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What research evidence is there that dance movement therapy improves the health and wellbeing of older adults with dementia? A systematic review and descriptive narrative summary

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In England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for supporting people with dementia recommend the therapeutic use of dancing and/or music as a treatment for non-cognitive symptoms, but make no direct reference to dance movement therapy or music therapy. Also, previous Cochrane Reviews in these areas have been criticized for being limited to randomized controlled trials focusing on outcomes. In order to maximize findings and explore the clinical process, this systematic review aimed to examine a broad range of research evidence (including quantitative, qualitative and arts based studies) for the benefits to health and wellbeing for adults aged 65 and older with dementia. Searches were conducted on multiple databases using predefined keywords. Two reviewers screened the texts retrieved using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selection and process was determined by the PRISMA statement and the quality of included studies was appraised using a grading system. Results from the dance movement therapy literature are presented here in the form of a descriptive narrative summary. Findings show the existing evidence base consists of five mainly qualitative observational studies of varying methodological quality. Theoretically the included studies draw upon a person-centred approach, as well as elements of psychodynamic thinking. Therapeutic components across studies include spontaneity and improvisation, dramatic scenarios, rhythmic synchrony and symbolism. There is a focus on the importance of significant moments where the individual with dementia functions in a more integrated way, creating connections between thoughts, feelings and physical sensations.

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... Conducting a large RCT trial is always a challenge for the general population, specifically in DMT research (Berrol, 2019;Cruz & Berrol, 2019). DMT studies are usually limited to qualitative approaches (Lyons et al., 2018) associated with the inconsistency in methodology, design, data collection and measurement, plus social validity. Single-subject design in clinical DMT research had been explored in Goodill & Cruz (2019) when clinical dance movement therapists work with small groups or individuals. ...
... Coaten and Newman-Bluestein (2013) recommended utilising video footage to capture the lived-body experience and Certified Movement Analysts (CMA) to analyse the results within the DMT paradigm. Importantly, calibrating the quality of observational data is an ongoing concern (Coaten & Newman-Bluestein, 2013;Lyons et al., 2018). ...
... It was suggested that video recording should be available for IOA. Lyons et al. (2018) highlighted this particular use of video recording to identify the key components contributing to the QOL of people with dementia. The difficulties of getting high-quality data in socially significant behaviours in our study agreed with Lyons' suggestion. ...
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In New Zealand, there is limited research on dance movement therapy for people living with dementia. The lack of observation tools to calibrate the observation data is an ongoing problem in dance movement therapy research with this population. This preliminary study proposed small-N subjects research design, using observation tools (anecdotal and dance movement therapy based) to collect data from two video samples. Two observers performed interobserver agreement to ascertain the calibre of reliability of these tools. The training procedure was conducted between the primary observer and the inexperienced observer. Seven variables were selected as measurement values: three body-based movement indices (total body connectivity, mobility, stability), two wellbeing indices (happiness, unhappiness) and three social engagement indices (dependent, independent and group engagement). The researcher calculated the percentage of agreement in three conditions: accuracy, interobserver agreement and intraobserver. The quality of observation data was analysed in three ways (overall, occurrence, and nonoccurrence). Results showed that high-quality observation data were achieved. Both observation tools could be used to attain high-quality measurement data for DMT research in dementia. Proof of concept and further application were discussed. Keywords: New Zealand, dance movement therapy, dementia, interobserver agreement, small-N research, observation calibration
... Dancebased interventions as non-pharmacologic interventions have gained rising attention and recognition (Burns, 2009;Hayes and Povey, 2010;Kiepe et al., 2012;Karkou and Meekums, 2017), although dance has been part of many cultures and histories for ages. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England recommends dancing as an intervention for dementia (Lyons et al., 2018). Literature shows that dancebased interventions as a mind-body movement can improve the cognitive function among aging adults (Wu et al., 2019), or persons with MCI (Chan et al., 2020;Hewston et al., 2020), and dementia (Lyons et al., 2018;Mabire et al., 2018). ...
... The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England recommends dancing as an intervention for dementia (Lyons et al., 2018). Literature shows that dancebased interventions as a mind-body movement can improve the cognitive function among aging adults (Wu et al., 2019), or persons with MCI (Chan et al., 2020;Hewston et al., 2020), and dementia (Lyons et al., 2018;Mabire et al., 2018). Regarding global cognition, dance-based interventions are more effective than physical exercises among persons with MCI, and more effective than combined training of cognitive and physical exercise among persons with cognitive impairments (Wang et al., 2018). ...
... They can also relieve depression and anxiety for persons with neurocognitive disorders from physical, psychological and other dimensions by adopting mind-body movement (Bruyneel, 2019;Wu et al., 2019). Dance-based interventions are recognized as more integrated interventions (Lyons et al., 2018) and holistic interventions (Mabire et al., 2018). ...
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Background: There is a growing need to offer appropriate services to persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia who are faced with depression and anxiety distresses beyond traditional pharmacological treatment. Dance-based interventions as multi-dimensional interventions address persons' physical, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of well-being. However, no meta-analysis of randomized controlled treatment trials (RCTs) has examined the effectiveness of dance-based interventions on depression and anxiety among persons with MCI and dementia, and the results of RCTs are inconsistent. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of dance-based interventions on depression (a primary outcome) and anxiety (a secondary outcome) among persons with MCI and dementia. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. The inclusion criteria were: population: people of all ages with MCI and dementia; intervention: dance-based interventions; control group: no treatment, usual care, or waiting list group; outcome: depression and anxiety; study design: published or unpublished RCTs. Seven electronic databases (Cochrane, PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, CNKI, WanFang) were searched from 1970 to March 2021. Grey literature and reference lists from relevant articles were also searched and reviewed. The Cochrane “Risk of Bias” tool was used to assess study quality. RevMan 5.4 was used for meta-analysis and heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and sensitivity analysis. GRADE was applied to assess the evidence quality of depression and anxiety outcomes. Results: Five randomized controlled trials were identified. Sample sizes ranged from 21 to 204. The risk of bias was low, except for being rated as high or unclear for most included studies in two domains: allocation concealment, blinding participants and personnel. Meta-analysis of depression outcome showed no heterogeneity ( I ² = 0%), indicating that the variation in study outcomes did not influence the interpretation of results. There were significant differences in decreasing depression in favor of dance-based interventions compared with controls [SMD = −0.42, 95% CI (−0.60, −0.23), p < 0.0001] with a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.3669); Compared with the post-intervention data, the follow-up data indicated diminishing effects (Cohen's d = 0.1355). Dance-based interventions were more effective in reducing depression for persons with dementia than with those having MCI, and were more effective with the delivery frequency of 1 h twice a week than 35 min 2–3 times a week. Also, one included RCT study showed no significant benefit on anxiety rating scores, which demonstrated small effect sizes at 6 weeks and 12 weeks (Cohen's d = 0.1378, 0.1675, respectively). GRADE analysis indicated the evidence quality of depression was moderate, and the evidence quality of anxiety was low. Conclusions: Dance-based interventions are beneficial to alleviate depression among persons with MCI and dementia. More trials of high quality, large sample sizes are needed to gain more profound insight into dance-based interventions, such as their effects of alleviating anxiety, and the best approaches to perform dance-based interventions.
