Article

The potential health benefits of haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.): Role of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In ethnic medicine the blue honeysuckle species have been known for a long time as medicinal plants [5]. Numerous studies confirmed the beneficial for human health effects of L. caerulea berries, such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial, immunological [7], antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, antitumor and antidiabetic activities of the blue honeysuckle preparations [8]. The main components of biologically active phenolic compounds (PC) in L. caerulea fruits are such flavonoids as anthocyanins, flavonols and flavons, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA) and flavans [8]. ...
... Numerous studies confirmed the beneficial for human health effects of L. caerulea berries, such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial, immunological [7], antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, antitumor and antidiabetic activities of the blue honeysuckle preparations [8]. The main components of biologically active phenolic compounds (PC) in L. caerulea fruits are such flavonoids as anthocyanins, flavonols and flavons, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA) and flavans [8]. ...
... The individual composition of PC in the fruits of the selected L. caerulea forms was characterized by HPLC ( Table 3). The anthocyanins are known to be the main bioflavonoids in honeysuckle fruits [8,10,13]. We found that the main anthocyanin in the studied L. caerulea fruit samples was represented by cyanide-3-glucoside (up to 91% of total bioflavonoids), whereas cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidine-3-glucoside were the minor components. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of the blue honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea subsp. altaica (Caprifoliaceae) for breeding resulted in the novel forms exceeding the parent ones in early maturity, fruit mass, biologically active compounds content and the crown shape allowing the mechanized harvesting.
... Although certain authors indicate the presence of malvidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin-3glucoside, cyanidin-3-gentiobioside, and acetylated derivatives [6,13,15]. The key marker of anthocyanin profile of L. caerulea fruits is cyanidin-3-glucoside accounting for 70-90% of total amounts [2][3][4]6,8,13,14]. The average contribution of cyanidin-3-glucoside in our tested cultivars were 86%, whereas the amounts of other identified anthocyanin derivatives were cultivar variant. ...
... Growing conditions affect the total amounts of anthocyanins in cultivars [2,3]. Cyanidin-3-glucoside as the prevailing compound in the phenolic fraction, determine most of the pharmacological effects of L. caerulea extracts [8,38,39]. ...
... The applied antioxidant activity assays do not employ biological radicals, but, still, certain experimental setups can simulate conditions that can be met in food matrices of biological fluids, such as redox potential and pH [47]. Antioxidant activity mechanisms are highly interrelated with the anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities [1,8,19]. The antioxidant activity of multi-phenolic compound containing plant matrices may differ due to their reaction kinetics, interactions in the sample, and peculiarities of activity enhancing structural elements [27,48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lonicera caerulea L. is an early fruit-bearing plant that originates from harsh environments. Raw materials contain a body of different phenolic origin compounds that determine the multidirectional antioxidant and pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, vegetative, pomological, and sensory properties and their interrelations of selected L. caerulea cultivars, namely ‘Amphora’, ‘Wojtek’, ‘Iga’, ’Leningradskij Velikan’, ‘Nimfa’, ‘Indigo Gem’, ‘Tundra’, ‘Tola’, and fruit powders. Combined chromatographic systems were applied for the qualitative and quantitative profiling of 23 constituents belonging to the classes of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The determined markers of phytochemical profiles were cyanidin-3-glucoside, rutin, chlorogenic, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Anthocyanins and the predominant compound, cyanidin-3-glucoside, were the determinants of antioxidant activity. Cultivars ‘Amphora’, ‘Indigo Gem’, and ‘Tundra’ contained the greatest total amounts of identified phenolic compounds. Phenotypic characterization revealed the superiority of cultivars ‘Wojtek’ and ’Tundra’ compared to other cultivars, although ’Wojtek’ had low phenolic content and antioxidant activity and ’Tundra’ got lower sensory evaluation scores. Coupling the results of phenotypic and phytochemical characterization, cultivar ‘Tundra’ could be suitable for commercial plantations.
... Among others, there are studies describing mechanisms of anti-tumor role of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), quercetin (QUE), resveratrol (RES) and chlorogenic acid (CHL) targeting epigenetic mechanisms in breast, prostate, pancreatic, colon, lung and skin cancer [6]. In honeysuckle berries, anthocyanins and CHL comprise the majority of phenolic compounds [7]. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, CHL and catechins of honeysuckle berries are reported as a potential herbal agent to cure type 2 diabetes via the inhibition of α-amylase activity and reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia [8,9]. ...
... Generally, the content of bioactive compounds in fruits and vegetables seems to be strongly affected by abiotic and biotic factors, such as the pre-harvest climatic conditions (the light and temperature, their antioxidant role in the cellular system, quantity of nitrogen fertilizers, fruit maturity), harvest time, post-harvest procedures, storage time and genotypic differences and their antioxidant role in the cellular system [11,17]. Thus, changeable composition of bioactive compounds of honeysuckle berries, leaves and flowers has been documented in connection with the environmental conditions, locality, horticultural management, cultivars and ripening times, as well as applied extraction methods [7]. ...
... g kg −1 fw [1]. Finally, great differences in vitamin C contents varying between 0.29 and 1.87 g kg −1 fw were published [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honeysuckles are frost tolerant plants providing early-ripening fruits with health-promoting properties which have been used in traditional medicine in China. This study evaluates the impact of the climatic conditions of two areas on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AOA; by DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and photochemiluminescence assays) of eight cultivars of honeysuckle berries (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Pojark) of various ripening times. Expectedly, chemical composition and AOA values varied depending on the cultivars, locality and selected methods. Berries from Lednice (the area with more sunshine) showed higher average contents of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAC; pH differential absorbance method), vitamins C and E and total phenolics (high-performance liquid chromatography). In contrast, berries from Žabčice (the area with more rain) performed higher average contents of total phenolics and flavonoids (UV/VIS spectroscopic analyses). Interestingly, fundamental amounts of chlorogenic acid were determined irrespective of the locality. Regarding TMAC and vitamin C content, early ripening Amphora from both areas has been assessed as the best cultivar; concerning the content of phenolic compounds, Fialka from both areas and Amphora from Lednice is considered as the most valuable. The obtained results may facilitate the selection of the most valuable cultivars for both producers and consumers.
... The presence of anthocyanins in blue honeysuckle berries contributes to their antioxidant effects [9]. It is believed that blue honeysuckle berry was used in folk medicine to reduce the risk of hypertension, glaucoma, anemia, osteoporosis [10,11], and gastrointestinal disorders [6], and in the treatment of various eye diseases [8]. The current scientific literature has only scarce data on the enrichment of apple juice with blue honeysuckle berry juice, and hence, it would be interesting to highlight the progress of work in the juice-processing area of the food industry. ...
... The TTA and pH are the next important physicochemical parameters that determine the juice quality. They can significantly influence the stability of bioactive components present in fruit juices [11,20]. The results show significant differences in the TTA and pH values between the tested juices. ...
... Thus, the higher the share of blue honeysuckle berry juice, the higher the total anthocyanin content and the lower the losses during storage. Anthocyanins are compounds, the stability of which is determined by the pH value [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Apple juice is rich in phenolic compounds that are important as natural antioxidants. In turn, blue honeysuckle berry juice is a valuable source of bioactive ingredients and can be an interesting and beneficial supplement to fruit juices. The aim of this study was to examine the physicochemical and sensory properties of the newly designed mixture of apple juice and blue honeysuckle berry juice. The addition of blue honeysuckle berry juice to apple juice had a significant effect on the content of anthocyanin and vitamin C in the newly designed fruit juices. After production, the content of anthocyanins and polyphenols in the blue honeysuckle berry juice was high (595.39 and 767.88 mg/100 mL, respectively). As the concentration of blue honeysuckle berry juice added to apple juice was increased, the polyphenol content also increased. The juices analyzed after 4 months of storage were lighter and showed a less intense red color than the juices analyzed directly after production. Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay) in the apple juice mixed with 10% blueberry juice was almost 3 times higher than the pure apple juice after 3 months of storage; the addition of 30% blueberry juice significantly increased the antioxidant activity of the apple juice. Thus, the results of this research have expanded the existing knowledge about the health and sensory properties of apple juice mixed with blue honeysuckle berry juice. These findings can be utilized in further research aiming at the development of new products that can meet consumer expectations.
... Vitamin C is an important antioxidant that shows several beneficial effects in the human body [30,31]. Research has shown that the content of vitamin C is higher in blue honeysuckle berry than that of citruses, which are widely recognized as one of the best sources [14]. Unfortunately, it is a highly labile and heat-sensitive compound [32,33]. ...
... Blue honeysuckle berries contain anthocyanins, belonging to a group of compounds called flavonoids, which protect our body against the harmful effects of free radicals [3,14]. These compounds are responsible for the red, blue to navy blue, and black colors of various plant parts such as flowers, fruits, and stems. ...
... On average, the greatest content of anthocyanin was of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, which accounted for 87% of all anthocyanins. Similar to some other studies, in this study, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the dominant anthocyanin in blue honeysuckle berries; its content ranged from 79% to 92% of the total anthocyanin content [14]. Other anthocyanins identified in this study include cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside; cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside; pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside; peonidin 3-O-glucoside; and peonidin 3-O-rutinoside. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of processing methods and storage time on selected parameters of quality in the purees of blue honeysuckle berries. We investigated the content of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, and total polyphenols (TPs). We tested four processing methods and two varieties of blue honeysuckle berry (Lonicera caerulea L.var. Sineglaska and Volshebnica). The purees were analyzed immediately after production, and after two and four months of storage at 20 °C without exposure to light. According to our results, thermal treatment of the fruits for 5 min resulted in obtaining purees with a higher content of anthocyanins and TPs, but lower content of L-ascorbic acid. However, sieving fruits that were not thermally treated resulted in a higher content of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, purees prepared from the fruits of the Volshebnica cultivar were richer in bioactive compounds than that of purees prepared from the Sineglaska cultivar. In addition, the content of anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, and TPs decreased with storage time.
... They can be limited, among others through a proper diet, rich in fruit, especially those with both high antioxidant activity and content of polyphenols (Korczyński et al., 2015). A high total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity are typical for blue honeysuckle berries (Rupasinghe et al., 2018;Grobelna et al., 2019) and determine the edible value and health benefits of this plant. The chemical composition of berries varies depending on genetic factors (cultivar), climate, weather conditions, as well as agronomic practices (Szot and Wieniarska, 2012). ...
... The chemical composition of berries varies depending on genetic factors (cultivar), climate, weather conditions, as well as agronomic practices (Szot and Wieniarska, 2012). Fully ripened fruits contain between 12.4 and 20.3 % of dry matter, with a predominance of fructose and glucose (Rupasinghe et al., 2018;Grobelna et al., 2020). The noteworthy among bioactive compounds are anthocyanins (Rupasinghe et al., 2018;Grobelna et al., 2019). ...
... Fully ripened fruits contain between 12.4 and 20.3 % of dry matter, with a predominance of fructose and glucose (Rupasinghe et al., 2018;Grobelna et al., 2020). The noteworthy among bioactive compounds are anthocyanins (Rupasinghe et al., 2018;Grobelna et al., 2019). The most abundant anthocyanin is cyanidin-3glucoside (79-92 %), whereas cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-rutinoside, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside occur in smaller amounts (Wang et al., 2016;Grobelna et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family, has been used for a long time in Chinese, Japanese and Russian folk medicine. Nowadays, the fruits of honeysuckle are becoming more and more popular also in Europe – mainly in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia because of valuable medicinal properties and they are popularly used as an ingredient of dietary supplements and medicinal preparations. The fruits of Lonicera caerulea are rich in phenolics, especially anthocyanins and vitamin C. The major bioactive anthocyanin of haskap is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G). Consumption of high amounts of an antioxidant substance may have a positive impact on human health, particularly the prevention of cancer and inflammatory diseases. The berries of blue honeysuckle containing a significant amount of biologically active substances can be included into the group of so-called “superfruits“. Consumers are constantly seeking better alternatives, healthier products of plant origin, to rule out negative aspects, and this will be an alternative to widely existing food products. In addition, the growing interest of producers in new products rich in health-promoting properties makes them more attractive to the consumer. The content and health properties of the fruit were identified to be dependent on the cultivar, genotype, and the place of harvesting. This paper reviews and highlights the limited nutritional and therapeutic information currently available on the honeysuckle.
... Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a shrub in the honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae) with blue berries that are exceptionally high in antioxidants and have numerous documented health benefits, including antiinflammatory and anti-diabetic properties (Rupasinghe et al. 2012;Viljoen et al. 2012;Rupasinghe et al. 2018;De Silva and Rupasinghe 2020). The flavor of preferred cultivars has been described as a cross between a blueberry and a raspberry (Bors et al. 2015). ...
... Samples of juice were titrated to pH 8.2 with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Results are expressed in g citric acid L −1 of solution, as citric acid is the predominant acid in haskaps (Rupasinghe et al. 2018), according the following calculation, adapted from the manufacturer's guide (Hach Inc. 2019): (2019); two principal experiments (2020A, 2020B) plus a follow-up (2020C) were performed in 2020. ...
Article
Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a relatively new berry crop in North America, and little research exists regarding its postharvest storage characteristics or storage life. Postharvest changes in berry quality, and principal factors limiting storage life at 1.1 °C and 95% relative humidity, were evaluated up to 14 days for three cultivars in 2019 and up to 28 days for six cultivars in 2020. Containerized berries were periodically assessed for soluble solids content (SSC), skin rupture force (SRF) (both 2019 and 2020) and flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), and Brix/acid ratio (B/A) (2020 only). External appearance was also evaluated both years, revealing berry shrivel as the primary factor negatively impacting visual appeal, followed distantly by low incidence of spoilage later in storage. All cultivars exhibited relatively constant postharvest SSC and decreasing SRF, flesh firmness, and TA (resulting in increasing B/A ratio). Postharvest quality differed slightly between years; relative SRF was consistent among cultivars while SSC was not. Some cultivars had a portion of shriveled berries at harvest, pointing to a need for cultivar-specific harvest indices. Mean days to slight shrivel for individual berries varied among cultivars evaluated, ranging from 7.5–21.9 d postharvest, with mean weight loss ranging from 1.2%–1.6% at this stage. Combined with group marketability estimates — set at a threshold of 10% severely shriveled berries — we estimate a storage life of 7–10 d for fresh haskaps. Additional research is needed to delineate maturation physiology and optimize harvest timing.
... C3G holds many potential health-promoting attributes, including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiaging, and eye-and brain-benefitting properties. 1 These properties demonstrate their potential utilization as functional ingredients. Nevertheless, C3G is chemically unstable. ...
... The reduced cell viability in the presence of free-or nano-C3G may be associated with the anticancer effects. 1 The cell viability in the nano-C3G group was obviously lower than that in the free-C3G group at 50.00 μg/mg and above. This result may be attributed to the encapsulation by nanogels causing promotion of C3G cellular absorption and therefore its anticancer activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
A composite nanogel was developed for cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) delivery by combining Maillard reaction and heat-gelation. The starting materials utilized were ovalbumin, dextran, and pectin. C3G-loaded nanogel was spherical with a diameter of ~185 nm, which was maintained over a wide range of pH and NaCl concentration. The composite nanogel enhanced the chemical stability of C3G under accelerated degradation models and simulated gastrointestinal tract. Clathrin-, caveolae-mediated and macropinocytosis-related endocytosis contributed to the higher cellular uptake of nano-C3G than that of free-C3G. The apparent permeability coefficients of C3G increased 2.16 times after nanoencapsulation. The transcytosis of C3G-bearing nanogel occurred primarily through clathrin-related pathway and macropinocytosis and followed the “common recycling endosomes–endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi complex–basolateral plasma membrane” route. Moreover, nano-C3G was more efficient in restoring the viability of cells and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes than free-C3G in oxidative models, which may be attributed to the former’s high cellular absorption.
... Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L., commonly known as blue honeysuckle) is an emerging food that might also possess health-promoting properties due to the high anthocyanin and (poly)phenol content [18]. These deep-purple fruits have been consumed by the Ainu (indigenous people from Hokkaid Island, Japan) for centuries and are proposed to contribute to their life longevity [19,20]. ...
... In another murine model, C3G was shown to decrease inflammation in muscular dystrophy [26]. Furthermore, Rupasinghe et al. [18] reviewed evidence that showed Haskap berry and associated C3G reduce immune cell infiltration and the expression of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme macrophages. Finally, a recent study [27] has shown an upregulation of antioxidant gene and protein expression that were thought to be mediated by Nrf2 expression, and associated with preserved muscle function following strenuous resistance exercise. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Food high in (poly)phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, have the potential to improve exercise recovery and exercise performance. Haskap berries are rich in anthocyanins, but no research has examined the potential to improve human performance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Haskap berry on parameters of endurance running performance. Methods: Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, independent groups design, 30 male recreational runners (mean ± SD age, 33 ± 7 years; stature, 178.2 ± 7.2 cm; mass, 77.7 ± 10.6 kg; V˙O2peak, 52.2 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min) volunteered to participate. Following familiarisation, volunteers visited the laboratory twice (separated by seven days) to assess submaximal, maximal and 5 km time trial running performance. After the first visit, volunteers were randomly assigned to consume either the Haskap berry intervention or an isocaloric placebo control. Results: There were modest changes in heart rate and V˙O2 at submaximal intensities (p < 0.05). Time to exhaustion during the V˙O2peak test was longer in the Haskap group by 20 s (p = 0.031). Additionally, 5 km time trial performance was improved in the Haskap group by ~21 s (p = 0.016), which equated to a 0.25 km/h increase in mean running speed compared to the placebo control; this represented a >2% improvement in running performance. Conclusions: The application of this newly identified functional food to athletes has the capacity to improve endurance running performance.
... https://doi.org/10.17221/79/2020-HORTSCI Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a recently commercialized berry crop in North America and is expanding rapidly partly due to the potential healthpromoting properties of the berries (Rupasinghe et al. 2018;De Silva, Rupasinghe 2020). The haskap berry is unique due to the greater abundance of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) when compared with other cultivated berry crops. ...
... The lowbush blueberry and highbush blueberry contained comparatively lower values, 347 mg GAE/100 g of FW and 158 mg GAE/100 g of FW, respectively (Table 2). Previous studies of the phenolic content of the haskap have shown 428 to 623 mg GAE/100 g of FW (Rupasinghe et al. 2012;Rupasinghe et al. 2018) and 575 to 903 mg GAE 100/g of FW (Rop et al. 2011). The total phenolic content of the highbush blueberry was significantly lower than that of the haskap and lowbush blueberry. ...
Article
The haskap has been successfully cultivated in many geographical zones in Canada. We investigated whether the latitude has any impact on the anthocyanin accumulation and total antioxidant capacity in the haskap berry. The measured quality attributes were compared with that of the blueberry. Haskap ‘Aurora’ berries were collected from Yukon, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Nova Scotia in Canada, and blueberries were collected from Nova Scotia. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin of haskap berry, the total anthocyanins, the total polyphenols, the soluble solids (°Brix), the pH value, the total antioxidant capacity, and the moisture content were determined. The results revealed that the total anthocyanin, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of the haskap range between 88 to 273 mg C3GE/100 g fresh weight (FW), 256 to 442 mg GAE/100 g of FW, and 27 to 52 µmol TE/g FW, respectively. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) analysis revealed that the C3G contained in the haskap berry is highly dependent on the harvest stage. Among the samples, the haskap berry harvested on July 19, 2019, from the Yukon had the highest C3G content. Interestingly, the total anthocyanin content of the haskap berry is comparable to that of the lowbush blueberry, but higher than the highbush blueberry. A systematic multi-year experiment employing many cultivars and growing locations is recommended to better understand the latitude effect.
... In addition, a study found that honeyberry fruits had the strongest antioxidant property among 12 types of colored berries from northern china (8). a number of studies have shown the various effects of honeyberry fruits, which include antiinflammatory (9,10), hepatoprotective (11), lipid and glucose metabolism-enhancing (12), anti-hyperthyroidism (13), anti-obesity (14) and anticancer effects (15,16). These fruits contain a variety of polyphenolic compounds, including protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid and ferulic acid, which have a close association with anti-inflammatory effects (17,18). In addition, the anti-inflammatory activity of honeyberry cultivars has been shown to depend on the levels of polyphenolic compounds they contain (19). ...
... Standardization of materials is essential for the development of functional products. Thus, the levels of certain polyphenolic compounds in HBl, HBB and HBF were analyzed, as honeyberry has been reported to contain polyphenolic compounds such as protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid and ferulic acid (17,18). as shown in Fig. 9, chlorogenic acid (58.66 µg/g extract), caffeic acid (21.51 µg/g extract), coumaric acid (120.51 ...
Article
Full-text available
Honeyberry (Lonicera caerulea) has long been used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan and northern Russia. Functional studies of honeyberry have mainly focused on the fruits, which have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities, including anti‑inflammatory activity, with limited or no studies on the other parts of the plant, such as the leaves and branches. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory effects of extracts of the leaves (HBL), branches (HBB) and fruit (HBF) of honeyberry plant were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells. HBL and HBB significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and the inhibitory effects of HBL and HBB were stronger than those of HBF. HBL and HBB blocked the nuclear accumulation of p65 independently of IκB‑α. HBL did not inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 or p38; however, HBB effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 but not ERK1/2. HBL and HBB increased the expression of heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) protein by inducing the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) through the activation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/p38 pathway; the reduction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β) expression by HBL and HBB was inhibited by HO‑1 knockdown. In addition, HBL and HBB increased the expression of activating transcription factor‑3 (ATF3), and the reduction in iNOS and IL‑1β expression by HBL and HBB was inhibited by ATF3 knockdown. Collectively, HBL and HBB inhibited LPS‑induced nuclear factor‑κB activation by blocking the nuclear accumulation of p65, increasing HO‑1 expression through activation of the ROS/p38/Nrf2 pathway, and increasing ATF3 expression. Furthermore, HBB inhibited LPS‑induced p38 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that HBL and HBB may have great potential as natural products for the development of anti‑inflammatory drugs.
... Analysis with C3G. Next, it was evaluated whether C3G, one of the components of LCEE, could inhibit biofilm formation by P. gingivalis [20,25]. ree P. gingivalis isolates (JCM12257, JCM8525, and JCM19600) were grown in GAM with or without C3G. ...
... We confirmed C3G, one of the compounds found in LCEE, is effective against P. gingivalis. Previous reports showed that the content of C3G in LCE fruit was significantly higher than that in other common berries [25]. In the present study, IC 50 of LCEE was 177 μg/mL. ...
Article
Full-text available
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important pathogenic anaerobic bacterium that causes aspiration pneumonia. This bacterium frequently forms biofilms in the oral cavity and in respiratory tract-associated medical devices. Bacterial colonization that occurs in association with this biofilm formation is the main reason for incurable aspiration pneumonia. The Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx (LCE) fruit has been used in folk medicine in Hokkaido, the northern part of Japan. The aim of this study was to elucidate one of the antimicrobial mechanisms of LCE methanol extract (LCEE)—the inhibitory effect of LCEE on biofilm formation by P. gingivalis. Our results show that LCEE significantly reduced biofilm formation by three different P. gingivalis isolates in a concentration- and time-dependent manner that were quantified by the adsorption of safranin red. When LCEE was added to biofilms already formed by P. gingivalis , LCEE did not degrade the biofilm. However, treatment with LCEE significantly promoted the removal of existing biofilm by vibration compared to that of control. We also confirmed biofilm formation in LCEE-treated P. gingivalis in tracheal tubes using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), one of the components of LCE, also inhibited the formation of biofilm by P. gingivalis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results reveal that LCEE may be an effective antibacterial substance for P. gingivalis -induced aspiration pneumonia because of its role in the suppression of bacterial biofilm formation in the oral cavity.
... Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. s. l.) is a very valuable berry-producing species. Its fruits and leaves can be used as a source of natural antioxidants, dyes, as well as functional food components [1,2], being an important food supplement for preventing certain chronic diseases, like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases [1]. So in the last decades many countries with temperate climate intensified their efforts to introduce blue honeysuckle into culture. ...
... Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. s. l.) is a very valuable berry-producing species. Its fruits and leaves can be used as a source of natural antioxidants, dyes, as well as functional food components [1,2], being an important food supplement for preventing certain chronic diseases, like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases [1]. So in the last decades many countries with temperate climate intensified their efforts to introduce blue honeysuckle into culture. ...
Article
Full-text available
The properties of fruits produced by the blue honeysuckle hybrid cultivar Berel under different pollination conditions while grown in the north-east of China and in West Siberia were examined. The frequent incidence of leaves chlorosis and partenocarphy of Lonicera caerulea L. was recorded for the first time.
... Anthocyanins have proven to be good for human health (Sulc et al., 2017;Vio Michaelis et al., 2019); they are secondary plant metabolites of the flavonoid family. As a potential radical scavenger (Rajan et al., 2018), antioxidant activity is highly correlated with phenolic contents , demonstrated DNA-protective, antiproliferative (Diaconeasa et al., 2015), anti-inflammatory (Mackert et al., 2016;Abdel-Aal et al., 2018), cardio-protective (Rupasinghe et al.,2018), anti-thrombotic chemo-preventive (Olivas-Aguirre et al., 2016), and antioxidant effects (Bakuradze et al., 2019) and prevents insulin resistance in diabetic patients (Li et al., 2015) both in vitro and in vivo. Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extracts could decrease graft apoptosis after transplantation (Zhang et al., 2013) and protect β cells from H 2 O 2 -induced cell injury (Zhang et al., 2011). ...
... Some of the ancient plant food that has been used as nature's medicine has now been investigated for their disease preventive and treatment properties. Haskap berry, also called blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), is a plant food used by Japanese native people for many curative purposes [3]. In this issue, we have made a milestone demonstration that dietary supplementation of haskap berry can suppress the carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/JCr mice [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the interest in flavonoids as dietary bioactives to prevent human diseases, as well as their candidacy as pharmaceutical leads, has exponentially expanded [...]
... Currently, blue honeysuckle is considered a promising berry crop with very strong advantages: stable annual yield, extreme winter hardiness, early fruiting, and good fruit biochemical properties [1,[3][4][5]. The berries of blue honeysuckle contain vitamin C and many phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and other phytochemicals that determine their antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic features [6][7][8]. The cultivation areas of cultivars of this species are constantly growing, and since the end of 2018, these berries have been approved for marketing in the European Union [8,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a promising berry crop producing edible early-ripening berries with a valuable chemical composition. We evaluated the genetic diversity of native L. caerulea populations from the western (Baltic states) and eastern (the Russian Far East and Japan) edges of the Eurasian range using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast DNA (psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) markers. The genetic relationships of populations and genotypes were analyzed using principal coordinate and cluster analyses (neighbor joining and Bayesian clustering). Sampling was carried out in two disjunct areas of this circumpolar species and the analyses showed clustering of individuals and populations according to geographic origin. The analysis of genetic structure based on ISSR markers showed that the studied populations of L. caerulea were highly differentiated. However, sequence analysis of two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions revealed no phylogeographic structure among the populations. We also found that the eastern populations of blue honeysuckle had significantly greater genetic diversity parameters than the populations from the Baltic region. This finding correlates with the endangered status of blue honeysuckle in the Baltic states.
... Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is highly abundant among anthocyanins, and more than 90% of anthocyanins are conjugated with glucose [81]. Families of Vitaceae (grape), Rosaceae (cherry, plum, raspberry, strawberry, blackberry, apple, and peach), Solanaceae (tamarillo and eggplant), Saxifragaceae (red and black currant), Caprifoliaceae (haskap), Cruciferae (red cabbage) and Ericaceae (blueberry and cranberry) are primary sources of dietary anthocyanin [20,82]. Due to their anionic nature, once consumed, anthocyanins undergo pH and physiological temperature-dependent transformations that have a significant impact on their biological activities, improving their capacity to mediate cancer chemoprevention [73]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins are a group of dietary polyphenols, abundant mainly in fruits and their products. Dietary interventions of anthocyanins are being studied extensively related to the prevention of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, among many other chronic disorders. This review summarizes the hereditary and non-hereditary characteristics of GI cancers, chemistry, and bioavailability of anthocyanins, and the most recent findings of anthocyanin in GI cancer prevention through modulating cellular signaling pathways. GI cancer-preventive attributes of anthocyanins are primarily due to their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties, and their ability to regulate gene expression and metabolic pathways, as well as induce the apoptosis of cancer cells.
... CT flower is chosen due to the high amounts of anthocyanin pigment which also being used in natural supplements [13]. It also is shown having high reducing, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties [14][15][16]. However, CT leaves and roots did not provide enough reducing power to reduce Au 3+ to Au 0 (Au-NPs). ...
Article
Full-text available
The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is being accomplished by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions, gold(III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl 4 .3H 2 O) reacted with the aqueous flower extract of Clitoria Ternatea (CT). CT flower extract plays an important role in synthesizing Au-NPs. It acts as a reducing (Au ³⁺ to Au) and stabilizing agent that can eliminate the usage of chemicals during the production of Au-NPs. Besides that, it also reduces the production of unwanted by-products which would cause hazardous to the surroundings and environment. In this study, an absorption peak of Au-NPs is observed at the range of 540-550 nm from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. Furthermore, the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.44°, 44.41°, 65.03° and 77.58° respectively which correspond to face-centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) plane confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the majority of Au-NPs are spherical in shape and having a mean particle size distribution of 18.16 nm with a standard deviation of 4.67 nm.
... Flowers and fruits are ornamental, and the strong germination ability of L. maximowiczii can be used as landscape plants in flower borders and beds, also as honey plants. In addition, it is often used for physical fitness due to its massive biological compounds and their pharmaceutical properties (Rupasinghe et al. 2018;Molina et al. 2019). Despite its horticultural and economic importance, few genetic and genomic research have been done on this plant. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lonicera maximowiczii (Caprifoliaceae) is a deciduous shrub with great value for its decorative leaves and colorful flowers, which has massively cultivated in parks and gardens for ornamental purposes. Here, the complete chloroplast genome of the L. maximowiczii been constructed from the Illumina sequencing data. The circular cp genome is 155,584 bp in size and comprises a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 23,791 bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 88,056 bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 19,946 bp. The total GC content is 38.4%, whereas the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR region are 36.9%, 33.3%, and 43.4%, respectively. The chloroplast genome contains 129 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes. The Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenetic analysis showed a strong sister relationship with Lonicera macranthoides. Our findings can be subsequently used for population, phylogenetic, and chloroplast genetic engineering studies in Lonicera.
... Anthocyanins are the abundant plant pigments, which imparts a wide variety of colors in flowers and fruits. Anthocyanins are established as BACs and cyanidin-3-o-glucoside (C3G) is a type of anthocyanin extensively studied for its health benefits including antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anticancer properties (Rupasinghe et al., 2018). Like other anthocyanins, C3G also is vulnerable to many external factors such as, light, heat, enzymes, metal ions and pH, which reduce its stability and bioactivities. ...
Article
Liposomes play a significant role in encapsulation of various bioactive compounds (BACs), including functional food ingredients to improve the stability of core. This technology can be used for promoting an effective application in functional food and nutraceuticals. Incorporation of traditional and emerging methods for the developments of liposome for loading BACs resulted in viable and stable liposome formulations for industrial applications. Thus, the advance technologies such as supercritical fluidic methods, microfluidization, ultrasonication with traditional methods are revisited. Liposomes loaded with plant and animal BACs have been introduced for functional food and nutraceutical applications. In general, application of liposome systems improves stability, delivery, and bioavailability of BACs in functional food systems and nutraceuticals. This review covers the current techniques and methodologies developed and practiced in liposomal preparation and application in functional foods.
... Reports have shown that the major components of BHB consisted of polyphenols, saccharides, lipids, proteins, and organic acids demonstrating various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anticancer [17,39]. Among polyphenols, phenolic acids (major chlorogenic acid) and the anthocyanins (major cyanidin-3-Oglucoside; C3G) are the main constituents [40]. C3G along with other anthocyanins are absorbed mainly as glycosides in the stomach and small intestine, as shown by various in vivo and clinical studies. ...
Article
Background/objective: The blue honeysuckle berry (Lonicera caerulea var. edulis L.) is a small deciduous shrub belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family that is native to Russia, China, Japan, and Korea. The berry of this shrub is edible, sweet and juicy and is commonly known as the blue honeyberry (BHB). This study examined the anti-diabetic potential of BHB on high-fat-diet-induced mild diabetic mice. The hypoglycemic, and nephroprotective effects of the 12-week oral administration of blue honeyberry extract were analyzed. Materials/methods: The hypoglycemic effects were based on the observed changes in insulin, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Furthermore, the changes in the weight of the pancreas, including its histopathology and immunohistochemical investigation were also performed. Moreover, the nephroprotective effects were analyzed by observing the changes in kidney weight, its histopathology, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine levels. Results: The results showed that the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced control mice showed a noticeable increase in blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, BUN, and creatinine levels. Furthermore, growth was observed in lipid droplet deposition related to the degenerative lesions in the vacuolated renal tubules with the evident enlargement and hyperplasia of the pancreatic islets. In addition, in the endocrine pancreas, there was an increase in the insulin-and glucagon-producing cells, as well as in the insulin/glucagon cell ratios. On the other hand, compared to the HFD-treated mice group, all these diabetic and related complications were ameliorated significantly in a dose-dependent manner after 84 days of the continuous oral administration of BHBe at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg, and a dramatic resettlement in the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities was observed. Conclusions: By assessing the key parameters for T2DM, the present study showed that the BHBe could act as a potential herbal agent to cure diabetes (type II) and associated ailments in HFD-induced mice.
... On the other hand, Oszmiánski et al. [23] found eight phenolic acids, five flavan-3-ols, twelve flavonols, and five flavones. These differences could possibly be explained by the different processing conditions to which the samples were subjected, such as defrosting processes or the maturation stage, climate, harvest, or even storage conditions [2,5,6]. Indeed, several examples can be found for the effect on polyphenolic composition of the different treatments to which the fruits were subjected, for instance, Ochmian et al. [1] packed the berries in polyethylene bags and stored them at −32 • C for 6 months, while Khattab et al. [25] stored them for 6 months at −18 • C; comparing the results obtained, the samples stored at higher temperatures revealed lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lonicera caerulea L. (haskap) berries are widely known for their richness in anthocyanins. In this study, such fruits were assessed for their nutritional and chemical composition, but also as sources of anthocyanins with great colouring properties to be applied in foodstuff. Haskap presented high levels of water, four free sugars (mainly fructose and glucose), five organic acids (mainly citric, malic, and quinic), α- and γ-tocopherol, twenty fatty acids (with prevalence of linoleic acid), and eight phenolic compounds, among which six were anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-O-glucoside). The extract presented great antioxidant properties, evaluated through TBARS and OxHLIA assays, as well as antimicrobial capacity against six bacteria and six fungi. Two colourants were obtained by spray-drying haskap juice with maltodextrin and a mixture of maltodextrin and arabic gum. These formulations were stable over 12 weeks of storage at room and refrigerated temperature, without significant variations in colour parameters and in anthocyanins concentration. They were considered safe for consumption once neither microbial contamination nor cytotoxicity in non-tumour cells were detected. The results obtained allow for the consideration of haskap as a promising source of colourants to be applied not only in the food industry, but also in other fields that rely on artificial colourants.
