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Is grit relevant to well-being and strengths? Evidence across the globe for separating perseverance of effort and consistency of interests

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Abstract

Objective: Researchers conceptualize grit as the combination of two facets: perseverance of effort and consistency of interests toward long‐term goals. We tested the reliability of grit facet scores across the globe and examined how differently each grit facet related to well‐being and personality strengths. Method: An international sample of 7,617 participants from 6 of the 7 continents (excluding Antarctica) completed an online survey. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses and omega reliability coefficients indicated that the 12 items from the original Grit Scale were multidimensional and reliably measured perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. Concurrent validity analyses showed that perseverance of effort was moderately to strongly related to subjective well‐being, beliefs about well‐being, and personality strengths, whereas consistency of interests had weak or negative correlations with these outcomes. The stronger relations with perseverance of effort were replicated across 7 regions of the world. The presence of overall grit was supported in individualistic countries, but not collectivistic countries (Latin America, Asia). Conclusions: We discuss the multidimensionality of grit, including a conceptual understanding of overall grit and how it may differ across cultures. We suggest well‐being and strengths researchers study grit facets separately due to their differential validity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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... Among them, the correlation between grit and subjective well-being (SWB) is of special interest. Many studies found that persons with a higher grit level tend to report higher SWB (e.g., Akbağ & Ümmet, 2017;Jiang, Jiang, et al., 2019;Jin & Kim, 2017), whereas others have showed that the associations were nonsignificant or even negative (Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2018;Kwon, 2021), and no study has summarized the correlation between grit and SWB. ...
... They argued that the overall grit has stronger associations with these outcomes than its two facets alone, which is in line with the views of Schmidt and Hunter (2015). However, other researchers (Credé, 2018;Credé et al., 2017;Disabato et al., 2018) disagree with this view and argue that perseverance of effort and consistency of interest differ in their association strengths and should therefore be considered separately; this is consistent with a pattern pertaining to personality characteristics suggesting that narrower traits generally out-predict their composites (e.g., Mõttus, 2016;Mõttus et al., 2020;Paunonen & Ashton, 2001;Seeboth & Mõttus, 2018). Also, Credé et al. (2017) argued that there are methodological limitations in testing whether grit is a higher order model or a two-factor model. ...
... However, the relation between grit and SWB varies between and within studies. More specifically, grit and its two facets show different (i.e., nonsignificant or negative) correlations with SWB (Akbağ & Ümmet, 2017;Barete, 2019;Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2018;Kwon, 2021). This may indicate that the associations depend on specific subcomponents of these grit facets, as they are differently sampled in different grit instruments (Mõttus, 2016). ...
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The present study conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relation between grit and subjective well-being (SWB). The association between grit (i.e., overall grit, perseverance of effort, and consistency of interest) and SWB (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, happiness, depression, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and school satisfaction) were synthesized across 83 studies and 66,518 participants. The results based on a random-effects model showed a substantial correlation between overall grit and SWB (ρ = .46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [.43, .48]), followed by perseverance of effort (ρ = .38, 95% CI = [.33, .43]) and consistency of interest (ρ = .23, 95% CI = [.17, .28]). The moderator analysis indicated that the correlations between overall grit/consistency of effort and SWB become weaker as age increased, and these links were stronger in affective well-being than in cognitive well-being. Moreover, grit explained unique variance in SWB even after controlling for conscientiousness. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
... Grit, as a trait-like individual difference, has gained widespread attention from researchers around the world in the past decade, given its unique contribution to students' retention and academic achievement above and beyond intelligence and the Big Five personality traits (Chen, Ye, & Hangen, 2018;Credé, Tynan, & Harms, 2017;Datu, Valdez, & King, 2016;Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019;Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007;Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Jiang, Xiao et al., 2019;Usher, Li, Butz, & Rojas, 2019;Werner, Milyavskaya, Klimo, & Levine, 2019). In recent years, researchers from different perspectives, have advocated unpacking the nature of grit and how grit vis-à-vis other psychological factors (so-called non-cognitive factors) influence individuals' academic and nonacademic outcomes (e.g., Disabato et al., 2019;Dixson, 2019;Hagger & Hamilton, 2019;MacCann & Roberts, 2010;Wolters & Hussain, 2015). ...
... Grit, as a trait-like individual difference, has gained widespread attention from researchers around the world in the past decade, given its unique contribution to students' retention and academic achievement above and beyond intelligence and the Big Five personality traits (Chen, Ye, & Hangen, 2018;Credé, Tynan, & Harms, 2017;Datu, Valdez, & King, 2016;Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019;Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007;Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Jiang, Xiao et al., 2019;Usher, Li, Butz, & Rojas, 2019;Werner, Milyavskaya, Klimo, & Levine, 2019). In recent years, researchers from different perspectives, have advocated unpacking the nature of grit and how grit vis-à-vis other psychological factors (so-called non-cognitive factors) influence individuals' academic and nonacademic outcomes (e.g., Disabato et al., 2019;Dixson, 2019;Hagger & Hamilton, 2019;MacCann & Roberts, 2010;Wolters & Hussain, 2015). ...
... Some have extended outcomes, which might be predicted by grit and its two facets, perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, from academic achievement to academic adjustment, wellbeing and/or personality strengths (e.g., Bowman, Hill, Denson, & Bronkema, 2015;Disabato et al., 2019). Some have addressed the independent and joint effects of grit and various frequently studied psychological constructs on academic achievement, including personality and trait variables (i.e., conscientiousness and self-control, see MacCann & Roberts, 2010;Werner et al., 2019) and motivational variables (e.g., self-efficacy, future-oriented motivation, expectancies for success, and task values, see Dixson, 2019;Muenks, Yang, & Wigfield, 2018;Usher et al., 2019). ...
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This study aimed to examine the role that grit, along with conscientiousness, academic self-concept, other-based achievement goals, and competence expectancy, play in predicting Chinese university students’ math performance and subjective wellbeing (i.e., life satisfaction and positive and negative affect). Two hundred and thirty-four university students attended a three-session online survey in their mathematics classes, with their ages ranging from 17 to 24 (Mage = 18.77 and SD = 0.77) years old. The results showed that independently, grit-PE (perseverance of effort) and other psychosocial factors (i.e., other-approach goals, conscientiousness, academic self-concept, and competency expectancy) all made their significant contributions to math performance; grit-CI (consistency of interest), grit-PE, and other psychosocial variables (i.e., conscientiousness, academic self-concept, and competency expectancy) also had significant contributions to life satisfaction and positive affect. Simultaneously, when grit working with other psychosocial constructs in the model, only grit-CI and other-approach goals significantly contributed to math grades; grit-CI and grit-PE, conscientiousness, and academic self-concept significantly predicted life satisfaction; grit-CI and grit-PE and conscientiousness significantly predicted positive affect; and only other-approach goals significantly and positively contributed to negative affect. More importantly, when grit was entered into the hierarchical regression models in the last step, grit-CI and grit-PE still demonstrated their incremental validity in predicting life satisfaction and positive affect, as well as math grades (though grit-CI only), above and beyond those psychosocial constructs examined. The results indicate that the power of grit in explaining math grades and wellbeing may depend on which psychological constructs grit work together. In addition, the two components of grit are suggested to be examined separately considering their different roles in achievement-relevant and non-achievement-relevant outcomes.
... The vast majority of psychological research has been conducted with Western populations (Henrich et al., 2010), and this is also true of studies of grit (Datu et al., 2016). Constructs like grit may be culture-specific because they are embedded in the values and beliefs of a given culture (Disabato et al., 2019). Cultures and social contexts provide individuals with distinct perspectives or schema that inform how they view the self, the world, and the relationship between the two (Kwon, 2018). ...
... This implies that grit may have a distinctive structure in Chinese people's minds. Individuals from collectivistic cultures are likely to be motivated to persevere by the desire to contribute to their families and communities, regardless of their personal interests (Disabato et al., 2019). They highly value achieving goals that advance their families' or communities' interests rather than their own (Lee & Wehmeyer, 2004;Ohtake & Wehmeyer, 2004). ...
... Compared with Westerners, Chinese people seem to rely more on their happiness on their significant other's happiness (Suh et al., 1998). Therefore, following other researchers (Datu & Mclnerney, 2017, p.126;Disabato et al., 2019), we argue that examining grit through a "cultural imaginative lens" is a necessary and promising contribution to this area of research. ...
Article
Many scholars have emphasized the role of passion and effort in successfully achieving goals, but others have argued that many factors can affect goal achievement. This qualitative study explored Chinese students' perspectives on how one achieves long-term goals. We conducted individual, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 13 Chinese university students to capture their past experiences of and perspectives on pursuing long-term goals. A new model in understanding Chinese students' long-term goal striving was proposed with five elements identified: persistent effort, adaptability, self-confidence, self-talk, and social support. Findings from this study enriched grit research by bringing attention to the role of culture in the conceptualization of goal striving. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Grit, which refers to perseverance and passion toward a long-term goal (Duckworth 2016), has been spotlighted as a predictor of positive life outcomes such as academic achievement, professional success, and subjective wellbeing (Disabato, Goodman, and Kashdan 2019;Duckworth et al. 2007;Duckworth and Quinn 2009). Grit consists of two dimensions, perseverance of effort (i.e., showing sustained effort and hard work) and consistency of interest (i.e., sticking to a goal; "stick-to-it-iveness"), and is highlighted as one of the "21st-century competencies" (Shechtman et al. 2013:v). ...
... Most psychological research concentrates on Western samples (Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan 2010), which is also the case with research on grit (Datu et al. 2016;Disabato et al. 2019). Some empirical studies have examined grit in non-Western contexts (e.g., Datu et al. 2016;Hwang et al. 2018;Li et al. 2018;Suzuki et al. 2015), but most of them focused on the outcomes of having grit (i.e., academic performance) in a single country, with very few exceptions (e.g., for exceptions using cross-national data, see Danner et al. 2020;Disabato et al. 2019). ...
... Most psychological research concentrates on Western samples (Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan 2010), which is also the case with research on grit (Datu et al. 2016;Disabato et al. 2019). Some empirical studies have examined grit in non-Western contexts (e.g., Datu et al. 2016;Hwang et al. 2018;Li et al. 2018;Suzuki et al. 2015), but most of them focused on the outcomes of having grit (i.e., academic performance) in a single country, with very few exceptions (e.g., for exceptions using cross-national data, see Danner et al. 2020;Disabato et al. 2019). We know little about whether or how grit is linked to one's structural conditions in different countries. ...
