealed that 43.3%
of them gained their rst aid information from
mass media. Similar results were obtained by other
researchers. Kamel etal.[2], who conducted a study
on 283 mothers from Damares village, El‑Minia,
Egypt, found that 38.5% of mothers obtained their
rst aid information from television. Our results are
in agreement with those of Eldosoky[3], who showed
similar results as regards the source of knowledge, in
is in agreement with the ndings of Morrison and
Stone[15], who recorded that television and family
members were considered the primary source of
parents’ information about their child safety measures.
However, only 3% of them depend on internet to
obtain information. e same trend was found in
the study by Joanne et al.[16], who documented in
Figure 4
Correlation between socioeconomic score and both total knowledge and attitude scores.
Table 5 Level of improvement in rst aid practice for home
injuries in the studied group after intervention
Practice Good practice Z-test P
(n (%))
(n (%))
Fracture N=150 N=52
19 (12.7) 50 (96.2) 119.7 <0.001
Wound N=186 N=41
35 (18.8) 35 (85.4) 69.8 <0.001
Poisoning N=100 N=17
30 (30.0) 11 (64.7) 7.7 0.005
Burn N=101 N=27
42 (48.5) 20 (70.1) 9.0 0.003
Choking N=144 N=30
55 (38.2) 22 (73.3) 12.4 <0.001
Electrical shock N=88 N=22
23 (26.1) 14 (63.6) 11.09 0.001
Drowning N=30 N=10
8 (26.7) 7 (70.0) 6.01 0.01
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1038 Menoua Medical Journal, Volume 29 | Number 4 | October-December 2016
their study in 14 European countries that the most
frequently cited sources of parents’ information on their
is is contradictory to the ndings of Sonavane and
higher proportion rate of the studied women had not
heardaboutrstaid (65.7%).is maybeattributed
to the dierent demographic characteristics of the
e ndings of this study showed that, mothers’
knowledge score was higher with increased level of
education, as 64.3% of mothers who had satisfactory
knowledge had high education, whereas 2.9% of
mothers who had satisfactory knowledge were illiterate.
is result is in agreement with that reported by
El‑Sabely etal. [4] in a study that included 150 mothers
from Kafr Mohsen village, Sharkia governorate,
Egypt, which revealed that illiterate mothers had poor
knowledge on home accidents among children. e
same was obtained from the study by Ozturk [18],
who reported that there was a meaningful relationship
between mothers’ educational status and knowledge
As regards mother’s knowledge on causes of home
injuries, the current study revealed that more than
half (64.8%) of the mothers had unsatisfactory
knowledge about causes of home accidents. is is in
agreement with the ndings of El‑Sabely etal.[4], who
reported that more than half of the mothers(55.3%)
did not know anything about home accidents to which
their children might be exposed, and the ndings
of Abd El‑Aty et al. [13], who assessed knowledge
and practice of 600 mothers in rural areas, Assiut
governorate, toward home accident among children and
of mothers did not know the causes of home accident.
As regards mother’s knowledge about prevention of
of satisfactory knowledge about the preventive
measures of common types of home injuries in the
studied group. is result was similar to that of a study
conducted in Baghdad city by Lafta et al.[19], who
found that mothers’ knowledge about prevention of the
four types of accidents studied was clearly decient.
is is also in agreement with a study conducted in
China by Wang et al. [20], which concluded that
parental knowledge on injury prevention and safety
arein disagreementwiththendingsof Hatamabadi
et al.[21], who conducted a study in Iran on
had good knowledge on preventive measures.
is study showed that there was general improvement
in mothers’ knowledge on prevention of child home
injuries (burn, choking, wounds, falls, electrical
accidents, poisoning, and drowning) after intervention.
is portrays the important role of educational
programs in injury prevention.e same result was
obtained by Olds etal.[22], who recommended that
all mothers should be counseled as regards safety and
was emphasized by Yousef[23], who studied health
promotion for child care at home within the rst
2years of life and found that, before the application
of the health promotion program, mothers’ knowledge
scores on accidents and its control were inadequate,
whereas after program implementation, the mean
scores of all knowledge items on accidents prevention
were signicantly improved. Moreover, Sobhy [24],
who conducted a study on the impact of health
promotion educational program for 100 mothers as
regards accident prevention and rst aid for preschool
children at Benha city mentioned that there was
obvious improvement in mothers’ knowledge about
prevention of preschool children home accidents
after implementation of health promotion program.
