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Attitudes toward medicinal marijuana in metropolitan Monterrey, Mexico

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CARTAS AL EDITOR
120
salud pública de méxico / vol. 60, no. 2, marzo-abril de 2018
protegida con contraseñas, y los datos
se almacenan de forma segura.
METS es una plataforma abier-
ta a investigadores interesados en
incluir e-TI y monitorización remota
en intervenciones encaminadas a
aumentar la actividad física y, tanto
la aplicación como la página web,
están disponibles gratuitamente para
pacientes.* Desarrollar herramientas
como METS, e incluirlas en estudios
interdisciplinarios, podría mejorar la
generación de estrategias para resol-
ver el problema del sedentarismo en
México y en el mundo.
Agradecimientos
A Ubisalud, Red Temática de Colabo-
ración Académica-PRODEP. Young
Investigator Award, Conquer Cancer
Foundation (ESPC).
Enrique Soto-Pérez de Celis, M en C Med,(1)
José Abraham Baez-Bagattela, M en C,(2)
Ernesto Lira-Huerta, Ing en Sist,(2)
Alejandro Herrera de la Luz, M en C,(2)
Socorro Parra-Cabrera, DC Epi,(3)
Felipe Orihuela-Espina, D en C Com,(4)
María de la Concepción Pérez de Celis-Herrero,
D en C Com.(2)
maria.perezdecelis@correo.buap.mx
(1) Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición
Salvador Zubirán. Ciudad de México, México.
(2) Benemérita Universidad Autónoma
de Puebla. Puebla, México.
(3) Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.
Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
(4) Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica
y Electrónica. Puebla, México.
https://doi.org/10.21149/8561
Referencias
1. Medina C, Janssen I, Campos I, Barquera S.
Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among
Mexican adults: results from the National Health
FIGURA 1. VISUALIZACIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA DE UN PACIENTE EN
LA APLICACIÓN METS
and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2006 and 2012.
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1063. https://doi.
org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1063
2. 7LEQEL0IZ]86YM^1EXYW'6MZIVE(SQQEV-
GS./YVM1SVEPIW4'YIZEW2EWY0.MQqRI^
Corona ME, et al. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y
Nutrición de Medio Camino 2016. Resultados
Nacionales. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacio-
nal de Salud Pública, 2017.
8LSVRXSR.7*VqQSRX4/LER/4SMVMIV
4*S[PIW.;IPPW+(et al. Physical activity
prescription: a critical opportunity to address
EQSHM½EFPIVMWOJEGXSVJSVXLITVIZIRXMSR
and management of chronic disease: a posi-
tion statement by the Canadian Academy of
Sport and Exercise Medicine. Br J Sports Med.
2016;50(18):1109-14. https://doi.org/10.1136/
bjsports-2016-096291
6MGLEVHW.,MPPWHSR18LSVSKSSH1*SWXIV
C. Face-to-face interventions for promot-
ing physical activity. Cochrane Database
Syst Rev. 2013;9:CD010392. https://doi.
org/10.1002/14651858.cd010392
*SWXIV'6MGLEVHW.8LSVSKSSH1,MPPW-
HSR16IQSXIERH[IFMRXIVZIRXMSRWJSV
promoting physical activity. Cochrane Data-
base Syst Rev. 2013;9:CD010395. https://doi.
org/10.1002/14651858.cd010395
&EPM68VSWLERM-+SPHFIVK7;MGOVEQEW-
MRKLI24IVZEWMZI,IEPXL/RS[PIHKI1EREKI-
QIRX2I[=SVO7TVMRKIVhttps://doi.
org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4514-2
1IREWTk4)JJSVXPIWWEGXMZMX]XVEGOMRK[MXL
Google Fit. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(24):1598.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094925
Attitudes toward medicinal
marijuana in metropolitan
Monterrey, Mexico
Dear editor: Due to the great contro-
versies about the subject, the objec-
tive was to know the public opinion
about the legalization of the medici-
nal (MM) and recreational marijuana
RM. For that, a survey was applied in
the metropolitan area of Monterrey,
Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Individuals
were randomly selected from June
to July 2016 and verbal consent was
obtained. The instrument was com-
posed of three sections and has been
previously described.1 Responses
were trichotomized: agreed (levels 1
and 2), neither agreed - nor disagreed
(level 3) and disagreed (levels 4 and
5) and the results were expressed as
percentages. Differences between
121
salud pública de méxico / vol. 60, no. 2, marzo-abril de 2018
CARTAS AL EDITOR
groups were analyzed with a Chi-
square test and association with a
Spearman correlation.