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Despite growing interest from the public, little attention has been directed toward grit in sociology. By disaggregating grit into its component factors (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interest) on the basis of a measurement test, the author examines the potentially contrasting relations of grit to socioeconomic status. Using survey data from the United States and South Korea, the author finds that those with higher socioeconomic status partially translate their structural advantages into grit, particularly into the perseverance-of-effort dimension of grit in South Korea, via their stronger beliefs in personal control over their lives (i.e., sense of control). This study also reveals a negative association between one’s own or parental education and the consistency-of-interest dimension of grit, suggesting that stick-to-it-iveness can be a potential supplementary psychological resource for those who may lack other resources.
... Although Duckworth et al. (2007) described grit as a higher-order factor model (i.e., two latent grit factors loading onto a second-order general grit factor), there is considerable debate over its proper identification (Credé et al., 2017) and international consistency (Disabato et al., 2018). Weak measurement invariance (i.e., equivalence of item loadings) across various countries has been found with the original Grit Scale (Disabato et al., 2018). ...
... Although Duckworth et al. (2007) described grit as a higher-order factor model (i.e., two latent grit factors loading onto a second-order general grit factor), there is considerable debate over its proper identification (Credé et al., 2017) and international consistency (Disabato et al., 2018). Weak measurement invariance (i.e., equivalence of item loadings) across various countries has been found with the original Grit Scale (Disabato et al., 2018). However, there were strong indications that neither general grit nor passion (i.e., consistency of interests) were as functionally equivalent or efficacious in collectivist cultures, including Latin America. ...
... However, there were strong indications that neither general grit nor passion (i.e., consistency of interests) were as functionally equivalent or efficacious in collectivist cultures, including Latin America. Unfortunately, although the number of global groups in Disabato et al. (2018) was impressive, Chile was not represented in their invariance tests. Thus, more study is needed to determine the best empirical measurement structure for the construct, as well as evaluating the functional equivalency of the Short Grit Scale (SGS) in Chile. ...
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As positive organizational behavior research expands internationally, it is necessary to evaluate often-utilized measures for consistency across countries. The aim of this study was to identify three such scales—The PsyCap Questionnaire (PCQ), the Short Grit Scale (SGS), and the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ)—and evaluate their psychometric properties in Chilean and US workers. The Chilean sample (n = 264) was comprised of employees currently enrolled in an MBA program and completed surveys in-person. The USA sample (n = 289) was comprised of employees recruited from MTurk and completed surveys online. Analyses revealed that the 12-item version of the PCQ was superior to the 24-item version. A bifactor model was superior to a one- or two-factor model when using the SGS. Strong measurement invariance was supported for the PCQ-12 and the SGS, but not the GQ. Chileans reported higher PsyCap and general grit compared to US workers. The PCQ-12 and SGS can be reliably used and compared across Chile and the USA, but the GQ requires more study.
... Grit has also been found to be related to a number of indicators of well-being, such as (reduced) depression, life satisfaction, meaning in life, and positive affect across a range of cultures (Credé et al., 2017;Datu, King, et al., 2018;Datu, Yuen, et al., 2018;Disabato et al., 2018;Hill et al., 2014), as grittier individuals are more motivated and capable of pushing through adversity on their paths to reach life goals, more successful in achieving their goals, and more often engage in activities that give them a sense of purpose. Moreover, they report better overall physical health because they have better skills for managing their health (Sharkey et al., 2017). ...
... The higher-order structure originally proposed, with two lower-order factors of consistency of interest, representing passion for long-term goals, and perseverance of effort, representing persistence in efforts to achieve long-term goals, has little empirical support (Credé, 2018;Credé et al., 2017). Moreover, the majority of studies suggest that most of the predictive power of grit comes from the perseverance of effort dimension and not consistency of interest (Bowman et al., 2015;Credé et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2015;Disabato et al., 2018;Goodman et al., 2016). For overviews of issues related to the concept and proposals for refining it, see Credé (2018), Datu (2021), and Tynan (2021). ...
... The purpose of testing these hypotheses was to clarify the role of perseverance of effort, based on the mechanism of pressing on towards one's goals regardless of cost, in predicting well-being and academic performance (Bowman et al., 2015;Credé et al., 2017;Disabato et al., 2018). However, to encompass the entirety of the original concept of grit, all analyses were performed for both of its components, that is, passion as well as perseverance of effort. ...
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Grit, defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, is investigated as a predictor of academic success and well-being. This trait may have special importance for musicians’ functioning as their lives revolve around practice routines and mastering their craft for years. However, there is a growing recognition that extreme perseverance may be maladaptive in some cases. Persistent overinvolvement in goal-oriented activities is related to compulsive overworking, conceptualized within the behavioral addiction framework as work and study addiction. A previous study showed that study addiction is relatively highly prevalent among young musicians and has a clearly negative effect on their functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between grit, study addiction, and psychosocial functioning among music academy students. It was hypothesized that perseverance of effort is related to well-being, grade point average (GPA), and study addiction, and that it becomes maladaptive for individuals addicted to studying. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 213 music academy students in Poland. Perseverance of effort was positively related to GPA and study addiction. The relationships between perseverance of effort and self-rated general health, and between perseverance of effort and quality of life, were moderated by study addiction. The results suggest that grit may become maladaptive perseverance in the cases of individuals at risk of study addiction. Based on these findings, further investigations of grit among musicians, as well as further studies of the negative aspects of grit in general, are warranted. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.
... Research, for example, has casted doubts concerning the replicability of the original two-factor model of grit with perseverance and consistency as dimensions (Credé et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2016). The 'consistency of interests' subscale has yielded poor reliability coefficients especially in non-Western societies (Datu et al., 2016(Datu et al., , 2019Disabato et al., 2019). Further, the consistency subscale had nonsignificant links to optimal psychological outcomes in collectivist setting such as the Philippines (Datu et al., 2016(Datu et al., , 2019 and Hong Kong (Datu & Fong, 2018;Lee, 2017). ...
... Adaptability encompasses an individual's capacity to modify or calibrate goal-related pathways or interests to achieve long-term ambitions (Datu et al., 2017(Datu et al., , 2018a. The relative salience of adaptability in collectivist settings corroborates existing evidence on how the self-concepts are deeply intertwined with interpersonal and situational factors interdependent societies (Suh, 2007;Vignoles et al., 2016) and 'context-sensitive' or malleable aspects of grit (Datu, 2021;Disabato et al., 2019). Further, as students in collectivist societies are more likely to espouse socially oriented reasons for performing academically well (Bernardo, 2008(Bernardo, , 2019, it is reasonable to argue that adaptability might matter for key academic and well-being outcomes. ...
... This research also contributes to mixed evidence on how grit's dimensions relate to well-being with some studies showing stronger intensity of association between adaptability and positive emotions (Datu & Restubog, 2020) as well as life satisfaction (Datu et al., 2021a), while other investigations demonstrating stronger associations of perseverance with life satisfaction (Datu et al., 2018b) and psychological flourishing (Datu et al., 2021a). There is reason to argue that perseverance might be linked to increased satisfaction with life as this dimension of grit was consistently associated with psychological well-being both in individualist (e.g., United States) and collectivist societies (e.g., Mexico and mainland China) (Datu et al., 2021a;Datu et al., 2018b;Disabato et al., 2019). Clearly, this research indicates that perseverance of effort relates to well-being even in gifted high school students. ...
Article
Passion and perseverance for long-term goals (often referred to as grit) has been found to be associated with well-being in typically developing students and adults. However, previous studies primarily relied on a two-factor model of grit, underpinned by perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. This model has received considerable theoretical and methodological criticisms. The research examined the association of an alternative model of grit underpinned by perseverance of effort and adaptability to situations as key dimensions, with students’ life satisfaction in Chinese gifted adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation approach demonstrated that perseverance was linked to higher levels of life satisfaction. Adaptability was indirectly linked to increased life satisfaction via the intermediate variable – career development self-efficacy. Results indicate that perceived confidence in career-related activities might serve as a mechanism through which grit may be linked to higher well-being in gifted students.
... These studies reported conflicting findings concerning the factorial validity, reliability (internal consistency), measurement invariance, and concurrent validity of the scale (cf. Disabato et al., 2019;Kim & Lee, 2015;Tyumeneva et al., 2019;Van Zyl et al., 2020). Most of the contradictory evidence was found in diverse international samples (Van Zyl et al., 2020). ...
... Most of the contradictory evidence was found in diverse international samples (Van Zyl et al., 2020). Specifically, studies highlighted different factor structures of the Grit-O, ranging from a single first-order factor structure, two-factor structure, three-factor structure, and bifactor structure through to less restrictive exploratory structural equation models (Areepattamannil & Khine, 2018;Disabato et al., 2019;Kim & Lee, 2015;Van Zyl et al., 2020). Variation in structure might imply that grit is interpreted differently across nationalities, which brings its validity into question. ...
... Within Duckworth's research group, there has been consistent empirical evidence for the Grit-O Scale as a valid and reliable instrument in various USA-based contexts (Duckworth et al., 2007;. However, in studies not originating from Duckworth's laboratory, the Grit-O Scale produced different factor structures and varying ranges of internal consistency (Credé et al., 2017;Disabato et al., 2019). In addition, Credé et al. (2017) indicate that the Grit-O Scale has predominantly been used in mono-specific contexts. ...
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Despite its popularity in practice, the Grit-O Scale has shown inconsistent factorial structures and differing levels of internal consistency in samples outside the USA. The validity of the Grit-O Scale in different contexts is, therefore, questionable. As such, the purpose of this paper was to determine whether the Grit-O Scale could be used as a valid and reliable measure to compare grit across different nations. Specifically, the aim was to investigate the factorial validity, reliability, and concurrent validity of the Grit-O Scale and to investigate measurement invariance across three national cohorts (Europe, the USA, and Hong Kong). Data were gathered from 1888 respondents stemming from one USA- (n=471), two Hong Kong- (n=361) and four European (n=1056) universities. A series of traditional CFA and less restrictive ESEM models were estimated and systematically compared to determine the best factorial form of the Grit-O Scale. The results showed that a bifactor ESEM model, with one general factor of overall grit and two specific factors (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), fitted the data best, showed strong measurement invariance across the three samples, and showed itself to be a reliable measure. Furthermore, concurrent validity was established by showing that the three grit factors were directly and positively related to task performance. Meaningful latent comparisons between the three cultural cohorts could therefore be made. The results imply that cross-national comparisons of grit may only be problematic when traditional CFA approaches are favoured. In contrast, ESEM modelling approaches may compensate for cross-national differences in understanding grit and control for differences in the interpretation of the scale’s items. Therefore, the bifactor ESEM approach may be more appropriate for cross-cultural and cross-national comparison studies, as it allows for these differences to be meaningfully captured, modelled, and controlled for.
