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A review on replacing fish meal in aqua feeds using plant protein sources

Authors:
  • Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University

Abstract and Figures

Until recently, fish meal was the chief protein source in the fish feed for diverse reasons collectively for its high protein content, excellent essential amino acid (EAA) profile, better nutrient digestibility, lack of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), low price and ease in its availability. However ideal protein source of fish meal for fish feed is now at risk that threatens feed formulators to rely more on this. This example additionally makes feed formulators to look for alternative feedstuffs which can doubtlessly replace fish meal. Plant protein sources are acknowledged as the best source to replace fish meal; but they have contrasting characteristics to those of fish meal due to following attributes: Plant ingredients have ANFs, deficient in certain EAA, low nutrient digestibility, lesser nutrient bio-availability and palatability because of excessive degrees of non-soluble carbohydrates consisting of fibre and starch. These evaluation characters attributed to plant proteins have raised the controversy amongst feed nutritionists that how they can ably replace fish meal. Consistent with available evidences from research findings, it is found possible that plant proteins can replace fish meal either in part or completely when certain dietary recommended conditions are provided that are discussed in the review. Continuing further, the effects of dietary plant proteins on feeding, nutrient utilization and growth performances, protein retention, digestibility and bio-availability of nutrients, variations in biochemical compositions, flesh quality and immunity and stress responses of aquatic animals are individually discussed together with the idea of giving new avenues for future research in the current topic.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2018; 6(2): 164-179
E-ISSN: 2347-5129
P-ISSN: 2394-0506
(ICV-Poland) Impact Value: 5.62
(GIF) Impact Factor: 0.549
IJFAS 2018; 6(2): 164-179
© 2018 IJFAS
www.fisheriesjournal.com
Received: 21-01-2018
Accepted: 22-02-2018
N Daniel
Assistant Professor,
Tamil Nadu Fisheries
University, Tamil Nadu, India
Correspondence
N Daniel
Assistant Professor,
Tamil Nadu Fisheries
University, Tamil Nadu, India
A review on replacing fish meal in aqua feeds using
plant protein sources
N Daniel
Abstract
Until recently, fish meal was the chief protein source in the fish feed for diverse reasons collectively for
its high protein content, excellent essential amino acid (EAA) profile, better nutrient digestibility, lack of
anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), low price and ease in its availability. However ideal protein source of fish
meal for fish feed is now at risk that threatens feed formulators to rely more on this. This example
additionally makes feed formulators to look for alternative feedstuffs which can doubtlessly replace fish
meal. Plant protein sources are acknowledged as the best source to replace fish meal; but they have
contrasting characteristics to those of fish meal due to following attributes: Plant ingredients have ANFs,
deficient in certain EAA, low nutrient digestibility, lesser nutrient bio-availability and palatability
because of excessive degrees of non-soluble carbohydrates consisting of fibre and starch. These
evaluation characters attributed to plant proteins have raised the controversy amongst feed nutritionists
that how they can ably replace fish meal. Consistent with available evidences from research findings, it is
found possible that plant proteins can replace fish meal either in part or completely when certain dietary
recommended conditions are provided that are discussed in the review. Continuing further, the effects of
dietary plant proteins on feeding, nutrient utilization and growth performances, protein retention,
digestibility and bio-availability of nutrients, variations in biochemical compositions, flesh quality and
immunity and stress responses of aquatic animals are individually discussed together with the idea of
giving new avenues for future research in the current topic.
Keywords: Bio-availability, diet, digestibility, feed intake, fish meal, growth, immunity, performances,
plant proteins, recommended conditions
Introduction
Compared to other animal food-production sectors, aquaculture growth is really worth looking
(FAO, 2016) [1]. At present, one out of three fishes is coming from aquaculture that is being
consumed by human population. It is worth noting that sustainability of aquaculture depends
on many factors, including cost effective feed. Feed constitutes around 60 % of total operating
cost in the aquaculture; therefore the remarkable growth of aquaculture will be greatly
benefited by the development of cheaper aqua feed. The feed formulator’s efforts to prepare
the feed at lower cost will directly reflect in the economy of fish farmers. Fish meal is one of
the principal protein ingredients in the fish diet; it is rich in protein content, properly-balanced
EAA profile and excellent nutrient digestibility and deficient in the ANFs. Until recently, fish
feed was prepared with fish meal as an important protein ingredient because one would
generally agree that fish meal requirement for omnivorous is about 30 to 40% and for
carnivorous it is more than 40 %. However, fish meal inclusion levels for both omnivorous and
carnivorous fishes have been reducing significantly at present (Hardy, 2010) [2] on account of
fish meal supply becoming significantly low together with its huge demand and higher prices
in the market (Edwards et al., 2004; De-Silva and Hasan, 2007; Hung et al., 2007) [3-5]. As an
alternative to fish meal, many authors have recommended the plant based protein ingredients
specifically regarding the cost as they seem to be cheaper compared to fish meal. But to
become a suitable alternative to fish meal, a candidate ingredient ought to own the previously
mentioned characteristics which equal fish meal. In this connection, one can disagree for the
utilization of plant proteins for the replacement of fish meal in the fish diet based on the
following criteria: Plant ingredients have ANFs, are deficient in certain EAA, have less
nutrient digestibility, have lesser nutrient bio-availability, and less palatability due to high
levels of non-soluble carbohydrates such as fibre and starch.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
Many previous reports, therefore, did not recommend
replacing fish meal in the diets (De Francesco et al., 2004;
Engin et al., 2005; Bonaldo et al., 2011) [6-8]. On the other
hand, several authors agreed that plant ingredients can be used
to replace fish meal in the diet if the animal showed no
difference in the overall performances while being fed plant
feed (Espe et al., 2007; Hansen et al., 2011; Lund et al., 2011;
Yun et al., 2012; Valante et al., 2016; Daniel, 2017) [9-14].
Results from the several numerous researches also
demonstrated that animals fed with plant proteins did not
affect the performance of the animals (Merrifield et al., 2010;
Sheikhzadeh et al., 2012; Kpundeh et al., 2015; Guo et al.,
2016; Li et al., 2016) [15-19].
Shortly fish meal will no longer be a major protein ingredient
in the fish diet and it is likely that soon diet free of fish meal
will get popularised. Consequently, the development and
sustainability of future aquaculture could significantly depend
on the identification of new suitable less costly alternative
plant protein ingredients that can replace fish meal without
compromising the performance of the animals (Gatlin et al.,
2007) [20]. Although some research findings have revealed the
negative consequences of plant protein feeding on animal
performances, but several previous reports have also
manifested that by implementing of certain following dietary
techniques one can feed plant protein diets to the animals
sustainably without affecting the animal performances: Those
conditions encompass the addition of deficient amino acids
(Goda et al., 2007) [21], aggregate of different plant sources
(Liti et al., 2006) [22], application of exogenous enzymes
(Jiang et al., 2014) [23], adoption of one day plant based and
next day fish meal based feed (Nandeesha et al., 2002) [24],
supplementation of certain additives (Øverland et al., 2000;
Aksnes et al., 2006a; Sarker et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2015)
[25-28] and other novel dietary tactics (Lee et al., 2015) [29]. The
encouraging outcomes from the afore-said previous works
inspired many of the researchers to set up work on
replacement of fish meal by cheap and alternative plant
protein sources. The present paper critically reviewed the
various works carried out for the fish meal replacement using
plant based protein ingredients in fish and aimed to discuss
about the results of plant proteins on fish performances whilst
replacing fish meal in the diets. Obviously, the information
showed in the present paper would be an impetus for feed
formulators to increase the usage of plant protein ingredients
for the preparation of aquaculture diets. Simultaneously it will
encourage minimising the fish meal usages to ensure the
preparation of cost effective diets for the sustainability of fish
farmers relying on fish meal for the feed usages.
Effect of plant proteins on feeding, nutrient utilization and
growth performances in fish
Previous research has discovered that aquatic animals fed
with fish meal depleted diets generally tend to decrease their
feed intake and growth performances. The reduction in the
feeding and growth with response to higher levels of dietary
plant proteins has been reported in several aquatic animals
such as rainbow trout (Gomes et al., 1995; Adelizi et al.,
1998; De Francesco et al., 2004; Snyder et al., 2012) [30-32],
European sea bass (Dias et al., 1997) [33], shrimp (Sudaryono
et al., 1999) [34], turbot (Fournier et al., 2004) [35], Atlantic
salmon (Berge et al., 1998; Sveier et al., 2001; Espe et al.,
2007) [36, 37, 9], gilthead sea bream (Gomez-Requeni et al.,
2004) [38], turbot (Bonaldo et al., 2011) [8], black tiger shrimp
(Richard et al., 2011) [39], eel (Engin et al., 2005) [7] and
abalone (Bautista-Teruel et al., 2003) [40]. Torstensen et al.,
(2008) [41] additionally confirmed that concomitant
replacement of fish meal and fish oil with plant proteins and
vegetable oils that were fed to Atlantic salmon decreased its
feed consumption and growth. Various authors explained the
reasons for these causes: the nature of plant proteins having
less apparent digestibility coefficient (Gatlin et al., 2007) [20],
intestinal damage (Yu et al., 2015) [42], deficiency of one or
more EAAs (Bautista-Teruel et al., 2003) [40], less palatability
(Torstensen et al., 2008) [41] and presence of ANFs (Welker et
al., 2016) [43]. On the other hand, few authors linked this with
the elevated muscle protein degradation (Snyder et al., 2012)
[32]. There are others who mentioned that the decreased
growth rate determined in fish fed diets containing high levels
of plant proteins is linked with the modifications in the
morphology of their muscle fibres and skeletal muscle and
lysosomal proteolysis (Alami-Durante et al., 2010) [44].