202 individuals were surveyed,
the average age was 35 years, 61%
were females, 3.4% had elementary,
4.4% secondary, 26.6% high-school,
49.8% bachelor and 15.8% post-
graduate level of education. Overall,
66.5% agree with legalization of MM,
78.6% consider that it is safe when
consumed responsibly and 39.8% con-
sider that legalization will increase
rates of delinquency. The latter was
different according to the level of
education. The 39.8% consider that
legalization will undermine efforts
against drugs and 23.4% consider
that people that support legalization
of MM are consumers of drugs. There
ZDVD VLJQLÀFDQWGLIIHUHQFHE\OHYHO
of education (table I). A positive as-
sociation was found between those
who self-reported having received
formal education about MM and the
opinion about the acceptance of legal-
ization and the safety in its use (table
II). On the other hand, 25.8% support
legalization of RM, 44.3% consider
that it is safe when used responsibly
and 41.3% consider that its legaliza-
tion for any use will increase rates of
GHOLQTXHQF\7KHUHZDVDVLJQLÀFDQW
difference by level of education in
those that consider that RM is safe
when it used responsibly. A negative
association was found between the
level of education and the opinion
about safety in its use; and also a
negative association between the age
and support for legalization” and
“the safety in the use of RM”. 49.1%
reported having received formal edu-
cation regarding MM or RM, 44.8%
know some person that uses mari-
juana to treat some illness and 35.2%
know some person that consumes
RM. A negative association was found
between the educational level and
the opinion: “those who support the
legalization are likely drug users”.
Support for legalization of MM
is similar to a previous study in
Mexico (64%),2 lower than in Israel
(78%) and higher than in Norway
(53%).3 Our results show that few
individuals support legalization
of RM (25%), which is higher than
a previous study in Mexico (10%)2
but much lower than a recent study
in USA.4 The major public support
Table I
ATTITUDES TOWARD MEDICINAL AND RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA
IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF MONTERREY, NUEVO LEÓN, MÉXICO, 2016
Attitude Total
(%)
Gender (%) Level of study (%)
Male Female Basic College
Medicinal marijuana (MM)
In my opinion the use of MM should be legal
Agreed 66.5 73.68 63.71 62.9 70
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 16.3 10.53 18.55 17.1 14.6
Disagreed 17.2 15.79 17.74 20.0 15.4
X2 (p value) 2.34 (p=0.13) 1.10 (p=0.29)
11MWWEJI[LIRYWIHVIWTSRWMFP]
Agreed 78.6 80.52 78.23 78.9 78.3
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 13.4 11.69 14.51 11.1 15.5
Disagreed 8.0 7.79 7.26 10.9 6.5
X2 (p value) 0.28(p=0.60) 0.3 (p=0.86)
-XLMROXLEXPIKEPM^EXMSRSJ11[MPPMRGVIEWIGVMQMREPVEXIW
Agreed 39.8 36.36 41.94 44.3 37.4
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 25.9 27.28 25.00 32.8 22.1
Disagreed 33.8 36.36 33.06 22.9 40.5
X2 (p value) 0.76(p=0.38) 6.69 (p=0.04)
0IKEPM^EXMSRSJ11[MPPYRHIVQMRIXLIIJJSVXWEKEMRWXHVYKW
Agreed 39.8 38.96 40.32 45.7 36.6
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 27.4 29.87 25.81 31.4 25.2
Disagreed 32.8 31.17 33.87 22.9 38.2
X2 (p value) 0.02(p=0.89) 3.00 (p=0.08)
4ISTPIXLEXWYTTSVXPIKEPM^EXMSRSJ11EVIHVYKGSRWYQIVW
Agreed 23.4 24.68 22.58 32.9 18.3
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 21.9 24.67 20.16 27.1 19.1
Disagreed 54.7 50.65 57.26 40.1 62.6
X2 (p value) 0.11(p=0.74) 5.92 (p=0.02)
Recreational marijuana (RM)
In my opinion the use of recreational of RM should be legal
Agreed 25.9 29.87 23.39 27.1 25.2
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 24.9 18.18 29.03 24.3 25.2
Disagreed 49.2 51.95 47.58 48.6 49.6
X2 (p value) 1.26(p=0.26) 0.10 (p=0.75)
61MWWEJI[LIRYWIHVIWTSRWMFP]
Agreed 44.3 48.05 41.94 55.7 38.2
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 19.4 18.18 20.16 17.1 20.6