... Given that grittier individuals tend to more effectively manage negative events by reframing them or limiting attention to stressors and focusing on longterm goals (Blalock, Young, & Kleiman, 2015), they may have a lower tendency to seek external sources such as smartphones for gratification or coping purposes. In other words, grittier individuals could be less susceptible to an addictive compensatory use of smartphones, since they are more resilient against stressors (Blalock et al., 2015) and negative emotions (Credé et al., 2017;Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019). ...
... Notably, grit was originally theorized to be a higher-order factor with two subcomponents: consistency in interest (grit-consistency-the tendency to sustain interest over time) and perseverance of effort (gritperseverance-the tendency to work hard despite setbacks; Duckworth & Quinn, 2009). However, recent findings are mixed regarding the factor structure of grit (Disabato et al., 2019). An increasing number of studies present evidence in favor of the bifactor model and suggest that the two facets of grit are differentially related to behavioral outcomes (Bowman, Hill, Denson, & Bronkema, 2015;Disabato et al., 2019). ...
... However, recent findings are mixed regarding the factor structure of grit (Disabato et al., 2019). An increasing number of studies present evidence in favor of the bifactor model and suggest that the two facets of grit are differentially related to behavioral outcomes (Bowman, Hill, Denson, & Bronkema, 2015;Disabato et al., 2019). Specifically, the grit-perseverance factor has shown greater predictive power than the grit-consistency factor in academic performance and cognitive ability (Bowman et al., 2015;Kalia et al., 2018). ...
Article
Recent studies suggest that grit serves as a protective trait against maladaptive smartphone use. However, little is known about possible boundary conditions, such as cognitive abilities, that could modulate the relations. Evidence suggests that the cognitive functions that underlie goal-maintenance abilities—specifically, inhibition—could moderate the relations of the two subfactors of grit (i.e., grit-consistency and grit-perseverance) with problematic smartphone use. Hence, we investigated the moderating roles of two core aspects of inhibition: prepotent response inhibition and resistance to distracter interference. Testing college students (N = 237, Mage = 21.8 years, 73.4% female), we found that only resistance to distracter interference, but not prepotent response inhibition, significantly moderated the link between grit-perseverance and problematic smartphone use. However, neither facet of inhibition moderated the associations between grit-consistency and problematic smartphone use. These results underscore the importance of cognitive inhibition for resisting task-irrelevant distracters and strengthening the protective role of grit-perseverance against problematic smartphone use.
... Although grit has been associated with a range of positive educational outcomes such as academic achievement (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Lam & Zhou, 2019) and school motivation (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), extant literature (Credé et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2017b;Disabato et al., 2019) shared key theoretical and methodological flaws in the two-factor model of grit. First, previous studies have demonstrated that the two-factor model of grit underpinned by perseverance and consistency was not generalizable in different contexts and only perseverance was linked to academic and psychological outcomes (Credé et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2017b). ...
... First, previous studies have demonstrated that the two-factor model of grit underpinned by perseverance and consistency was not generalizable in different contexts and only perseverance was linked to academic and psychological outcomes (Credé et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2017b). Second, the consistency subscale had problematic reliability estimates in non-Western and collectivist societies (Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2019). Third, studies have indicated that compared to grit, conscientiousness had stronger associations with objective academic achievement (Dumfart & Neubauer, 2016;Steinmayr et al., 2018). ...
... Although little is known regarding the generalizability and variability of grit's dimensions in non-Western and collectivist societies, it is plausible that students in contexts characterized by long-term orientation, which reinforces values associated with orientation to long-term incentives and rewards (i.e., China and Hong Kong; Hofstede Insights, 2021), might demonstrate higher levels of grit's dimensions compared to countries with low regard for this cultural value. Further, given the evidence supporting the adaptive role of perseverance in non-Western contexts (Datu et al., 2017a(Datu et al., , 2018bDisabato et al., 2019), it is plausible that this dimension may relate to higher levels of academic engagement in Math and Science in Hong Kong, the Philippines, and mainland China. Corroborating prior research on the psychological and academic benefits of adaptability in the Philippines (Datu et al., 2017a(Datu et al., , 2018a(Datu et al., , 2021 and mainland China (Datu & Zhang, 2020), it is likely that this TMG's dimension may be associated with engagement in Math and Science. ...
Article
This research examines the cross-cultural differences on triarchic model of grit (TMG) dimensions (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) and the associations of grit with academic engagement in Math and Science among secondary school students in one secondary school in Hong Kong (n = 101; M age = 12.44; SD = .60), nine secondary schools in Philippines (n = 575; Mage = 14.66; SD = .83), and two secondary schools in mainland China (n = 710; Mage = 13.39; SD = .56). Result of structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation approach demonstrated that although all TMG dimensions were related to higher engagement in Math and Science, adaptability served as the strongest predictor of these outcomes even after controlling for the participants' cultural settings and conscientiousness. Consistency served as the weakest correlate of engagement outcomes. Conscientiousness, settings, and TMG dimensions explained 46% and 50% of the variance in Math and Science academic engagement respectively. These results provide additional evidence regarding the generalizability of TMG in non-Western societies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... First, although prior work (Créde et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2016) has raised concerns about the generalizability of the two-factor model of grit underpinned by perseverance of effort and consistency of interests, there is still little research on how alternative models of grit may relate to well-being and psychological outcomes. Further, the reliability of the consistency of interests subscale is lower in non-Western and collectivist contexts (Disabato et al., 2019). Second, although past studies have shown that grit and its dimensions have been associated with better interpersonal functioning such as popularity among peers (Lan, 2020), prosocial behaviors , relatedness to parents and teachers (Datu, 2017), peer attachment (Jin et al., 2019), and sense of belongingness (Bowman et al., 2015), little is known about how grit might relate to other social processes and outcomes (e.g., connectedness and school belongingness). ...
... The hypothesized direction of paths in the study are depicted in Figure 1. Given that previous studies have shown mixed evidence regarding the correlations among TMG dimensions (Datu et al., 2021;Disabato et al., 2019), we did not propose any hypotheses on how these dimensions relate to each other. As there is relatively robust evidence supporting the beneficial role of perseverance in mental health outcomes in the Unites States (Bowman et al., 2015;Silvia et al., 2013;Weisskirch, 2018) and the Philippines (Datu et al., 2016(Datu et al., , 2018b, we hypothesize that perseverance will be linked to increased meaning in life (H1), cultivation of happiness (H5), and relatedness needs satisfaction (H10) as well as reduced loneliness (H6) and COVID-19 anxiety (H7). ...
... A key contribution of this study, however, is that it points to the direct effects of adaptability with constructs related to social well-being such as relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life. These findings resemble prior evidence on the mental health benefits linked to espousing higher capacity to modify goal-related strategies or even changing goals that could not be realistically attained (Datu et al., 2018b(Datu et al., , 2021Disabato et al., 2019). ...
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This study examined how the triarchic model of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) is related to cultivation of genuine happiness, loneliness, and COVID-19 anxiety in American ( n = 643) and Filipino ( n = 546) undergraduate students. It also explored whether grit had indirect effects on such social and well-being outcomes via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that whereas all grit dimensions were linked to increased relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in the United States, only consistency and adaptability were associated with such constructs in the Philippines. Meaning in life was related to increased cultivation of happiness and reduced loneliness in both societies. Relatedness needs satisfaction was associated with higher happiness as well as decreased COVID-19 anxiety and loneliness in the United States and the Philippines. Finally, evidence supported indirect effects of grit on cultivation of genuine happiness via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in both settings. This research complements existing literature on the relational and psychological benefits of staying gritty in different societies.
... First, although prior work (Créde et al., 2017;Datu et al., 2016) has raised concerns about the generalizability of the two-factor model of grit underpinned by perseverance of effort and consistency of interests, there is still little research on how alternative models of grit may relate to well-being and psychological outcomes. Further, the reliability of the consistency of interests subscale is lower in non-Western and collectivist contexts (Disabato et al., 2019). Second, although past studies have shown that grit and its dimensions have been associated with better interpersonal functioning such as popularity among peers (Lan, 2020), prosocial behaviors , relatedness to parents and teachers (Datu, 2017), peer attachment (Jin et al., 2019), and sense of belongingness (Bowman et al., 2015), little is known about how grit might relate to other social processes and outcomes (e.g., connectedness and school belongingness). ...
... The hypothesized direction of paths in the study are depicted in Figure 1. Given that previous studies have shown mixed evidence regarding the correlations among TMG dimensions (Datu et al., 2021;Disabato et al., 2019), we did not propose any hypotheses on how these dimensions relate to each other. As there is relatively robust evidence supporting the beneficial role of perseverance in mental health outcomes in the Unites States (Bowman et al., 2015;Silvia et al., 2013;Weisskirch, 2018) and the Philippines (Datu et al., 2016(Datu et al., , 2018b, we hypothesize that perseverance will be linked to increased meaning in life (H1), cultivation of happiness (H5), and relatedness needs satisfaction (H10) as well as reduced loneliness (H6) and COVID-19 anxiety (H7). ...
... A key contribution of this study, however, is that it points to the direct effects of adaptability with constructs related to social well-being such as relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life. These findings resemble prior evidence on the mental health benefits linked to espousing higher capacity to modify goal-related strategies or even changing goals that could not be realistically attained (Datu et al., 2018b(Datu et al., , 2021Disabato et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This study examined how the triarchic model of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) is related to cultivation of genuine happiness, loneliness, and COVID-19 anxiety in American (n = 643) and Filipino (n = 546) undergraduate students. It also explored whether grit had indirect effects on such social and well-being outcomes via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that whereas all grit dimensions were linked to increased relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in the United States, only consistency and adaptability were associated with such constructs in the Philippines. Meaning in life was related to increased cultivation of happiness and reduced loneliness in both societies. Relatedness needs satisfaction was associated with higher happiness as well as decreased COVID-19 anxiety and loneliness in the United States and the Philippines. Finally, evidence supported indirect effects of grit on cultivation of genuine happiness via relatedness needs satisfaction and meaning in life in both settings. This research complements existing literature on the relational and psychological benefits of staying gritty in different societies.
... Both the Grit-O and Grit-S were initially validated with two first-order factors (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interests) and one second-order factor of grit (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Quinn, 2009). However, previous studies have shown that perseverance of effort and consistency of interests are independent from one another, rather than being a part of a hierarchical construct underpinned by these dimensions (Credè et al., 2017;Disabato et al., 2019;Tyumeneva et al., 2019). Moreover, there is evidence supporting a single first-order factor (Areepattamannil & Khine, 2018;Gonzalez et al., 2020). ...
... Arco-Tirado et al., 2018;Guerrero et al., 2016;Oriol et al., 2017) in Western society contexts. There is also evidence that the consistency of interests subscale has poor reliability coefficients in non-Western and collectivist settings (Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2019). ...