Contrary to fore-mentioned study reports, it has been
substantially established by the findings of following workers
that plant proteins can potentially substitute fish meal in the
diet of fish without having negative effect on growth or feed
intake. But inclusion level of plant ingredients to the diet
varies with the species. Lund et al., (2011) [11] showed that
matrix of organic plant protein concentrates consisting of pea:
horse bean: rapeseed can ably replace 44% of the total dietary
protein fish meal without causing any negative performances
to rainbow trout. Comparable results have also been found in
Senegalese sole when fed with blend of plant proteins
(soybean meal, peas, corn gluten, and wheat), supporting that
the growth performance was not impaired up to 75% in the
diet (Valente et al., 2016) [13]. Bonaldo et al., (2011) [88]
supported that mixture of plant protein diets made up of
soybean meal, wheat gluten meal and corn gluten meal fed up
to 39% levels did not disturb the growth rate and nutrient
utilization in turbot. Results from Palmegiano et al., (2008) [45]
showed that fish meal and fish oil in the diet can be partially
replaced with Spirulina meal when integrated with plant oils
without having any negative effect to white sturgeon. Hansen
et al., (2011) [10] discovered that Atlantic cod had the same
growth rate with or without the addition of lysine and
methionine while fish meal was replaced by 65% with the
mixture of plant proteins. Daniel (2016a) [46] counselled that
water washed neem seed cake may probably replace the fish
meal at 5% in common carp and 25% in African catfish
respectively without compromising fish growth and nutrient
utilization. Table 1 also shows the lists of some studies
supporting that fish meal partially replaced by plant protein in
fish diets did not affect the animal’s performances.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
Table 1.A List of some studies supporting that fish meal partially replaced by plant protein in fish diets does not affect the animal’s
performances
S.
No
Species
studied
Plant Ingredients used
Supported
inclusion level
Remarks
1
Rainbow trout
Plant proteins supplemented with lysine
50%
Improved growth performance, feed
conversion ratio and survival.
2
European sea
bass
Corn gluten meal, wheat gluten,
extruded wheat, soybean meal and
rapeseed meal.
95%
No adverse effect on somatic growth or
nitrogen utilisation.
3
Gilthead sea
bream
Mixture of plant protein sources
75%
Growth performance was not affected.
4
Atlantic cod
Mix of soybean meal, soy protein
concentrate and wheat gluten meal
50%
Growth was hardly affected.
5
Pacific white
shrimp
Combination of soybean meal and
canola meal
80%
Not affected the growth performances.
6
Cobia
Mixture of plant proteins
94%
No changes in the growth performances
compared to fish meal diets.
7
Turbot
Mixture of soybean meal, wheat gluten
meal and corn gluten meal
52%
Did not reduce the feed intake.
8
Rainbow trout
Combination of pea, horse-bean and
rapeseed
44%
No negative performances on growth.
9
Black
tiger shrimp
Mixture of corn gluten meal, rapeseed
meal, sorghum and wheat gluten
25%
No adverse effect on shrimp performances.
10
Grass carp
Cotton seed meal, sunflower meal and
corn meal
75%
No adverse consequence in somatic growth
and nitrogen utilization.
Köprücü and Sertel
(2012) [53]
11
Hybrid
sturgeon
Corn gluten meal
55%
Did not affect the growth and FCR with 30 %
of feed price reduction as compared to fish
meal diets.
12
Kuruma
shrimp
Mixture of soybean meal and canola
meal
50%
No adverse effects on growth, feed utilization,
body composition and nutrient utilization.
13
Senegalese
sole
Mixture of plant protein sources with
EAAs
75%
No impairments on feed intake, growth
performance and protein utilisation.
14
Red drum
Mix of soy protein concentrate and
barley protein concentrate
50%
No effect on the growth performance,
condition indices and whole-body
composition.
15
Senegalese
sole
Mixture of soybean meal, soybean
protein concentrate and wheat gluten
meal
30%
No changes in the growth performances as
compared to fish meal diets.
Rodiles et al.
(2015) [58]
16
Common carp
Defatted rubber seed meal
50%
No negative effect on the growth and feeding
performances.
17
Turbot
Fish meal combined with mixture of
plant proteins
50 %
Positively affected the growth performance
and welfare status.
18
Chinese
sucker
Mix of fermented soybean meal, corn
gluten meal and cottonseed meal with
lysine
30%
No adverse effects on growth performance,
body composition and digestive enzyme
activities.
Yu et al. (2014) [61]
19
Shortfin
corvina
Mix of soybean protein concentrate and
corn protein concentrate
75%
No compromising effect on growth
performance.
20
Senegalese
sole
Blend of soybean meal, peas, corn
gluten, and wheat
75%
Growth performance was not impaired.
In addition to studies represented in the table 1, there are other
works also support the replacement of fish meal using plant
based ingredients in the fish diet when they added with certain
dietary components without much interfering the
performances of the animals when certain dietary components
are added in the plant diets which include supplementation of
crystalline amino acids (Espe et al., 2006) [63], 0.5%
methionine, 1.0% lysine, 0.04% phytase and 10% fish soluble
(Bulbul et al., 2015) [64], 5% fish meal, 5% fish soluble and
3% squid hydrolysate (Espe et al., 2007) [9], limiting amino
acids such as arginine, histidine and threonine (Goda et al.,
2007) [21], multiple EAA and krill meal and water soluble
fraction of krill (Zhang et al., 2012) [65], feeding stimulants
such as Alanine, serine, inosine-5’-monophosphate and
betaine (Papatryphon et al., 2001a) [66], taurine (Johnson et al.
(2015) [28], duckweed (He et al., 2013) [67], squid meal (Silva
et al., 2010) [68], salmon testis meal (Lee et al., 2015) [29],
freeze-dried hydrolysate from squid, scallop, krill, worms, or
mussel (Kader et al., 2012; Nagel et al., 2014) [70-71], citric
acid (Sarker et al. (2007; Zhang et al., 2016) [27, 74], However,
few attempts had failed to show positive influence on feeding
and growth of fish when fed using plant diets supplemented
with certain dietary components which include fish meal
(Fontainhas-Fernandes et al., 1999) [69], dry hydrolysate from
squid and scallop (Zhou et al., 2016) [72], fish hydrolysate
(Aksnes et al., 2006b) [85] and water soluble fraction from
marine protein sources (Aksnes et al., 2006a) [26].
Interestingly, Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with diets
contain equal proportion of plant and animal proteins gave
better growth rate and feed conversion efficiency (Hari and
Madhusoodana Kurup, 2003) [73].
Hydroxyproline is needed for the production of glycine,
pyruvate, and glucose (Wu et al., 2011) [75]. Previous
researches have suggested that plant protein sources have
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
lesser levels of hydroxyproline (Li et al., 2011) [76], taurine
(Yamamoto et al., 1998) [77], and cholesterol (Cheng and
Hardy, 2004) [78]. However, Zhang et al. (2013) [79] reported
that turbot fed plant proteins in supplementation with
hydroxyproline showed no differences on the growth
performances. Generally, organic acids offer energy for
growth (Eisemann and Van Heugten, 2007; Topping and
Clifon, 2001) [80, 82], immunity (Jongbloed et al., 2000;
Øverland et al., 2000) [81, 25] and gut health (Hamer et al.,
2008) [83]. However, Gao et al. (2011) [84] found that
supplementation of plant protein-based diets with a mixture of
sodium formate and butyrate did not improve growth rate or
feed utilization of rainbow trout. Cholesterol is required for
crustaceans in the diet (Holme et al., 2006) [86]. Fish meal
contains high levels of cholesterol; however, in most plant
sources cholesterol content is significantly much low (Deng et
al., 2010) [87]. It was reported that dietary cholesterol
improves the feed intake and growth performances in fish
when fed with plant based protein diets (Twibell and Wilson,
2004; Chen, 2006) [88-89]. Yun et al. (2012) [12] showed that
dietary supplementation of cholesterol significantly enhanced
the growth performance of turbot when they fed with high
plant protein diets. It is appealed that genetically modified
plant ingredients are accessible in the market of certain
countries ensured to have less ANFs and balanced with EAAs
(Daniel et al., 2016b) [90] which induce the growth (Glencross
et al., 2003) [91] and protein retention (Brown et al., 2003) [92]
in fish.
Apart from the partial replacement of fish meal using the
plant proteins, following authors also suggested that fish can
be fed solely with plant proteins without affecting its growth
and feed intake. Goda et al. (2007) [21] reported that when Nile
tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and tilapia galilae
(Sarotherodon galilaeus) received soybean meal and extruded
full-fat soybean were able to completely replace dietary fish
meal when supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine.
ElSaidy et al. (2003) [93] reported that plant protein mixture
containing 25% soybean meal, 25% cottonseed meal, 25%
sunflower meal and 25% linseed meal, and 0.5% of both
methionine and lysine were able to replace the fish meal
completely in the diet of for Nile tilapia. Lee et al. (2010) [94]
reported that plant based diets consisting of corn gluten,
yellow soy protein concentrate and wheat gluten meal
supplied with limiting amino acids and highly available
inorganic phosphate when fed to rainbow trout replaced 100
% of fish meal without affecting the growth performance and
feed utilization. The combined results from the previous
workers showed that one can prepare feed solely with the
plant based protein sources without addition of fish meal
when the aforesaid advocated situations are met. Table 2 also
showed the lists of some studies supporting that complete fish
meal replaced by plant protein in fish diets did not affect the
animal’s performances.