... It is widely distributed in purple or red vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have demonstrated that C3G has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects [8,9]. Škėmienė et al. proposed that anthocyanins protected the heart from ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and necrosis in rats [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to estimate the protective effect of Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and to explore its mechanism. The rats were subjected to left anterior descending ligation and perfusion surgery. In vitro experiments were performed on H9c2 cells using the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model. The results showed the administration of C3G reduced the infarction area, mitigated pathological alterations, inhibited ST segment elevation, and attenuated oxidative stress and ferroptosis-related protein expression. C3G also suppressed the expressions of USP19, Beclin1, NCOA4, and LC3II/LC3I. In addition, treatment with C3G relieved oxidative stress, downregulated LC3II/LC3I, reduced autophagosome number, downregulated TfR1 expression, and upregulated the expressions of FTH1 and GPX4 in OGD/R-induced H9c2 cells. C3G could inhibit the protein levels of USP19 and LC3II. C3G promoted K11-linked ubiquitination of Beclin1. Further evidence that C3G reduced ferroptosis and ameliorated myocardial I/R injury was demonstrated with the ferroptosis promoter RSL3. Taken together, C3G could be a potential agent to protect myocardium from myocardial I/R injury.
... Although anthocyanins are widely applied in functional foods, their use as an ingredient is limited by their instability and low bioavailability. Cyanidin-3-o-glucoside (C3G), the most ubiquitous anthocyanin in nature, has been extensively investigated by researchers in recent years (He & Monica Giusti, 2010;Rupasinghe, Arumuggam, Amararathna, & De Silva, 2018). ...
Article
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) liposomes was used to improve the stability and antioxidant activity of C3G through a green thin-film dispersion method. The characteristics, stability and the effect of C3G liposomes on GES-1 cells were explored. Results showed that the particle size and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of C3G liposomes were 258.9 ± 5.06 nm and 77.5%, respectively. DPPH assay showed that liposomes encapsulation can improve the antioxidant of C3G, while the ABTS assay was opposite. Stability study showed the C3G liposome were unstable under extended storage time. The effects of C3G liposomes on GES-1 cells showed that C3G liposomes can decrease the ROS levels of GES-1 and had negligible effects on cell viability and mitochondrial structure. These findings suggested that liposomes could be used as a carrier system to improve the stability of C3G.
... According to a study in 2015, the C3G content in haskap berries ranges from 70 to 314 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) (Rupasinghe et al. 2015). Another report showed the C3G content in haskap to range from 68 to 649 mg/100 g (FW) and is significantly higher than other berries such as strawberries (3.7 mg/100 g FW), blueberries (3.0 mg/100 g FW), chokeberries (1.7 mg/100 g FW), lingonberries (1.4 mg/100 g FW), and cranberries (0.7 mg/ 100 g FW) (Rupasinghe et al. 2018). Nevertheless, these levels of C3G have shown high levels of antioxidant activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Berries are natural sources of anthocyanins, especially cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and exhibit significant antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective effects against various oxidative stress-induced disorders. C3G and its metabolites possess higher absorption and bioavailability, and interaction with gut microbiota may enhance their health benefits. Various in vitro studies have shown the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mitigating potential of C3G. However, in in vivo models, C3G exerts its cytoprotective properties by regulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) pathway. Despite existing reports stating various health benefits of C3G, its antioxidant potential by modulating the Nrf2 pathway remains less identified. This review discusses the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response of C3G in modulating oxidative stress against DNA damage, apoptosis, carcinogen toxicity, and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, we have reviewed the recent clinical trial data to establish cross talk between a berry-rich diet and disease prevention.
... Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most ubiquitous anthocyanin in nature and possesses potential health benefits through its antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiaging, and retinoprotective and neuroprotective properties (Galvano, et al., 2004;Rupasinghe, Arumuggam, Amararathna, & De Silva, 2018). Nevertheless, C3G is chemically unstable and its degradation can be accelerated under certain conditions such as neutral or basic pH, and/or elevated temperature, or in presence of oxygen, enzymes, metal ions, ascorbic acid, etc. (Sun et al., 2019). ...
Article
The development of colon-specific carrier systems using polysaccharides for oral delivery of nutraceuticals is of great importance for the treatment and/or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, self-assembly with the assistance of vortexing and pulsed-ultrasonication was employed to develop a Fibersol®-2 (a digestion-resistant polysaccharide) and lipoid S75 based novel nanocarrier (denoted as nanofibersolosome) for the colonic delivery of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G). A series of nanofibersolosome formulations (CFS-0.5-4, 0.5-4 represent the ratios of Fibersol®-2:lipoid S75) were developed and their performance was compared with Fibersol®-2-free reference lipid formulation (CFS-0). The nanofibersolosomes (<150 nm) were spherical and unilamellar with high negative surface charge (-38 to -51 mV) and good encapsulation efficiency (EE > 90%). They performed much better than CFS-0 in retaining their physical properties during freeze drying, preventing particle aggregation, and retaining C3G during storage (4 and 25 ℃) and thermal treatments (40, 60, and 80 ℃). They also exhibited significantly higher stability during simulated gastrointestinal digestion than CFS-0. These desirable features of the nanofibersolosomes (especially CFS-0.5 and CFS-1) led to the efficient delivery of higher concentrations of C3G to the colon than CFS-0. Moreover, gastrointestinal-digested and colonic-fermented nanofibersolosome samples exhibited significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and stronger promoting effect on short-chain fatty acid generation than CFS-0. These in vitro findings indicate that the novel nanofibersolosome possesses great potential for the colonic delivery of C3G and likely other hydrophilic labile phytochemicals that merits further evaluation in in vivo models.
... Sucrose was not detected in berries of five cultivars, while the other six cultivars accumulated relatively small amounts of this disaccharide. Rupasinghe et al. [21,28] also noted that blue honeysuckle berries accumulate only insignificant amounts of sucrose; monosaccharides accounted for 95% of the total sugars. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the cultivars studied into three groups ('Eisbar', 'Balalaika', 'Nimfa', and 'Leningradskaja'; 'Čelnočnaja', 'Kalinka', and 'Obilnaja'; 'Vosotorg', 'Pavlovskaja', and 'Pereselenka') in terms of saccharide contents, except for the cultivar 'Morena' (Figure 2c). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to evaluate 11 cultivars of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, and the antibacterial activity of berries. Total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total anthocyanin contents (TACs) were established by using ethanolic extracts. For contents of organic acids and saccharides, aqueous extracts were used, and vitamin C was determined by using oxalic acid solution. DPPH• radical scavenging capacity was evaluated by using ethanolic extracts; antibacterial activity was assessed by using both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. The TPC varied from 364.02 ± 0.41 mg/100 g in ‘Vostorg’ to 784.5 ± 0.3 mg/100 g in ‘Obilnaja’, and TAC ranged from 277.8 ± 1.1 mg/100 g in ‘Čelnočnaja’ to 394.1 ± 8.4 mg/100 g in ‘Nimfa’. Anthocyanins comprised 53.8% of total phenolic contents on average. Among organic acids, citric acid was predominant, averaging 769.41 ± 5.34 mg/100 g, with malic and quinic acids amounting to 289.90 ± 2.64 and 45.00 ± 0.37 mg/100 g on average, respectively. Contents of vitamin C were 34.26 ± 0.25 mg/100 g on average. Organic acids were most effective in the inhibition of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. In conclusion, berries of L. caerulea are beneficial not only for fresh consumption, but also as a raw material or ingredients of foods with high health-promoting value.
... Lonicera caerulea berry (Lonicera edulis) is a perennial deciduous shrub of the genus Lonicera in the family Caprifoliaceae, presenting with sweet and sour berries, and bright, dark rose-colored juice. Previous studies have confirmed that the Lonicera caerulea berry is rich in polyphenols, components that exhibit significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects (17)(18)(19)(20). However, few studies have investigated the effect exerted by LCBP on recovery following long-term exercise; further research that considers the use of this dietary component as a functional factor in reducing exercise fatigue is warranted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise fatigue can exert deleterious effects on the body. This study evaluated the effects and mechanisms by which Lonicera caerulea berry polyphenols extract (LCBP) improved the treadmill endurance of mice. Comparison was performed between the effects at 25°C and low temperatures (-5°C). Energy storage, product metabolism, and other biochemical indices were determined using vitamin C (VC) as a positive control. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to detect the interaction between different proteins. Dietary supplementation with LCBP significantly prolonged the exhaustion time during treadmill exercise by 20.4% (25 °C) and 27.4% (-5 °C). LCBP significantly regulated the expression of antioxidant and inflammatory proteins, Bcl-2 /Bax apoptosis proteins, and the PKCα -NOx2 / Nox4 pathway proteins, and activated the expression of AMPK-PGC1α -NRF1-TFAM proteins in skeletal muscle mitochondria. The gene and protein expression of miRNA-133a/IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/mTOR in skeletal muscle cells was also activated. Molecular docking confirmed that the main components of LCBP such as cyanidin-3-glucoside, catechin, and chlorogenic acid, have strong binding affinity toward AMPKα. LCBP alleviates exercise fatigue in mice by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of skeletal muscle cells, enhances mitochondrial biosynthesis and cell proliferation, reduces fatigue, and enhances performance. These effects are also significant in a low-temperature environment (Graphical Abstract). Consequently, these results provide novel insights into the anti- fatigue roles of LCBP in exercise fatigue.
... In addition, there was daily dosing over a period of weeks and it is unclear what the history of dosing was with observation of a trend for running performance (25). A recent study with the cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-rich Haskap berry [79-92% of TAC (26)] in male recreational runners provided faster 5 km time trial performance by 1.6% (27). This study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled, independent group design with restricted polyphenol intake during the 6day dosing (∼150 mg anthocyanins·dose −1 ) and final doses ∼3 and 1 h before the 5 km time trial (27). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dark-colored fruits, especially berries, have abundant presence of the polyphenol anthocyanin which have been show to provide health benefits. Studies with the berry blackcurrant have provided notable observations with application for athletes and physically active individuals. Alterations in exercise-induced substrate oxidation, exercise performance of repeated high-intensity running and cycling time-trial and cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise were observed with intake of New Zealand blackcurrant. The dynamic plasma bioavailability of the blackcurrant anthocyanins and the anthocyanin-derived metabolites must have changed cell function to provide meaningful in-vivo physiological effects. This perspective will reflect on the research studies for obtaining the applied in-vivo effects by intake of anthocyanin-rich supplementation, the issue of individual responses, and the emerging strong potential of anthocyanins for sport and exercise nutrition. Future work with repeated intake of known amount and type of anthocyanins, gut microbiota handling of anthocyanins, and coinciding measurements of plasma anthocyanin and anthocyanin-derived metabolites and in-vivo cell function will be required to inform our understanding for the unique potential of anthocyanins as a nutritional ergogenic aid for delivering meaningful effects for a wide range of athletes and physically active individuals.