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This study evaluated the factor structure, measurement invariance, criterion-related and incremental validity of the Chinese version of the Academic Grit Scale (AGS) among 723 adolescents from mainland China. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the single-factor model, exhibiting scalar invariance across gender and partial scalar invariance across groups (i.e., middle and high school students). The AGS total score showed internal consistency and temporal stability when used one month later. Moreover, academic grit was shown to be positively correlated with academic achievement, general grit, and dimensional student engagement. Academic grit also predicted academic achievement after isolating the effects of the related variables (i.e., general grit and student engagement) and overlapping components of academic grit and the related variables. Overall, the Chinese version of the AGS demonstrated adequate reliability and validity and was shown to be a useful tool for examining academic grit in Chinese adolescents.
... While Duckworth et al. (2007) have demonstrated the academic and work-related benefits of grit, recent studies casted doubts about the applicability of this two-factor model of grit (Credé et al., 2017). Further, prior research (Disabato et al., 2019) has shown that the reliability estimates of the consistency of interest subscale was relatively poorer in non-Western contexts. These findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of grit in non-Western and interdependent societies. ...
... While both dimensions of grit were found to be linked with students' academic performance, perseverance of effort had stronger correlations than consistency of interest, even after controlling for the influence of conscientiousness (Credé et al., 2017). A large-scale crosscultural research (Disabato et al., 2019) has also shown that whereas perseverance of effort was consistently linked to well-being outcomes, consistency of interests was not related to such constructs in various cultural contexts. Indeed, previous studies indicate that perseverance is a more robust predictor of academic, psychological, and well-being outcomes. ...
Article
Objectives: Prior studies have demonstrated the educational and mental health benefits of grit — disposition to show passion and perseverance for long term goals — in different societies. However, there is limited research on how grit's dimensions relate to pro-environmental outcomes. This study aims to explore the associations of grit's dimensions (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interests) with environmental passion, environmentally friendly behaviors, and environmental awareness via a cross-sectional design. Method: A sample of 700 Filipino undergraduate students completed a self-reported survey on grit, environmental awareness, environmental passion, and pro-environmental behaviors. Structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation was used to examine the hypothesized links among grit and pro-environmental outcomes. Results: Both dimensions of grit were associated with all pro-environmental outcomes. Whereas consistency was more strongly linked to environmental passion, perseverance was more strongly related to environmentally friendly behaviors as well as environmental awareness. Conclusions: Results point to the ecological benefits of espousing passion and perseverance for long-term goals.
... Although Duckworth et al. (2007) suggested grit is a single construct with two subscales and the total score of grit scale is more powerful than either of the two subscales (Hwang et al., 2018). Some other studies supported that two subscales of grit are separated and uncorrelated constructs in certain age groups (Muenks et al., 2017) or in collectivist context (Disabato et al., 2019). Disabato et al. (2019) pointed out that the relationship between two facets of grit is too weak to be combined as a single latent construct. ...
... Some other studies supported that two subscales of grit are separated and uncorrelated constructs in certain age groups (Muenks et al., 2017) or in collectivist context (Disabato et al., 2019). Disabato et al. (2019) pointed out that the relationship between two facets of grit is too weak to be combined as a single latent construct. Moreover, the study of Credé et al. (2017) suggested that the effect size of two aspects of grit in predicting psychological variables are different and perseverance is much larger than that of consistency in predicting academic achievement, retention, and intelligence. ...
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Grit, which is a positive trait of an individual, has been found to be a strong predictor to academic success. Prior studies have indirectly showed that there is a negative association between grit and test anxiety. However, which aspect of grit, perseverance of effort or consistency of interest, is more salient in predicting test anxiety was not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between two aspects of grit (perseverance of effort and consistency of interest) and two dimensions of test anxiety (emotionality and worry), as well as the differences of the relationship across gender groups among Chinese students. In the present study, 996 university students from central area of China participated in this study. With multi-group SEM, the study revealed that consistency and perseverance negatively associated with two dimensions of test anxiety. The findings also show that in the female group, consistency predicts test anxiety, but perseverance was not significantly associated with test anxiety; in the male group, both perseverance and consistency were negatively associated with test anxiety, however, compared to perseverance, consistency had stronger correlation with test anxiety. Practical implications of the results are discussed.
... For example, researchers have identified a positive relationship between grit and life satisfaction across different age groups, such as early adolescence (Clark & Malecki, 2019;Oriol, Miranda, Bazán, & Benavente, 2020), young adulthood (Jin & Kim, 2017;Li, Fang, Wang, Sun, & Cheng, 2018), and adulthood (Palczyńska & Świst, 2018); however, when examining the subscales of grit, one meta-analysis found that the subscale of perseverance of effect (PoE) had a much stronger effect on life satisfaction than consistency of interest (CoI) subscale (Credé, Tynan, & Harms, 2017). This differential effect appears to be caused by cultural differences, specifically between individualism and collectivism, on overall grit (Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019). Moreover, Datu, Valdez, and King (2016) revealed that CoI was not significantly related to life satisfaction. ...
... As noted by previous researchers, "the conceptualization of grit is not valid in a collectivist culture where CoI is not highly valued" (Datu et al., 2016, p. 129); individuals in collectivist cultures tend to act in the best interests of their families or societies, rather than their own. It is possible that the GRIT measurement reflects an individual's willingness to devote effort toward personal long-term goals (Disabato et al., 2019), rather than goals that serve the greater good. Therefore, additional research is needed to further explore the nature and implications of GRIT in Chinese culture, as well as the potential mediating or moderating factors between grit and life satisfaction. ...
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Few studies have investigated how the specific facets of trait emotional intelligence (EI) and adversity quotient (AQ) affect individuals’ general life satisfaction. The present study identified three facets of trait EI and five of AQ and explored how each facet relates to individuals’ general life satisfaction. Participants were 256 Chinese adults who completed four questionnaires—the Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test, the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, the GRIT scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. After validating the scales, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that one trait EI component (regulation of emotion) and two AQ facets (tenacity and optimism) significantly and positively predicted individuals’ general life satisfaction. These results suggest that understanding the role of their own and others’ emotions, to be tenacious, and to cultivate positive attitudes and relationships might be a key to promoting their general life satisfaction. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationships between trait EI and life satisfaction and AQ and life satisfaction, and how specific trait EI and AQ facets relate to individuals’ life satisfaction.
... El auge en la investigación del grit viene determinado, principalmente, por su relación con aspectos importantes en la vida de las personas. De esta manera, ha habido una gran proliferación de estudios que relacionan el grit con una buena salud mental (Datu et al., 2021;Disabato et al., 2019), con una mayor actividad emprendedora (Mueller et al., 2017;, y con una mayor estabilidad en el puesto de trabajo (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014;Rodriguez et al., 2019). El contexto escolar ha sido donde el grit ha recibido más atención. ...
... lo que aporta evidencias de validez en relación con otras variables que están relacionadas con el grit. Estos hallazgos van en la línea con otros estudios (Datu et al., 2021;Disabato et al., 2019) que demuestran que el grit, el bienestar y la confianza de uno mismo se relacionan positivamente, pudiendo ser una herramienta muy potente para los estudiantes ante estresores como la situación de la pandemia de la COVID-19 (Bono et al., 2020). Como última implicación teórica, el instrumento EGO mostró diferencias a favor de las personas estudiantes que tenían confianza para terminar el curso frente las que no (d = 0.73). ...
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El grit es una variable importante para predecir indicadores de éxito en diversos contextos entre los que se encuentra el académico. Sin embargo, son escasos los instrumentos de medida de grit bien validados en apoyo a la investigación. El objetivo del presente estudio es consolidar la validación de la Escala Grit de Oviedo (EGO) presentando datos de su validación en Portugal. Se empleó una muestra de 285 participantes portugueses (Maños= 18.46; DTaños= 1.30). Además, se empleó una muestra de población española para analizar la invarianza de medida (330 participantes; Maños= 23.01 y DTaños= 3.22). Se confirmó la unidimensionalidad de la escala EGO en el contexto portugués, mostrando además invarianza escalar entre ambas poblaciones. La fiabilidad de la escala EGO fue excelente (ω= .96), y mostró una correlación moderada con el bienestar subjetivo (r= .28) y con la confianza para terminar el curso académico (r= .33). La escala EGO puede ser empleada para estudiar el grit en Portugal.
... Perseverance of efforts involves the capacity to effectively cope with obstacles and setbacks linked to pursuit of long-term goals while consistency of interests refers to the ability to stay concentrated in one set of aspiration over time. Although earlier studies have proposed that grit was a hierarchical construct underpinned by perseverance and consistency (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Duckworth et al., 2007), recent studies have shown that these dimensions are independent from each other (Crede et al., 2017;Disabato et al., 2019;Tyumeneva et al., 2019). Investigations have also demonstrated that only the perseverance of effort dimension significantly relates to academic achievement (Crede et al., 2017) and well-being (Disabato et al., 2019). ...
... Although earlier studies have proposed that grit was a hierarchical construct underpinned by perseverance and consistency (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Duckworth et al., 2007), recent studies have shown that these dimensions are independent from each other (Crede et al., 2017;Disabato et al., 2019;Tyumeneva et al., 2019). Investigations have also demonstrated that only the perseverance of effort dimension significantly relates to academic achievement (Crede et al., 2017) and well-being (Disabato et al., 2019). In addition, there is inconclusive evidence on how grit's dimensions relate to students' academic engagement. ...
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Although research has shown that two types of academic encouragement (i.e., challenge-focused and potential-focused encouragement) generally increase academic engagement, few studies have explored how they relate to academic engagement among first-year undergraduate students. Moreover, little is known on psychological mechanisms linking encouragement to educational outcomes. This study explored the indirect effects of encouragement on academic engagement via grit’s dimensions (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interests) among 485 Chinese first-year undergraduate students. Results showed that overall academic encouragement, challenge-focused encouragement and potential-focused encouragement positively predicted perseverance of effort and academic engagement. However, the predictive effects of overall academic encouragement, challenge-focused encouragement and potential-focused encouragement on consistency of interests were faint. Results also indicated that overall academic encouragement, challenge-focused encouragement and potential-focused encouragement indirectly predicted academic engagement through perseverance of effort rather than consistency of interests. These findings underscore the importance of identifying pathways through which specific types of encouragement indirectly relate to academic engagement.
... In addition, while the majority of grit studies used the total score of grit in the past (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014;Robertson-Kraft & Duckworth, 2014), recent studies argued that two components of grit can cause different consequences (Bowman et al., 2015;Disabato et al., 2019). For instance, Datu et al. (2016) discovered that the correlation between two factors of grit was very weak, and the perseverance of effort predicted academic engagement, life satisfaction, and positive affect more strongly than consistency of interest. ...