... reviewed by Bruyneel (2019). Reviews concerning patients with autism spectrum disorder (Menedes DeJesus et al., 2020), trauma (Levine & Land, 2016), hypertension (Conceição et al., 2016), Parkinson's disease (dos Santos Delabary et al., 2018), other neurological conditions (Patterson et al., 2018), cerebral palsy (López-Ortiz et al., 2019), dementia (Lyons et al., 2018), fibromyalgia (Murillo-García et al., 2018), and breast cancer (Boing et al., 2017) conclude various benefits, but criticize the heterogeneity of studies and small sample sizes. The cognitive requirements and creative affordances of dance movements provide even in short-term therapeutic interventions creative experiences as individual and social activity, creating meaningful moments, which can support, for example, patients with dementia (Camic et al., 2018;Lyons et al., 2018). ...
... Reviews concerning patients with autism spectrum disorder (Menedes DeJesus et al., 2020), trauma (Levine & Land, 2016), hypertension (Conceição et al., 2016), Parkinson's disease (dos Santos Delabary et al., 2018), other neurological conditions (Patterson et al., 2018), cerebral palsy (López-Ortiz et al., 2019), dementia (Lyons et al., 2018), fibromyalgia (Murillo-García et al., 2018), and breast cancer (Boing et al., 2017) conclude various benefits, but criticize the heterogeneity of studies and small sample sizes. The cognitive requirements and creative affordances of dance movements provide even in short-term therapeutic interventions creative experiences as individual and social activity, creating meaningful moments, which can support, for example, patients with dementia (Camic et al., 2018;Lyons et al., 2018). However, Rainbow et al. (2018) demonstrated how the cognitive improvements take longer than the typical 12-week DMT intervention to emerge, and many of the obtained effects afterwards diminished gradually until dissipating completely after one year. ...
Article
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Reviews and studies on the contribution of dance for health and well-being often highlight the use of dance in clinical interventions, either as a motivating form of physical exercise, or as a therapeutic tool for the elderly and for persons with health problems. The presence of dance in people’s lives as a personal, social and cultural practice is rarely addressed, although these are the forms through which dance reaches large groups of diverse people every day. This paper summarises knowledge on leisure dancing and its effects on health and well-being, in order to make suggestions for research and policy. The objective is to propose measures that can support several key groups of social and health policies: children and adolescents, elderly, adults, people with health problems and groups at risk of exclusion to have dancing as an accessible and enjoyable selfcare measure for their well-being throughout their lives. It is proposed that both research and policy approaches should more systematically consider personal motivations, facilitators and barriers for dancing is aiming to support well-being of all groups of people across economic, social and cultural divides.
... Art therapies share factors that contribute to health benefits, such as active participation, the use of imagery and visualization, self-awareness, and the development of embodiment. In particular, interventions with DMT with a non-clinic population has proven the impact on health variables such as satisfaction with life, levels of stress, and well-being [32,68,69]. No significant changes appeared in the problem resolution or attention variables. ...
... Art therapies share factors that contribute to health benefits, such as active participation, the use of imagery and visualization, self-awareness, and the development of embodiment. In particular, interventions with DMT with a non-clinic population has proven the impact on health variables such as satisfaction with life, levels of stress, and well-being [32,68,69]. ...
Article
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The continuous changes in our society require adapted training that encompasses both technical and competency knowledge. There is a high level of demand, especially in areas such as engineering, which can affect the mental health of students, producing high levels of stress and psychological distress, hindering self-efficacy and academic performance. Embodied learning working on self-awareness, stress reduction and self-knowledge can help to generate healthier environments. Creative therapies can be a tool to promote the prevention of health problems in this group of the population. In particular, Dance Movement Therapy has demonstrated its effectiveness in improving health in clinical and non-clinical settings. In this work, a body awareness program based on Dance Movement Therapy is developed and implemented in engineering students. Through a mixed pre-post methodology, its impact is evaluated and analyzed in an experimental group of engineering students. Psychometric tests, physiological variables and reflective diaries are used as data sources. The results show that the experimental group, compared with the control group, increased their levels of body awareness and connectedness, well-being and life satisfaction and reduced their stress levels. The results were supported by cortisol measures. Likewise, the students acknowledged having increased their levels of self-awareness and self-knowledge and considered the inclusion of these bodily approaches in higher education to be necessary.
... Establishing ittaikan or "the feeling of one body" through synchronous rhythmic movement can foster trust and safety with the therapist and other clients in the group, which can then allow for more individual, free expression (Kawano, 2004). Lastly, the benefits of DMT and dance interventions have not been clearly delineated (Karkou & Meekums, 2017;Lyons, Karkou, Roe, Meekums, & Richards, 2018). More research is necessary to study the benefits of the use of diverse dance interventions in DMT. ...
... Keeping the above in mind, this study also examines how the Japanese therapist's body can be utilized in practice and research. Lyons et al. (2018) noted the lack of arts-based information collected as research data in DMT dementia research. A culturally informed embodied approach to data analysis using kinesthetic empathy and the felt sense as frameworks is a start. ...
Article
The cultural and aesthetic rationale for utilizing a traditional dance form in dance/movement therapy (DMT) dementia research has not been articulated. Moreover, the geo-transcendent and invariant aspects of psychological functioning often referred to as the wisdom of elders, have been little studied in dementia care. This single case study explored the benefits of a Japanese traditional bon dance that inherently symbolizes Japanese cultural ideals, focusing on a female participant with Alzheimer’s dementia. Attention was given to the manifestation of her wisdom. The data were extracted from 43 group sessions conducted over a period of two years and three months in a group home for older adults with dementia. These were analyzed using a combination of constructs: kinesthetic empathy, a hallmark of DMT, and the felt sense, a Focusing technique. Of cultural significance was the spontaneous creative expression that was observed paradoxically in the structure of choreographed dances. The expression of wisdom was witnessed in the participant’s caring gestures towards one’s body and the community, with humor. An embodied relational understanding of the participant’s condition enabled a high level of empathy between the therapist and client. Implications for using traditional dances in DMT with elders with dementia are discussed.