Table 2. A List of some studies supporting that complete fish meal replaced by plant protein in fish diets did not affect the animal’s
performances
S.
No
Species
studied
Plant Ingredients used
Supported
inclusion level
Remarks
References
1
Gilthead
sea bream
Mixture of corn gluten meal, wheat gluten,
extruded peas, rapeseed meal) balanced with
EAAs
100%
Improved the protein deposition
than those of fish meal based
diet.
Gomez-Requeni
et al. (2004) [38]
2
Nile tilapia
Mixture of plant protein sources
100%
No adverse effect on growth
performances. Around 36% of
the feed production cost was
reduced.
Liti et al. (2006)
[22]
3
Abalone
Soybean combined with either corn gluten meal
or silkworm pupae meal
100%
Growth performances were not
interfered.
Cho (2010) [95]
4
Rainbow
trout
Mix of corn gluten, yellow soy protein
concentrate and wheat gluten meal supplied
with limiting EAAs and inorganic phosphate
100%
No apparent reduction in growth
performance and feed utilization
Lee et al.
(2010) [ 94]
5
Rainbow
trout
Protein from plant protein concentrates with
multiple EAA supplementations and using krill
meal and the water soluble fraction of krill as
feed attractant.
100%
No adverse effect on feed intake
or growth.
Zhang et al.
(2012) [65]
6
Siberian
sturgeon
Mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten meal
with crystalline EAAs and mono-calcium
phosphate
100%
No adverse effects on growth and
protein utilization.
Yun et al.
(2014) [ 96]
Effect of plant proteins on protein retention in fish
Previous studies display that fish fed with plant proteins
reduces the protein retention in fish. The likelihood reason
could be lack of one or more EAAs in the plant proteins as
reported in black tiger shrimp (Richard et al., 2011) [39], tilapia
(Fontainhas-Fernandes et al., 1999) [69]; Atlantic salmon
(Berge et al., 1998; Sveier et al., 2001) [36-37], rainbow trout
(Gomes et al., 1995; Adelizi et al., 1998; De Francesco et al.,
2004) [30, 9, 37] or due to the results of poor metabolic
adaptation of liver to higher plant proteins (Panserat et al.,
2009) [97]. Berge et al. (1999) [98] reported that plant proteins
without supplementation of methionine reduced the feed
conversion in Atlantic halibut. Panserat et al. (2008) [99] have
proven that fish meal substituted with plant proteins decreases
the protein biosynthesis in in rainbow trout. Hansen et al.
(2007) [50] showed that excess plant proteins reduce the
protein retention in Atlantic cod. Lie et al. (2011) [100] reported
that when Atlantic cod fed with higher levels (75%) of plant
proteins affected the anabolic pathways of protein. It was also
reported that turbot fed diet containing the highest level of
plant proteins resulted in the higher rate of protein catabolism
and resulted in the lower levels of N retention (Fournier et al.,
2004) [35].
Though some studies showed that plant proteins in the diet
reduce protein retention of fish, following studies on the other
hand suggested that plant protein may improve the protein
retention in fish. The plausible explanation for the progressed
protein retention may be due to the supplementation of EAAs
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
to the plant diets (Berge et al., 1999) [ 98]. Rolland et al. (2015)
[101] reported that pea protein concentrate supplemented with
crystalline amino acids which include lysine, methionine and
threonine that mimic just like that of fish meal enhanced the
protein synthesis in rainbow trout. The rate of protein
retention increases with higher rate of N retention and lesser
rate of ammonia excretion in fish (Gomes et al., 1993; Cheng
et al., 2003) [102, 47]. Obirikorang et al. (2015) [103] stated that
tilapia fed with palm kernel meal reduced the ammonia
excretion rates. Gomez-Requeni et al. (2004) [38] demonstrated
that gilthead sea bream received the mixture of corn gluten
meal, wheat gluten, extruded peas and rapeseed meal
balanced with indispensable amino acids improved the protein
deposition than that of fish meal based diet. The activation of
target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling is essential for the
protein synthesis (Laplante and Sabatini, 2012) [104]. Maggot
meal is a high-quality plant protein source; it found that fish
diets supplemented with maggot meal activated the TOR
signal pathway resulting in the improved protein synthesis in
turbot (Wang et al., 2015) [105]. It is also possible to agree that
negative effect of plant proteins on protein retention in fish
can be minimised by providing with certain dietary conditions
which are discussed as follows: Espe et al. (2007) [9] agreed
that plant proteins fed with 5% of fish meal, 5% fish soluble
and 3% squid hydrolysate had same responses for protein and
lipid retention equal to that of fish meal based diet in Atlantic
salmon. Sarker et al. (2012a) [106] showed that supplementing
citric acid and fatty acid in the plant based diet drastically
improved the N retention in fish, thereby decreasing the N
excretion. Dietary supplementation of phytase improves the
protein utilization and nutrient deposition in Nile tilapia
(Liebert and Portz, 2005) [107]. Zheng et al. (2014) [108]
reported that lower molecular weight fish protein hydrolysate
improved the protein retention in Japanese flounder when fed
high plant protein diets.
Effect of plant proteins on nutrient digestibility and
utilisation in fish
Previous reports have appealed that plant proteins fed to fish
affect the nutrient digestibility (Fontainhas-Fernandes et al.,
1999; Chong et al., 2002; Gaylord et al., 2004; Santigosa et
al., 2008; Richard et al., 2011; Santigosa et al., 2011a;
Santigosa et al., 2011b; Li et al., 2013) [69, 109, 110, 111, 39, 112, 113,
114]. This can be explained that as plant proteins contain ANFs
which hinder the digestibility of nutrients or excess levels of
fiber or changes in the intestinal micro flora with regard to
feeding plant proteins. Gaylord et al. (2004) [110] suggested
that utilisation of amino acid for the plant ingredients varies;
they are less than fish meal. Richard et al. (2011) [39] showed
that black tiger shrimp fed with plant proteins (mixture of
corn gluten meal, rapeseed meal, sorghum and wheat gluten)
replacing 100% fish meal lowered the leucine digestibility of
as much as 26%. Li et al. (2013) [114] reported that digestibility
and bio-availability of plant proteins was lesser in the channel
catfish when fed with plant ingredients which include corn
gluten meal, distillers dried grains with soluble, and canola
meal. Fontainhas-Fernandes et al. (1999) [69] tested that tilapia
fed on sole plant protein sources had lower digestion than
those of fish meal based diets. In the study by Chong et al.
(2002) [109], the anti-protease inhibitors for protein digestion
was identified in Discus when fed with higher levels of
soybean meal, wheat meal and winged bean. It was reported
that activity of digestive and absorptive enzymes were lower
in grass carp when fed with high-level of plant proteins; but it
got reversed when supplemented with lysine and methionine
(Jiang et al., 2016) [115]. Santigosa et al. (2008) [111] noticed
that when Sea bream was fed with plant protein sources
reduced its digestive activity; but growth rates were similar to
that of fish meal diets as compensation mechanisms were
discovered in this fish i.e. increase in the relative intestinal
length (RIL) and up-regulation of trypsin activity. Santigosa
et al. (2011a) [112] and Santigosa et al. (2011b) [113] reported
that Sea bream and Rainbow trout fed with plant protein
sources delayed the intestinal nutrient absorption.
Although some earlier reports show the negative influences of
nutrient digestion in fish with response to dietary plant
proteins, the evidences are also available that plant based
protein feeding had no adverse effect on the digestibility of
nutrients in fish. Hansen et al. (2006) [116] reported that
Atlantic cod may be fed with plant based feeds up to 44 %
without any adverse impact to nutrient digestibility. Bonaldo
et al. (2011) [8] showed that turbot fed with higher plant
protein (mixture of soybean meal, wheat gluten meal and corn
gluten meal) in the diet did not cause the digestibility of
ingredients and gut histology. Da et al. (2013b) [117] found that
groundnut cake can be used to replace fish meal with no
effect on the diet digestibility in striped catfish fingerlings.
SampaioOliveira and Cyrino, 2008 [118] confirmed that 100 %
plant proteins offered best protein digestibility when fed
together with attractants than that of 50 % of plant proteins:
50 % animal proteins to the carnivorous fish, largemouth
bass. Soybean meal (SBM) is a promising protein source for
fish meal replacement (Lemos et al., 2000) [119]. But it can’t be
used in higher quantities as they contain anti-nutritional
factors (Rumsey et al., 1994; Anderson and Wolf 1995) [120-
121] as well as imbalanced amino acid profile (Wilson, 1989;
Floreto et al., 2000) [122-123]. However it is claimed that solid-
state fermentation strategy using micro-organisms improves
the metabolites along with enzymes and antibiotics that
improve the digestion and metabolism in animals (Holker and
Lenz, 2005) [124]. It is worth noting that there is variation in
digestibility of every ingredient. The selection of plant
ingredients is therefore important due to this variation in the
digestibility of different plant sources. Da et al. (2013a) [125]
reported that apparent protein digestibility of different plant
ingredients such as broken rice, maize meal; soybean meal,
cassava leaf meal and sweet potato leaf meal were not same in
the striped catfish. Papatryphon et al. (2001b) [126] reported
that supplementation of phytase in the feed increased the
apparent protein digestibility in the striped bass. Santigosa et
al. (2011a) [112] reported that 75% of the proteins and 66% of
lipids sources can be replaced by the vegetable sources in
gilthead sea bream without compromising the digestive
processes. Dietary organic acid reduces the pH in the stomach
which results in the enhancing of pepsin activity and protein
digestion in animals (Mroz et al., 2000) [127]. Zhang et al.