... In addition, unlike Yoo and Choi's (2019) study, we separately analyzed the two components of grit (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), and found that they both partially mediated stress and smartphone addiction. As reviewed earlier, several studies argued that consistency of interest and perseverance of effort may bring different results (Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2019). However, our study found that consistency of interest and perseverance of effort were both negatively related to smartphone addiction and mediated the relationship between stress and smartphone addiction. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of grit on the relationship between stress and smartphone addiction among adolescents. Participants were 605 Korean students from age 12 to 16 (mean age = 13.97 years). Stress was assessed using the Daily Hassles Scales for Children in Korea developed by Han and Yoo (Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 33(4), 49-64, 1995). Grit was measured by the Korean translated version of the Original Grit Scale (Duckworth et al., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101, 2007; Park et al., Current Psychology, 39(2), 413-418, 2020), and smartphone addiction was measured by using the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth developed by the National Information Society Agency (2011). The mediating effect was analyzed by using PROCESS macro version 3.5, and bootstrapping was conducted to test the significance of the mediating effect. The results showed that adolescent's stress and grit significantly influenced smartphone addiction. Also, grit partially mediated the relationship between stress and smartphone addiction. This means that high levels of stress reduced grit, which in turn increased smartphone addiction proneness among adolescents. In addition, two factors of grit (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort) both mediated the association between stress and smartphone addiction. The current study is meaningful in that it is the first study to empirically investigate adolescent's grit in relation to stress and smartphone addiction. Moreover, this study can provide useful information about prevention and intervention strategies for smartphone addiction.
... There is also empirical evidence that grit can be useful as a personal resource reducing the risk of use of psychoactive substances (Griffin et al., 2016). Relationships were also confirmed between grit and subjective psychological well-being, life satisfaction and a sense of harmony -the results turned out to be significant for both sexes (Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019;Vainio & Daukantaitė, 2016). In a study involving young adults in the United States during the first wave of COVID-19 restrictions, grit was demonstrated to positively correlate with physical activity and practice of better eating habits (Totosy de Zepetnek et al., 2021). ...
... In this perspective, grit can be an important factor positively influencing the psychophysical well-being of young people. This is confirmed by the results on the cor-| Marcin Kolemba relation of grit with well-being, both in the study group and in the results obtained by other researchers (Arya & Lal, 2018;Disabato et al., 2019;Vainio & Daukantaitė, 2016). An additional argument for paying more attention to grit, especially in connection with the significant additional burden on schoolchildren resulting from the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, is also that it is not an innate personality trait. ...
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The article presents the results of research carried out during the first wave ofrestrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research covered studentsof high schools – 275 students of schools from Białystok and Bielsk Podlaski,ages 16–19. The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship of thegrit factor with the functioning of young people in a specific situation – remotelearning, combined with additional, burdensome limitations in the public space.The sphere of learning and physical activity were the main areas of functioningthat were researched in the study. The study used an original, author’s question-naire to measure the functioning of young people during the COVID-19 pan-demic. Besides this scale, also used were the Duckworth Short Grit Scale (SGS)(Polish adaptation by Wyszyńska et al., 2017) and the Cantril mental well-beingscale (Cantril, 1965). The study displayed positive relationships between gritand the amount of time devoted to learning in remote mode, with regularityin maintaining the rhythm of the day (getting up at a similar time, taking upphysical activity) and mental well-being.
... Students with high grit are more likely to have positive attitudes toward themselves and others, and are better able to overcome challenges and misfortunes, and this may increase their well-being (Jin & Kim, 2017). Through the perseverance of effort from grit, students are likely to become resilient and may be better able to navigate unpleasant experiences in the pursuit of their goals, which may yield well-being benefits (Disabato et al., 2017). With high grit, students are more likely to achieve their academic goals, and this may increase their subjective well-being (Akbag & Ümmet, 2017). ...
... This finding is inconsistent with several studies that have found that grit was positively and indirectly related to well-being (Akbag & Ümmet, 2017;Vainio & Daukantaité, 2016). Prior studies have shown that grit is positively associated with mental well-being and general well-being (Disabato et al., 2017;Vainio & Daukantaité, 2016). In contrast, in this study, highly gritty students reported lowered well-being, and low gritty students reported higher well-being, which was consistent to Kaur's (2021) finding in that grit is negatively associated with mental well-being. ...
Article
To use self‐control and self‐determination theories in a grit model with self‐control as a mediator of autonomous learning and well‐being. A cross‐sectional online survey using a convenience sampling approach was employed to recruit 511 university students (70.6% female) with an average age of 25. Grit was positively related to self‐control, autonomous learning, and grade point average (GPA). Additionally, self‐control had a mediated effect on the relationship between grit and autonomous learning, and between grit and well‐being. Findings offer insights on the role of self‐control in enhancing autonomous learning and GPA among gritty students. Implications are also offered for research and practice in higher education settings. Students with higher levels of grit reported higher autonomous learning and self‐control. Self‐control mediated the relationship between students' grit and autonomous learning. Self‐control served as a mediator between students' grit and well‐being. Students with higher levels of grit reported higher autonomous learning and self‐control. Self‐control mediated the relationship between students' grit and autonomous learning. Self‐control served as a mediator between students' grit and well‐being.
... First, the construct of grit is highly similar to other personality or psychological constructs, such as conscientiousness and selfcontrol (Fite et al., 2017), calling into the question about whether grit stands as a unique construct with independent characteristics salient for the pursuit and achievement of long-term goals. Second, the two facets of grit (interest and effort) did not consistently show similar relation patterns to individual outcomes, such as meaning in life and life satisfaction (Disabato et al., 2019). Third, both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of grit have shown inconsistent factor loadings of grit (Ellinger et al., 2018;Fosnacht et al., 2019). ...
Article
Long-term goal striving has been recognized as an important stage in goal achievement. Compared with the development of measurements of goal setting, researchers tended to measure goal striving in different manners. This study examined the conceptual structure of goal striving and validated a new scale to operationalize the construct within academic learning contexts. A 25-item scale was validated with 522 Chinese university students to assess its factor structure, reliability, gender invariance, criterion-related validity, and incremental validity. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported both the first-order and second-order model. Overall, the scale showed good reliability, validity, and invariance across gender. We suggested that this new scale could be used as an effective measure to assess the level of goal striving among university students in a Chinese context.
... In addition, when two components of grit (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort) were analyzed separately, they both partially mediated stress and smartphone addiction. As reviewed earlier, several studies argued that consistency of interest and perseverance of effort may bring different results (Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2019). However, our study found that consistency of interest and perseverance of effort were both negatively related to smartphone addiction and mediated the relationship between stress and smartphone addiction. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of grit on the relationship between stress and smartphone addiction among adolescents. Participants were 605 Korean students from age 12 to 16 (mean age = 13.97 years). Stress was assessed using the Daily Hassles Scales for Children in Korea developed by Han and Yoo (1995). Grit was measured by the Korean translated version of the Original Grit Scale (Duckworth et al., 2007; Park et al., 2020), and smartphone addiction was measured by using the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth developed by the National Information Society Agency (2011). The mediating effect was analyzed by using PROCESS macro version 3.5, and bootstrapping was conducted to test the significance of the mediating effect. The results showed that adolescent's stress and grit significantly influenced smartphone addiction. Also, grit partially mediated the relationship between stress and smartphone addiction. This means that high levels of stress reduced grit, which in turn increased smartphone addiction proneness among adolescents. In addition, two factors of grit (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort) both mediated the association between stress and smartphone addiction. The current study is meaningful in that it is the first study to empirically investigate adolescent's grit in relation to stress and smartphone addiction. Moreover, this study can provide useful information about prevention and intervention strategies for smartphone addiction.
... Grittier individuals also engage in more self-regulated learning (Wolters & Hussain, 2015). They are also less inclined to quit as demonstrated in several contexts (Eskreis-Winkler, Shulman, Beal, & Duckworth, 2014) and reported higher levels of wellbeing (Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019), also on a daily level (Jiang et al., 2019). Given the value of grit, especially in the unemployment domain, interventions should be developed through which grit can be enhanced. ...
Chapter
Optimizing job search performance of unemployed job seekers remains a priority for unemployment researchers and practitioners alike. Grit, as a non-cognitive personality trait, may play an essential role in optimizing job search performance. However, grit is largely ignored in the context of unemployment. This chapter first contends that grit interventions should be developed for and implemented in the unemployment context. Secondly, it proposes practical strategies on how job seekers could develop the psychological conditions of grit (interest, deliberate practice, hope, meaning and purpose). Thirdly, it provides an overview of strategies which could be employed to develop a growth-mindset within the unemployed. Finally, it argues how self-determination theory (SDT) could be used to create a need supportive environment which is important to facilitate the job seeker’s adherence to, engagement with grit intervention strategies. In doing so, the chapter contributes to the limited literature on grit interventions, in general, but also more specifically in the unemployment context. It also contributes to incorporating SDT principles in the delivery of grit interventions.
... Both facets of grit were uniquely associated with fewer academic problems. Although Grit-Consistency has been overlooked in favor of Grit-Perseverance, more recent research has indicated Grit-Consistency is associated with outcomes (Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019;Knauft et al., 2019) and needs to be considered more carefully. ...
Chapter
College can be a stressful time for students as they transition to greater independence and increased responsibilities from before. Increased stress levels can have a debilitating effect on their ability to persist with their academic goals. In the psychological literature, researchers believe they have identified a motivation trait that may explain individual differences in persistence and perseverance toward goals. Grit is a motivation orientation characterized by passion and persistence in the pursuit of a long-term goal. Consisting of two facets, Grit-Perseverance and Grit-Consistency, grit has been shown to predict beneficial outcomes in a variety of domains, including academics. Yet, very little work has examined the psychological consequences of gritty goal pursuit. Considering that individuals high on facets of grit are presented as persistently pursuing their goals regardless of setbacks and obstacles it is plausible to speculate that gritty goal pursuit may be associated with increased stress levels. The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of two studies conducted to examine the relations between facets of grit and chronic stress with implications for academic problems in college students. In the first study, 101 participants (72 = Female; 18–24 years) completed the Grit-S Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Bivariate correlations revealed that Grit-Perseverance and Grit-Consistency were negatively correlated with perceived chronic stress. In the second study, 127 participants (88 = Female; 18–32 years) were administered the Academic Problems Subscale of the College Adjustment Scale along with the Grit-S Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Both facets of grit were negatively correlated with perceived chronic stress, thus replicating findings from Study 1. Additionally, regression analysis revealed that Grit-Perseverance and Grit-Consistency predicted fewer academic problems. Finally mediation regression analyses indicated that facets of grit reduced academic problems through decreased stress levels. Overall, these studies suggest that gritty goal pursuit is associated with reduced chronic stress and fewer academic problems in college students.