... D ieser Beitrag stellt zwei systematische Reviews zur Wirkung der Tanz-, Bewegungstherapie bei älteren Menschen (Jiménez et al. 2019) und älteren Demenzpati-entInnen (Lyons et al. 2018) vor und präsentiert die Ergebnisse eines RCTs zur Wirkung der Tanztherapie auf die psychophysiologischen Effekte bei älteren Menschen mit milder Demenz. Systematischer Review zur Wirkung der Tanz-, Bewegungstherapie bei älteren Menschen mit psychiatrischer Diagnose Jiménez, Bräuninger und Meekums (2019) führten einen systematischen Review zur Tanz-, Bewegungstherapie bei Menschen über 60 Jahren mit psychiatrischen Diagnosen durch. ...
... Die beiden systematischen Reviews wiesen auf methodische Defizite der Studien zu Tanz-, Bewegungstherapie bei älteren Menschen mit Demenz (Lyons et al. 2018) und der Primärstudien zur Tanz-, Bewegungstherapie bei älteren Menschen mit psychiatrischen Diagnosen (Jiménez et al. 2019) hin. Der RCT von Ho und KollegInnen (2019) erweiterte die Forschung zur Tanz-, Bewegungstherapie mit einer hochwertigen Primärstudie, welche kurzfristige Effekte (Verbesserung affektiver Symptomatik) und langfristige Effekte (Verbesserung täglicher und neuroendokriner Funktionen) bei älteren Menschen mit Demenz nachweisen konnte. ...
... 9,10 Within the field of exercise therapy, dance interventions are commonly used to address different domains such as mobility, activities of daily living, cognition, behavior, emotion, quality of life, and caregiver burden, but the evidence remains unclear. [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] The literature review indicated that only a few studies have focused on the effects of dance in dementia care, and that the included trials were generally of low methodological quality. [11][12][13]15,22 Additional shortcomings of the available studies are that they use different definitions of dance or also integrate qualitative studies. ...
Article
Objectives Dance as a non-pharmacological therapy is commonly used in dementia care, although the evidence of its effects remains unclear. This study systematically reviewed the effects of dance interventions on neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in people living with dementia. To systematically identify and evaluate dance interventions, a standardized terminology for Dance-Specific Activity (DSA) is proposed. Methods Literature search was conducted on electronic databases until April 30 th 2021. Studies were included when they quantified the effects of DSA on NPS in people with clinical diagnosis of dementia. Included studies were analyzed in detail for NPS. Study quality was assessed by PEDro scale (German version). Results 4 studies were included. The studies differed in study design, intervention protocols, dance styles, or measurement tools, and were generally of low study quality. Two trials showed improvements in NPS and 2 trials showed no exacerbation of NPS after DSA. Conclusions The results of the 4 available trials indicate a positive tendency towards the effects of DSA, but considering the limitations of the few available studies, a clear statement about the effects of DSA is not possible yet. Based on the included trials, the following implications for clinical research and routine care can be derived: (1) DSA seems to be a practical terminology for identifying dance interventions (2) DSA seems to be a safe intervention for people living with dementia. (3) Different dance styles can be used. (4) DSA approaches should be better structured by differentiating between the domains type, content, intention, and protocol of the intervention.
... DMT is an intervention that has been used for more than 80 years (Levine & Land, 2016 conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of DMT as an intervention to treat depression, specifically in adults. In addition, there are various other literature reviews on the effectiveness of DMT, specifically for adults with dementia (Lyons et al., 2018) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (Chen et al., 2022;Takahashi et al., 2019) for parents with mental health disorders (Jiménez et al., 2019;Millman et al., 2021) for breast cancer patients (Fatkulina et al., 2021). These studies are supported by recent studies with other methods on the effectiveness of DMT in people with dementia (Ho et al., 2020); people with autism spectrum disorder (Morris et al., 2021;Scharoun et al., 2014); in depressed adolescents and early adults (Kella et al., 2022); to deal with identity development issues in therapeutic settings (Erickson, 2021). ...
Article
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Dewasa ini masalah kesehatan psikologis atau mental menjadi salah satu masalah yang membutuhkan intervensi psikologis. Salah satu intervensi yang digunakan untuk mengatasi kesehatan psikologis adalah Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) salah satu varian dari Art Therapy. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas DMT berdasarkan variasi kasus serta kategori usia. Systematic literature review dilakukan menggunakan protokol PRISMA pada 10 artikel jurnal terpilih berdasarkan kriteria ekslusi dan inklusi yang sudah ditetapkan. Hasil yang didapat dari review bahwa DMT dapat dilakukan pada rentang usia remaja sampai dengan lansia, serta dapat memberikan efektifitas menangani permasalahan psikologis seperti depresi, stress, autism, dan quality of life. Dalam implementasinya DMT dapat dikombinasikan dengan intervensi lain agar dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih optimal.
... grupowe czytanie lub opowiadanie historii) sprzyjają procesom pamięciowym, a twórczość wizualna jest bardziej efektywna w utrzymywaniu koncentracji uwagi niż inne aktywności (Young, Camic, Tischler, 2016). Inne kreatywne działania, takie jak: garncarstwo, wspólne czytanie i edukacja w zakresie sztuk wizualnych, mogą również pomóc we wzmacnianiu poczucia tożsamości, poczucia własnej wartości oraz we wzroście samooceny u pacjentów chorujących na demencję (Beard, 2012;Dowlen i in., 2018;Lyons, Karkou, Roe, Meekums, Richards, 2018). Natomiast wielozmysłowe aktywności artystyczne zwiększają zdolności osób chorujących do wykonywania codziennych czynności (Staal i in., 2007). ...
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Książka zawiera przegląd badań na temat znaczenia twórczości dla kształtowania, utrzymywania oraz powracania do zdrowia oraz dobrostanu. Ukazuje również model wyjaśniający mechanizm „prozdrowotnego” oddziaływania twórczości, na podstawie dotychczasowych ustaleń teoretycznych oraz najnowszych wyników badań empirycznych. Dla uzyskania pełnego obrazu tego zjawiska uwzględnione zostały zarówno procesy pozytywnie oddziałujące na zdrowie, jak i czynniki ryzyka towarzyszące twórczości, które mogą być dla niego pewnym zagrożeniem. Ukazane zostały także najważniejsze kierunki rozwoju i wyzwania w zakresie badań naukowych i praktyki w obszarze związków między twórczością a funkcjonowaniem zdrowotnym.