Moreover, Abd El‑Aty et al. [13] reported that
prevention and control of home injuries among
children has been recently a target and very important
area for health promotion.
e current study revealed that there was a positive
correlation between mothers’ KAP and their
socioeconomic level. e same result was obtained
by Eldosoky[3], who mentioned that higher
socioeconomic status was a signicant predictor of
better KAP among mothers. is is in agreement with
the ndings of Sobhy [24] as well, who reported that
there was a general improvement in total mothers’
KAP as regards home injuries with the increase in
family income, with a highly statistically signicant
dierence(P<0.001). Increased family socioeconomic
level helps mothers to gain more knowledge through
mass media and enables them to apply safety measures
at home.
Our study illustrated that mothers’ practice of rst aid
as regards burn, choking, wounds, fracture, electrical
accidents, poisoning, and drowning were obviously
improved after intervention. e incidence of mothers
who reported good practice before intervention was
and the incidence after intervention was 70.1, 73.3,
85.4, 96.2, 63.6, 64.7, and 70%, respectively. ere
was a highly statistically signicant dierence before
and after intervention as regards mothers’ practice.
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Home injuries among children Megahed et al. 1039
is nding was approved by Sobhy [24] and
Abd El‑Aty etal.[13], who documented that mothers’
practice as regards rst aid of home injuries among
children under 5years of age was highly improved after
implementation of the educational program.
among rural children, mothers in Bejerim district
did not have enough knowledge as regards causes,
to aect KAP scores of mothers were level of education
and socioeconomic level.
It is recommended that health education programs
be conducted for parents, especially new parents, on
injury preventionandrstaidasaroutineserviceat
e author thanks the participating mothers for their
Financial support and sponsorship
Conicts of interest
ere are no conicts of interest.
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... of home accidents become too important for health promotion of the children at preschool age. Informal caregivers' knowledge and practices toward first aid is important because first aid is an initial care provided to the child when home accidents occur; that makes a big difference in the outcome; also it decides the future progression of complication rates [4] Many injuries related to home accidents are predictable so that they can be prevented through providing educational program by nurses to ensure that people in the community known how to prevent home accidents at living setting [5]. Organizational change is one theory of educational program the nurse used it to improve the people knowledge, attitudes and practices [6] The environment plays an important role in occurrence and severity of child's home accidents. ...
... These results are in agreement with those of Silva et al., (2016) [12], which showed highly statistically significant positive relation with their studied sample total practice score. This results also conformity with Megahed et al., (2016) [4], who showed that, highly statistically significant positive relation with their studied sample total attitude score. The researchers observed that informal caregivers' knowledge influenced on their attitudes and reported practices. ...
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Background: Home accidents are a major problem among children which cause injuries and death in young children. Many home accidents are preventable through increasing caregivers´ awareness and safe the home condition. Aim: To evaluate the effect of an educational program for informal caregivers about home accident prevention. Design: A quasi-experimental design was used. Setting: The study was conducted at all orphan homes in Helwan District, these were (El Sayeda Nafessa Orphan Home; Coptic Ladies' House for Orphans Care; Evangelical Care Foundation; Dar Al Wafaa and Shefaa Orphans Care; and Al-Ma'sara Marine Society Development. Sample: All the informal caregivers working in previously mentioned settings were included in the study (32 persons). Tools of data collection: Two tools were used to collect data: The first tool was a constructed interviewing questionnaire for assessing the demographic characteristics of informal caregivers and their knowledge, attitudes, and reported practices related to accident prevention among preschool children. The second tool was an observation checklist to assess hazards in an indoor environment of orphanage home. Results: Knowledge total score pre educational program was 9.19±3.458, while post educational program it was 16.17±2.373, and reported practice total score was 15.5748±4.523 preprogram, while post educational program, it was 39.8542±3.111, as well, attitude total score before the program was 19.2348±6.18010, while after program, it was 37.5223±4.88085 with highly statistically significant differences between pre–and post-educational program. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the educational program improved the informal caregivers´ knowledge, reported practices and attitudes, regarding home accident prevention among preschool children in orphanages. Recommendation: there is need for further educational programs about home accidents prevention for caregivers in different community settings in order to generalize the results
... Há necessidade, portanto, de que o conhecimento dos cuidadores seja melhor em quantidade e qualidade, a fim de que possam cuidar adequadamente dos idosos, produzindo efeitos positivos na prevenção das quedas. Uma estratégia eficaz para a melhora do conhecimento demonstrada por alguns estudos é a educação em saúde (39)(40) . Nesse processo, é importante a participação ativa dos profissionais da área, visto que apenas 9,3% dos cuidadores deste estudo referiram obter conhecimento por eles. ...