(2016) [74] showed that large yellow croaker fed with high
plant protein diets together with citric acid had positive
influence on the digestive functions as well as lowering the
intestinal oxidation. Dietary xylanase is claimed to increase
the microbiota and nutrient digestion in the animals
(Dumitrescu et al., 2011) [128]. Jiang et al. (2014) [23] reported
that xylanase supplementation in plant proteinenriched diets
increases the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activities
as well as intestinal microflora in Jian Carp.
It can also be noted that the digestion, utilisation and bio-
availability of nutrients also depend on the forms and nature
of dietary components. The usage of dietary crystalline
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
methionine was very common in the fish feed to improve the
amino acid bio-availability in fish. However, it is claimed that
they have more leaching which results in the lower bio-
availability to the animals (Yuan et al., 2011) [129] than that of
intact protein (Peres and Oliva-Teles, 2005; Hauler et al.,
2007; Dabrowski et al., 2010) [130-132]. Jost et al. (1980) [133]
demonstrated that oligo-methionine is water-insoluble in
nature. The higher bio-availability of oligo-methionine has
been observed in the rats (Chiji et al., 1990; Hara and
Kiriyama, 1991; Kasai et al., 1996) [134-136]. It additionally
discovered that oligo-methionine notably helped in the growth
performance and feed utilization of white shrimp, Litopenaeus
vannamei as compared to crystalline methionine (CMet) when
fed with plant proteinenriched diets (Gu et al., 2013) [137].
Effect of plant proteins on bio-availability and utilization
of micronutrients in fish
Previous reports of fish showed that fish fed with plant
protein have increased the loss of certain vitamins (riboflavin,
niacin, pantothenic acid and vitamin B12) content of fish
(Bell and Waagbo, 2008) [138]. Vitamin B is very essential for
the proper metabolism of animals. Hansen et al. (2015) [139]
advocated that supplementation of plant based diets need to
be supplemented with the several B vitamins as their
availability is low in plant proteins. Cheng et al. (2016) [140]
demonstrated that plant proteins lower certain mineral
(phosphorus) content in yellow catfish due to very low bio-
availability of P in the plant proteins. Welker et al. (2016) [43]
highlighted that ANFs present in the plant proteins often
make micronutrients including zinc unavailable to the fish
which results in zinc deficiency. Diets prepared with plant
ingredients are often resulting in low P bioavailability to the
animals (Goda et al., 2007) [21]. Approximately 75 % of the P
from plant feedstuffs exists as the phytate-phosphorus that has
low digestibility in fish due to lack of enzyme phytase (Lall,
1991) [141]. Therefore, animals grab less P from the plant
ingredients and create P pollution in the environment in
addition to eutrophication (GESAMP, 1996) [142]. Kaushik et
al. (2004) [48] noticed that European sea bass fed with plant
protein increased the loss of N and P in it. The same tendency
was observed by Lund et al. (2011) [11] in trout, he found that
higher plant proteins lowered the total P content in animals.
Some authors also suggested that supplementing plant protein
showed no poor effect on the bio-availability of
micronutrients. A number of authors explained these as a
result of adopting certain dietary manipulations which are
discussed as follows: Lee et al. (2010) [94] suggested that fish
bone meal can be used as a source of calcium and phosphorus
source to fish when fed on plant proteins without any
detrimental effect on the bio-availability of certain minerals.
It was also found that addition of meat and bone meal (MBM)
at the rate of 7% to plant-protein-based diets improved the P
utilization in the Nile tilapia (Suloma et al., 2013) [143]. It is
advised that fermentation of plant ingredients may improve
micro-nutrients (Vitamin A and B) and essential amino acids
content (Weng and Chen, 2010) [144]. Therefore, one can
expect that fermented plant ingredients can lower the amounts
of micro-nutrients and EAA required in the feed that includes
higher plant proteins. Cheng et al. (2003) [47] reported that
plant proteins supplemented with lysine minimised the dietary
protein level in rainbow trout diets, and reduce ammonia
nitrogen and soluble P excretion. Cheng et al. (2016) [140] also
recommended that improving the P utilization decreases the P
and N pollution to the pond environment. Supplementation of
phytase in the feed increased the P absorption in the striped
bass and Morone saxatilis (Papatryphon et al., 2001b) [126]. It
is reported that increase in the calcium/phosphorus in the diet
had reduced the phytase activity in swine, poultry (Lei et al.,
1994; Qian et al., 1996; Li et al., 1999) [145-147] as well as in
fish (Vandenberg et al., 2012) [148]. The reason may be
because of the formation of insoluble calcium-phytate
complexes which make dietary supplemented phytate
insensitive to phytase (Qian et al., 1996) [146]. Liebert et al.
(2005) [107] reported that Nile tilapia that received microbial
phytase notably increased the P utilization in the plant based
low P diets. Organic acids have a positive influence on the
animal performances; it increases the P absorption in the
small intestine (Ravindran and Kornegay, 1993) [149].
Øverland et al. (2000) [25] suggested that organic acids lower
the pH which increases the ability of P to bind with various
cations and act as a chelating agent, which will further
increase the solubility of P and phytate and absorption in the
small intestine. Sarker et al. (2012a) [106] encouraged that
supplementing with citric acid (CA) and fatty acid (FA) in the
plant based diet significantly increased P retention in
yellowtail, thereby decreasing the P excretion. Besides, it also
reduced the dependence of supplementary inorganic
phosphates (polluting nutrient) to the diet. An addition of
citric acid and formic acid to the plant protein source-based
diets enhances the bioavailability and retention of certain
minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Zn and Mn) in fish (Sugiura et al.,
2000; Sarker et al., 2012b) [150-151]. Zhang et al. (2016) [74]
reported that large yellow croaker fed with high plant protein
diets together with citric acid had positive influence on the
mineral availability.
The utilization and absorption of minerals also depend on
chemical form of minerals i.e. chelated trace minerals or
inorganic trace minerals. Previous reports suggest that
chelated trace minerals have more bio-availability to animals
than to inorganic trace minerals (Shao et al., 2010; Lin et al.,
2013; Katya et al., 2016) [152-154]. The higher availability of
trace minerals from chelated sources is favourable because of
their high stability in the digestive tract, less susceptibility and
less interaction to bind with other organic molecules
(Bharadwaj et al., 2014) [155]. Prabhu et al. (2014) [156] clearly
demonstrated that plasma mineral levels got improved after
postprandial stage in rainbow trout fed with complete plant
ingredients based diet supplemented with di-calcium
phosphate.
Effect of plant proteins on biochemical compositions in
fish
Biochemical compositions of aquatic animals change
according to the diet and its nutritional composition (Zhou
and Yue, 2010) [157]. Earlier reports suggested that plant
proteins in the diet affect the biochemical compositions in
fish. Lund et al. (2011) [11] have established that trout that
received excess plant protein in the diet induced higher
excretion of ammonium-nitrogen, indicating the imbalance of
dietary essential amino acid composition in plant proteins. It
was found that excess supplementation of plant proteins in the
diet resulted in the decreased liver size, plasma triacylglycerol
concentration (TAG) and lipid productive value (LPV) in
Atlantic cod (Espe et al., 2010; Hansen et al., 2011) [158, 10].
Tocher et al. (2003) [159] also showed that Atlantic salmon fed
diets excessive in plant ingredients increased the liver TAG
concentrations. Reports are also claiming that plant protein
sources in the diet result in the reduction in growth and have
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
hypocholesterolemic effect. This may be due to use of high
amounts of plant ingredients which contain negligible
amounts of cholesterol (Yun et al., 2011) [160]. It was also
reported that plant protein in the diet accelerated the fat
deposition in European sea bass (Kaushik et al., 2004)
[48].There are some available reports showing the negative
performances in the biochemical compositions in response to
plant protein intake, some studies are also claiming that fish
can be fed with plant protein without affecting the
biochemical compositions. Rodiles et al. (2015) [58] recorded
that 30% fish meal replacement using the plant protein
sources such as soybean meal, soybean protein concentrate
and wheat gluten meal no longer offered any changes in the
proximate composition of muscle, fatty acid profile and
plasma, hepatic and muscular metabolites parameters in the
Senegalese sole. Hansen et al. (2007) [50] noticed no impact in
the whole body, liver, muscle proximate compositions, blood
parameters as well as health status in Atlantic cod when fed
with high plant proteins. Jiang et al. (2013) [161] showed that
cottonseed meal that replaced 64 % of fish meal had not
compromised the body composition of crab. An interaction of
dietary lysine and methionine in the protein and lipid
metabolism of fish has been recorded in the many fish species
(Walton et al., 1984; Marcouli et al., 2006; Espe et al., 2008)
[162-164]. Lysine and methionine are required for the
biosynthesis of carnitine and energy metabolism in fish
(Tanphaichitr et al., 1971) [165]. Report says that
supplementation of plant sources in the diet often lack these
two essential amino acids for growth. It also observed that
plant based feeds without these two EAA often results in the
inability of fish to obtain these two EAA for the maximal
growth for the tissue protein accretion (NRC, 1993) [166].
Hansen et al. (2011) [10] also endorsed that lysine
supplementation in plant sources influences the lipid
metabolism by lowering the lipid deposition in Atlantic cod.
