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Angelica archangelica L.-A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review

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  • Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine and Homeopathy
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... The correlation analysis was performed to investigate the similarities in the active compound content of the different A. archangelica root samples (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), and the results are visually displayed in Figure 1. The darker blue color of the circles, which shows the two samples' relation, presents a stronger correlation between these samples, i.e., the more pronounced similarity in the active compound content. ...
... In one sample from Iceland, the dominant compound was α-pinene, with 41.4%, followed by bicyclogermacrene (11.9%) [69]. The correlation analysis was performed to investigate the similarities in the active compound content of the different A. archangelica seed (fruit) essential oils (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15), and the results are visually displayed in Figure 4. ...
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Garden angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), native to the northern temperate region, is widespread in Europe and Asia. Since the middle ages, it has been used for healing and as a vegetable in traditional dishes. In the modern era, it has been proven that A. archangelica has a complex chemical composition. The main derivatives that contribute to the plant’s biological activities are essential oil and coumarins. In this review, the focus is on the cross-analysis of the taxonomy of A. archangelica, and its distribution in different regions, with the presentation of the richness of its biochemical composition, which overall contributes to the widespread use of the roots of this plant in folk medicine. It belongs to the plants that were introduced to the wider area of Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe; as a medicinal plant, it represents a significant part of the medical flora of many areas. Cluster analysis of pooled data indicates a clear differentiation of chemotypes.
... It blooms during the summer, the seeds ripen in late summer, and then the plant dies. The flowers are greenish-white in color and small in size [26]. ...
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Genus Angelica is one of the widely distributed and well-known genera of family Umbelliferae. It is utilized mainly by Chinese and Korean populations especially in their folk medicine. Angelica comprises a lot of medicinally important phytoconstituents such as coumarins, furanocoumarins, flavonoids, essential oils, verbascosides, polysaccharides, etc. Members of this genus play important roles, namely antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, and many others. This review draws attention to many species of genus Angelica with much focus on A. dahurica being one of the highly medicinally used species within this genus.
... Angelica archangelica L. is a perennial herb in the Apiaceae family with greenish-white flowers and large compound pinnately compound leaves (Maurya 2017). It is native to Syria and is also found in west Asia and many parts of Europe (Budniak et al. 2022). ...
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Nadir DS. 2022. Effect of Aspergillus niger extract on production of coumarins in cell suspension cultures of Angelica archangelica. Biodiversitas 23: 5132-5138. Aspergillus niger is one of the most significant microbes employed in biotechnology and has been used for many years to make citric acid and extracellular enzymes. It is also utilized for waste treatment and biotransformation. In the last 20 years, A. niger has become a crucial transformational host to overexpress food enzymes. Different concentrations of A. niger extract were used to investigate their effects on the production of coumarin, both in the liquid medium and the cells, of batch cultures of Angelica archangelica L. Liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 2.0 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) combined with 0.5 mg.L-1 Kinetin (Kin), was used as growth medium for batch cultures of A. archangelica incubated for different incubation periods (7, 14 and 21 days). The results showed that 3.053 mg.g-1 was the highest coumarin concentration, obtained from the nutritional medium drawn from cultures treated with 2.0 mL.L-1 of A. niger after 21 days of incubation. However, 2.055 mg.g-1 was the maximum coumarin concentration reached in the harvested cells after 21 days of incubation when the cultures were treated with 2.0 mL.L-1 of A. niger extract. This study was aimed at performing extraction, identification, and estimation of coumarins from cell suspension cultures of A. archangelica and also investigating the effects of A. niger extract, at different concentrations, for various incubation periods on the production of coumarins. The concluded that A. niger extract affected coumarin accumulation, both in the medium and cells, from the cultures of A. archangelica. A dose of 2.0 mL.L-1 of A. niger extract as a biotic elicitor was found to have the best elicitor concentration, and that 21 days of incubation was the optimum period for the elicitor concentration to produce the highest coumarin content in batch cultures. Therefore, these results may contribute to increasing coumarin production by using different fungal extracts as biotic elicitors in cell suspension cultures.
... 5 A. archangelica is also present in the Ayurveda, where it is known as "chanda", and indicated for its use to treat fevers, toothaches and headaches. 6 Previous phytochemical studies on A. archangelica have demonstrated the presence of essential oils 7 and coumarins. [8][9][10][11] Here we report the isolation and identification of courmarins from the roots of A. archangelica using a wide range of chromatographic techniques including HPLC as well as the antimicrobial activities against various microbes including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. ...