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Objective: investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of informal elderly caregivers about falls and its prevention. Method: this is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 97 informal elderly caregivers residents in areas covered by five Health Strategy Units (ESF) in Cuiabá. Results: more than half of the participants are aware of falls and identify them as a problem, as well as they identify some risk factors and prevention measures. Regarding attitudes, more than half of the caregivers do not seem to act effectively to prevent falls. Most of them report adopting practices to prevent falls of the elderly, supervising the activities of their daily lives. Conclusion: caregivers know about falls and its prevention, but in a superficial way, and it seems to influence their attitudes and practices regarding the prevention of this event.
... This education may target current mothers, teenagers, pregnant women etc. to have a short-term outcome; or can be integrated to curriculum of secondary schools or universities in a continuous fashion for a sustainable long-term outcome. We didn't investigate the source of information about home accidents in our study, however, previous studies (27,28) found mass media as an important source of information; therefore mass media can also be used in raising awareness about home accidents. ...
Aim: To evaluate the adherence of parent's preventive measures of unintentional home injury in their children by measuring the parents' knowledge and awareness regarding the risk factors of unintentional home injury. Settings and design: An online questionnaire was used. The study followed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Method and materials: The study was conducted between December 2019 and January 2020 included 324 participants who fulfilled the criteria during the period. An appropriate statistical test was used to register the statistical significance between the participants' answers and demographic characteristics. Statistical analysis: SPSS 20.0 software package was used for entering the collected data and for statistical analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics showed that (66%) of participants were female. At least 50% of the participants were aged 26-35 years and had a bachelor's degree. Most reported at a good level of practice against the risk factors of unintentional home injury. The correlation between the participants' level of practice against the unintentional home injury, their age, and their level of education was statistically significant. Conclusions: The results showed the level of practice against unintentional home injury was significantly higher in parents their age more than forty, and those with a high educational level. This result suggested that nationwide health programs and initiatives must be toward families and parents in assessing their home hazards.
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This study aims to specify incidents of home accidents in children and relevant factors and security measures taken by parents against home accidents. The study was carried out in four government pre-schools in İzmir, Turkey. We managed to get through the study with only 447 students out of 510 totals (%87,6) as other students dropped out of the kindergartens for several reasons. Parental Information Form and Definitive Scale for Measurements Taken by Mothers Against Home Accidents for 0-6 Years Old Children were used in this study. 226 girls (50,6%) and 221 boys (49,4%), participated in the study with an average age of about 5,1 0,8. 36,5% of children (n=163) are reported to have had an accident. Scale mean scores of mothers were determined as 90,7 46.1. Ninth, 30th and sixth items have received the highest score. There appears to be a meaningful relationship between mothers' and fathers' educational status and incidents of accidents (p=.050, p=.002). There wasn't statistically relationship among mothers age group (p=.430). It is highly suggested that parents of preschool children be educated on security measures and first aid in order to ensure a safe environment for children.
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Background: Accidental injuries are the most common cause of death in children over the age of one. Every year, millions of children are permanently disabled or disfigured because of accidents. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge of women with respect to children's domestic accidents, and to determine its association with some demographic factors. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in both sides of Baghdad City during the period from April through to August 2013. The targeted population were women attending the primary health care centers (PHCCs). A random sample of 20 PHCCs was taken through a stratified random sampling technique by dividing Baghdad City into its two main parts Karkh and Russafa. Ten centers were then chosen from each sector by a simple random sampling technique. A well-structured questionnaire was developed that constituted of questions on four main types of accidents involving children (poisoning by chemicals and detergents, electric shock, injuries from sharp instruments in the kitchen, and burns). Results: The total number of women enrolled in this study was 1032 aged from 15-50 years. The results revealed that only 9.2% of the mothers acquired a good level of knowledge in prevention of injuries from chemicals and detergents, and more than 90% were found to have poor knowledge. The same was found regarding knowledge about preventing electrical accidents caused by power sockets and electrical appliances where only 10.2% of the mothers were found to have a good level of knowledge. The results were not much better regarding accidents caused by fire, only 11.6% of the mothers scored well. With respect to dealing with accidents caused by sharp instruments in the kitchen, only 6.3% of the mothers obtained a score that indicated a good level of knowledge. Older mothers were statistically found to have a better level of knowledge than younger mothers. Higher educated mothers' were statistically associated with a lower level of knowledge in accident prevention. Mothers with more children and those whose children had previously been involved in an accident were found to have a better level of knowledge. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that women in Baghdad are poorly educated about how to protect their children against domestic accidents.