Gaylord et al. (2007) [167] reported that dietary methionine to
plant based diets reduces intraperitoneal fat composition in
rainbow trout. Liland et al. (2015) [168] reported that Atlantic
salmon fed diets high in plant ingredients with processed
poultry and porcine byproducts reduced the liver
triacylglycerol (TAG). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an
essential fatty acid and have role in the growth, metabolism
and health of the animals (Bureau et al., 2008) [169]. Yu et al.
(2015) [42] showed that compositions of DHA were altered in
sea cucumber when fish meal was replaced with plant
proteins. Dietary cholesterol is important for shrimp for the
growth and survival of crustaceans (Sheen et al., 1994; Smith
et al., 2001) [170, 171]. Previous results in the literature
suggesting that phytosterol from plant proteins may be used
as a cholesterol substitute for shrimp (Gong et al., 2000; Roy
et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2011) [172-174], which recommend
that plant proteins in the diet are able to reduce the cholesterol
supplementation in the shrimp diet.
Effect of plant proteins on flesh quality in fish
In the literature there are many reports for the evaluation of
plant proteins as potential feed ingredients in the diet for
numerous fishes; but only few reports are on its organoleptic
attribute to fish. Previous authors reported that dietary plant
proteins lower the flesh quality of fish (Alami-Durante et al.,
2010; Valente et al., 2016) [44, 13]. De Francesco et al. (2004) [6]
also reported that fillets and some organoleptic properties of
flesh are affected in rainbow trout when fed with plant
proteins for long term duration. Even though some earlier
reports show the adverse effect of dietary plant proteins on
flesh quality in fish, a number of reports are also available in
the literature suggesting that feeding plant proteins have not
affected the flesh quality in fish. It was demonstrated that
substituting fish meal with high level of plant proteins had no
detrimental effects on the texture properties and sensory
attributes (flesh quality) in gilthead sea bream (Matos et al.,
2012; Matos et al., 2014) [175-176]. The similar results were also
obtained in Atlantic salmon when fed to plant proteins
(Johnsen et al., 2011) [177]. Cabral et al. (2013) [56] showed that
fish meal replaced via plant protein sources up to 75% has not
affected the flesh quality of Senegalese sole. Hisano et al.
(2016) [178] reported that plant proteins (corn gluten meal) fed
to pacu did not affect fillet quality in pacu. Kaushik et al.
(1995) [179] and Aoki et al. (1996) [180] exhibited that plant
protein-based diets fed to fish did not alter the organoleptic or
flesh quality of fish. L-Carnitine is the AA considered to have
role in the growth promotion of animals, concurrently reduces
the fat accumulation in the fish tissues by increasing the lipid
oxidation for the utilization of the energy from the lipids
(Harpaz, 2005; Ozório, 2009) [181-182]. It was reported that high
levels of plant proteins with L-Carnitine supplementation
gave growth-promoting effect as well as decreased the
intraperitoneal fat ratio and whole body lipid contents of the
silver perch (Yang et al., 2012) [183]. Excess fat deposition of
fish leads to poor flesh quality and less consumer preference.
Therefore, it might be useful to supplement the L-carnitine to
make sure that greater proportion of the energy is taken by
dietary lipids, which results in less fat deposition. Also, L-
carnitine is usually synthesized from lysine and methionine,
which can be deficient in plant proteins (Yang et al., 2012)
[183]. Therefore, supplementing L-Carnitine is supportable
while increasing the plant proteins in the fish diets; probably
this could spare the lysine and methionine which are the most
important for the animals.
Effect of plant proteins on immune and stress parameters
in fish
Previous authors recommended that increasing plant proteins
in the diet of some carnivorous fish may disturb the immunity
as they contain ANFs (Hardy, 2010) [2]. Vilhelmsson et al.
(2004) [184] reported that rainbow trout fed on high plant
proteins resulted in the over-expression of hepatic genes
involved in stress and welfare in rainbow trout. Ferrara et al.
(2015) [185] reported that soybean meal substituted with 40 %
of fish meal induced inflammatory reaction in the gut of sharp
snout sea bream. Baeverfjord and Krogdahl (1996) [186]
showed that Atlantic salmon fed with soybean meal induced
the enteritis in distal intestine. Overturf et al. (2012) [187]
demonstrated that rainbow trout fed with plant-based diet
down regulated the cell survival and turnover. Sissener et al.
(2013) [188] reported that simultaneous replacement of fish
meal and fish oil elevated the stress in Atlantic salmon.
In contradiction with the earlier findings aforementioned,
some studies also suggested that fish meal can be replaced
with plant proteins without affecting the immune
performances of aquatic animals. Hansen et al. (2006) [116]
recommended that Atlantic cod may be fed with plant based
diets of up to 44 % without any adverse impact on intestinal
or liver functions. Sitjà-Bobadilla et al. (2005) [189] also
mentioned that immune and anti-oxidant status of gilthead sea
bream fed with 50% of plant proteins were not
immunosuppressed. Some studies have also validated that
excess plant protein in the diets did not affect the immune and
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
stress responses in fish when some dietary tactics were
followed. Probiotics are used in the aquaculture to elicit the
immune responses in fish. Merrifield et al. (2010) [15] reported
that rainbow trout fed high plant proteins intercropped with
probiotics supplementation undoubtedly prompted the
immune and strain responses. Some authors are also
suggesting that negative effect of animal with dietary plant
proteins can be alleviated by modifying the gut microbiota
(Wiggins, 1984; Cummings et al., 1986) [190, 191]. Taurine is an
AA proved to have various roles together with
immunoregulation and detoxification (Motawi et al., 2007;
Gulyasar et al., 2010) [192-193]. Li et al. (2016) [19] mentioned
that dietary plant protein diets together with taurine improved
the immunity as well as decreased the ammonia levels in
yellow catfish. Panserat et al. (2009) [97] reported that rainbow
trout fed with higher plant protein diets did not induce the
stress parameters. Dietary nucleotides are claiming to
influence the immunity and stress in fish (Nageswari and
Daniel, 2015) [194]. Guo et al. (2016) [18] reported that
nucleotides fed along with low fish meal diets improved the
immune responses and disease resistances against challenge
with pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in pacific
white shrimp. Haematological parameters are reliable
indicators to assess the health status of fish. Hisano et al.
(2016) [178] manifested that plant proteins (corn gluten meal)
fed to pacu did not affect the haematological parameters in
pacu. Soltanzadeh et al. (2016) [195] reported that faba bean
replaced with fish meal 10 % did not show negative effect on
survival, haematological, and serum biochemical parameters
in beluga. Kpundeh et al. (2015) [17] reported that GIFT tilapia
fed with plant proteins along with fish meal did not affect the
haemato-immunological parameters. Microalgae contain rich
amount of essential molecules of poly unsaturated fatty acids
(PUFA), natural antioxidant molecules as well as carotenoids
(Sporale et al., 2006; Sousa et al., 2008) [196-197]. Sheikhzadeh
et al. (2012) [16] showed that rainbow trout fed with
microalgae in the diet improved the immune and stress
parameters. But the production of microalgae in huge
amounts and its storage is difficult at the farms. Daniel et al.
(2016c) [198] advocated that using the photo bioreactor,
microalgae would be produced in large scale with greater
yield, which can be further dried using the freeze drier and it
can be potentially used to partially replace the costlier feed
ingredients, including fish meal in the diets for aquatic
animals.
Recommendations for further studies
In future, high or complete supplementation levels of plant
proteins are likely to be held in the fish feed. In that
connection, future research is required in the following areas:
Diets prepared with high concentrations of plant ingredients
requiring processing methods to alleviate the ANFs present in
them. Though many processing techniques claim to remove
the ANFs present in the plant feedstuffs, it varies with
ingredients. Therefore, the best processing methods should be
standardised for all the plant ingredients. Future studies
should also address the issues associated with increased
utilization of plant proteins by fish; its negative effects at high
concentration levels should be recorded and proper
technology should be standardised to alleviate these effects. It
is possible that fish that reared in consuming fish meal free
diets may not be adequately store the EAA content in the
tissues. Therefore, the feed should be designed in such a way
that animals can reserve the EAA profiles in the tissues that
are equal to what they can hold when fed with fish meal based
diets. There is no doubt that plant ingredients can reduce the
feed costs; but still feed millers would be motivated to prepare
feeds at lower costs. Therefore, plant ingredients should be
ranked according to the basis of their costs and much priority
of the research should be focussed on cheaper cost
ingredients. The molecular tools should intervene in the feed
nutrition study when replacing fish meal in the fish diets. In
response to dietary intake of plant-based diets, researchers
should study the up regulation and down regulation of genes
connected to the digestion, metabolism and growth processes.
Microarray studies (whole genome analysis) could be done in
fish tissues when they are fed plant diets. These kinds of
studies would certainly help in identifying the effect of plant
diets on cellular processes in fish for the dietary
standardisation limits which don’t disturb the cellular
processes in fish. Earlier authors studied the genotypes versus
diet interactions in the European sea bass with regard to
feeding plant based diet (Le Boucher et al., 2011) [199].
Through these types of approaches it is possible to identify
the fish species that will provide higher positive response to
the plant based diets. For those species, fish feed can be
doubtlessly prepared with higher portion of plant based
ingredients to prepare low cost commercial feeds. Previous
findings have reported that the alternative feeds fed with plant
protein ingredients (irrespective of their low N and P
contents) instead of fish meal increased the plant and fish
yield which ensured more profitability in aquaponics based
intensive fish rearing systems (Medina et al., 2016) [200].