... Dance movements are complex and variable. From the most basic action elements such as "lifting," "sinking," "rushing," and "leaning" to the coherent and complex actions such as "standing beat swallow," "pouncing step," "cloud step," and "turning over," there is a great degree of freedom [11,12]. erefore, it is more difficult to identify each movement accurately. ...
Article
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Under the synergistic development of social economy and science and technology, the intelligent teaching of dance has become more and more popular. This teaching method can not only decompose dance movements more specifically, which is easy for students to understand and master, but also get rid of the time and space limitation in traditional dance teaching and provide more independent learning opportunities for students. The problem of low accuracy of dance movement recognition due to complex gesture changes in dance movements is addressed. To this end, this paper proposes a modified motion target detection algorithm based on GMM. The dance movement recognition algorithm first extracts the features of dance movements through a feature pyramid network, then uses a multi-feature fusion module to fuse multiple features to improve the algorithm’s estimation of complex postures, and finally completes the recognition of dance movements. Experiments show that our method can maintain a certain recognition rate in the case where the background and target are easily confused, and can effectively improve the dance action recognition accuracy, thus realizing the action correction function for dancers. This also verifies the effectiveness of the action recognition algorithm for dance movement recognition.
... Arts-based interventions have emerged as effective ways of improving the health and well-being of persons with dementia (e.g., Basting, 2006;Camic et al., 2013;Kontos et al., 2016;Savundranayagam et al., 2011;Swinnen & De Medeiros, 2018). A recent systematic review demonstrated that the therapeutic use of dance and movement can ameliorate dementia-related symptoms and improve embodied forms of communication in this population (Lyons et al., 2018). Specifically, cumulating evidence has shown that dance and movement interventions can improve cognitive functions (Cheung et al., 2018b;Dayanim, 2009;Moore & Lesiuk, 2018;Rösler et al., 2002;Thøgersen-Ntoumani et al., 2018), reduce agitation (Cheung et al., 2018a;Sung et al., 2006), and decrease aggression and/or other problematic dementia-associated behaviors (Goldstein-Levitas, 2019; Guzmán et al., 2016;Ho et al., 2015). ...
Article
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One of the challenging consequences of dementia is the change in relationships that can co-occur with the progression of this condition. Despite this well-documented change, few arts-based interventions target the relational dimension of dementia. This study aims to explore the effects of one arts-based relational intervention: a movement program designed to foster connections within a group of persons with dementia. We used ethnographic methods—including participant observations and informal interviews—to understand the relational effects of this program conducted by two dancers and a musician. The movement sessions were video recorded, and participant movement trajectories were analyzed for different ways in which they created connections. We identified two types of connections—nonreciprocal and reciprocal—and four subtypes of connections—connection to exercise/music, connection to participant, interpersonal connection, and group connection—that participants engaged in during the movement program. Despite most participants not remembering the previous movement sessions, they experienced increasing numbers of connections over the course of the program, particularly reciprocal interpersonal connections. Participants explored new forms of moving and creatively transformed the movement structures proposed by the dancers. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this program in augmenting connections and fostering exploration and creativity in individuals with dementia, providing a template for further developments of interventions targeting the relational dimensions of dementia. This study also highlights the potential of combining ethnographic methods and video analysis to include the perspectives of persons with dementia in research.
... 26 The beneficial and instrumental function of arts activities and their capacity to improve participants' health, wellbeing or quality of life have been the primary focus. [27][28][29][30][31] For older adults, including those living with dementia, sometimes measures of physical or cognitive function have been used to assess the outcomes. 32,33 Although participatory arts initiatives are well known, both in practice and in the literature, the effectiveness of activities' content is sometimes overemphasized, and relatively little consideration has been devoted to the design and evaluation of such activities and their health benefits for older adults living in the community. ...
Article
Although the interests in participative arts for people living with a dementia has increased over the last decade, what is yet to be reviewed is how participatory community- based arts activities for this group of people are evaluated. The overall aim of the following scoping review is to understand the scope of measurement/evaluation methods/approaches used in studies that recruited participants with dementia from the community (not from health/clinical or residential aged care settings or nursing homes) and delivered community-based participatory arts activities/programs (not art therapy programs) to them. The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley (2005) for undertaking a scoping review article was applied to this study. Collation, summarizing and reporting the results was carried out considering the research questions. 7 articles met inclusion/exclusion criteria published from 2013 to 2020. The type of arts activities included co-designs and co-creation of various types of arts (n=1), museum visiting and art-making activities (n=4), artistic education-based program (n=1), group singing (n=1). This scoping review shed light on the paucity of research in which older people living with dementia were recruited from the community (not healthcare/clinical settings) to participate in participatory community- based art activities. Also, the results revealed that evaluation of participatory community-based arts activities for older people living with dementia in the community should include methods/techniques to get a deeper insight into the participants’ values and perspectives and the social interaction benefits of such programs.
... can improve gait and mood in Parkinson's disease (Earhart, 2009;Ghai, Ghai, Schmitz, & Effenberg, 2018;Lewis, Annett, Davenport, Hall, & Lovatt, 2016;Lyons, Karkou, Roe, Meekums, & Richards, 2018;Rose, Delevoye-Turrell, Ott, Annett, & Lovatt, 2019;Shanahan et al., 2015), as it combines rhythmical movement to music with a socially engaging environment. For a recent review on dance-based interventions in clinical contexts and their potential neurocognitive mechanisms, see Millman, Terhune, Hunter, and Orgs (2020). ...
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Dance has become an important topic for research in empirical aesthetics, social and motor cognition, and as an intervention for neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite the growing scientific interest in dance, no standardized psychometric instrument exists to assess people’s dance experience. Here, we introduce the Goldsmiths Dance Sophistication Index (Gold-DSI), a 26-item questionnaire to measure individual differences in participatory and observational dance experience on a continuous scale. The Gold-DSI was developed in 3 stages: In the first stage, a set of 76 items was generated by adapting questions from the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Müllensiefen, Gingras, Musil, & Stewart, 2014) and as part of a stakeholder workshop using a grounded theory approach. The second stage focused on item reduction. Using a large-scale online survey (N = 424), hierarchical factor analysis was used to fit a model comprising of one general and six secondary factors (28 items in total). In Stage 3, six new items were added to specifically capture individual differences in dance observation. We then collected data from two samples for final model estimation (n = 127) and evaluation (n = 190). The final version of the Gold-DSI comprises 26 items; 20 items relate to 1 general factor that captures experience in dance participation. This includes 4 secondary factors: body awareness, social dancing, urge to dance, and dance training. A further 6 items separately measure experience in dance observation. In sum, the Gold-DSI provides a brief, standardized, and continuous assessment of doing, watching, and knowing about dance.