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Angelica archangelica (Fam. Apiaceae) roots were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane and DCM extracts were fractionated by Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) over silica gel followed by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC) to yield two coumarins, osthol (1) and osthenol (2). However, the methanol extract was fractionated by solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridge followed by analysis of components by analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and purification by preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to give two coumarins, bergapten (3) and heraclenol (4) along with sucrose (5). Compounds were identified by a series of 1D (1 H and 13 C) and 2D (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis. The crude extracts (n-hexane, DCM, and methanol) and compound 1, were screened for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Micrococcus luteus), Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a fungus, Candida albicans. The antimicrobial assays showed that the crude DCM and n-hexane extracts, alongside compound 1, largely inhibited the growth of the microorganisms at high concentrations. Compound 1, which was further tested for antibacterial activity against a series of clinical isolates of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, showed moderate level of activity against only one strain.
... [11] 10 Chanda Angelica glauca Edgew Apiaceae Root Antimicrobial action, Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase action. [12] ...
Article
Introduction: Shwasa is said as Shigrapranahara Roga. It occurs as the main disease and also a symptom in various diseases. Shwasakruchrata is a common symptom that occurs in Hrudroga. Acharya Charaka mentioned the unique classification of drugs based on their action. Shwasahara Dashemani is one among them. It is containing 10 herbal drugs which are specially indicated in Shwasa Roga. Hence to evaluate the efficacy of Shwasahara Dashemani in Lakshana Roopi Shwasa in L.V.F (Cardiac Asthma) has taken for the study. Aim and Objective: The objective is to assess the efficacy of Shwasahara Dashemani in L.V.F with dyspnea (Cardiac Asthma). Method: The present study is a controlled comparative, open-label, clinical trial with pre and post-test design. A total of 40 subjects of a diagnosed case of L.V.F with dyspnea (Cardiac Asthma) were selected by using a simple random sampling method. Control group subjects were intervened with standard treatment of L.V.F and intervention group subjects were intervened with standard treatment of L.V.F along with Shwasahara Dashemani Ghana Vati, for the duration of 30 days. Its efficacy was assessed before treatment (0th day) and after treatment (31st day) by using BDI (Baseline Dyspnea Index Scale). Results: The P-value of dyspnea of the control group is 1.000 and the P-value of dyspnea of the intervention group is 0.105. This shows that the results of both groups are statistically not significant. But as compared to the control group, the intervention group is clinically significant because after the intervention 35% of subjects had shown improvement in the intervention group. Conclusion: As compared to the control group, in the intervention group Shwasahara Dashemani Ghanavati is clinically significant in relieving cardiac asthma when used with standard treatment of L.V.F. Keyword: Shwasahara Dashemani. Cardiac Asthma, L.V.F, Dyspnea
... This may be useful to the scientists, research scholars, health professionals and students working related to phytochemical and pharmacological activities from medicinal plants showing the importance of phytochemical constituents and the activities of Barleria cristata. This review article explained the evidence-based information regarding phytochemistry and pharmacological activities 4 . This review also covers the description of the plants and the ethanomedicnal uses of this plant. ...
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Barleria cristata belongs to the family Acanthaceae, is an indigenous widespread perennial shrub found throughout India. It occupies a remarkable place in Ayurvedic medicine of India, due to its biological and pharmacological activities. The general use of the genus Barleria is to treat boils, bee bite, snake bite, asthma, leprosy, cough, jaundice and tooth ache. The various phytochemical screening of different types of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, flavanoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, anthraquinones and saponins. This review aimed to provide a scientific overview of Barleria cristata with reference to its geographical, botanical aspects, phytochemistry and pharmacological activity. The ethnomedicinal uses of this plant show the treatment of respiratory diseases like asthma, cough, bronchitis and tuberculosis. The investigated pharmacological studies reported the presence of anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant property, wound-healing activity, thrombolytic activity, brine-shrimp lethality assay and hepatoprotective activities in Barleria cristata.
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One of the tasks of pharmaceutical science is to find new sources of effective drugs. Such sources include plants such as Angelica archangelica L. and Angelica sylvestris L., which have been used for many years to treat various diseases in folk medicine. Because the chemical composition of these plants is poorly understood, the aim of our study was to investigate the amino acid composition of the leaves of A. archangelica L. and A. sylvestris L. The amino acids of the leaves of the study species of the genus Angelica L. were determined by the HPLC method. Eighteen free and nineteen bound amino acids were identified in the leaves of A. archangelica L. The A. sylvestris L. leaves contained nineteen free and the same amount of bound amino acids. High concentrations of free and bound amino acids such as L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid predominate in A. archangelica L. and A. sylvestris L. This allowed these amino acids to be considered distinguishing markers of the study plants. Character metabolic processes in which these amino acids take part may be associated with the medicinal properties of these plants pursuant to their use in medicine and, therefore, may contribute to the insight of their therapeutic properties.