These sorts of results are really encouraging, but similar
research should also be focussed over other intensive fish
rearing practices.
Concluding remarks
Based on the available reports in the literature, the effect of
dietary plant based ingredients on fish has been very well
discussed in this review. It seemed that several authors
working in the fish feed research have agreed on the
inevitable requirement of placing the plant based protein
ingredients to replace fish meal in the diet for commercially
cultivable aquatic animals. Taking this board, we may hope
that fish meal will no longer be a part of the fish diets in
future. Although there is a major challenge in the expansion
of plant ingredients, it is justified by many authors that
through proper dietary tactics fish can be fed with excess
plant protein without any negative performances. Fish meal
may also be balanced with some other micronutrients
(vitamins and minerals) or biologically active compounds
other than specified in the paper (Barrows et al., 2008;
Barrows et al., 2010) [201-202], which will be soon a further
topic of debate in this area and it is likely to be claimed that it
may be the reason for the superior nature of fish meal than
that of plant meals. But it can be expected that through the
development and standardisation of appropriate dietary
strategies, the expansion of plant based sources in the fish
diets can be supported. In overall, author concludes that the
information given in this paper would support the feed
formulators for the development of cost effective diets
without fish meals with maximum addition of plant feedstuffs
in the aqua feeds.
Conflict of interest statement
Author declares that there is no conflict of interest in the
manuscript.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
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... As in Nepal, the cost of fish food is typically a major part of operating expenses for aquaponics everywhere [14]. Fish meal and fish oil have been the major sources of protein in fish food historically, but there is concern about the sustainability of this source, which has resulted in research into alternative inputs [15][16][17][18]. Commercial aquaculture is the primary market for fish food. ...
... Average water temperatures were identical among systems in November (19.4 • C) and nearly identical in December (17.6 • C) during the plant growth study. After the plant growth section of the experiment, and the finding that there were no differences among systems, less frequent measures were made with monthly averages in January-April of 15.2 • C, 16 Table 2). Weekly measures of ammonia (NH 4 ) and nitrite (NO 2 ) rarely exceeded safe levels (<1.0 mg/L, [4]) for the fish and bacteria, only reaching 1 mg/L once in one system. ...
... As indicated above, the search for protein inputs in commercial aqua feeds, other than fish-based products, is a major area of aquacultural research around the world because of the declining availability and increasing cost of fish meal and fish oil ( [16,22,38,39]). Plant-and insect-based substitutes are being tested [16,39], but some of these ingredients have properties that reduce fish growth due to their reduced palatability, anti-nutritional properties, and lower amounts of some amino acids [12,40,41]. Nevertheless, fish farmers in many areas are using farm-produced feeds ( [35,42]), with some of the most common being mustard oil cake and rice bran. ...
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Aquaponics has the potential to contribute to food security in urban Nepal, where agricultural land near cities is rapidly being converted for other uses. This system’s use is expanding in Nepal, but the relatively high cost of commercial fish food is a hindrance. As a result, some aquaponics operators are resorting to alternative, less expensive fish foods. Since the primary input of nutrients to the plants grown in aquaponics comes from the fish food, an evaluation of the impact of fish foods on plant and fish growth is needed to help operators evaluate the costs and benefits of commercial compared to alternative fish diets. This study evaluated the growth of lettuce and common carp, the most common species of plant and fish used in aquaponics in Nepal, with three fish diets (commercial fish food, commercial chicken food, and a homemade diet with mustard oil cake and rice bran) at a commercial aquaponics farm with nine identical systems allowing for three replicates of the three fish food treatments. There were no significant differences in the measurements of lettuce growth (stem length, root length, and stem mass) and few differences in nutrient concentrations in leaf tissue. The specific growth rate of the carp fingerlings was lowest for the fish in the systems fed with the homemade diet (0.21) compared to those fed commercial fish food or commercial chicken food (0.31 and 0.28, respectively). These findings suggest that aquaponics operators who have been buying the more expensive commercial fish food with fish meal as its protein source can save 60–95% of the related costs by using commercial chicken food or the homemade diet defined in this study. This could potentially encourage the expansion of aquaponics systems in Nepal.
... 4 Weight gain. 5 Specific growth rate. 6 Feed efficiency. ...
... 4 Nitrogen retention. 5 Daily lipid intake. 6 Daily lipid gain. ...
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To determine the impact of replacing fish meal (FM) in the diet with various levels of soybean meal (SBM) on the spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus, a 56 day feeding trial was done. Seven diets were formulated with SBM to replace 0% (SBM0), 30% (SBM30), 40% (SBM40), 50% (SBM50), 60% (SBM60), and 70% (SBM70) of FM protein, and SBM50 + T was developed on the basis of SBM50 with the addition of 1.2% taurine. There were triplicate groups of 18 fish (initial weight: 14.62 ± 0.02 g). The weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) values of the SBM0, SBM30, and SBM50 + T groups were found to be significantly higher than those of the SBM60 and SBM70 groups (p < 0.05). The daily energy gain (DEG), daily nitrogen gain (DNG), daily lipid gain (DLG), energy retention (ER), nitrogen retention (NR), and lipid retention (LR) values decreased significantly with increasing dietary SBM levels (p < 0.05). The highest retention of most amino acids (except lysine) was observed in the SBM30 group (p < 0.05). The lipid content of the whole body and dorsal muscle decreased significantly as dietary SBM levels increased (p < 0.05). Fish fed the SBM70 diet had the lowest serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p < 0.05). The effects of different treatments on total cholesterol (T-CHO) were not significant (p > 0.05). Fish fed the SBM0 and SBM30 diets had the highest amylase (AMS) and lipase (LPS) activities (p < 0.05). The lowest liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were observed in the SBM70 group. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of the SBM50 to SBM70 groups were significantly higher than that of other groups (p < 0.05). The levels of interleukin 8 (il-8) mRNA were highest in fish fed the SBM0, SBM30, and SBM50 + T diets (p < 0.05), while the level of transforming growth factor β1 (tgf-β1) was the opposite (p < 0.05). According to the broken line regression of WG and FE, the highest level of FM substitution by SBM for Oplegnathus punctatus was 24.07–25.31%.
... Background to the Study Petroleum (predominantly hydrocabons) discharges have adversely affected human health, and degraded communities in oil producing states, which has negatively impacted the regional economy, and caused socio-economic problems in Niger Delta (Edino et al., 2010). Oil spill amongst other effect result in the interference with natural aeration of water due to the blanketing of water surface by oily film which could deplete the dissolved oxygen content of the water, aquatic lives are destroyed and the contamination of upland surface underground sources of water supply (Ogeleka et al., 2017).Catfish not only provides food for the people, but it also allows for better protein nutrition because it has a high biological value in terms of high protein retention in the body, higher protein assimilation when compared to other protein sources, low cholesterol content, and is one of the safest animal protein sources (Daniel, 2018).The habitat of fishes is water bodies, hence physiological changes in fishes reflects physical and chemical changes in aquatic environment (Gebrekiros, 2016). Anti-oxidant changes in fishes exposed to contaminants have been proposed and used as biomarkers for pollutants such as petroleum products (Eseigbe et al., 2013). ...
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This study examined how crude oil from an oil exploration business in Delta State affected juvenile African catfish's blood, gills, kidney, heart, and liver. 25 juvenile African catfish were employed in the study, divided into 5 groups (5 per treatment) and used for the study. The juveniles were exposed to five concentrations of crude oil (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 1%) for a period of 9days. At the end of the test period, anti-oxidant activities were carried out on the blood, kidney, heart, and liver of the juveniles. The results of antioxidant parameters revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the control and exposed groups, which according to previous studies indicates oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased in the serum of exposed groups except 0.5% crude oil contaminated group when compared with the control group. Ascorbic acid content decreased in the serum of all exposed groups when compared with the control group. In the control stock, none of the juveniles displayed any degeneration. In conclusion, this research has shown that exposing juvenile Clarias gariepinus to crude oil, even at low concentrations, may cause antioxidant alterations in the fish's blood, kidney, heart, liver, and gills
... Many studies have investigated alternative feed sources to replace FM, including soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed, insect, meat and bone, and feather meal (Ai et al., 2006;Campos et al., 2017;Dossou et al., 2019;Huang et al., 2018;Jiang et al., 2018;Magalhães et al., 2017;Psofakis et al., 2020;Rahimnejad et al., 2019;Shi et al., 2017;Tazikeh et al., 2020). Evaluation of alternative resources is essential for the fish feed industry, especially focusing on their role in growth, feed utilization, fillet quality, and antioxidant response, which are critical to the farming and seafood industry (Daniel, 2018). ...