... It has been argued that grit does so (albeit incremental) above and beyond cognitive ability and conscientiousness (Duckworth et al., 2007). Furthermore, a recent meta-analytic review suggests that the positive relation between grit and academic achievement does not differ across cultures (Disabato et al., 2019;Lam & Zhou, 2022;Li et al., 2018). ...
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Why does conscientiousness matter for education? How is conscientiousness conceptualized in the field of research on education? How do socio-emotional (SE) skills relate to conscientiousness? In an effort to help answer these questions, we review the current research on conscientiousness in education. Specifically, we examine (1) how conscientiousness is defined, (2) the assessment of conscientiousness, (3) the relation between conscientiousness and educational outcomes, (4) whether too much conscientiousness may be a bad thing, (5) the relation between conscientiousness and conceptually related educational constructs, (6) the changeability of conscientiousness and the importance of that fact to education, and (7) the challenges of assessing conscientiousness across cultures.
... The findings of the study regarding the relationship between psychological well-being and grit are in congruence with the findings of Vainio and Daukantaitė (2016) and Disabato et al. (2019). It seems that having passion for teaching propels the teachers through their career despite its challenges (Hiver & Dörnyei, 2017) and enables them to safeguard against the factors impeding their professional development. ...
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The present mixed methods study examined the relationships among Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' turnover intentions, occupational stress, psychological well-being, and grit in light of their teaching experience. The participants of the study were a total of 325 EFL teachers (138 novice and 187 experienced). To collect the data, four instruments of occupational stress, turnover intentions, grit, and well-being were administered to the participants, followed by semi-structured interviews with 20 teachers. Data analyses indicated that the novice and experienced teachers' occupational stress/turnover intentions and grit/ psychological well-being were significantly correlated. The results also revealed that the strength of relationship between occupational stress/turnover intentions and grit/psychological well-being is significantly higher for novice teachers than the experienced teachers. The analysis of the interviews indicated that while occupational stress collectively influences the teachers' identity, emotions, and retaining in the profession, their well-being was largely defined in light of various institutional and socioeconomic factors. The results of the study are discussed and implications for teacher education are provided.
... A study conducted among Chinese adolescents also showed that gritty adolescents experienced more positive affect, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction since they were more mindful in pursuing goals in the present moment . The beneficial effect of grit on well-being has been documented in many other empirical studies (e.g., Datu et al., 2020;Disabato et al., 2019;Jiang et al., 2019;Jin & Kim, 2017); it is thus suggested that grit could serve as a protective factor for suicidality (Kleiman et al., 2013). ...
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To extend our understanding of the development of adolescent grit, we examined the relationships between social support and the two facets of grit (i.e., perseverance of effort and consistency of interest) and whether the relations were moderated by age and gender. Our sample was composed of 1475 Chinese adolescents with ages ranging from 10.65 to 19.24 years old (Mage = 14.98, SDage = 1.66). The results showed that social support was positively related to perseverance of effort but not significantly related to consistency of interest. However, these relations were moderated by age. Specifically, the effect of social support on perseverance of effort declined as age increased, but remained positive among late adolescents. Nevertheless, the effect of social support on consistency of interest was positive only among early adolescents, and the effect decreased and even became marginally negative among late adolescents. Gender difference was further examined, and the results show that the moderating role in the relationship between social support and perseverance of effort was only significant among males rather than females. That is, the positive effect of social support on perseverance of effort did not change with age among females. Theoretic and practical implications are discussed.
... According to the results of his study, grit is positively related to well-being. The higher the grit score has, the higher the level of well-being they have (Disabato et al., 2019). This agrees with the findings on late adolescents and young adults in Istanbul Turkey, South Korea, and Jaipur India found that grit contributes to wellbeing (Akbag & Ümmet, 2017;Arya & Lal, 2018;Jin & Kim, 2017). ...
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Mindfulness based Cognitive therapy (MBCT) is generally considered to be the most effective psychological treatment for depression. There is no research to demonstrate that Mindfulness based cognitive therapy in to the treatment of academic grit. The present pilot study aimed to examine efficacy MBCT to improve academic grit, with a focus on mindfulness and cognitive technique which focuses more on experiential techniques into a group format. This new intervention for academic grit is described session-by-session. Experimental design with the one-group pretest-posttest design. Thirteen student with low score of grit participated in a six session MBCT in a group format. Pretest and posttest scores of academic grit consisting passion and perseverance were compared. Results demonstrated a significant to improve academic grit and dimension of passion and preseverance. A large effect size was found for the improvement. This confirmed the first hypothesis, that there would be a improvement in the level of grit score from pre- to post-intervention. The current study suggests that group MBCT might be an effective treatment for academic grit. However, our sample size was small and this was an uncontrolled study. Therefore, it is necessary to test this intervention in a randomized controlled trial with follow-up assessments.
... Recent research has shown that the perseverance dimension of grit is psychometrically comparable across diverse cultures (Disabato, Goodman, and Kashdan 2019), thus providing a sound measurement basis to explore further relationships with other constructs. In the context of learning and achievement related outcomes, the perseverance aspect of grit is a particularly interesting construct for cross-culture examination. ...
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Research on grit indicates that perseverance positively predicts academic achievement. Yet, the mechanisms through which perseverance might lead to academic success remain less explored, particularly in cross-cultural research. The current study investigated such mechanisms by examining possible mediating effects of students’ use of self-regulated learning strategies (control, memorisation, and elaboration) on the predictive relation of students’ perseverance on their academic achievement, in students from East Asian and Anglo-Saxon English speaking Western countries. The sample came from the OECD PISA study and included 24,352 population-representative 15-year-old students from Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, and the US. Results revealed that perseverance had a more positive association with achievement in East Asian cultures than Western cultures. Control strategy was stronger positive mediators of achievement in Western countries, whereas memorisation and elaboration strategy use and instrumental motivation more negatively mediated the effect of perseverance on achievement in Western countries.
... The literature shows that grit is associated with range of positive factors including academic effort (e.g., time spent on practice) learning outcomes (Duckworth et al., 2011), high-school graduation (Light & Nencka, 2019), retention (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014), academic performance (Li et al., 2018) and student well-being (Datu et al., 2016;Disabato et al., 2019;Vaino & Daukantaitè, 2016). Findings suggest that grittier individuals are better able to use their capabilities, find it easier to engage in extended learning practices, and are less likely to be distracted (Duckworth et al., 2011). ...
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Research indicates that beliefs on the locus of the primary source of learning can have negative effects on learning behaviors in school (Mercer & Ryan, 2011). To an increasing extent, young people in Sweden acquire English outside school through different cultural practices (Sundqvist & Sylvén, 2012). At the same time, students lack enthusiasm in English lessons, which can lead to a reduced investment of effort in the language classroom (Henry, 2014). However, learning a language requires both interest and effort. In psychological research, the capacity of showing consistency in interest and perseverance to achieve a goal, such as learning a language, is defined as grit (Duckworth et al., 2007). Studies investigating the association between grit and language achievement remain scarce. The present study contributes to filling this gap by investigating whether the effects of grit differ across different performance domains (i.e., English, Swedish and Mathematics). An additional purpose is to investigate whether there are differential effects of grit for subgroups of students with different SES, achievement levels, and gender. A total of 4646 compulsory school students born in 1992 were extracted from the Evaluation Through Follow-up Database (ETF). Multiple-group path analysis was used to examine the mechanisms of the grit facets (i.e., interest and perseverance) across time and subgroups. While both interest and perseverance predicted grades in Swedish and Mathematics, interest alone predicted grades in English. The low SES high achieving group also showed higher consistency in interest and perseverance than the other groups, indicating that grit could be more valuable in face of adversities.
... An explanation for the absence of any direct effect from grit-interest to LTPA may be that in order to be physically active, it is sufficient to engage usually in only one specific sport that does not then require consistency of interests to try new things (Hein et al., 2020). Consistent with findings by Disabato et al. (2019), a youngster may change his or her interest from one sport to another during the year, providing another possible explanation for our finding of a nonsignificant link between grit-interest and LTPA. ...
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In this study, we tested two alternative models for investigating the ability of dimensions of personal grit (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort) and autonomous motivation to predict the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) over a one-year period of 256 youth (aged 11-15 years at the beginning of the study). Specifically, we compared a model in which dimensions of grit were assumed to predict LTPA through autonomous motivation with a model in which autonomous motivation was assumed to predict LTPA through dimensions of grit. We tested the two models using variance-based structural equation modelling with Warp PLS v7.0 software. Both models showed a good fit with the data and equally explained 41% of the variance in LTPA over this one-year time period. However, the model based on the total effect of autonomous motivation (β = 0.448, p < 0.001, ES = 0.229) on LTPA through the dimensions of grit was stronger than the model based on the total effect of perseverance of effort (β = 0.356, p < 0.001, ES = 0.126) on LTPA through autonomous motivation, and the total effect of consistency of interest was not significant (β = -0.029, p > 0.05, ES = 0.003). Our findings underscore the relatively greater importance of the interplay between autonomous motivation and perseverance of effort, versus consistency of interest, in predicting LTPA among youth over a one-year period.
... Lastly, the strength of perseverance was mostly involved in physical activities (e.g., hiking and sports) in this study. Positive psychology (Disabato et al., 2018) found that perseverance is strongly associated with grit and prosociality, especially in the context of pursuing intrinsic goals and autotelic activities. Current tourism literature (Voigt et al., 2011) identifies that both effort and perseverance play a part in lifestyle and spiritual retreats (e.g., meditation and religious practice) in relation to which travelers may need to overcome emotional, physical, and mental negativity and challenges. ...