Disagreed 36.3 37.77 37.90 27.1 41.2
X2 (p value) 0.73(p=0.39) 6.50 (p=0.01)
0IKEPM^EXMSRSJQEVMNYERE[MPPMRGVIEWIGVMQMREPVEXIW
Agreed 41.3 41.56 41.13 42.9 40.5
Neither agreed-nor disagreed 26.4 28.67 25.00 28.6 25.2
Disagreed 32.3 29.87 33.87 28.6 34.4
X2 (p value) 0.02(p=0.89) 0.80 (p=0.77)
8LIWYVZI][EWETTPMIHMRXLI1IHMGEPEVIESJ9RMZIVWMHEH%YXzRSQEHI2YIZS0IzRERHXLIZMGMRMX]SJ
the Rectory building from June to July 2016
CARTAS AL EDITOR
122
salud pública de méxico / vol. 60, no. 2, marzo-abril de 2018
for legalization of MM versus RM
in Mexico is consistent with other
Latin-American countries.5
The positive association between
“to have received formal education
about marijuana” with “support for
legalization of MM” and with “safety
when used responsiblyhighlight the
importance and the need of education
about MM and RM.
María del Rosario González-González, PhD,(1)
Myrna Laura Yeverino-Gutiérrez, PhD,(1)
Omar González-Santiago, PhD.(1)
omar.gonzalezst@uanl.edu.mx
(1) Facultad de Ciencias Químicas,
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León.
Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
https://doi.org/10.21149/8605
References
1SIPPIV/);SSHW&4LEVQEG]7XYHIRXW´
/RS[PIHKIERH%XXMXYHIW6IKEVHMRK1IHMGEP1E-
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de México: Parametría, 2013 [cited 2017 Jan 3].
Available from: LXXT[[[TEVEQIXVMEGSQQ\
carta_parametrica.php?cp=4572
Table II
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTITUDES TO MEDICINAL AND RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA
AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES. MONTERREY, NUEVO LEÓN, MÉXICO, 2016
Attitude Gender Age Education Had received
education MM
Know someone
who uses MM
Know someone
who uses RM
Medicinal marijuana
-RQ]STMRMSRXLIYWISJ11WLSYPHFIPIKEPM^IH -0.084 -0.112 0.072 0.153* 0.065 -0.012
11MWWEJI[LIRYWIHVIWTSRWMFP] -0.013 0.022 0.072 0.156* 0.077 0.138
-XLMROXLEXPIKEPM^EXMSRSJ11[MPPMRGVIEWIGVMQMREPVEXIW 0.058 0.114 -0.073 0.037 0.041 0.066
0IKEPM^EXMSRSJ11[MPPMQTEMVIJJSVXWXSGSQFEXHVYKW -0.014 0.079 -0.116 -0.090 0.029 0.114
4ISTPIXLEXWYTTSVXPIKEPM^EXMSRSJ11EVIHVYKGSRWYQIVW -0.062 -0.042 -0.210* -0.018 0.062 0.054
Recreational marijuana
-RQ]STMRMSRXLIYWISJ61WLSYPHFIPIKEPM^IH -0.007 -0,146* -0.060 0.015 -0.049 0.160*
61MWWEJI[LIRYWIHVIWTSRWMFP] -0.064 -0.229* -0.141* -0.092 -0.069 0.078
8LIPIKEPM^EXMSRSJQEVMNYEREJSVER]YWI[MPPMRGVIEWIGVMQMREPVEXIW -0.017 0.134 -0.078 0.021 -0.032 -0.065
*p<0.05
Spearman correlation
8LIWYVZI][EWETTPMIHMRXLI1IHMGEPEVIESJUniversidad Autónoma de Nuevo León and the vicinity of the Rectory building from June to July 2016
7^RMXQER76&VIXXIZMPPI.IRWIR%04YFPMGSTM-
nion and medical cannabis policies: examining the
role of underlying beliefs and national medical
cannabis policies. Harm Reduct J. 2015;12:46.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-015-0082-x
7[MJX%7YTTSVXJSV0IKEP1EVMNYERE9WI9T
to 60% in U.S [Internet]. Washington DC: Gallup
2I[W?GMXIH.ERA%ZEMPEFPIJVSQ
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marijuana.aspx
5. Mendiburo-Seguel A, Vargas S, Oyanedel JC,
8SVVIW*:IVKEVE),SYKL1%XXMXYHIWXS[EVHW
HVYKTSPMGMIWMR0EXMR%QIVMGE6IWYPXWJVSQE0E-
tin-American Survey. Int J Drug Policy. 2016;41:8-
13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.10.001
Body image perception
and associated cognitive
factors among elderly
Dear editor: In view of the publica-
tions that have observed a high
prevalence of dissatisfaction with
their image among elderly individu-
als, it is important to consider that
biopsychosocial factors interfere in
the perception that the elderly have of
their image and that this can interfere
in the quality of life of individuals.
Understanding body image can
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construct that individuals make
about their physical attributes due to
the complex involvement of biopsy-
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way people think, feel and behave