Article
The rapidly growing of the crawfish industry generates a massive quantity of waste by-products such as heads and shells. This study evaluates crawfish shell meal (CSM) as an alternative source to fishmeal. Five isonitrogenous (crude proteins, 40%, dry matter) and isocaloric (crude lipid, 7%) experimental diets, with different levels of CSM to replace fishmeal (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; 75% + bile acids), were formulated to feed koi carps (4.41 ± 0.1 g) for eight weeks. Fish that were fed 25% and 50% CSM diets exhibited no significant differences in growth performance or feed utilization (P > 0.05), whereas these indices decreased significantly in fish that were fed 75% CSM (P < 0.05). Additional supplementation with bile acids did not undo the adverse effects of CSM overdoses (P > 0.05). Dietary CSM increased the visceral, hepatopancreatic, intraperitoneal fat, and intestinal indices. In contrast, only 75% CSM caused the visceral, hepatopancreas, and intestinal indices to differ significantly (P < 0.05). Dietary bile acids almost restored these indices to their original values, with only the hepatopancreas index differing significantly (P < 0.05). Only 75% CSM significantly increased total serum protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). Bile acids did not restore the original levels of these parameters (P > 0.05); however, they significantly restored the decreased muscle moisture induced by 75% fishmeal replacement (P < 0.05). No obvious differences were observed in the proximate, amino acid, and fatty acid compositions of the muscles among the various treatments (P > 0.05). The 75% CSM treatment significantly decreased muscle shearing force, which was recovered by bile acids (P < 0.05). No apparent differences in serum antioxidative and antibacterial enzymes, including catalase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and lysozyme, were observed in the serum and liver; however, replacing 75% of fishmeal with CSM increased serum glutathione peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that up to 50% of fishmeal can be replaced by CSM and that additional supplementation with bile acids has trace positive effects during CSM oversupplementation (75% supplemented level).
... Integration of the aquaculture industry in the sustainable food systems premises potent changes in order to lessen the progressive depletion of wild fish stocks [2][3][4][5][6]. The latter, along with the sharp, increases in fish meal price [1], incentivize the seeking of nutritionally appropriate, and environmentally-sustainable alternatives to fish meal [7][8][9]. ...
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The present study addresses the effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal inclusion on cytoprotective, cell death pathways, antioxidant defence, and intermediate metabolism in the heart, muscle, and digestive tract of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Three experimental diets were formulated to contain 0%, 25%, or 50% inclusion TM levels. Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) induction was apparent in both species’ muscle at 50% inclusion. Conversely, p44/42 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation was increased ( p < 0.05 ) in both species’ muscle and digestive tract at 25% inclusion. Regarding the apoptotic machinery, TM inclusion exerted no influence on gilthead seabream, while suppression through autophagy may have occurred in the muscle. However, significant apoptosis ( p < 0.05 ) was evident in European sea bass muscle and digestive tract. Both fish species’ heart seemed to additionally rely on lipids compared to muscle and digestive tract. In contrast to gilthead seabream, European sea bass exhibited increased ( p < 0.05 ) antioxidant activity at 50% TM inclusion. The present findings highlight the dietary derived induction of cellular responses in a species- and tissue-specific manner, whereas European sea bass appears to be more susceptible to TM inclusion.
... In contrast, extruded feeds had a lower value (350 NTU), that is, 24% less turbidity with extruded feed, suggesting that the pelleted feed could potentially be the cause of water quality decline compared with extruded feeds. Along with improved water stability, another bene t of extruded feed consists of the thermal process during extrusion that in uences feed quality by destroying the antinutritional factors (ANFs) found in some plant raw materials commonly used in aquafeed, such as soybean meal that includes trypsin inhibitors and lectins, which are heat-labile (Daniel, 2018). According to Vidal et al. destroyed during the different treatments that seeds undergo and may wind up in soybean meals (Woumbo et al. 2021). ...
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Feeding strategies have a significant impact on growth and water quality in shrimp farming. Feed management also affects health, survival, and shrimp yields. All these factors contribute to production cost-effectiveness and commercial shrimp industry sustainability. The effect of feeding frequency and two aquafeed cooking processes (extrusion and pelleting) on shrimp performance and water quality parameters were studied under controlled conditions in a 60-day trial with juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed once (10:00 h); twice (10:00 h, 12:00 h); four (10:00 h, 12:00 h, 15:00 h, 18:00 h); and six (10:00 h, 12:00 h, 15:00 h, 18:00 h, 21:00 h, 24:00 h) times/day. No statistical differences ( p > 0.05) in growth rate, survival, nor feed efficiency were observed within pelleted feed treatments at any of the frequencies tested. Growth rate was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) with extruded feed when administered once or twice in daylight (10:00–12:00 h). However, at such frequencies, growth was achieved at the cost of water quality and feed conversion ratio. At higher frequencies (six times a day) with extruded diets, the results in water quality suggest a reduction in total ammonia nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen levels as frequency increased. The outcomes of this study suggest that extruded feed with daylight feeding has the potential to improve growth rate, and an increased frequency could represent a suitable strategy to preserve water quality. This study is the first to show that the extrusion process improves water quality; thus, extruded feeds could reduce effluent pollution impact and improve shrimp farming sustainability.
Article
This study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary copper source and level on hematological parameters, copper accumulation and transport, resistance to low temperature, antioxidant capacity and immune response of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931). Seven experimental diets with different copper sources and levels were formulated: C, no copper supplementation; S, 30 mg/kg copper in the form of CuSO4·5H2O; SO, 15 mg/kg copper in CuSO4·5H2O + 7.5 mg/kg copper in Cu-proteinate; O1, O2, O3 and O4, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg copper in the form of Cu-proteinate, respectively. A total of 840 shrimp (5.30 ± 0.04 g) were randomly distributed to 21 tanks (3 tanks/diet, 40 shrimp/tank). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted. The results showed that there was no significant difference in growth performance and whole shrimp chemical compositions among all groups. Compared with inorganic copper, dietary organic copper (O2 and O3) increased total protein, albumin, and glucose content of plasma, while decreased triglyceride and total cholesterol of plasma. Copper concentration in plasma and muscle and gene expression of metallothionein and copper-transporting ATPase 2 like in hepatopancreas were higher in shrimp fed organic copper (SO, O2, O3 and O4). The lowest mortality after low temperature (10 °C) challenge test was observed in the O2 and O3 groups. Organic copper (SO, O2, O3 and O4) significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity (in terms of higher activities of total superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity, lower malondialdehyde concentration of plasma, and up-regulated gene expression of superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase of hepatopancreas). Organic copper (SO, O2, O3 and O4) enhanced the immune response (in terms of higher number of total hemocytes, higher activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, phenoloxidase, hemocyanin and lysozyme in plasma, and higher gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme and hemocyanin in hepatopancreas). Inorganic copper (Diet S) also had positive effects on white shrimp compared with the C diet, but the SO, O2, O3 and O4 diets resulted in better results, among which the O2 diet appeared to be the best one. In conclusion, organic copper was more beneficial to shrimp health than copper sulfate.
Article
A 90-day experiment was conducted with four-month-old juvenile tench to test seven diets differing in replacement level of fishmeal (FM) by soy protein concentrate (SPC): 0% (control diet), 45%, 55%, 65%, 75%, 85% or 100% corresponding to 0, 312, 383, 451.6, 521.7, 590 or 695 g SPC kg⁻¹ diet, respectively. Methionine and arginine supplementation was included from substitution levels of 55% and above to reach similar values to those provided by the control diet. Survival rate was close to 100%. The highest total length (TL) and weight (W) were reached with the control diet without significant differences from 45% to 55% diets. Significant lower TL, specific growth rate and daily increment in total length were obtained with 65% or higher replacement levels. The percentages of fish with externally visible deformities ranged from 0% to 9.3%, being higher with 75%, 85% and 100% replacement diets.
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Use of microalgae in fish nutrition can relieve pressure on wild fish stocks, but there is no systematic quantitative evaluation of microalgae benefits. We conducted a metanalysis on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina and Schizochytrium as replacements of fishmeal and fish or plant oil, respectively. We reviewed 50 peer-reviewed studies involving 26 finfish species and 144 control vs microalgae replacement comparisons. Inclusion of Spirulina in the fish diet significantly improved growth compared to controls (SMD = 1.21; 95%CI = 0.71–1.70), while inclusion of Schizochytrium maintained the content of omega-3 PUFA of the fish fillet compared to fish fed on fish or plant oils (SMD = 0.62; 95%CI = -0.51-1.76). Benefits were apparent at replacement levels as low as 0.025% in the case of Spirulina and 10% in the case of Schizochytrium oil. Dose-dependent effects were found for Spirulina replacement on growth, but not for Schizochytrium on omega-3 fillet content. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression revealed that ~ 24–27% of variation in effect sizes can be accounted by variation between fish families, the rest likely reflecting variation in experimental conditions. Overall, the evidence indicates that Spirulina and Schizochytrium replacement in aquafeeds can be used to improve fish growth and maintain fillet quality, respectively, but considerable uncertainty exists on the predicted responses. To reduce uncertainty and facilitate the transition towards more sustainable aquafeeds, we recommend that feeding trials using microalgae are conducted under commercially relevant conditions and that greater care is taken to report full results to account for sources of heterogeneity.