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This study investigates a technology-mediated experience design that fosters memorable and meaningful tourism experiences (MMEs). Technology has been playing an integral role in facilitating people to make personal choices on their tourism activities, from itinerary planning, online bookings, and way findings, to social sharing of people’s journeys. This study shows how technology may offer the potential to transcend personalized experiences into memorable and meaningful experiences. A review of literature in positive psychology provided three insights on MMEs. First, a holistic understanding of MMEs from one’s explicit experiential dimension to implicit experiential dimension, which includes what people do, feel, think, and value. Second, MMEs also result from pursuing growth goals derived from their past, present, and future aspirations. Lastly, character strengths, which represent positive traits of individuals, can be the pivotal component in MMEs because they are the bridge between the implicit and the explicit dimensions of experience. Experience of meaning can emerge by making the implicit explicit, thereby fostering self-awareness, a sense of purpose, and self-development towards flourishing. Therefore, this study seeks to incorporate character strengths into an informatics system so that users can cultivate their character strengths and facilitate users in the appreciation of their MMEs by connecting what they do, feel, think and value. This thesis is composed of interrelated three studies that progress through a design process. The first study explored how technology can support people to cultivate their character strengths for the creation of memorable and meaningful experiences. It resulted in a tripartite strengths-based HCI framework that encapsulates three aspects of strengths used namely, strengths well spent, reflection and introspection, and anticipation of future self. The second study focused on the stage of reflection and introspection by investigating people’s proficiencies in creating visual diary with photos generated on their memorable and meaningful journeys because comprehensive visual storytelling is the prerequisite for people to connect the experience to the associated implicit psychological motives and needs. The result informed the development of a proof-of-concept strengths-based journaling platform. The third study involved the evaluation of the platform from three perspectives. First, on the features that facilitate users to create meaning by making the implicit psychological dimensions of MMEs (e.g., character strengths, motives, and values) explicit. Second, participants’ strengths that had drawn upon on their MMEs. Third, their intentions on cultivating their characters strengths, and pursuing values gained in their future journeys. The result showed that people deepened their self-awareness by using the platform. Also, MMEs more often involved people’s moderate character strengths rather than signature strengths. Participants were more willing to pursue the value gained and develop the character strengths used in their future journeys rather than revisit the places. By making the implicit psychological dimensions explicit, this study showed that technology facilitates people to deepen their self-awareness through recognizing deep-rooted values and appreciate character strengths from their MMEs. The result of this study has multiple implications and contributions to the field of technology-mediated experience design and smart tourism innovation at the levels of empirical research, theory, and artifacts.
... However, the persistence of passion did not guarantee success in educational performance or well-being, although dedication of effort was linked to these (Datu et al., 2017). Furthermore, across individuals throughout the world, the persistence of effort was associated with enhanced well-being and personal qualities, whereas persistence of interest, by contrast, was not positively related to these factors (Disabato et al., 2019). In collectivist settings, being consistent might not be important for learners, since continuously reflecting on individual beliefs and values in different circumstances can disrupt healthy personal interactions (Suh, 2007). ...
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A remarkable point in previous decades in every aspect of life is well-being which is also effective in academic settings, and it is consistent with positive psychology, in which one can recognize how to make everything pleasing. Moreover, grit is another noteworthy point in the process of learning, which is at the center of researchers’ attention in last years as a result of its long-term eminence. In addition, school connectedness is another important factor that was found to be positively related to students’ well-being. Therefore, the current review endeavors to emphasize the mediating role of these two constructs, grit and school connectedness on students’ well-being. Successively, some implications are proposed for educators, learners, teacher educators, and materials developers.
... Modern theories of psychological hedonism even claim that the ultimate reason for pursuing personal goals is that we feel good when we pursue or attain them (Hennecke & Brandstätter 2017, Mees & Schmitt 2008. Therefore, it is also no surprise that persistence is positively linked to different indicators of well-being (e.g., Disabato et al. 2019). ...
Article
Persistence in and timely disengagement from personal goals are core components of successful self-regulation and therefore relevant to well-being and performance. In the history of motivation psychology, there has been a clear emphasis on persistence. Only recently have researchers become interested in goal disengagement, as mirrored by the amount of pertinent research. In this review, we present an overview of the most influential motivational theories on persistence and disengagement that address situational and personal determinants, cognitive and affective mechanisms, and consequences for well-being, health, and performance. Some of these theories use a general approach, whereas others focus on individual differences. The theories presented incorporate classical expectancy-value constructs as well as contemporary volitional concepts of self-regulation. Many of the theoretical approaches have spread to applied fields (e.g., education, work, health). Despite numerous important insights into persistence and disengagement, we also identify several unresolved research questions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Early studies on Grit perceived it as a construct consisting of two factors, persistence of effort and constancy of interest [13]. Persistence of effort refers to the efforts that the individual maintains over time to achieve previously set goals, regardless of the challenges and failures they encounter [14]. On the other hand, the constancy of interest refers to the concern that individuals have for achieving long-term goals [15]. ...
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The challenges faced by students during Physical Education classes embrace both physical and academic aspects. Therefore, each individual possesses a series of internal psychological mechanisms, such as Grit, which allow them to adapt and overcome the vicissitudes. However, there are no scales that assess Grit in Span. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test the factor structure of the Physical Education Grit Scale in Span of Physical Education classes. For this purpose, 857 secondary school students took part in the present study. In order to test the factor structure, a confirmatory factor analysis, an exploratory factor analysis, an analysis of the reliability of the questionnaire and an analysis of temporal stability were carried out. The results showed that the factor structure consisted of two factors and four sub-factors (χ2/df = 2.17 (p = 0.001); CFI = 0.96; TLI = 0.96; IFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.051; SRMR = 0.037). In addition, the reliability and temporal stability analyses showed acceptable indices. Based on these results, evidence of reliability and validity of the Physical Education Grit Scale in Span of Physical Education is provided.
... Where willpower is concerned, long-term benefi ts of these activities have mainly been found in individuals who invest energy into reaching their goals, and then continuous and sustained eff ort into maintaining gains ( Sheldon et al., 2010 ). Grit, defi ned as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, which entails working strenuously toward challenges and maintaining eff ort and interest over time despite failures or adversities ( Duckworth et al., 2007 ), is related not only to achievement, but also to well-being, both hedonic and eudaimonic ( Disabato, Goodman, & Kashdan, 2019 ;Jiang et al., 2019 ;Vainio & Daukantait é , 2016 ). ...
... Many kinds of undertakings necessitate determination and endurance in order to attain long-term goals, and hence past research has found that grit is linked to a variety of positive outcomes, including well-being and satisfaction [44,45]. Grit is a motivating attitude characterized by passion and perseverance toward long-term goals [1]; it entails persevering for years or even decades in the pursuit of a goal, despite setbacks. ...
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Due to the ever-changing organizational and societal conditions that make reliance on external definitions of success unworkable or undesirable, subjective career success has remained a critical topic in careers studies. Among the drivers of subjective career success, research has identified personality traits and job resources as essential sources. Grit, in the form of a personality trait, together with I-deals (job resource) and perceptions of employees’ glass ceiling can provide new insights regarding factors, which can heighten employees’ subjective career success. Therefore, the main purpose of the study is to investigate the direct and indirect effect of grit on each dimension of subjective career success via I-deals and perceptions of the glass ceiling. Surveys from 221 female security forces from both private and public sector in Oyo state, Nigeria, were collected and the data was analyzed using the smartPLS. The results showed that grit is positively related to I-deals, glass ceiling and career satisfaction, but not to happiness, psychological wellbeing, and work engagement. I-deals mediated the relationship between grit and subjective career success’ dimensions, while the glass ceiling did not. This study was able to infer that personality trait (grit) has much to relate with how women perceive the existence of the glass ceiling in their organization.
Chapter
Current measures of grit misrepresent its original conceptualization. This chapter aims to outline the flaws of extant grit measures, particularly in light of recent updated recommendations for maximizing construct validity during scale development. After reviewing empirical findings regarding grit’s construct validity, structure, and association with success outcomes, recommendations for the future development of grit will be proposed. Grit was developed as a higher-order construct consisting of two facets: perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. However, the higher order construct of “overall grit” is not supported by item response theory, factor analytic, or structural equation modeling approaches. Grit is currently better interpreted as two separate constructs, possibly within a bifactor model in which “overall grit” does not consist of perseverance and consistency. After controlling for conscientiousness, perseverance explains little incremental variance in success outcomes. However, perseverance may be related to, but distinct from, lower-order facets of conscientiousness. Consistency is much less associated with success outcomes, and its predictive utility is unclear.
Article
This review examined the relations between grit and academic achievement based on a meta-analysis of 137 studies yielding 156 dependent samples (N = 285,331). Using the robust variance estimation, we found that the correlations of overall grit level with academic achievement were generally weak to moderate (weighted r = .19). The correlation of perseverance of effort to achievement (weighted r = .21) was stronger than that of consistency of interest (weighted r = .08). Adopting a cross-cultural perspective in reviewing these findings, we concluded that the associations between overall grit/2 facets and academic achievement did not differ across individualism-collectivism. We also investigated 7 other moderators, including grit measurement, types of achievement measures, publication type, educational levels, research design, study quality, and the female ratio of sampling in the grit-achievement relationship. After controlling for all proposed moderators, no significant moderators were found in the overall grit-achievement link or the consistency of interest-achievement link. There was a significantly stronger association between perseverance of effort and academic achievement in nonstandardized measures than in standardized measures. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies were conducted to further the understanding of daily experiences of perseverance and passion and the influences of personality traits (e.g., grit and conscientiousness) and contextual factors. Study 1 applied the experience sampling method (n = 116; observations = 5,187) and found that perseverance of effort (PE) predicted passion when controlling for conscientiousness. Study 2 used the day reconstruction method (n = 468; observations = 1,872) and found that both PE and consistency of interest (CI) had effects, although CI was a stronger predictor than PE. In both studies, PE was moderated only by instrumentality of the activity, whereas CI was moderated only by perceived difficulty. We also found mediating effects of instrumentality, (lower) perceived difficulty, and (fewer) intrusive thoughts on the pathways between traits and perseverance and passion. These results deepen our knowledge on why and how perseverance-related traits impact daily experiences of perseverance and passion.
Article
This mixed methods study explored grit and well-being among South African first-year university students (N = 405, female = 57.10%; mean age = 20.59, SD = 1.65 years). The students self-reported their grit and well-being. A small subsample of the students (n = 18, females = 61%) completed individual interviews on how their sense of grit related to their subjective well-being. Regression analysis indicated higher self-reported grit scores predicted higher well-being. Thematic analysis of the interview data indicated that students who reported higher grit statuses also reported greater academic engagement, self-worth, and better self-perceived problem-solving strategies. Student development programs should seek to promote grit as a personal resource in student populations.
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People who take on challenges and persevere longer are more likely to succeed in life. But individuals often avoid exerting effort, and there is limited experimental research investigating whether we can learn to value effort. Because existing research focuses on enhancing cognitive performance rather than increasing the value of effort, it also remains unclear whether individuals can learn to care more about challenging themselves than performing well. We developed a paradigm to test an intuitive idea: that people can learn to value effort and will seek effortful challenges if directly incentivized to do so. Critically, we dissociate the effects of rewarding people for choosing effortful challenges and performing well. We predict that rewarding effortful choices will increase willingness to engage in challenging tasks. We also predict nearand far-transfer effects, as reflected in changes in preferences on unrewarded and unrelated tasks.