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Traditionally, arctic Finnish Angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), marsh Labrador tea (Rhododendron tomentosum, syn. Ledum palustre) and common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) have been used as medicinal herbs in folklore medicine. However, these underutilised plants are a source of, e.g., oil-based compounds, which could benefit many modern applications implemented by the green chemistry extraction methods, as well. We extracted Angelica, marsh Labrador tea and common tansy by non-toxic and recyclable extraction methods, i.e., hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction; characterised the essential oils (EOs) and scCO2 extracts by combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and in addition, analysed the antimicrobial properties. As expected for Angelica root and common tansy inflorescence, the scCO2 extraction method produced less amount of volatile compounds compared to hydrodistillation. On the other hand, more coumarins, alkanes, fatty alcohols and fatty acids were obtained. Additionally, sesquiterpenoids palustrol and ledol were predominant compounds in both marsh Labrador tea EO and scCO2 extract. According to our results, however, all the EOs and scCO2 extracts showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against the selected microbes, but the effects were extract-specific. The strongest and broadest antimicrobial activities were performed by marsh Labrador tea scCO2 extract, which showed extremely strong effect on Staphylococcusaureus subsp. aureus and strong effect on Candida albicans.
Article
Plant‐derived molecules have enduring usefulness in treating diseases, and herbal drugs have emerged as a vital component of global therapeutic demand. Angelica archangelica L. (A. archangelica), commonly known as garden angelica, is an aromatic food plant used in culinary procedures as a flavoring agent. In the traditional medicine system, it is regarded as an “Angel plant” due to its miraculous curative power. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the plant's taxonomic profile, ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. Various in vivo and in vitro experiments have validated that the plant possesses broad pharmacological potential. The biological activities attributed to the plant include anti‐anxiety activity, anti‐convulsant activity, cognition enhancer, antiviral activity, cholinesterase inhibitory potential, antiinflammatory activity, gastroprotective activity, and radioprotective activity. The beneficial effects of the plant are credited to its bioactive components, that is, coumarins and volatile oils. The review summarizes the pharmacological activities of crude extract and its bioactive fractions and has also explored their target‐oriented effects. This review will be of value in undertaking further investigations on the plant with regard to exploring mechanism‐based pharmacological approaches on A. archangelica.
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The present study investigates the origin and significance of the vernacular appellations of 83 toxic plants solicited in the traditional phytotherapy of the Moroccan central Middle Atlas. The vernacular names attributed to those medicinal plants were collected from some phytotherapists during ethnobotanical surveys and through various bibliographical sources. It appears that the listed plants have different vernacular names in Arabic and/or Berber dialect; but, only the origin of the appellation of 47 species was clarified. This denomination essentially finds its origin in descriptors related to the morphology of the plants, their secretions and their uses, and sometimes, it evokes legends, habitats and animal organs. Certainly, the identification of plants on the basis of asserted taxonomic criteria is unavoidable, but, the vernaculars remain faithful indicators especially since they are part of the intangible Moroccan culture and heritage.
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Angelica archangelica Linn. is widely used in food and liquor preparations and also in Kashmiri folk medicine to reduce anxiety. We evaluated the anxiolytic effect of successive extracts of A. archangelica linn. (SAE) on rats tested in the elevated T-maze test (an animal model of generalized anxiety) at doses that exhibit antidepressant-like activity in humans. A. archangelica (1 kg) was subjected to successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus with solvents [petroleum ether (40-60 degrees C), chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and decoction with water] in order of increasing polarity (yield: 6.9%, 7.3%, 5.1%, 11.88% and 8.2% w/w, respectively). SAE were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using the elevated T-maze and forced swimming tests in rats. Oral dosing of diazepam (1 mg/kg) and extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) clearly showed an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated T-maze test: it increased one-way escape and decreased inhibitory avoidance on the first, third and seventh day. In the forced swimming test, imipramine and SAE showed antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects as reflected by increased climbing time, swimming time and decreased immobility time on the first, third and seventh day. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed the most, petroleum ether (40-60 degrees C) and chloroform intermediate, and ethyl acetate the least anxiolytic activity (*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P< 0.001) in both models. These results suggest the anti-anxiety activity of various extracts of A. archangelica and strongly justify its use in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of anxiety.
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In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil.
Article
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a leaf extract from A. archangelica on the growth of Crl mouse breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The antiproliferative activity of the extract was measured by H-3-thymidine uptake in the Crl cells in vitro. Twenty mice were injected with the Crl cells, and 11 of them were fed A. archangelica leaf extract, and the progress of the tumours was followed. Results: The leaf extract was mildly antiproliferative on the Crl cells with an EC50 of 87.6,ug/ml. The antitumour activity of the extract was expressed in the mice by marked reduction in tumour growth. In the experimental animals, 9 out of 11 mice developed no or very small tumours, whereas control animals, not receiving the extract, developed significant larger tumours (p < 0.01), as estimated by Mann-Whitney U-test. The antitumour activity of the leaf extract could not be explained by the antiproliferative activity of furanocoumarins present in the extract. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the antiproliferative activity in vitro and antitumour activity in vivo of a leaf extract from A. archangelica.