... The major bioactive anthocyanin of LC, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, downregulated Th2 cytokine synthesis (IL-4, IL-13), but it did not affect Th1 cytokine production (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12). In the present study, such a mechanism of action of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from LC extract could explain slower expulsion of Trichinella and prolongation of the intestinal phase of the infection [25,26]. Minami et al. [27] reported that Lonicera caerulea var. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our experiment determined the immunotropic activity of a natural, iridoid-anthocyanin extract from honeysuckle berry (Lonicera caerulea L.) (LC). The extract was administered to mice infected with Trichinella spiralis, orally at a dose of 2 g/kg bw, six times at 24 h intervals (from day 3 prior to the infection to day 3 post-infection (dpi) with T. spiralis. At 5, 7, 14, and 21 dpi, samples of blood, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected, and isolated lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The splenocyte proliferation was estimated with MTT testing, and the intensity of intestinal and muscle infection was also studied. LC stimulated the local immune system by inducing lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen 7 dpi and altered the percentage and absolute count of B (CD19+) and T (CD3+, CD8+) cells 7, 14, and 21 dpi in the peripheral blood. LC extract affected the dynamics of expulsion of adult Trichinella from the intestines and prolonged the intestinal phase of the infection but did not change the number of larvae in the muscles. These results suggest that Lonicera caerulea L. fruit extract modulates murine cellular immune response during intestinal phase of T. spiralis infection but shows no antiparasitic activity.
... Recent studies have indicated that the Loni has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antidiabetic effects [5,10]. It acts as a free radical scavenger ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lonicera caerulea L. (Loni) represents a promising source of beneficial polyphenols with therapeutical potential in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the effects of Loni and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on selected cardiometabolic parameters and NO/ROS balance in obese Zucker rats. Methods: Male Zucker rats were divided into the control group and groups treated with CoQ10 (30 mg/kg/day) or Loni (5 g/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, body weight, heart weight, and plasma lipid profile were determined. NOS activity and protein expressions of eNOS, SOD, NADPH oxidase, and NF-kappa B were measured in the heart and aorta. Results: Neither body weight nor blood pressure were significantly changed after six weeks of Loni or CoQ10 treatment. Both Loni and CoQ10 decreased the plasma LDL level. Moreover, Loni decreased the total cholesterol level. The total NOS activity did not change in the heart after the treatments. However, in the aorta, Loni treatment increased NOS activity and protein expression of SOD and decreased expressions of NADPH oxidase and NF-kappa B compared to both the control and CoQ10 groups. There were no changes in the eNOS protein expression within the groups. In conclusion, it seems that the antioxidant effect of Loni was responsible for both the decrease of plasma LDL and the total cholesterol levels and the increase of vascular NOS activity.
... The fruits of L. caerulea have a long history of being used in traditional medicine as a remedy for gastrointestinal disorders, bacterial infections and hypertension (Jurikova et al., 2012;Goùba et al., 2020). The berries are rich in biologically active compounds and the high content of anthocyanins (the major bioactive anthocyanin of honeysuckle is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside), phenolic compounds, vitamins and minerals makes them a valuable raw material for the development of functional foods (Rupasinghe et al., 2018;Sharma and Lee, 2020). Compared with other berries, it should be noted that honeysuckle berries are among the earliest fruits in the season, and as the first ones, the earliest varieties ripen at the end of May. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lonicera caerulea L., also known as honeysuckle berries, are rich in biologically active compounds, which makes them a valuable raw material for the development of functional foods. The objects of the research were three honeysuckle cultivars (‘Zoluška’, ‘Siņaja Ptica’, ‘Goluboje Vereteno’), four genotypes (No 2A; No 3; No 5; No 8) and kefir, enriched with various amounts (3–10%) of fruit puree. Physical and chemical analyses to determine the qualitative indicators of raw materials and products were performed. The degree of liking of kefir was assessed using sensory analysis: hedonic and line scales. The results obtained showed that among the cultivars the highest content of anthocyanins (1103.5 mg·100 g ⁻¹ ), total phenols (693.3 mg·100 g ⁻¹ ), flavonoids (753.9 mg·100 g ⁻¹ ), and tannins (1.6 mg·100 g ⁻¹ ), were found in ‘Siņaja Ptica’ berries, while among the genotypes, berries of No 8 had the highest concentration of the aforesaid compounds. Both samples also showed the highest antiradical activity: ABTS +• on average by 71.7% and DPPH ⁻ by 43.7%. According to the sensory evaluation, kefir with 10% honeysuckle puree was rated the highest. Honeysuckle berries could be used as a promising source of natural anti-oxidants in future research aimed at developing different new products that could meet consumer expectations.
... The flavor has been described as a combination of raspberry (Rubus sp.) and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) , ranging from mild, sweet, variably tart, to slightly bitter (Thompson, 2006). Studies have indicated the berries have higher antioxidant capacity than many other small fruit crops, including blueberry (Rupasinghe et al., 2012), and a review of the recent literature lists numerous health benefits, including anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties (Rupasinghe et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Haskap ( Lonicera caerulea ), also known as honeyberry, is a relatively new fruit crop in North America. To date, most academic activity and research in North America involving haskap has focused on cultivar development and health benefits, with relatively few field experiments providing information to guide field planning and harvest management for the recently released cultivars. In 2020, we documented preharvest fruit drop (PHFD) rates for 15 haskap cultivars planted in a randomized block design at our research center in western Montana with the aim of preliminarily determining whether certain cultivars may be prone to this phenomenon. Additionally, we evaluated two plant growth regulators (PGRs) to reduce PHFD in two cultivars previously observed to have high rates of PHFD. Results suggest cultivar-specific variations in PHFD near berry maturation. Because haskap harvest indices are not well-defined and may be cultivar-specific, we share our 1-year study results as preliminary information and as a call for further research. Cultivars Aurora, Boreal Blizzard, Borealis, Indigo Gem, Kapu, and Tana all had PHFD rates less than 12% of yield, where yield is the weight of berries lost to PHFD plus marketable yield and marketable yield is fruit remaining on the shrub at harvest. Cultivars Chito, Kawai, and Taka had the highest rates of PHFD, although marketable yields were still relatively high, especially for Kawai. We note that ease of fruit detachment is an important consideration in mechanical harvest, and this characteristic could be advantageous if managed appropriately. The PGRs evaluated (1-napthaleneacetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine) did not influence PHFD rates; however, our study was limited by the sample size and by the lack of information regarding haskap abscission physiology. In summary, the haskap cultivars evaluated exhibited variable PHFD rates in the year of the study, and further research is needed to understand haskap fruit maturation, harvest indices, and abscission.
... Орлова Н.Д., Раева-Богословская Е.Н., Стахеева Т.С., Молканова О.И. Особенности укоренения перспективных сортов Lonicera caeruleae L. в культуре in vitro Электронный научно-производственный журнал «АгроЭкоИнфо» ================================================= этого, они являются источником витамина С -до 250 мг/100 г [5] и макроэлементов: кальция, калия, фосфора и магния [6]. Лекарственные средства на основе плодов жимолости обладают капилляроукрепляющим и защитным антирадиационным действиями [7]. ...
Article
The work is devoted to the improvement of the in vitro rooting technique of valuable Lonicera caerulea L. cultivars. The influence of different types of auxins and iron sources was determined at the stage of rhizogenesis. The use of indolylbutyric acid at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l was effective for the rooting of the cultivars Solovey and Yugana: the rooting rate was 60% and 99%, respectively. When using indoleacetic and indolylbutyric acids no significant differences were found in the percentage of rooting rates in the cultivars Gzhelka, Dlinnoplodnaya, Knyaginya and Lenya. It was found that 200 mg/l of iron chelate (Fe(III)-EDDHA) and 0.5 mg/l of indoleacetic acid in the nutrient medium had a positive effect on the dynamics of root formation of most honeysuckle cultivars. It was preferable to use a nutrient medium with the addition of iron chelate Fe(III)-EDTA at a concentration of 73.4 mg / l for the cultivar Yugana (rooting rate was 76%). Keywords: LONICERA CAERULEA, CULTIVARS, IN VITRO, RHIZOGENESIS, AUXINS, SOURCES OF IRON
Article
Background and objectives This study aimed to develop gluten and glutenin based active films functionalized individually by three different types of polyphenols (naringin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and proanthocyanidin). The interaction of these phenolic compounds with gluten and glutenin, and the effect of presence of these polyphenols on the physicochemical, antioxidative and antimicrobial properties of resulting films were evaluated. Findings The proanthocyanidin interacted with gluten and glutenin helped to form rougher surface structure and more homogeneous cross-section structure. Therefore, the water vapor barrier property, water repellence, tensile strength and thermal stability of the films were substantially improved in the presence of proanthocyanidin. The films containing proanthocyanidin also showed ability to inhibit growth of foodborne pathogens and scavenge free radical. Furthermore, the glutenin films exhibited higher tensile strength and better thermal stability. The gluten films possessed better water vapor barrier property and water repellence. Conclusion There were significant differences in physical properties between gluten films and glutenin films due to the difference of composition. However, the effects of polyphenols on the physical properties of the two films were basically the same. Significance and novelty The differences in physicochemical properties between gluten and glutenin based films functionalized by polyphenols were illustrated in this study.
Article
Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a recently commercialized fruit crop in Canada. Berries of four cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie, were harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) and assessed for their polyphenol composition and anti-diabetic potential in vitro. The analyses revealed that the interaction effect of cultivar and harvesting date influenced the concentration of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside represents about 79 % of total anthocyanins present in ripened haskap berries. Total anthocyanins estimated by a non-destructive method showed a strong correlation for quantified anthocyanin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), indicating the potential application of the non-destructive method for deciding the berry maturity for mechanical harvesting of haskap berry for value-added processing. Extracts derived from five maturity stages of four cultivars showed anti-diabetic properties including inhibition of activities of alpha-amylase (IC50 ranges from 2380 to 5080 μg/mL), alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranges from 1130 to 2120 μg/mL), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, IC50 ranges from 2150 to 11,600 μg/mL), and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE, IC50 ranges from 1200 to 4790 μg/mL) in vitro. Though the impact of harvesting date on polyphenol composition is very distinct, the extracts of late harvesting date (H5) reduced the anti-diabetic activities in vitro only in Aurora and Larisa cultivars. Inhibition of DPP-4 and AGE formation dependent on cultivar and harvesting date. Haskap berry warrants further investigation as a dietary therapeutic to manage type 2 diabetes.
Article
Cyanidin‐3‐glucoside (C3G) is a natural pigment, found in many colorful fruits and vegetables. It has many health benefits, including anti‐inflammation, cancer prevention, and anti‐diabetes. Although C3G is assumed to be an antioxidant, it has been reported to affect cell‐matrix adhesions. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that the expression of talin1, a key regulator of integrins and cell adhesions, negatively correlated with the survival rate of colon cancer patients and that depletion of talin1 inhibited 3D spheroid growth in colon cancer cells. Interestingly, C3G bound to talin and promoted the interaction of talin with β1A‐integrin. Molecular docking analysis shows that C3G binds to the interface of the talin‐β‐integrin complex, acting as an allosteric regulator and altering the interaction between talin and integrin. Moreover, C3G promoted colon cancer cell attachment to fibronectin. While C3G had no significant effect on colon cancer cell proliferation, it significantly inhibited 3D spheroid growth in fibrin gel assays. Since C3G has no or very low toxicity, it could be potentially used for colon cancer prevention or therapy.
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly caused by the fibrillogenesis of amyloid-β protein (Aβ). Therefore, development of effective inhibitors against Aβ fibrillogenesis offers great hope for the treatment of AD. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy-3G) is a commonly found anthocyanin that is mainly present in fruits, with established neuroprotective effects in situ. However, it remains unknown if Cy-3G can prevent Aβ fibrillogenesis and alleviate the corresponding cytotoxicity. In this study, extensive biochemical, biophysical, biological and computational experiments were combined to address the issue. It was found that Cy-3G significantly inhibits Aβ40 fibrillogenesis and disintegrates mature Aβ fibrils, and its inhibitory capacity is dependent on Cy-3G concentration. The circular dichroism results showed that Cy-3G prevents the structural transformation of Aβ40 from its initial random coil to the β-sheet-rich structure. Co-incubation of Aβ40 with Cy-3G significantly reduced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species induced by Aβ40 fibrillogenesis and deviated Aβ40-induced cytotoxicity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that Cy-3G disrupted the β-sheet structure of the Aβ40 trimer. Cy-3G was found to mainly interact the N-terminal region, the central hydrophobic cluster and the β-sheet region II via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The ten hot spot residues D7, Y10, E11, F19, F20, E22, I31, I32, M35 and V40 were also identified. These findings not only enable a comprehensive understanding of the inhibitory effect of Cy-3G on Aβ40 fibrillogenesis, but also identify a valuable dietary ingredient that possesses great potential to be developed into functional foods to alleviate AD.