... Two recent literature reviews have shown that dance and DMT for people with dementia could show empirical benefits with effects on balance, gait, risk of falling, physical activities, cognition, quality of life, social interactions and behavioral and psychological symptoms (Mabire, Aquino, & Charras, 2019) ; Lyons, Karkou, Roe, Meekums, & Richards, 2018). More recently, Ho et al. (2020) have shown significant decreases in depression, loneliness, and negative mood, as well as improved daily functioning and diurnal cortisol slope in an experiment involving 204 people with dementia that had followed 12 weekly sessions of DMT, exercise intervention or no intervention. ...
Article
Dance interventions for people with dementia could benefit balance, gait, fall risk, physical activities, cognition, quality of life, social interactions and behavioral and psychological symptoms. This study investigates the impact of dance on balance, confidence, quality of life and well-being of people with dementia. In order to compensate for the lack of control group, our study followed a crossover experimental design: groups were alternately experimental and control. The study consisted in 12 weekly sessions of dance followed by 12 weeks with no dance activity or conversely. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Methodological issues, among which experimental design and outcome measures, did not enable to confirm primary hypotheses. However, quantitative and qualitative data collected during the study enabled us to investigate further effects of our intervention. Results enabled to develop new postulates concerning dance interventions for people with dementia and to contribute to the theoretical and clinical corpus of dance interventions for people with dementia.
... Although capturing movements in various sports (10,22,23), rehabilitation studies (13,24), and physical disorders such as gait (25,26) is a widely used approach in today's world, music is also a broad, exciting, and highly valuable issue in areas such as dance therapy (7)(8)(9)27) and rehabilitation (24,28,29). ...
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Introduction: The modern human is on the cutting edge of information, communication, and technology, the turning point of which is to maintain the valuable traditional and cultural data inherited from the ancestors and hand down it to the descendants. This is fulfilled via stories, dances, and activities; negligence in this regard results in loss of cultural and location-based information. Materials and Methods: In this project, Perception Neuron device (a wearable system of nonoptoelectronics MoCap group) was utilized for capturing the data of the musical movements of the body. The captured data refers to the Azerbaijan region, known as Azeri Dance in the world. The study process contained three phases of possibility of identification, capturing and maintenance of musical movements on cultural-climatic backgrounds, endeavor at utilizing these musical movements of the body in creation of melodic and rhythmic patterns, and the game side of the study containing levels, game-based learning, player progress, and skill comparison among the players. The device was attached to a female performer with the body height of 165-170 cm according to software’s default body size with fewer flaws in data. The captured data was musical movements of the famous folk tune called Tərəkəmə (pronounces as /Tærækæmæ/). Results: The final product of the musical movements and Azeri dance was build and presented within a 3D room in Unity game engine. The player could move around and get closer to the performers in order to watch the dance and musical movements from different angles along with hearing the real music (perfomer danced with) syncing with the movements. Conclusion: This interdisciplinary study provided an interface for Azeri dance and rhythmic melodies using digital technology. The study can be extended to any culture from any part of the earth as well as for entertainment, medical, rehabilitation, and educational purposes.
... These results are encouraging, for the reason that it has been known that implicit memory stimulation can contribute to learning of new skills, or even regeneration of old ones. With the goal of systematically defining the benefits of DMT, Lyons et al. [29] conducted a review of previous research done in this field. Available research articles were analyzed, and it was observed that great importance is given to improvisation, spontaneous expression, rhythmical synchrony and symbolization, as well as to touch, which is thought to be one of the key therapeutic components. ...
Article
Dementia can have a lot of negative impacts on different functions in the affected person, which can negatively affect the different aspects of quality of life. Statistical data warn us that dementia might become one of the leading medical and social problems in the future. Therefore, significant efforts should be directed to the research and application of various methods of prevention and treatment of this kind of disease. In the context of contemporary concepts, we should keep in mind pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. So, in this paper some of the possibilities and the results of using movement, music and creativity are considered. Review of the previous researches shows that their using, based on multimodal sensory stimulation, metaphor, nonverbal expression, imagination and creative experience may have positive influence on social relations, communication, as well on cognitive flexibility. The obtained data contribute to developing of a holistic and integrative idea in the field of treating individuals with dementia.
... These results are encouraging, for the reason that it has been known that implicit memory stimulation can contribute to learning of new skills, or even regeneration of old ones. With the goal of systematically defining the benefits of DMT, Lyons et al. [29] conducted a review of previous research done in this field. Available research articles were analyzed, and it was observed that great importance is given to improvisation, spontaneous expression, rhythmical synchrony and symbolization, as well as to touch, which is thought to be one of the key therapeutic components. ...
Article
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Dementia can have a lot of negative impacts on different functions in the affected person, which can negatively affect the different aspects of quality of life. Statistical data warn us that dementia might become one of the leading medical and social problems in the future. Therefore, significant efforts should be directed to the research and application of various methods of prevention and treatment of this kind of disease. In the context of contemporary concepts, we should keep in mind pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. So, in this paper some of the possibilities and the results of using movement, music and creativity are considered. Review of the previous researches shows that their using, based on multimodal sensory stimulation, metaphor, nonverbal expression, imagination and creative experience may have positive influence on social relations, communication, as well on cognitive flexibility. The obtained data contribute to developing of a holistic and integrative idea in the field of treating individuals with dementia.