Article
Introduction: GRIT, defined as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, is a personality trait that is key to academic success and career achievement. Doctors face significant challenges and exposure to stressful situations throughout their career and require high levels of grit and perseverance to achieve success and avoid burn-out. This study aimed to measure overall levels of grit among hospital doctors and medical students and to compare levels of Grit across specialties and career grades. Method: ology: A cross-sectional survey was used to measure GRIT levels using the validated Short Grit Scale (GRIT-S). Hospital doctors and medical students at University Hospital Galway were asked to complete the questionnaire. Gender, age, grade, education, and speciality were recorded. Analysis was conducted using STATA V12.1™ and SPSS 25™. Results: 378 questionnaires were completed with a participation rate of 75.6% eligible for analysis. The female: male ratio was 1.2:1, with a mean age of 29.6 ± 8.3 years. The mean Grit score of participants was 3.56 ± 0.55. Grit trait was independent of gender and increased with age and grade. Consultants had significantly higher mean Grit score (3.86 ± 0.59, p = 0.004). There was no difference between medical specialities, nor between graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students. Conclusion: our results show that medical students and NCHDs alike have high levels of Grit compared to the general population, and the levels increase with career advancement, with the highest scores observed in consultants. This suggests that Grit might be of benefit as an adjunct in the selection process of applicants for training schemes and jobs that require high levels of resilience, as well as an adjunct to monitoring progress in training from a personality and mental health perspective.
Article
Grit is associated with positive outcomes in nonclinical samples. However, no studies have examined grit in relation to psychopathology in patients with clinical mood or anxiety disorders. Research and clinical experience suggest that individuals who hoard struggle with characteristics associated with grit, such as task persistence, impulsivity, and self-control. The authors tested the hypothesis that hoarding symptoms are associated with less grit in a sample of individuals (N = 72) presenting for treatment to an anxiety disorders clinic. After covarying symptoms of the four mood and anxiety disorders most commonly comorbid with hoarding disorder (viz. depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), the authors found that hoarding symptoms were associated with less grit, and the effects were medium-to-large. These results indicate that grit is worthy of investigation in individuals with hoarding disorder using methodologies that permit inferences about causality, and with attention to clinical implications for prevention or treatment.
Article
To ensure the quality of the work done in the Korean career civil service system (which is characterized by stability, such as lifelong job security), the public sector must use methods to motivate their employees and improve their performance in the long run. In this study, we propose that grit, as a type of work motivation, can boost employee well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, job stress) and organizational outcomes (i.e., organizational commitment, performance). Therefore, the main objective of this study is to assess the validity of grit among public employees from a collectivist culture; to this end, we use the 2016 survey of Korean public officials ( N = 2,070). The results are as follows: (a) grit has a direct positive effect on quality of work life (QWL), (b) QWL can increase employee’s quality of life (QOL), and (c) professionalism and goal-oriented culture negatively and positively regulate grit and QWL. We also examined how employee motivation (e.g., grit) can enrich their QWL and QOL. Altogether, this study supports the argument that human resource (HR) managers should pay attention to grit. To achieve success, one needs not only some level of ability but also the zeal and capacity for hard labor, the latter two of which are considered to constitute grit. Given that, this research targeted grit in the Korean context—not the Western one—and examined its effects in the Korean public sector, where conscientiousness is emphasized.
Article
Although the relationship between leisure and subjective well-being has been widely studied in the leisure literature, the role of an individual’s personality in this relationship has rarely been explored. This study focuses on grit—a personality trait that consists of two dimensions of perseverance of effort and consistency of interest—and examines the relationships among grit, leisure involvement, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from participants (N=347) in a triathlon event held in Japan. The results showed that perseverance of effort was positively associated with attraction, centrality, self-expression, and life satisfaction. Perseverance of effort was also positively indirectly associated with life satisfaction through attraction and negatively indirectly associated with life satisfaction through centrality. These findings contribute to the leisure literature by identifying the utility of perseverance of effort in predicting leisure involvement, and a negative relationship between centrality and life satisfaction in an interdependent cultural context.
Article
This commentary addresses debate over the factor structure of the Grit Scale in both its original and short forms. Commonly (and in our own work), factor solutions are used to establish dimensionality of the construct being measured. For example, a two-factor hierarchical model was proposed for the Short Grit Scale. It has since been pointed out, correctly, that the specified model cannot be distinguished from a model with two correlated subfactors and no higher-order factor. In this commentary, we acknowledge the mathematical equivalence of these specifications and our error in interpretation. However, we also take the opportunity to admit a more profound correction. It is now clear to us that statistical answers cannot definitively settle certain theoretical riddles, and our argument for grit as a compound of related but distinct dispositions should not have relied so heavily on the optimal factor solution for a questionnaire devised to assess it. Rather, a conceptual question demands a conceptual answer, which we briefly attempt here. We conclude by noting the need for improved operationalizations of the tendency to stay committed to goals for years (passion) while working assiduously toward their achievement (perseverance).
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Grit is described as a unitary construct comprised of two elements, perseverance of effort (PE, or ongoing hard work) and consistency of interest (CI, referred to as “passion”). PE and CI together equate to success or achievement, according to the creator of the construct, Angela Duckworth (2016). Grit, which has supporters and detractors, says success is more dependent on PE and CI than on natural talent (Duckworth, 2016). This article presents “grit linguistics,” including the linguistic background of overall grit, PE, and CI and the appropriation of words from other fields into the grit vocabulary. This is followed by research on domain-general grit (grit across domains or areas) and domain-specific grit (L2 grit, i.e., grit for learning a second or foreign language). In addition, the article offers suggestions for future conceptions and assessment of grit.
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This study examined the performance of the weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) through a simulation study using confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Values and cut scores for the WRMR were examined, along with a comparison of its performance relative to commonly cited fit indexes. The findings showed that WRMR illustrated worse fit when sample size increased or model misspecification increased. Lower (i.e., better) values of WRMR were observed when nonnormal data were present, there were lower loadings, and when few categories were analyzed. WRMR generally illustrated expected patterns of relations to other well-known fit indexes. In general, a cutoff value of 1.0 appeared to work adequately under the tested conditions and the WRMR values of “good fit” were generally in agreement with other indexes. Users are cautioned that when the fitted model is misspeficifed, the index might provide misleading results under situations where extremely large sample sizes are used.
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Objective: Although there are several models of the lower-order structure of Agreeableness, empirically derived descriptions of this domain are largely non-existent. We examined the factor structure of Agreeableness items from multiple scales in order to empirically determine the facet-level structure of the domain. Method: Participants (N = 1205; 73% female; 84% White; M age = 35.5, SD = 17.26) completed 131 items from 22 scales measuring Agreeableness. Results: A series of factor analyses were conducted on 104 items to identify factor emergence of the domain, from a single factor to increasingly more specific factors. A five-factor solution consisting of facets labeled Compassion, Morality, Trust, Affability, and Modesty was identified as most appropriate. Factors from all levels of the construct were compared to current measures of the domain as well as a number of criterion variables. The patterns of association with criterion variables at the lower-level of the Agreeableness domain showed significant divergence. Discussion: The current results highlight how specific Agreeableness traits unfold from broader to more specific facets and how these traits are represented in existing measures of this important domain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Grit has been presented as a higher order personality trait that is highly predictive of both success and performance and distinct from other traits such as conscientiousness. This paper provides a meta-analytic review of the grit literature with a particular focus on the structure of grit and the relation between grit and performance, retention, conscientiousness, cognitive ability, and demographic variables. Our results based on 584 effect sizes from 88 independent samples representing 66,807 individuals indicate that the higher order structure of grit is not confirmed, that grit is only moderately correlated with performance and retention, and that grit is very strongly correlated with conscientiousness. We also find that the perseverance of effort facet has significantly stronger criterion validities than the consistency of interest facet and that perseverance of effort explains variance in academic performance even after controlling for conscientiousness. In aggregate our results suggest that interventions designed to enhance grit may only have weak effects on performance and success, that the construct validity of grit is in question, and that the primary utility of the grit construct may lie in the perseverance facet.
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and Keywords Personality psychologists—perhaps even more than in some other disciplines—are deeply interested in what is common to personality descriptions in all cultures and societies. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the potential universality of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality structure. The chapter begins with a discussion of what is meant, or should be meant, by a universal. Discussed then is the empirical support, as well as the conceptual and empirical difficulty, in establishing universality in personality structure, for the FFM as well as other dimensional models. The chapter then considers different levels of analysis (including cultural and intraindividual analyses), higher-order invariants (including sex differences, age differences, and differences in perspective), and whether mean levels are universal. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the basis for personality universals, as well as addressing the common challenges to universality.
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Grit-perseverance and passion for long-term goals-has been shown to be a significant predictor of academic success, even after controlling for other personality factors. Here, for the first time, we use a U.K.-representative sample and a genetically sensitive design to unpack the etiology of Grit and its prediction of academic achievement in comparison to well-established personality traits. For 4,642 16-year-olds (2,321 twin pairs), we used the Grit-S scale (perseverance of effort and consistency of interest), along with the Big Five personality traits, to predict grades on the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exams, which are administered U.K.-wide at the end of compulsory education. Twin analyses of Grit perseverance yielded a heritability estimate of 37% (20% for consistency of interest) and no evidence for shared environmental influence. Personality, primarily conscientiousness, predicts about 6% of the variance in GCSE grades, but Grit adds little to this prediction. Moreover, multivariate twin analyses showed that roughly two-thirds of the GCSE prediction is mediated genetically. Grit perseverance of effort and Big Five conscientiousness are to a large extent the same trait both phenotypically (r = 0.53) and genetically (genetic correlation = 0.86). We conclude that the etiology of Grit is highly similar to other personality traits, not only in showing substantial genetic influence but also in showing no influence of shared environmental factors. Personality significantly predicts academic achievement, but Grit adds little phenotypically or genetically to the prediction of academic achievement beyond traditional personality factors, especially conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Abstract. Maximizing the translation of ability into accomplishment is of considerable interest. A two-factor construct of ‘‘grit’’ as perseverance and consistency of interest has been argued to predict accomplishment over and above personality and IQ (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007). Here we test this in linked analyses addressing the structure of Grit and its fit within broader personality and intelligence constructs. An initial Structural Equation Model (SEM) in 494 subjects (age 18–69 years) confirmed a two-factor structure of the Grit scales. Tests adding facet-level assessments of conscientiousness (C) and neuroticism (N) indicated that while grit consistency fit well under C, grit perseverance and related measures of control defined an ‘‘effortful persistence’’ construct which could not be reduced to effects of C and/or N. While conscientiousness and IQ adequately accounted for school grades, higher perseverance was associated with higher life-course accomplishment. The work supports three factors of central relevance to achievement: IQ, conscientiousness, and effortful persistence, each with distinct mechanisms.
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