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Accidents are the largest single cause of death after the age of one year and are one of the most serious health problems facing the world today. They are the most common cause of hospital admission and can result in life long disability. Community health nurses are often ideally placed to offer advice about home safety. The aims of this study were to assess mothers' knowledge and practice toward home accidents among children under six years and to determine the prevalence rate of home accidents among children under six years. The present study has been carried out in Elwan and El-Masra villages in Assiut Governorate and the sample was included 200 mothers from Alwan village and 400 mothers from El-Masra village and those mothers must had children under six years. A structured questionnaire sheet was developed by the researcher to collect data A systematic random sampling approach was followed in this study, where every fifth home was visited in Alwan village and every tenth home was visited in El-Masra village and collection of data was performed by interviewing each mother on her home. The main results obtained from the study were as follows: most of mothers were in the age group 25 to less than 35 years and nearly all home had at least two potential environmental hazards. The present study revealed that the incidence of home accidents was (50.3%), wounds were the commonest types of home accidents (37.4%). And shows highly statistical difference between mother's knowledge and age and between mother's knowledge and education, about three-quarters (74.5%) of mothers had incomplete knowledge regarding home accidents among their children. According to mothers' practice in different types of home accidents the present study indicated that the majority of mothers (93.2%, 92.7% respectively) would go to health facilities in case of scorpion stings and animal bites. The present study recommended health classes about causes of home accidents, first aid, prevention and safe housing condition for mothers at MCH center, in service educational program toward first aid should be established for community health nurses at rural health units and MCH center, a well-planned health education program about causes of home accidents, first aid, and
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Injuries to children arising from home accidents are an increasing community health concern. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Qalubeya governorate, Egypt was to measure the incidence and types of home injuries affecting rural children aged up to 12 years and to assess their mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about first aid and its associated factors. An interview questionnaire was completed by 1450 rural mothers. The incidence of home injuries in the previous 4 weeks was 38.3% (57.5% were boys). Cut wounds, falls and fractures, burns, poisoning and foreign body aspiration were the common forms of home injuries. Mothers answered an average of 11.0 (SD 5.3) out of 29 KAP questions correctly. Younger age of mother, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic status, being in paid employment, source of knowledge about first aid and having attended a training course on first aid were significant predictors of better KAP among mothers.
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Knowledge concerning childhood accident prevention was assessed by means of developmentally oriented safety surveys that parents completed during their child's health maintenance visits at primary care sites. A total of 1,493 parents in urban, suburban, and rural Massachusetts communities participated. The questionnaires were administered between September 1980 and June 1982 to 512 parents of infants under 9 months and 981 parents of children aged 9 months through 5 years. Parents in all nine localities needed to learn how to prevent their children from getting burns. A variety of community-specific needs for other types of preventive behavior were also identified. Recognition of these educational needs is important because individual counseling or community education programs may be the only feasible preventive measures for certain injuries, particularly those that require parents to make substantial behavioral changes.
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Injury is the leading cause of death for children 0- 19 years of age in Europe, accounting for 3.1 deaths per 10 000 children per year. The youngest children of the ages 0-4 years require the most protection in this age group, with 2.5 injury-related deaths per 10 000 children in Europe annually. As parents are the primary caregivers of children, it is necessary to learn more about parents' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards child safety. This study presents the findings of a 14-country study in Europe on this theme. A quantitative survey of parents of children aged 5 years or under was performed in 14 EU member states in order to enable better targeting of prevention efforts aimed at educating parents. The total sample size was 2088. The results show that 95% of parents reported that they personally take measures to avoid accidental injury to their children. Their top concern with regard to safety of their children was children being hit by a car. The most common response, when asked why some parents find it difficult to protect their children from accidental injury, was not being able to watch their children constantly. Lack of awareness or knowledge about the causes of accidents was the second response. Two-thirds of parents would like to see more help from the government to prevent childhood injuries. Three-quarters of parents agreed that child injuries can be avoided. It was concluded that parents want to be better informed about the causes of child accidents and about actions they and society can take to reduce injury-related risks to children.
Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the mother's education and her knowledge in relation to home accidents prevention in rural area in Sharkia Governorate. Study design, a cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted in this study. The sample size was 150 mothers from Kafr Mohsen village, this number was drawn by a systematic random by visiting every 5 house in the village, those mother's were inter-viewed in their homes through home visits. Structured interview sheet was developed based on relevant literature ,it contained the following data: A) The first part included socio-demographic characteristics of the families as mother's age, educational level, occupation, family size and number of children .B) The second part included mother knowledge towards home accidents among children and its occurrence, types and mother's knowledge regarding causes of home accidents. C) The third part included mother's practice or first aid measures she followed towards her child in case of exposure to any type of home accidents. The study result indicated that, the mean age of the mothers was (34.1±9.6) years. Regarding educational level, 33.3% had completed university education, while 25.3% of them were illiterate. Occupational status showed that more than one half of the studied mothers (58%) didn't work, while 14% worked as health care personnel. 61.3% were of middle socio economic status. More than half of the injured children (59.3%) were aged 3years or less, over half of them (58.7%) were males. The majority of the mothers (84.7%) reported that the child had suffered an injury at home. Cut/wound represented the highest percentage of home injury (37.3%) followed by fall (29.3%), burn (12%), animal bite (3.3%) then poisoning (1.3%). The study revealed that the majority of mothers (80%) heard of the term of first aid and the main source of their knowledge was from "radio and television" (24%) then "doctors and nurses" (15.3%) , "part of curriculum" nearly(14%) and the lowest source was from "books" (6.7%). More than half of the studied mothers (55.3%) did not have any knowledge about the causes of home accidents. the relation between mother's age and her knowledge regarding causes of home accidents was proved to be statistically non significant (p>0.05). mother's knowledge regarding causes of home accidents increased with increasing educational level. The relation was proved to be statistically significant (p<0.001).The conclusion of this study revealed that, well educated mothers will use the proper first aid. So there is need for parent's educational programs especially mothers with preschool children about home accidents and how to manage.
Excessive dependence of preschool children on their parents has led to a significant increase in the incidence of home injuries. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate factors influencing the knowledge and attitudes of mothers in this group regarding their adoption of preventive measures for home injuries. The subjects in this descriptive/analytical study consisted of all mothers of preschool children with home injuries, who had referred to the emergency department of Imam Hussein Hospital and Shohada-e-Haftome Tir Hospital in Tehran, Iran. After knowledge levels and attitudes of mothers were divided into two groups, multivariate logistic regression analysis and chi-squared test were used. Finally, 230 mothers, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 5.2 years, were evaluated, 75.0% of whom had good knowledge and 46.2% had positive attitudes. High school education, mothers' employment and mothers' absence from home for at least 8 hours a day were the factors predicting poor attitudes of mothers. There was a close correlation between mothers' knowledge and attitudes. The results of this study showed that mothers' high educational status, absence, occupation and the number of children in the family and history of accidents during the previous 3 weeks are important predicting factors.
The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and their related factors on injury prevention and safety promotion among children's parents in the city area, in order to provide scientific data for the development of Safe School in mainland China. A total of 3617 subjects were investigated in Jinan with the help of a self-administered questionnaire which included parental demographic characteristics and 40 questions related to KAP about injury prevention and safety promotion. Responses to each question included only one correct answer. A score of 1 was given if the participant answered correctly, otherwise the score was 0. Therefore, the total KAP score was 40 if all the 40 questions were answered correctly by one respondent. The total KAP scores were classified into two categories for which the cutoff value was the mean of the total KAP scores. The results showed that the KAP scores ranged from 13 to 39, with an average of 30.79 ± 3.54. Higher KAP scores were statistically associated with mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79) and higher education level (OR = 1.34). It was concluded that parental KAP about injury prevention and safety promotion was unsatisfactory, and health education on KAP about injury prevention and safety promotion for parents, especially among fathers and parents with low education levels, should be strengthened further by Safe School programmes.
To examine recent trends in unintentional childhood injury mortality in Europe, and to identify the contribution of specific causes. The 15 current member countries of the European Union. Analysis of mortality data (1984-93) obtained from the World Health Organisation and national government agencies. Injuries continue to be the leading cause of childhood death in all study countries, with more than 4500 fatalities annually, accounting for over 30% of all child mortality. The major causes of death in all countries were injuries due to motor vehicle traffic accidents, drownings, fire and flames, and falls. Portugal experienced mortality rates double those of most other countries, with the differentials particularly stark early in the study period. Although a decrease in age standardised mortality rates was observed in all countries over the decade, the extent of the decrease varied widely, from -47% in the UK to -11% in Finland. The pattern of childhood injury in Europe is similar to that observed elsewhere in the world. None the less, differences in rates of childhood injury mortality persist between countries. Identifying the reasons for these variations between countries may hold the key to the reduction injury rates in Europe as a whole.