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La Danza y Expresión Corporal es una disciplina científica que ha evolucionado en los últimos años desde el estudio del movimiento per se hacia el análisis del cuerpo y de la danza en todas sus dimensiones. De esta forma, se ha configurado un cuerpo de conocimientos con gran base empírica, del cual se nutren áreas como la Medicina, Psicología, Pedagogía, y resto de ciencias relacionadas con la actividad física y el deporte. Para entender esta evolución, es fundamental hacer una diferenciación entre el concepto de Danza y el concepto de Expresión Corporal, hacer un recorrido por su objeto de estudio y por su status científico, incidiendo en las tres dimensiones principales donde se orientan sus aportes: la dimensión artística, la dimensión pedagógica y la dimensión psicoterapéutica. Por tanto, dada la importancia de esta materia para aumentar el cuerpo de conocimientos dentro de las Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte, es necesario profundizar en sus fundamentos epistemológicos para orientar futuros estudios.Abstract. Dance and Body Expression is a scientific discipline that has evolved in recent years from the study of movement per se towards the analysis of the body and dance in all its dimensions. In this way, a body of knowledge has been configured with a great empirical base, from which areas such as Medicine, Psychology, Pedagogy, and other sciences related to physical activity and sport are nourished. To understand this evolution, it is essential to make a differentiation between the concept of Dance and the concept of Body Expression, and to take a tour of its object of study and its scientific status, focusing on the three main dimensions where its contributions are oriented: artistic dimension, pedagogical dimension and psychotherapeutic dimension. Therefore, given the importance of this subject to increase the body of knowledge within Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, it is necessary to deepen in its epistemological foundations to guide future studies.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychological impact of a chair-based dance intervention for older people with depressive symptoms in residential care in Macau. In addition, feasibility and acceptability of this complex intervention were explored. An exploratory phase quasiexperimental study with pre- and posttest intervention was used. Psychological data for the study were collected using several self-reported questionnaires, including the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Short-Form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 item (CD-RISC-10). In addition, sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the 13 residents who fully completed the study. After receiving chair-based dance intervention, the mean GDS score (P = .001), mean MSPSS score (P = .000), mean UCLA-LS score (P = .000), and mean CD-RISC-10 score (P = .012) of the group improved with statistical significance. From the scores of the primary outcome, the GDS-15, item 2 “dropped many of your activities and interests” improved the most (−46%), followed by item 5 “in good spirits” (−43%), then item 3 “life is empty” (−33%) and item 7 “feel happy” (−33%). Our chair-based dance intervention may have a positive effect on decreasing symptoms of depression and improving other aspects of psychological well-being in older Chinese people in long-term residential care. In addition, chair-based dance would appear to be a safe, inexpensive, feasible, and acceptable form of intervention for rehabilitation in this setting. These findings provide valuable information to inform a full randomized controlled trial.
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Museums and cultural institutions are increasingly striving to respond to the interests and needs of the society that hosts them. This means, apart from other actions, that these institutions must be involved in the health and wellbeing of society, and the creation of cultural activities aimed at people with cognitive impairment, a group of individuals that is growing worldwide due to the aging of society and the increasing prevalence of dementia. The involved sectors are aware of the potential and benefits of activities for this population, even though there is much research to be conducted. To date, no systematic review has focused on the benefits of cultural activities for cognitively impaired people. This study aimed to explore the benefits of different modalities of cultural activities with evidence from 145 studies from various databases, which met the inclusion criteria. Significant improvements in general cognition, quality of life (QoL), emotional wellbeing, socialization, and communication were generally reported after interventions, with a reduction in depression symptoms. There was not enough evidence to prove memory, language, or daily functioning improvements attributable to cultural interventions. There were no significant reductions reported in apathy, sadness, agitation, or anxiety.
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The purpose of this paper was to examine the benefits of dance in providing a realistic and viable alternative to the provision of traditional physical activities for dementia patients. Physical activity, while beneficial for increasing the components of health and fitness in general populations, may not be dementia friendly. Dance seems to be more suited as a physical activity form for dementia patients providing specific benefits including cerebrovascular enhancement. The usefulness of dance in relation to the physiological, psychological, and societal benefits for dementia patients’ needs serious consideration as a future complementary/alternative physical therapy intervention.
Chapter
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This chapter presents a review of Wengrower and Bendel-Rozow’s article in the light of three aspects: the psychiatric rehabilitation model, the specificity of the artistic therapeutic approach presented, dance movement therapy (DMT), and finally the research and evidence-based contributions that support it. Recent psychosocial rehabilitation models are oriented towards strengthening the capacities of psychiatric patients, improving their quality of life and promoting reconnection with the community, regardless of their clinical condition. DMT shares these goals by offering a nondirective working environment in which the concept of embodiment, the symbolic meaning of movement, and the creative process are the foundations on which the therapeutic alliance is created. These concepts are developed throughout the text emphasizing the need that research methods should be at the service of research questions and the improvement of interventions. This means reconciling the traditionally quantitative methods used in the field with others that may be more appropriate in arts therapies. Ultimately, the introduction of mixed methods research involves listening to and embracing the voice of patients in their therapeutic process.
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El movimiento rítmico compartido ha reflejado y fortalecido conexiones entre personas en el desarrollo humano, y sigue teniendo esa capacidad en la práctica social de los bailes tradicionales. Los bailes populares tradicionales cubanos reflejan la memoria cultural e inteligencia social con potencial para aportar el bienestar en Cuba y todo el mundo como práctica social creativa e inclusiva. Esta investigación aspira a visibilizar la importancia de las prácticas sociales de los bailes tradicionales como una actividad creativa, personal, social y cultural para todos los seres humanos. Esta tesis considera que los cuerpos están formados por interacciones con otros cuerpos, encarnando memorias de las propias experiencias tanto como de las experiencias de los otros cuerpos. Los bailes tradicionales son expresiones y mediadores activos de la memoria cultural de cuerpos, reflejando los valores, propósitos y formas de interacción de algún grupo social. La corporeidad que se desarrolla en la práctica de los bailes populares tradicionales refleja las memorias y apoya las expresiones que han sostenido los individuos y las comunidades desde una generación a otra. Como dimensiones principales de esa corporeidad, esta tesis propone: • Consciencia (corporeidad mental) • Movimiento (corporeidad kinésica) • Convenciones sociales (corporeidad socio-cultural) • Experiencia encarnada (corporeidad cenestésica) • Ritmo como la base del movimiento (corporeidad rítmica) • Estética como sistema de valores (corporeidad estética) Las academias, las escuelas particulares y los profesores de bailes deberían desarrollar su enseñanza más allá de la imitación del movimiento que se observa del profesor. Los métodos deberían considerar todas las dimensiones de la corporeidad y preparar a los alumnos para la práctica creativa y social de los bailes populares tradicionales cubanos. Las estrategias culturales deberían apoyar a los bailes populares tradicionales como práctica social que integra a personas de todas edades para bailar en su barrio en pos de 1) contribuir a la salud y el bienestar, 2) apoyar la sociabilidad y colaboración de la comunidad, 3) compartir conocimiento, memorias corporales y la práctica de baile popular tradicional cubano entre generaciones, apoyando así la vigencia continua de este patrimonio cultural.
Article
Depression is a common comorbidity in dementia. Randomised controlled studies of antidepressants do not show a significant improvement in depressive symptoms in patients with comorbid dementia and are known to lead to an increase in side effects. However, there are relatively few studies of depression in dementia, and drawing firm conclusions about the use of antidepressants is limited by the amount of data available. Furthermore, it is unclear whether data can be extrapolated from similar populations (eg, those with late-life depression) to inform pharmacotherapy in this patient group. Given the lack of effectiveness and risk of side effects associated with pharmacological treatments, psychological interventions may offer important therapeutic benefits. There is evidence for the effectiveness of individual psychological therapy, and further research will establish which psychological approach is the most effective. Some studies have shown an improvement in depressive symptoms using structured sleep hygiene programmes, exercise, arts interventions and music therapy. These studies are hampered by small data sets, and the benefits to individuals may not be well captured by standard outcome measures. At present, the best evidence for arts-based approaches is in music therapy. Depression with comorbid dementia responds well to electroconvulsive therapy and this is a useful treatment modality for those with severe or life-threatening depressive symptoms. Alternative neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation are not widely used at present and further research is needed before they can be a more widely used treatment modality.