in relation to the characteristics of
their body.1
In this context, and knowing
that the perception of body image
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iors directly related to the way they
perceive themselves externally, this
study sought to evaluate, among
elderly people living in the city of
Campina Grande/Paraíba/Brazil
and attended by Family Health
Strategy, the perception of the body
image and the cognitive factors that
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The nine silhouetted scale of
Stunkard and colleagues2 was used to
evaluate the perception of body im-
age among the elderly, and those who
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they would like to have were consid-
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obtain information regarding cogni-
tive factors, we used variables related
to cognitive impairment, depression
and memory.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Robust regression analysis was used to analyse data derived from two nationally representative samples of adults participating in comparable cross-sectional online surveys in one country where medical cannabis smoking is illegal (Norway, n = 2175, 51 % male) and in one country where medical cannabis smoking is legal (Israel, n = 648, 49 % male). The belief that cannabis has medical benefits was more strongly related to support for medical cannabis legalization than were beliefs about addiction and spillover effects. While the support for medical cannabis legalization was stronger in Israel than in Norway (78 vs. 51 %, p < 0.01), the belief variables had, in general, more impact on the policy stand in Norway. The belief that cannabis has medical benefits is particularly salient for support for medical cannabis legalization. It is possible that the recent surge in evidence supporting the medical benefits of cannabis will increase the belief about medical benefits of cannabis in the general population which may in turn increase public support for medical cannabis legalization. Results also suggest that once medical cannabis is legalized, factors beyond cannabis-specific beliefs will increasingly influence medical cannabis legalization support. These conclusions are, however, only suggestive as the current study is based on cross-sectional data. Hopefully, future research will be able to capitalize on changes in medical cannabis policies and conduct longitudinal studies that enable an examination of the causal relation between public opinion and medical cannabis policy changes.
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Background: In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, providing a snapshot of public attitudes towards drug policies in nine Latin American countries. Methods: The 2014 Annual Survey of the Observatory of Drug Policies and Public Opinion, which has representative population samples, was used to measure public opinion. Country comparisons are made using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Countries fall into three groups: Peru, Bolivia and El Salvador are the most conservative countries on drug policy and perceptions of risks of cannabis use; they also score lowest on Human Development Index. On the other hand, the public in Chile and Uruguay are more likely to support drug policy reform. The remaining four countries (Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru) tend to occupy the middle ground between these extremes. In addition, cannabis legalization is explained by its recreational use, being this the main meaning attached to cannabis policy among Latin American citizens. Conclusion: There is a significant heterogeneity in attitudes towards drug policies in Latin American countries, which suggests that people are questioning the policies that set the norm in Latin America without achieving any consensus regarding future measures for each country.