Article
Artemisinin (ART) is a kind of Chinese herbal medicine worth exploring, which obtains various physiological activities. In order to study the prebiotic effect of ART on Litopenaeus vannamei fed cottonseed protein concentrate meal diets, six groups of isonitrogenous and isolipid diets were prepared (including the fish meal control group, FM; cottonseed protein concentrate replacing 30% fishmeal protein and supplementing ART groups: ART0, ART0.3, ART0.6, ART0.9, and ART1.2). The feeding trials was lasted for 56 days. The results showed that the final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate of the ART0.6 group were the highest, yet the feed coefficient rate of the ART0.6 group was the lowest significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in survival rate among treatments (P > 0.05). In serum, the content of malondialdehyde in ART0 group was the highest (P < 0.05); the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, phenol oxidase and lysozyme increased firstly and then decreased among the ARTs groups (P < 0.05). The activities of intestinal digestive enzymes (including the trypsin, lipase and amylase) showed an upward trend among the ARTs groups (P < 0.05). The histological sections showed that the intestinal muscle thickness, fold height and fold width in the FM group were significantly better than those in the ART0 group; while the mentioned above morphological indexes in the ART0 group were significantly lowest among the ARTs groups (P < 0.05). Sequencing of intestinal microbiota suggested that the microbial richness indexes firstly increased and then decreased (P < 0.05); the bacterial community structure of each treatment group was almost close; the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria decreased significantly (P < 0.05), such as the Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria at phylum level, besides the Vibrio and Candidatus Bacilloplasma at genus level. In intestinal tissue, the relative expression levels of TOLL1, TRAF6 and Pehaeidih3 showed up-regulated trends, while the expression of Crustin and LZM firstly up-regulated and then down-regulated (P < 0.05). The challenge experiment suggested that the cumulative mortality of FM group was significantly lower than that of ART0 group; besides the cumulative mortality firstly increased and then decreased between the ARTs groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of ART can improve the growth, antioxidant capacity, immune response, gut health and disease resistance of the shrimp. To be considered as a dietary immune enhancer, the recommended supplementation level of ART in shrimp's cottonseed protein concentrate meal diets is 0.43%.
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Nucleotides play an important part in the fish, including transfer of genetic information, metabolism of energy, signalling of cells. Studies on nucleotides in fish evolved during the early 1970s. However, it focused mostly on their role in feeding stimulation and very less on other possible functions. Newly, discovering its other beneficial functions in fish is on-going. Results from the recent studies reveal that incorporation of nucleotides in feed has many useful roles in fish physiology. To date, research conducted in fish with respect to dietary nucleotide proven to have an influential role in the fish health. But, nucleotides as a dietary supplement to fish have not yet well documented; so, it is not frequently used as an ingredient in the fish feeds. Nucleotides have many of the similar functional characteristics as that of antibiotics. Due to many concerns over antibiotics, its usage in fish feed is banned. Therefore, it may suppose that the supplementation of this in fish feed would help to minimize the antibiotics usage in aquaculture. Recent studies enlighten the importance of the dietary need of nucleotides in the fish feed to the nutritionists and feed formulators to be considered for feed incorporation. However, it's commercialization into the feed requires some of the considerations to be met which is discussed in this article. It will be anticipated soon if different sources of with the some biotechnological tools would be discovered to produce it cost effectively for the sustainable application in the aquaculture.
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This review commences by briefly describing the importance of microalgae as a potential feed ingredient in the fish diet. Microalgae are a source of nutrients for fish as well as shrimps. Live microalgae for feeding are being practised in the aquaculture for long ago; but the concerns of using this technique are economics, preservation and storage. It is suggested that instead of using microalgae as live feed, dried microalgae can be used in the feed. It has been noticed that, dried microalgae have a capacity to alleviate those major problems inherent with live microalgae for feed and its suitability to replace the conventional protein ingredients in the fish. Moreover, the production system for freeze dried non-living microalgae is commercially available which ensures the cost efficient dried microalgae will be easily accessible in the market for feed application in animals. The review also highlighted some of the recommendations for future research.
Article
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of trace minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) premixes from inorganic and chelated (chelated to 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid or hydroxy analog of methionine; Mintrex™) sources, in juvenile Pacific white shrimp, (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed plant protein based practical diets. Eight experimental diets comprising a trace minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) deficient Basal control, and diets supplemented with the trace mineral premixes at four different levels of 2.5 (M2.5), 5 (M5), 7.5 (M7.5) and 8.5 g/kg (M8.5) from chelated source and at three different levels of 5 (I5), 8.5 (I8.5) and 20 g/kg (I20) from inorganic source were formulated. Eleven numbers of juvenile shrimp averaging 0.6 ± 0.01 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the eight experimental diets in triplicate groups for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, shrimp fed M2.5 and I8.5 diets exhibited the similar final weight (FW) and weight gain (WG) (P < 0.05). Performance for Cu and Zn content in the hepatopancreas tissues and whole body showed equal efficiency of M5 compared to I8.5 diet (P < 0.05). Whereas, nonspecific enzyme, CuZn super oxide dismutase (CuZn SOD) from the serum and hepatopancreas tissue was recorded to be peaked for the group of shrimp fed M5 diet. Moreover, plasma protein and glucose levels were recorded to be similar between the groups of shrimp fed M2.5 and I20 diets (P < 0.05). Therefore, the present experiment demonstrated, a higher efficiency of chelated over inorganic source of trace mineral premix in Pacific white shrimp, (L. vannamei) fed plant protein based diets.
Three barrows weighing 45.0 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas in both the duodenum and terminal ileum, were assigned to diets in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design experiment to determine the effects of two calcium levels (0.8% vs 0.4%) on phytase activity and nutrient balance in growing pigs. The control diet contained 0.8% calcium, with no added inorganic phosphorus (0.45% total phosphorus) and no added phytase. The two additional experimental diets contained microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg) and supplied either 0.8% or 0.4% calcium. With added microbial phytase, ileal and total tract digestibility of total phosphorus were improved by 20.9 and 13.8 percentage units, respectively (p=0.01). The apparent duodenal and ileal digestibility of phytate phosphorus were increased by 51.8 and 49.7 percentage units (p=0.001). Lowering dietary calcium in the presence of microbial phytase increased the digestibility of phytate phosphorus by an additional 10.9 (p=0.001) and 5.7 percentage units for duodenal and ileal digestibility, respectively. Supplementation with microbial phytase significantly reduced fecal excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus and increased the percentage of these nutrients retained by the pig. Lowering dietary calcium further increased the percentage of dietary phosphorus retained. Overall, reducing dietary calcium appeared to increase the effectiveness of added microbial phytase in degrading phytate phosphorus. As a result, care should be taken to avoid high levels of dietary calcium when supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase.
Article
The positive effects of citric acid (CA) on aquaculture species have been reported. However, extensive application of CA needs a comprehensive understanding of its nutritional functions. A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary CA on growth performance, tissue mineral content, intestinal enzyme activities and oxidative status of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea fed high plant protein diets. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated and fed to triplicated groups of fish. A high fish meal diet formulated with 45% fish meal and 11.5% soybean meal was set as the positive control diet, while a high plant protein diet formulated with 31.50% fish meal and 30.63% soybean meal was used as the negative control diet. The other four diets were supplemented with 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.0% of CA into the negative control diet, respectively. The results showed that the specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein and phosphorus retention, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in whole body and intestine, activities of the leucine-aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and Na+, K+-ATPase were significantly reduced after soybean meal replacement and recovered by dietary CA supplementation (P<0.05). Data on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative responses of intestine showed that the content of malondialdehyde was significantly increased in soybean meal-enhanced diets, which decreased with supplementation of CA varying from 0.4% to 1.6% (P<0.05). The total anti-oxidative capacity, activities of total superoxide dismutase and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase were decreased by soybean meal replacement and increased as CA level increasing from 0.4% to 0.8% (P<0.05). In conclusion, 0.8-1.6% of CA in diet is helpful for large yellow croaker fed high plant protein diets to get better growth performance. The improvement of growth performance could be partly due to the increased mineral bioavailability, enhanced intestinal antioxidant capacity and recovered intestinal function by dietary CA supplementation.Statement of relevance: This study is not a test of commercial aquaculture.
Article
Faba bean (Vicia faba) meal (FBM) is a rich source of protein that may be used as a vegetable protein in the fish diet. In this study, FBM replaced the fish meal in different percentages and its effects were evaluated on growth, body composition, hematological, and serum biochemical indices of beluga (Huso huso) juveniles. Triplicate groups of juveniles (average weight 82 ± 0.8 g) were fed six practical iso-nitrogenous FBM diets formulated at inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 %) for 8 weeks. Final body weight and other growth performances significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by increasing the FBM in the diet from 15 up to 25 %. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in growth indices between the control and the fish fed up to 10 % of FBM. Unlike the crude protein, the body lipid level and moisture contents were affected by the dietary treatments. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the hematological and some serum parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, and total protein levels) between treatments. However, glucose content and liver enzymes levels were significantly different (P < 0.05) by increasing FBM in diet. The results indicated that FBM can be used successfully in the diet of farmed beluga juveniles up to 10 % without adverse effects on growth performance, survival, hematological, and serum biochemical parameters.
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Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate copper, zinc, iron, and selenium in a rat model of cadmium toxicity and effects of antioxidant substances such as taurine, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine. Materials and Methods: Ninety male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into nine groups. Group 1 received tap water comprising the controls; the remaining eight groups received 200 μg/ml cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for three months. Group 2 had CdCl2. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were administered taurine, melatonin and N-acetylcystein for three months together with CdCl2. Groups 6, 7, 8, and 9 had CdCl2 for three months and then only water as the second control or antioxidants for seven days. Cadmium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium levels of heart and brain were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cadmium accumulated in significant amounts in brain and heart tissues when compared with controls. CdCl2 levels in Group 1 and Group 2 were 2.56±0.77 and 27.2±5.82 in the heart, 46.16±14.81 and 300.34±58.19 in the brain, respectively (p<0.001). We found that melatonin was more effective in brain tissue (p<0.05) whereas N-acetylcysteine was more effective in heart tissue (p<0.001) against cadmium accumulation. Conclusion: We suggest that taurine, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine have some protective effects in brain and heart tissues against cadmium accumulation. Furthermore, trace element levels were restorated in different degrees after taurine, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine administration. © Medical Journal of Trakya University. Published by Ekin Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.