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Abstract Background Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Search methods Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement’s Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement therapist in training or (iii) was otherwise recognised as a dance movement therapist in the country in which the study was conducted. Data collection and analysis The two review authors independently reviewed studies on an abstract/title level and again after reading the full paper, and we independently evaluated methodological quality. Main results Of the 102 studies identified through electronic searches and personal communication, after de-duplication we screened 80 at title/abstract level. We then reviewed 19 full papers, none of which met the inclusion criteria. Although three studies mentioned dance movement therapy as their intervention, they were excluded because they were not delivered by a qualified dance movement therapy practitioner. As a result, no studies were included in this review. Authors' conclusions Trials of high methodological quality, large sample sizes and clarity in the way the intervention is put together and delivered are needed to assess whether dance movement therapy is an effective intervention for dementia.
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Meta-synthesis refers to a range of approaches by which existing qualitative studies in healthcare can be reviewed and compared. There is increasing use of meta-synthesis to ensure the clinical applicability of findings from qualitative studies, in healthcare generally, and in the creative arts therapies specifically. Qualitative method research can sometimes lack immediate clinical relevance, as such studies usually focus on the experiences of a small number of participants. Additionally, the results are often presented in great detail; finely elaborated, and described conceptually. Findings reported in this way can be engaging, and even emotionally compelling, however the utility of these outcomes for clinical practice can be limited. Meta-synthesis of multiple studies aims to ensure that findings from qualitative methods studies can be more easily, and effectively, applied in health and social care programs. Three approaches to meta-synthesis are briefly presented here; meta-ethnography, narrative synthesis, and critical interpretive synthesis. A procedure for presentation of meta-synthesis reviews is provided.
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users.Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions.The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
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Despite steadfast interest in the use of arts therapies (ATs) with individuals who have dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), a systematic review of the literature has not been conducted. This paper aims to critique this evidence base, including music, visual arts, drama, and dance/movement therapies between the years 1990 and 2010, and make suggestions on how it can be strengthened. The review addresses four questions: (1) What is the focus of the empirical base on using AT with persons who have DAT? (2) (How) have these studies been designed and evaluated? (3) What findings are reported? (4) What does this tell us about the potential of AT for enriching the lives of people with dementia? This analysis reveals that systematically designed, documented, and evaluated AT studies are scarce. Information on research design, operational concepts, measurement tools, and methods of evaluation/analysis are vague, if provided. Disagreement exists about the utilization of theoretical concepts and measurement/evaluation tools. The evidence base is further divided between studies focusing on the ‘product’ versus the ‘process’ of art. Shortcomings in dementia-specific research include a paucity of accounts from participants, failure to extend therapies to individuals in the early stages, a lack of application to those living at home, and often superficial attention to the meaningful aspects of doing art. Models investigating subjective well-being, or ‘enrichment,’ rather than objectively measured biomedical approaches privileging the management of deficits, would expand the evidence base and help ensure that those with dementia receive the services they want, since strictly allopathic methodologies will continue to fall short of adequately evaluating what are deeply idiosyncratic psychosocial issues.
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Background The syntheses of multiple qualitative studies can pull together data across different contexts, generate new theoretical or conceptual models, identify research gaps, and provide evidence for the development, implementation and evaluation of health interventions. This study aims to develop a framework for reporting the synthesis of qualitative health research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search for guidance and reviews relevant to the synthesis of qualitative research, methodology papers, and published syntheses of qualitative health research in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and relevant organisational websites to May 2011. Initial items were generated inductively from guides to synthesizing qualitative health research. The preliminary checklist was piloted against forty published syntheses of qualitative research, purposively selected to capture a range of year of publication, methods and methodologies, and health topics. We removed items that were duplicated, impractical to assess, and rephrased items for clarity. Results The Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) statement consists of 21 items grouped into five main domains: introduction, methods and methodology, literature search and selection, appraisal, and synthesis of findings. Conclusions The ENTREQ statement can help researchers to report the stages most commonly associated with the synthesis of qualitative health research: searching and selecting qualitative research, quality appraisal, and methods for synthesising qualitative findings. The synthesis of qualitative research is an expanding and evolving methodological area and we would value feedback from all stakeholders for the continued development and extension of the ENTREQ statement.
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David Moher and colleagues introduce PRISMA, an update of the QUOROM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Article
Background: Dementia is a clinical syndrome with a number of different causes which is characterised by deterioration in cognitive, behavioural, social and emotional functions. Pharmacological interventions are available but have limited effect to treat many of the syndrome's features. Less research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments. In this review, we examined the evidence for effects of music-based interventions. Objectives: To assess the effects of music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia on emotional well-being including quality of life, mood disturbance or negative affect, behavioural problems, social behaviour and cognition at the end of therapy and four or more weeks after the end of treatment. Search methods: We searched ALOIS, the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG) on 19 June 2017 using the terms: music therapy, music, singing, sing, auditory stimulation. Additional searches were carried out on 19 June 2017 in the major healthcare databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS; and in trial registers and grey literature sources. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials of music-based therapeutic interventions (at least five sessions) for people with dementia that measured any of our outcomes of interest. Control groups either received usual care or other activities with or without music. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors worked independently to screen the retrieved studies against the inclusion criteria and then to extract data and assess methodological quality of the included studies. If necessary, we contacted trial authors to ask for additional data, including relevant subscales, or for other missing information. We pooled data using random-effects models. Main results: We included 22 studies with 1097 randomised participants. Twenty-one studies with 890 participants contributed data to meta-analyses. Participants in the studies had dementia of varying degrees of severity, and all were resident in institutions. Seven studies delivered an individual music intervention; the other studies delivered the intervention to groups of participants. Most interventions involved both active and receptive musical elements. The methodological quality of the studies varied. All were at high risk of performance bias and some were at high risk of detection or other bias.At the end of treatment, we found low-quality evidence that the interventions may improve emotional well-being and quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.62; 9 studies, 348 participants) and reduce anxiety (SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.14; 13 studies, 478 participants). We found low-quality evidence that music-based therapeutic interventions may have little or no effect on cognition (SMD 0.15, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.36; 7 studies, 350 participants). There was moderate-quality evidence that the interventions reduce depressive symptoms (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.09; 11 studies, 503 participants) and overall behaviour problems (SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.01; 10 studies, 442 participants), but do not decrease agitation or aggression (SMD -0.07, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.10; 14 studies, 626 participants). The quality of the evidence on social behaviour was very low, so effects were very uncertain.The evidence for long-term outcomes measured four or more weeks after the end of treatment was of very low quality for anxiety and social behaviour, and for the other outcomes, it was of low quality for little or no effect (with small SMDs, between 0.03 and 0.34). Authors' conclusions: Providing people with dementia who are in institutional care with at least five sessions of a music-based therapeutic intervention probably reduces depressive symptoms and improves overall behavioural problems at the end of treatment. It may also improve emotional well-being and quality of life and reduce anxiety, but may have little or no effect on agitation or aggression or on cognition. We are uncertain about effects on social behaviour and about long-term effects. Future studies should examine the duration of effects in relation to the overall duration of treatment and the number of sessions.