Article
Diets rich in polyphenols are known to reduce cancer among high-risk populations. Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berry has abundant phenolic acids and flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) present in cigarette smoke is a major lung carcinogenic factor. We analyzed the efficacy of anthocyanin-rich haskap berry extracts in preventing DNA damage induced by 4-[(acetoxymethyl) nitrosamino]-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc), a precursor of NKK, in human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells in vitro. A cocktail of monomeric polyphenols from haskap berries was extracted separately in ethanol and water and profiled. Sub-lethal concentrations of NNKOAc were used to induce DNA damage in BEAS-2B cells, and cell viability assay was performed to confirm that the tested concentrations of haskap extracts were not cytotoxic to BEAS-2B cells. Cells were pre-treated with the haskap extracts prior to NNKOAc exposure. Dose-dependent DNA damage was observed with carcinogenic NNKOAc, but did not occur in the presence of the haskap extracts. Pre-treatment of the cells with the haskap extracts significantly reduced NNKOAc-induced DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species and upregulated the ATM-dependent DNA damage repair cascade compared to non-treated BEAS-2B cells. The protective effect of haskap extracts could be related to their polyphenol content and high antioxidant capacity.
Chapter
Lonicera caerulea was commonly named among others as a haskap, blue honeysuckle and honeyberry. It is a culinary plant which was known for many years in the region of Northeast Asia, where the fruits from wild-grown plants have been collected. Russia was considered to be the oldest breeding center of the blue honeysuckle. Today, the plantations of blue honeysuckle are located in many countries, e.g., Canada, USA, China, Great Britain and Poland, and the area of cultivation is constantly increasing. In many countries, there are research centers trying to create new cultivars of blue honeysuckle. This article reviews basic information on the botanical characteristic, chemical composition, utilization and the requirements for cultivation of blue honeysuckle. Much attention has been paid to the chemical composition of the fruits and their therapeutic, health-promoting properties and culinary use. The presence of flavonoids, anthocyanins and iridoids makes blue honeysuckle fruits a high health potential. Fruits are used mainly for fresh eating, freezing, drying or the production of many articles such as juices and concentrates. Polish producers use the harvested fruits for processing purposes. These culinary food products which were produced on their farms might promote the region and supplement the household budget. The knowledge about the utilization and cultivation of this plant is broadening in Poland.
Article
The haskap (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae) berry has been widely used in traditional medicine in Kuril Islands, Russia, Japan, and China. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin in haskap berries, and C3G induces antiproliferative pharmacological activity in various cancer cells. However, no study has investigated its anti-lung large-cell carcinoma (LCC) pharmacological role. Therefore, this study determined whether C3G alone or C3G combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) inhibits human lung LCC. We determined the tumor growth, apoptosis, inflammation, and metastasis in the H661 lung LCC lines xenografted into BALB/c nude mice. The mice were administered saline (control), 5-FU, C3G, or both C3G and 5-FU. Relative to the control mice, those treated with C3G alone or both C3G and 5-FU exhibited impaired tumor growth; increased tumor apoptosis; decreased inflammatory cytokine levels (e.g., IL-1β, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, and IL-6); decreased inflammation-related factors, including cyclooxygenase-2 protein and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) mRNA; increased inhibition of NF-κB kinase α mRNA; and downregulated metastasis-related factors, such as transforming growth factor-β, CD44, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, C3G alone or combined with 5-FU affected the expression of the tumor microenvironment-related factors Ki67, CD45, PDL1, and CD73. Compared with the mice treated with 5-FU or C3G alone, those treated with both C3G and 5-FU exhibited significantly impaired tumor growth, decreased tumor sizes, and increased tumor inhibition. This in vivo study demonstrated that C3G alone or combined with 5-FU may impair the growth of lung LCC and inhibit tumorigenesis. The findings indicate that C3G alone or C3G combined with 5-FU may be beneficial for treating human lung LCC.
Article
Background Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) is a perennial plant of the Caprifoliaceae family that has captured considerable attention in recent years as a health functional food. Many distinct and unique phytoconstituents have been introduced alongside bioactivities, mounting the nutritional and biological uses of this plant as a functional food and in traditional medicine. Scope and approach The paper covers comprehensive information on the nutritional and phytochemical components of honeysuckle, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, organic acids, triterpenoids, iridoids, and fatty acids. Meanwhile, bioactivities that promote health, including antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, cardio protective, antitumor, liver and lung protective, and antimicrobial activities based on in vitro and in vivo studies, have also been included. The review briefly summarizes a few published and unpublished human studies. In addition, it also outlines commercial applications and future perspectives and challenges. Key Findings and Conclusions: About 186 chemicals have been identified from different parts of the honeysuckle. Its newly identified compounds are triterpenoids, iridoids, and fatty acids. Overall, the plant has many pharmacological activities, as confirmed by in vitro and in vivo studies. Since significant clinical data on blue honeysuckle are scarce, well-designed human intervention studies are required to further confirm the biological activity in humans.
Article
Cadmium (Cd) is a poisonous metal that is toxic for male reproduction. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) as typical anthocyanin benefits many organs. In this study, we investigated the protective effects and associated underlying mechanisms of C3G against the toxicity of Cd on male reproduction in rat Leydig cell line R2C cells. Cells were pre-protected with C3G (5–160 μmol/L) for 2 h and then treated with cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) (10–160 μmol/L) for 24 h. The results showed that cytotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CdSO4-treated R2C cells were significantly reduced with C3G pre-treatment. Moreover, C3G pre-treatment led to upregulated expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and progesterone production. Our study suggests that C3G may be a potential therapeutic agent against Cd-induced reproductive toxicity.
Article
The incidence of the intestinal disease is globally increasing, and the intestinal mucosa immune system is an important defense line. A potential environmental cause to regulate gut health is diet. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside is a natural plant bioactive substance that has shown rising evidence of improving intestinal disease and keeping gut homeostasis. This review summarized the intestinal protective effect of Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in vivo and in vitro and discussed the potential mechanisms by regulating the intestinal mucosal immune system. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and phenolic metabolites inhibited the presence and progression of intestinal diseases and explained from the aspects of repairing the intestinal wall, inhibiting inflammatory reaction, and regulating the gut microbiota. Although the animal and clinical studies are inadequate, based on the accumulated evidence, we propose that the interaction of Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside with the intestinal mucosal immune system is at the core of most mechanisms by which affect host gut diseases. This review puts forward the potential mechanism of action and targeted treatment strategies.
Article
Full-text available
Recently, significant advances in modern medicine and therapeutic agents have been achieved. However, the search for effective antidiabetic drugs is continuous and challenging. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing body of literature related to the effects of secondary metabolites from botanical sources on diabetes. Plants-derived metabolites including alkaloids, phenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, stilbenoids, saponins, tannins, polysaccharides, coumarins, and terpenes can target cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, they can grant protection to pancreatic beta cells from damage, repairing abnormal insulin signaling, minimizing oxidative stress and inflammation, activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibiting carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Studies have highlighted many bioactive naturally occurring plants’ secondary metabolites as candidates against diabetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge compiled from the latest studies published during the past decade on the mechanism-based action of plants-derived secondary metabolites that can target various metabolic pathways in humans against diabetes. It is worth mentioning that the compiled data in this review will provide a guide for researchers in the field, to develop candidates into environment-friendly effective, yet safe antidiabetics.
Book
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Recently, significant advances in modern medicine and therapeutic agents have been achieved. However, the search for effective antidiabetic drugs is continuous and challenging. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing body of literature related to the effects of secondary metabolites from botanical sources on diabetes. Plants-derived metabolites including alkaloids, phenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, stilbenoids, saponins, tannins, polysaccharides, coumarins, and terpenes can target cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, they can grant protection to pancreatic beta cells from damage, repairing abnormal insulin signaling, minimizing oxidative stress and inflammation, activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibiting carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Studies have highlighted many bioactive naturally occurring plants’ secondary metabolites as candidates against diabetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge compiled from the latest studies published during the past decade on the mechanism-based action of plants-derived secondary metabolites that can target various metabolic pathways in humans against diabetes. It is worth mentioning that the compiled data in this review will provide a guide for researchers in the field, to develop candidates into environment-friendly effective, yet safe antidiabetics.
Article
To enrich the berry product variety and improve the edible quality of blue honeysuckle berry (BHB), on the basis of determining the mixture recipe of the BHB pulp, fructose, and yoghurt (BHBY), the combined technology of microwave vacuum concentration (MVC) and freeze‐drying (FD) was proposed to produce novel BHBY snack. The results showed that the highest retention rate of anthocyanin content was 94.83% under a vacuum pressure of −0.05 MPa and a temperature of 50°C. The optimal FD parameters for the concentrated BHBY were determined as critical moisture content of 1.89 g/g (dry basis), material thickness of 13 mm, and desorption temperature of 36.9°C with a snack of hardness of 1,943.9 g, brittleness of 604 peaks, L* value of 36.7, and a* value of 20.7. The final BHBY snack presents acceptable taste with crispy texture and desired color. The developed processing technology is feasible for BHB snack. This work developed a novel BHB snack by the application of MVC followed by FD technology and optimized the processing technology to achieve the desired product with high drying efficiency, preferable texture taste, and considerable retention of anthocyanin content. The recipe of BHBY and the processing technology proposed was beneficial for improving the edible quality of BHB. Further, it may provide guidance for the development of novel snack and deep processing of berry fruits like BHB.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the research was the analysis of yoghurts enriched with blue honeysuckle berries dry polyphenolic extract and new preparation of resistant starch. The additives were introduced individually at concentration 0.1% (w/v) and in mixture at final concentration of 0.1 and 0.2% of both components. Yogurt microflora, pH, and its physicochemical and antioxidant properties were examined over 14 days of storage under refrigerated conditions. Studies showed that both substances can be successfully used in yoghurt production. Yoghurt microflora es. S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus counts appeared to be higher in samples supplemented with these additives comparing to control yoghurt by 3–8%. More stimulating effect on their growth, especially on S. thermophilus, revealed resistant starch. Addition of this polysaccharide improved also the rheological properties of yogurts, which showed higher viscosity than samples produced without it. Addition of honeysuckle berries preparation significantly influenced the yogurts’ color, giving them deep purple color, and their antioxidant potential. During storage, contents of anthocyanin and iridoid compounds were decreasing, but antioxidant activity in the products remained stable.
Article
An anthocyanin-rich extract was obtained from Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. fruit, namely ANF, and its composition, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects were studied. Nine anthocyanins were identified from the ANF using UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS analysis, and cyanidin-3-[2''-(6'''-coumaroyl)-glucosyl]-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin (87.06%). ANF exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The online HPLC-DPPH screening revealed that C3G contributed the highest antioxidant capacity. ANF showed potential neuroprotective effects by relieving D-Galactose-induced memory deficits, reducing overexpression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and amyloid-beta42 (Aβ42) in the hippocampus of rats. Besides, ANF could inhibit oxidative stress by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus, while elevating amounts of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in the serum of rats. Thus, ANF has great potential in the development of food and health products related to antioxidant and neuroprotective effects.