Article
Abstract In this paper, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) roots from central Italy were analyzed. The major constituents of the oil were α-pinene (21.3%), δ-3-carene (16.5%), limonene (16.4%) and α-phellandrene (8.7%). The oil shows a good antimicrobial activity against Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Eubacterium limosum, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.25, 0.25, 0.13, 0.25, 2.25, and 0.50% v/v, respectively. A weaker antimicrobial activity against bifidobacteria and lactobacilli-very useful in the intestinal microflora-has also been shown with MIC values >4.0% v/v.
Article
Angelica archangelica L. seeds (fruits) were collected in three habitats in 2004 and 2005. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (59.3–82.9%) comprised the largest part of the seed oils. One hundred and five identified constituents made up 84.6–95.7% of the oils. The oils of ripe seeds were rich in β-phellandrene (33.6–63.4%). α-Pinene (4.2–15.8%) and sabinene (20.4%) were the second major constitutents in oils. Other main components of ripe seed oils were α-phellandrene, myrcene and germacrene D. The amounts of β-phellandrene decreased from 57.0–63.4% to 39.0–41.3% during the storage of the seeds for twelve months. The composition of the seed embryo oil differed from those of the ripe seeds. The dominant compounds were myrcene (21.8%), α-pinene (13.2%), sabinene (8.4%) and zingiberene (7.7%). The seed embryo oil contained about twice higher amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Only 5.2% of β-phellandrene was present in the seed embryo oil.
Article
Fifteen coumarins, 2′-angeloyl-3′-isovaleryl vaginate (4), archangelicin (3), oxypeucedanin hydrate (8), bergapten (5), byakangelicin angelate (15), imperatorin (11), isoimperatorin (6), isopimpinellin (13), 8-[2-(3-methylbutroxy)-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy]psoralen (12), osthol (1), ostruthol (9), oxypeucedanin (7), phellopterin (14), psoralen (2) and xanthotoxin (10), have been isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Angelica archangelica L. subsp. archangelica (Apiaceae). 2, 4, 12, and 15 are reported for the first time from A. archangelica L. The isolation was carried out using medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) using the normal phase mode and then subsequently using a combination of the reversed and normal phase techniques. The eluents were optimized by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography preassays according to the “PRISMA” system, and then transferred without modification of the solvent selectivity to preparative MPLC separations. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods. The isolation was carried out from a chloroform extract which in earlier tests had exhibited calcium blocking activity on the uptake of 45Ca2+ in clonal rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. The calcium antagonistic activity of the isolated compounds was then tested using the same method as for the extracts. All the coumarins tested exhibited calcium antagonistic activity. Archangelicin showed activity significantly higher than that of verapamil in this test system.
Article
From the ethyl acetate extract of the fresh roots of Angelica officinalis var. himaliaca, besides sitosterol, pregnenolone, peucenin-7-methyl ether, osthol and 18 furanocoumarins have been characterized by spectroscopic methods, including 13C NMR, and some chemical transformations.
Article
Angelica (var. Angelica archangelica L.) oil was isolated from grated fresh roots of the plant by supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and a two-stage fractional separation system. Throughout the extraction process the pressure and temperature were maintained at 120 bar and 40 °C respectively. A 1 h static extraction step was followed by a 2 h dynamic extraction conducted at a flow rate of 0.5 kg h−1. The extracted material was characterized by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using three different mass spectra libraries. More than 200 compounds were found in the extracted oil, of which 118 compounds were positively identified and four other compounds tentatively identified.
Article
Isolation and identification of the inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), obtained from the extracts of roots and fruits of Angelica archangelica L., are reported. Our results confirmed the weak inhibitory effect of Angelica roots on acetylcholinesterase activity. BChE inhibition was much more pronounced at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for hexane extracts and attained a higher rate than 50%. The TLC bioautography guided fractionation and spectroscopic analysis led to the isolation and identification of imperatorin from the fruit's hexane extract and of heraclenol-2'-O-angelate from the root's hexane extract. Both compounds showed significant BChE inhibition activity with IC(50) = 14.4 ± 3.2 μM and IC(50) = 7.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively. Only C8-substituted and C5-unsubstituted furanocoumarins were active, which could supply information about the initial structures of specific BChE inhibitors.
Article
The antimutagenic activity of Angelica archangelica L. aqueous and alcohol extracts of thio-TEPA against mutagenicity was examined by the micronucleus test in murine bone marrow cells. The reduction of Thio-TEPA's mutagenic activity was more profound when the extracts were injected 2 hours before thio-TEPA treatment, as seen during simultaneous treatment. The observed reduction of micronuclear frequencies was as high as 77%.