Article
It is well known that infants as soon as they are born tend to use fist, fingers, thumbs in stimulation of the oral erotogenic zone, in satisfaction of the instincts at that zone, and also in quiet union. It is also well known that after a few months infants of either sex become fond of playing with dolls, and that most mothers allow their infants some special object and expect them to become, as it were, addicted to such objects. There is a relationship between these two sets of phenomena that are separated by a time interval, and a study of the development from the earlier into the later can be profitable, and can make use of important clinical material that has been somewhat neglected. Those who happen to be in close touch with mothers' interests and problems will be already aware of the very rich patterns ordinarily displayed by babies in their use of the first 'not-me' possession. These patterns, being displayed, can be subjected to direct observation. There is a wide variation to be found in a sequence of events that starts with the newborn infant's fist-in-mouth activities, and leads eventually on to an attachment to a teddy, a doll or soft toy, or to a hard toy. It is clear that something is important here other than oral excitement and satisfaction, although this may be the basis of everything else. Many other important things can be studied, and they include: 1. The nature of the object. 2. The infant's capacity to recognize the object as 'not-me'. 3. The place of the object – outside, inside, at the border. 4. The infant's capacity to create, think up, devise, originate, produce an object. 5. The initiation of an affectionate type of object-relationship.
Article
Discusses the confused understandings of phenomenology and its value for the interpretation and practice of psychological research within the psychological community. Ten differentiations of phenomenology from other methods or concepts with which it shares characteristics are delineated. Phenomenology is defined as the study of the phenomena of the world as experienced by conscious beings and as method for studying such phenomena. A phenomenological analysis of a research situation is performed to demonstrate what is essential to it regardless of the theoretical perspective that a psychologist may hold, and whether or not a correct understanding of phenomenology as applied to psychology can meet the essential features of a research situation is considered. It is concluded that if this can be demonstrated, then the phenomenological perspective should have its place within psychological research so that it can be judged by its fruits rather than dismissed a priori because it appears, on the surface, to be different. (65 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review uses a narrative synthesis format to determine evidence for effectiveness and provide insight into a model of action. The narrative synthesis framework consists of four elements: (i) theory development; (ii) preliminary synthesis of findings; (iii) exploration of relationships between studies; and (iv) assessment of the robustness of the synthesis. Electronic and hand searches identified 263 potentially relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the full inclusion criteria. Three distinctive strands of investigations emerged: eight studies explored behavioural and psychological aspects, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Evidence for short-term improvement in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings may improve the well-being of people with dementia. Copyright
Article
To identify what factors affect women's decisions to delay childbearing, and to explore women's experiences and their perceptions of associated risks. Systematic procedures were used for search strategy, study selection, data extraction and analysis. Findings were synthesised using an approach developed from meta-ethnography. We included qualitative papers, not confined to geographical area (1980-2009). Databases included CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, MIDIRS, British Nursing Index and the National Research Register. We selected qualitative empirical studies exploring the views and experiences of women of advanced maternal age who were childless or primigravidae with a singleton pregnancy or primiparous. Twelve papers fulfilled the selection criteria and were included for synthesis. Women appear to face an issue of 'informed and uninformed decision making'; those who believe they are informed but may not be, those who are not informed and find out they are at risk once pregnant, and those who are well informed but choose to delay pregnancy anyway. Maternity services could provide information to enable informed choice regarding timing of childbearing. Health professionals need to be mindful of the fact that women delay childbearing for various reasons. A strategy of pre-conception education may be beneficial in informing childbearing decisions. Obstetricians and midwives should be sensitive to the fact that women may not be aware of all the risks associated with delayed childbearing.
Article
The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia is introduced. This is a 19-item clinician-administered instrument that uses information from interviews with both the patient and a nursing staff member, a method suitable for demented patients. The scale has high interrater reliability (kw = 0.67), internal consistency (coefficient alpha: 0.84), and sensitivity. Total Cornell Scale scores correlate (0.83) with depressive subtypes of various intensity classified according to Research Diagnostic Criteria.
Article
Dementia is a disease that brings with it various limitations in the afflicted person's communication with others. The purpose of this study is to explore, not the limitations, but the capacity of the demented person to communicate under conditions that differ from the everyday life of the care institution. Group dance therapy sessions with elderly, demented persons were video-taped and analysed with a focus on how verbal and non-verbal modes of communication were used by the participants. The ways the demented persons use body movements, free dance movements, speech and singing in different combinations is described and discussed in terms of different expressive modes, where body movements are used to substitute or support speech as well as to express thoughts, memories and emotions. The results from the study indicate that under conditions that allow for different modes of expression, the communication of the demented person can be found to be rich and varied in expression and content.
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Building Bridges of Understanding: The use of embodied practices with older people with dementia and their care staff as mediated by dance movement psychotherapy
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Coaten, R. (2009). Building Bridges of Understanding: The use of embodied practices with older people with dementia and their care staff as mediated by dance movement psychotherapy. (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Roehampton University, London.
Dance therapy as person-centred care
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Hill, H. (2006). Dance therapy as person-centred care. In Koch, S.E & I Braeuninger, I. (Eds.), Advances in Dance/Movement Therapy: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings. Berlin: Logos.
What is the evidence for music therapy and dance movement therapy for older adults with dementia? PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews
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Lyons, S., Karkou, V., Roe, B., Meekums, B. (2015). What is the evidence for music therapy and dance movement therapy for older adults with dementia? PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews. Retrieved from http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015029463
Music-based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia
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Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated
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What is the evidence for music therapy and dance movement therapy for older adults with dementia?
  • Lyons
Opening doors: dance movement therapy with people with dementia
  • Kowarzik