Article
Full-text available
Nitric oxide (NO) is known as an unstable signaling molecule that can be produced by three different NO synthase (NOS) isoforms. It plays a vital role in a wide range of physiological processes in the body. For instance, in cardiovascular system NO acts as a blood vessel relaxant, while in central nervous system (CNS) it acts as a neurotransmitter. In reproductive system it regulates gonadotropin hormone, oocyte maturation, ovulation, movement of fallopian tube, contraction of uterus during labor, capacitation of sperm, erection, and ejaculation. It has been reported that NO regulates secretion, absorption and motility of gastrointestinal system. It also plays a significant role in the whole process of inflammation and dynamics of Ca⁺² muscles are regulated by NO concentrations. This gas also relaxes the blood vessels and airways of respiratory system. It regulates angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, and metastasis. In this review article, several studies on NO and biological processes were investigated using PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, and Web of Science. NO acts like a double-edged sword in physiology and pathology of the biological systems. Due to the important role of NO in biological systems, it can be used as a therapeutic goal in various diseases. The aim of this review article was to evaluate the importance and role of NO in biological systems and related process including inflammation, blood clotting, cancer, and metastasis. © 2017, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Lonicera caerulea L. berry polyphenols (LCBP) are considered as major components for the bioactivities. This study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms by monitoring inflammatory and antioxidant mediator actions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse paw edema and macrophage cell model. LCBP significantly attenuated LPS-induced paw edema (3.0 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.1 mm, P < 0.05) and reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of monocytes chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, 100.9 ± 2.3 to 58.3 ± 14.5 ng/ml), interleukin (IL)-10 (1596.1 ± 424.3 to 709.7 ± 65.7 pg/ml), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (1761.9 ± 208.3 to 1369.1 ± 56.4 pg/ml), IL-6 (1262.8 ± 71.7 to 499.0 ± 67.1 pg/ml), IL-4 (93.3 ± 25.7 to 50.7 ± 12.5 pg/ml), IL-12(p-70) (580.4 ± 132.0 to 315.2 ± 35.1 pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 2045.5 ± 264.9 to 1270.7 ± 158.6 pg/ml). Cell signaling analysis revealed that LCBP inhibited transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, and enhanced the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in earlier response. Moreover, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) and (-)epicatechin (EC), two major components of LCBP, directly bound to TAK1. These data demonstrated that LCBP might inhibit LPS-induced inflammation by modulating both inflammatory and antioxidant mediators.
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Anthracyclines are effective anticancer drugs that have improved prognosis of hundred thousand cancer patients worldwide and are currently the most common chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of blood, breast, ovarian and lung cancers. However, their use is limited because of a cumulative dose-dependent and irreversible cardiotoxicity that can cause progressive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Aim of the present study was to determine the cardioprotective activity of a dietary source of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), such as purple corn, against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Methods and results: In vitro studies on murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes showed that pretreatment with both pure C3G and purple corn extract improved survival upon DOX treatment. However, C3G and purple corn extract did not affect the cytotoxic effect of DOX on human cancer cell lines. We then validated in vivo the protective role of a C3G-enriched diet against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by comparing the effect of dietary consumption of corn isogenic lines with high levels of anthocyanins (purple corn - Red diet - RD) or without anthocyanins (yellow corn - Yellow diet - YD) incorporated in standard rodent diets. Results showed that mice fed RD survived longer than mice fed YD upon injection of a toxic amount of DOX. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of hearts from mice fed RD showed reduced histopathological alterations. Conclusion: Dietary intake of C3G from purple corn protects mice against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo.
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites from the flavonoid family. Red to blue fruits are major dietary sources of ACNs (up to 1 g/100 g FW), being cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) one of the most widely distributed. Cy3G confers a red hue to fruits, but its content in raspberries and strawberries is low. It has a good radical scavenging capacity (RSC) against superoxide but not hydroxyl radicals, and its oxidative potential is pH-dependent (58 mV/pH unit). After intake, Cy3G can be metabolized (phases I, II) by oral epithelial cells, absorbed by the gastric epithelium (1%–10%) and it is gut-transformed (phase II & microbial metabolism), reaching the bloodstream (<1%) and urine (about 0.02%) in low amounts. In humans and Caco-2 cells, Cy3G's major metabolites are protocatechuic acid and phloroglucinaldehyde which are also subjected to entero-hepatic recycling, although caffeic acid and peonidin-3-glucoside seem to be strictly produced in the large bowel and renal tissues. Solid evidence supports Cy3G's bioactivity as DNA-RSC, gastro protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic chemo-preventive and as an epigenetic factor, exerting protection against Helicobacter pylori infection, age-related diseases, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and oral cancer. Most relevant mechanisms include RSC, epigenetic action, competitive protein-binding and enzyme inhibition. These and other novel aspects on Cy3G's physical-chemistry, foodomics, and health effects are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Ultraviolet radiation is the major environmental harmful factor that has emotional impact on human skin. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of protection of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage to human HaCaT keratinocytes. Our results show that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by UVB treatment. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside also decreased the UVB-augmented levels of the DNA damage indicators phospho-p53 and phospho-ATM/ATR. In addition, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protected keratinocytes from UVB-induced injury by overturning the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and reversing apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was attenuated in UVB-exposed cells but restored in UVB/cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-treated cells. Furthermore, expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and the key apoptosis executer cleaved caspase-3 were increased in UVB-irradiated cells and decreased in UVB/cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-treated cells. For these reasons, the results demonstrate that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our study provides a theoretical basis for the use of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the fight against light damage.
Article
Full-text available
Tumor cells harbor genetic alterations that promote a continuous and elevated production of reactive oxygen species. Whereas such oxidative stress conditions would be harmful to normal cells, they facilitate tumor growth in multiple ways by causing DNA damage and genomic instability, and ultimately, by reprogramming cancer cell metabolism. This review outlines the metabolic-dependent mechanisms that tumors engage in when faced with oxidative stress conditions that are critical for cancer progression by producing redox cofactors. In particular, we describe how the mitochondria has a key role in regulating the interplay between redox homeostasis and metabolism within tumor cells. Last, we will discuss the potential therapeutic use of agents that directly or indirectly block metabolism.
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins exert neuroprotection in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, no details regarding their brain-related pharmacokinetics are so far available to support claims about their direct neuronal bioactivity as well as to design proper formulations of anthocyanin-based products. To gather this missing piece of knowledge, we intravenously administered a bolus of 668 nmol cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) in anaesthetized Wistar rats and shortly after (15 s to 20 min) we collected blood, brain, liver, kidneys and urine samples. Extracts thereof were analysed for C3G and its expected metabolites using UPLC/MS-MS. The data enabled to calculate a set of pharmacokinetics parameters. The main finding was the distinctive, rapid distribution of C3G in the brain, with an apparently constant plasma/brain ratio in the physiologically relevant plasma concentration range (19–355 nM). This is the first report that accurately determines the distribution pattern of C3G in the brain, paving the way to the rational design of future tests of neuroprotection by C3G in animal models and humans.
Article
Full-text available
Two species of edible honeysuckle were studied in the trial established in the autumn 1994. The spacing used was 2.0 x 1.5 m and the experiment included irrigated as well as non- irrigated variants. The aim of this study was to provide a summary of nutritional values of Lonicera kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis berries under the Nitra conditions during the period 2001-2003. The berries were examined for the content of dry mater, sugar, organic acids, ascorbic acid, mineral substances - K, Ca, P, Mg, Na and anthocyanins from pomace and juice. The results of our experiments refer to the exceptionally high content of ascorbic acid ranging from 28.56 up to 86.96 mg/100 g, potassium 10,175 to 14,764 mg/kg and anthocyanins from pomace 6.245-17.36 g/kg. The values of ascorbic acid varied and they were statistically significantly depending on the year; similarly, only year can be taken into account as a statistically significant factor for forming content of sugar, magnesium and sodium. The content of dry mater, organic acids, potassium, calcium and anthocyanins in juice was influenced not only by year but also by species. The interaction species - year as a source of statistically significant differences is evident in the case of phosphorus and organic acids. A significant influence of irrigation on all evaluated nutrients was not confirmed.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is attributed to a high recurrence rate after surgery. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is an important regulator of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and transformation. COX2 overexpression is significantly associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of diverse cancers; however, its expression and significance in ESCC remains unclear. Methods: We enrolled 118 patients with ESCC who had undergone Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. The expression profile of COX2 was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: A high expression of COX2 correlated with a higher T staging (P = 0.014), lower differentiation degree (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009), recurrence status (P = 0.004), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that TNM stage (P = 0.001), differentiation degree (P = 0.001), and high COX2 expression (P = 0.004) were independent risk factors of prognosis. Conclusion: Our data indicated that COX2 expression level is associated with key clinicopathological features and could be an effective biomarker to predict ESCC prognosis.
Data
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to evaluate different methods used for the preparation of powders from blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica) cv. ‘Wojtek’, and the effects of these methods on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of lyophilized powders and pomace. The analyzed samples were evaluated for their basic chemical composition dry weight, pH, total acidity, sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose), and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS). Polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified by UPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Thirty eight polyphenolic compounds, including eight phenolic acids, eight anthocyanins, five flavan-3-ols, twelve flavonols and five flavones were identified in blue honeysuckle products. The highest content of bioactive compounds was detected in juice pressed from peels, as compared with fresh berries and other products. The study showed that peel-based pomace of blue honeysuckle is a better material for the production of dried product rich in bioactive compounds than the pomace obtained from whole berries.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) are processed into various products (e.g. juice, jam and chutneys). These fruits are rich in bioactive compounds, though losses can occur during frozen storage, affecting the nutritional content of the products. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of freezing storage temperature (-18 and -32°C) and steam blanching prior to freezing on the the total phenolic content (TPC)/total reducing capacity (TRC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant potential of three Haskap berry varieties; Tundra (T), Berry Blue (BB) and Indigo Gem (IG). METHODS: Berries were stored at -18 or -32°C for six months, and analyzed monthly for TPC/TRC, TAC, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Steam blanching prior to freezing was also evaluated. RESULTS: Frozen storage at -18°C for six months reduced the TPC/TRC by 37.08 to 47.16%. TAC was also reduced, where the highest decrease was for BB (59.24%) followed by IG (46.34%), and DPPH scavenging activity decreased by 26.78 to 30.86%. Blanching prior to freezing improved the retention of bioactive compounds but storage at -32°C did not yield significant improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Steam blanching prior to freezing followed by frozen storage at -18°C is recommended for better retention of the bioactive components of haskap berries.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of dietary polyphenols on human health have mainly been discussed in the context of preventing degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The antioxidant properties of polyphenols have been widely studied, but it has become clear that the mechanism of action of polyphenols extends beyond the modulation of oxidative stress, as they are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of polyphenols on the colonic environment, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota. We demonstrated that dietary polyphenols derived from aronia, haskap, and bilberry, markedly elevated the amount of fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as an intestinal barrier function and ameliorated the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet in rats. These results suggest that dietary polyphenols play a significant role in the prevention of degenerative diseases through improvement of the colonic environment without any absorption from the digestive tract.
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins from different plant sources have been shown to possess health beneficial effects against a number of chronic diseases. To obtain any influence in a specific tissue or organ, these bioactive compounds must be bioavailable, i.e., effectively absorbed from the gut into the circulation and transferred to the appropriate location within the body while still maintaining their bioactivity. One of the key factors affecting the bioavailability of anthocyanins is their transport through the gut epithelium. The Caco-2 cell line, a human intestinal epithelial cell model derived from a colon carcinoma, has been proven to be a good alternative to animal studies for predicting intestinal absorption of anthocyanins. Studies investigating anthocyanin absorption by Caco-2 cells report very low absorption of these compounds. However, the bioavailability of anthocyanins may be underestimated since the metabolites formed in the course of digestion could be responsible for the health benefits associated with anthocyanins. In this review, we critically discuss recent findings reported on the anthocyanin absorption and metabolism by human intestinal Caco-2 cells.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of study was to compare yield, fruit quality, chemical composition and fruits colour of berries of two blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) cultivars of Polish bred 'Wojtek' and 'Bra{ogonek}zowa' collected at the beginning and at the end of harvest season, respectively. On average, 'Wojtek' yielded 1565 g per bush, whereas 'Bra{ogonek}zowa' 1941 g. During the fruit ripening process, considerable changes were found in the fruit colour. Fruits of both cultivars became darker and their colour changed from green and yellow to red and blue. With the changes in fruit colour, considerable changes in firmness also occurred. Fruit ripening reduced fruit firmness and puncture resistance. For both genotypes, the berries of late harvest were bigger and richer in soluble solids and total polyphenol, however, they showed decreased firmness, lower acidity, and L-ascorbic acid content. Nevertheless the time of harvest, 'Wojtek' berries surpassed 'Bra{ogonek}zowa' fruit regarding soluble solids, titratable acidity and L-ascorbic acid content (for late-crop berries of both cultivars 14.1>12.6%, 3.4>2.7 g citric acid 100 g1, and 76>56 mg 100 mL-1. Further, 'Wojtek' berries showed higher total polyphenol content (149.30 and 183.66 mg·100 g-1, for early and late ripening fruit, respectively) compared to that of 'Bra{ogonek}zowa' (125.51 and 175.67 mg 100 g-1). Among phenolics, anthocyanins made the substantial group ranging from 94.47 mg 100 g-1 ('Bra{ogonek}zowa' berries of early harvest) to 141.96 mg 100 g-1 (late 'Wojtek' fruit).
Article
Full-text available
Black fruits either cultivated as chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot), highbush blueberry 'Duke' (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), lowbush blueberry 'Putte' (Vaccinium corymbosum x Vaccinium anguslifolium), and blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), or collected in the wild as billberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), and wild blackberry (Rubus sp. L.) were assayed for nutritionally valuable components and phenolic composition. On fresh weight basis, lowest acidity was found for elderberry (0.83 g citric acid/100 g) and the highest for honeysuckle 2.86 g citric acid/ 100 g. Soluble solids content ranged from 16.0% (chokeberry) to 7.4% (blackberry). Honeysuckle berries showed the highest content of L-ascorbic acid (47 mg/100 g), while bilberries the lowest (7 mg/ 100 g). The berries also showed a disparate firmness ranging from 86 G/mm (bilberry) to 498 G/mm (chokeberry). Regarding total phenol, chokeberry and bilberry were predominant amounting 672.4 mg/100 g and 639.7 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, bilberry had the highest amount of anthocyanins (619.6 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (630.2 mg/100 g). The highest concentration of flavonols was observed for lowbush blueberry 'Putte' (35.2 mg/100 g), whereas, phenolic acids for chokeberry (121.9 mg/100 g). In contrast, the lowest total phenol was recorded for blackberry (137.8 mg/100 g) due to the low level of anthocyanins (129.4 mg/100 g), flavonols (5.1 mg/100 g), and phenolic acids (3.3 mg/100 g). Cyanidin 3- glucoside was the only anthocyanin occurring in the all species. The presence of chlorogenic acid and quercetin 3-glucoside was detected in the all berries except for blackberries. The 2-year study comparing black fruits of seven species out of different genera demonstrates their high nutritional value and health-promoting potential.
Article
Full-text available
Berry crops can include a wide variety of plant species, with the most important temperate North American species in the genera Fragaria, Rubus , and Vaccinium . The preharvest factors affecting the postharvest quality of berry crops can be divided into abiotic and biotic factors. Amongst the abiotic factors, mineral nutrition, especially calcium and nitrogen, water, temperature, and light play important roles in postharvest quality attributes such as size, color, firmness, acidity, and sweetness. Amongst the biotic factors, several postharvest pathogens, which are also present as preharvest pathogens, can cause very significant reductions in postharvest quality. Grey mold ( Botrytis cinera ) is considered to be the most important pre- and postharvest pathogen in berry crops, but other preharvest pathogens (e.g., Alternaria, Colletotrichum , and Rhizopus ) can become major problems, depending on other preharvest factors. In some growing areas, the presence of fruit fly larvae in the fresh fruit reduces the postharvest quality. Other biotic factors can be more subtle in their effects on postharvest quality, such as cultivar, pruning, and pollination.
Article
Full-text available
Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L) is a (poly) phenol-rich edible berry. Based on the properties of phenolic compounds, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of blue honeysuckle extract (BHE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model and macrophage-like (RAW264.7) cell model. Oral administration of BHE in the range of 75–300 µg/g BW attenuated AIA symptom as reducing paw edema in rats. The serum levels of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly reduced in BHE-fed rat. The production of inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in the spleen was also significantly suppressed. Moreover, serum transaminases including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were inhibited, and the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were recovered. Finally, the major bioactive components in BHE were identified as (−)-epicatechin (EC) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), which were proven to suppress the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, accompanied by enhancing the level of Nrf2 and HO-1 in RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated that BHE rich with EC and C3G attenuated rat AIA symptom with crosstalk of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of various degrees of water deficit on the synthesis and concentration of skin phenolic compounds (flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavonols) on growing Shiraz berries were studied. Different periods and levels of water stress were applied to a model system of cultured vines in containers. Treatments consisted of two levels of early water deficit between anthesis and veraison (S1 = strong, S2 = medium) and a late strong water deficit between veraison and harvest maturity (S3). Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, expressed per individual berry, appeared to depend on the level of water deficit and on the stage at which it was applied. Biosynthesis of flavonols was greater for S2 and S3 than for the control and S1; biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols (total tannins) was reduced in the early water deficit samples; and biosynthesis of proanthocyanins and anthocyanins increased only for S3, the late water deficit treatment. In all cases, water deficit increased the degree of tannin polymerization. Berry size was reduced by the application of different water deficits: S1-, S2-, and S3-treated berries attained 47, 68, and 85%, respectively, of control berry weight. Berry size reductions increased the skin-to-pulp weight ratio and, consequently, the concentration of the different phenolic compounds within the berry skin, which was always greater in the water-deprived berries than in the control berries (except for total tannins in the case of S1). These results confirm two types of berry responses to water deficit: an indirect and always positive effect on the concentration of phenolic compounds due to berry size reduction and a direct action on biosynthesis that can be positive or negative depending on type of phenolic compound, period of application, and severity of water deficit.
Article
Full-text available
Cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Among many other factors, two regulatory defects that are present in most cancer cells are constitutive activation of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway and the induction of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan degradation, through JAK/STAT signaling. Cytokine signaling activates STAT proteins in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival through modulation of target genes. Many phytochemicals can inhibit both JAK/STAT signaling and IDO expression in antigen-presenting cells by targeting different pathways. Some of the promising phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include resveratrol, cucurbitacin, curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and others. It is now evident that phytochemicals play key roles in inhibition of tumor proliferation and development and provide novel means for therapeutic targeting of cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
Aside from the commonly known white rice lines, colored varieties also exist. These varieties have historically been used in Chinese medicine. Anthocyanins, a large group of natural polyphenols existing in a variety of daily fruits and vegetables, have been widely recognized as cancer chemopreventive agents. The primary objective of cancer treatment strategies has traditionally focused on preventing the occurrence of metastasis. In this research the antimetastatic mechanism of anthocyanins on the invasion/migration of human oral CAL 27 cells was performed using a transwell to quantify the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells and the results show that anthocyanins can inhibit the in vitro migration and invasion of CAL 27 cancer cells. In addition, the gelatin zymography assay indicated that anthocyanins inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Western blotting assay also demonstrated that anthocyanins inhibited the associated protein expression of migration/invasion of CAL 27 cell. Immunofluorescence staining proved that anthocyanins inhibited nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) expressions. These results demonstrated that anthocyanins from a species of black rice (selected purple glutinous indica rice cultivated at Asia University) could suppress CAL 27 cell metastasis by reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and NF-κB p65 expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of NF-κB levels.
Article
Full-text available
In Poland edible honeysuckle becomes more and more popular, especially in amateurish cultivation. There is a little information about cultivation technology. The aim of this study carried out in 2008–2009 was to examine the influence of Goëmar ® BM 86 and calcium nitrate on yielding and fruiting quality of two cultivars of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica): 'Atut' and 'Duet'. Using the fertilization with cal-cium nitrate, applied to the soil around plants, in April at the rate of 50 kg·ha -1 , alone or with Goëmar ® BM 86 (applied three times during the bloom period at the dose of 3 l·ha -1) was compared to untreated plants. Fertilizers had no positive effect on the yield and the mass of 100 fruit. Fertilizers did not influence significantly on the dry matter, soluble sol-ids, reductive sugar and anthocyanins content. The influence of Goëmar ® BM 86 and cal-cium nitrate on acidity of berries was inconsistent. Honeysuckle berries of cv. 'Atut', after using the mentioned combination of preparations, reacted by increasing in acid concentra-tions, however acid content of 'Duet' berries significantly decreased in comparison to the control. The quality features of honeysuckle berries were strongly dependent on the weather conditions during vegetation period.
Article
Aronia berries, [Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott var. Moscow (Rosaceae)], originate from North America and have been traditionally used in Native American medicine. Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from berries and bark of A. melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors, they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of Aronia may have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and, provided sufficient bioavailability, may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.
Article
The structural determination of five anthocyanins extracted from the berries of Haskaap, Lonicera caerulea L., was carried out by HPLC analysis, degradation and spectroscopic experiments. The two major pigments were established as cyanidin 3-glucoside and 3, 5-diglucoside. The minor two were identified as cyanidin 3-rutinoside and 3-gentiobioside, while the remaining one has not been identified yet.
Article
The objective of the present study is to determine whether blue honeysuckle lyophilized concentrated powder (BH) has favorable effects on hypothyroidism and related reproductive organ damage. Hypothyroidism was induced by 9 subcutaneous administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 28 days. Levothyroxine (LT4)-treated group was intraperitoneally injected with LT4 for the same period, while for BH (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) or Flos Lonicerae lyophilized aqueous extract (LF, 250 mg/kg)-treated groups, the test materials were orally administrated for 42 days: two weeks before PTU injection and during PTU administration. The changes in serum thyroid hormone levels, serum male sex hormone levels, and testis antioxidant defense system were observed by histopathology of the thyroid gland, epididymis, prostate, and testis. The oral administrations of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of BH showed favorable effects compared to LF on hypothyroidism and related damages of reproductive organs through augmentation of the antioxidant defense system in the testis. In conclusion, BH is a promising new potent thyroid gland protecting agent. © 2016, Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics. All rights reserved.
Article
Scope: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common disease that closely associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and Lonicera caerulea L. polyphenols (LCP) are reported to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to study the protective effects and mechanisms of LCP on NASH in a high fat diet (HFD) plus carbon tetrachloride (CCL4 )-induced mouse model. Methods and results: Mice were fed with HFD containing LCP (0.5-1%) or not, and then administrated with CCL4 to induce NASH. Liver sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin stain, serum transaminases and lipids were measured by clinical analyzer, insulin was examined by ELISA, cytokines were determined by multiplex technology, and hepatic proteins were detected by western blotting. LCP improved histopathological features of NASH with lower levels of lipid peroxidation and cytokines including G-CSF, IL-3, IL-4, MIP-1β, IL-6, IL-5, KC, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-1α, eotaxin, GM-CSF, MIP-1α, IL-17, and RANTES. Further molecular analysis revealed that LCP increased the expression of Nrf2 and MnSOD, but decreased FoxO1 and HO-1 in the liver of NASH mice. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of LCP ameliorated inflammation and lipid peroxidation by up-regulating Nrf2 and MnSOD, and down-regulating FoxO1 and HO-1 in NASH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.